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Sample records for manganese transporter bb0219

  1. VERTEX: manganese transport through oxygen minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John H.; Knauer, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Manganese transport through a well-developed oxygen minimum was studied off central Mexico (18°N, 108°W) in October-November 1981 as part of the VERTEX (Vertical Transport and Exchange) research program. Refractory, leachable and dissolved Mn fractions associated with particulates caught in traps set at eight depths (120-1950 m) were analyzed. Particles entering the oxygen minimum had relatively large Mn loads; however, as the particulates sank further into the minimum, total Mn fluxes steadily decreased from 190 nmol m -2 day -1 at 120 m to 36 nmol m -2 day -1 at 400 m. Manganese fluxes then steadily increased in the remaining 800-1950 m, reaching rates of up to 230 nmol m -2 day -1 at 1950 m. Manganese concentrations were also measured in the water column. Dissolved Mn levels < 3.0 nmol kg -1 were consistently observed within the 150-600 m depth interval. In contrast, suspended particulate leachable Mn amounts were especially low at those depths, and never exceeded 0.04 nmol kg -1. The combined water column and particle trap data clearly indicate that Mn is released from particles as they sink through the oxygen minimum. Rate-of-change estimates based on trap flux data yield regeneration rates of up to 0.44 nmol kg -1 yr -1 in the upper oxygen minimum (120-200 m). However, only 30% of the dissolved Mn in the oxygen minimum appears to be from sinking particulate regeneration; the other 70% probably results from continental-slope-release-horizontal-transport processes. Dissolved Mn scavenges back onto particles as oxygen levels begin to increase with depth. Scavenging rates ranging from -0.03 to -0.09 nmol kg -1 yr -1 were observed at depths from 700 to 1950 m. These scavenging rates result in Mn residence times of 16-19 years, and scavenging rate constants on the order of 0.057 yr -1. Manganese removal via scavenging on sinking particles below the oxygen minimum is balanced by Mn released along continental boundaries and transported horizontally via advective

  2. Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Aschner, M

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the

  3. Down-regulation of a manganese transporter in the face of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Laran T; Carroll, Mark C; Hall, Matthew D; Harvey, Christopher J; Beese, Sara E; Culotta, Valeria C

    2009-06-01

    The yeast Smf1p Nramp manganese transporter is posttranslationally regulated by environmental manganese. Smf1p is stabilized at the cell surface with manganese starvation, but is largely degraded in the vacuole with physiological manganese through a mechanism involving the Rsp5p adaptor complex Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. We now describe an additional level of Smf1p regulation that occurs with toxicity from manganese, but not other essential metals. This regulation is largely Smf1p-specific. As with physiological manganese, toxic manganese triggers vacuolar degradation of Smf1p by trafficking through the multivesicular body. However, regulation by toxic manganese does not involve Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. Toxic manganese triggers both endocytosis of cell surface Smf1p and vacuolar targeting of intracellular Smf1p through the exocytic pathway. Notably, the kinetics of vacuolar targeting for Smf1p are relatively slow with toxic manganese and require prolonged exposures to the metal. Down-regulation of Smf1p by toxic manganese does not require transport activity of Smf1p, whereas such transport activity is needed for Smf1p regulation by manganese starvation. Furthermore, the responses to manganese starvation and manganese toxicity involve separate cellular compartments. We provide evidence that manganese starvation is sensed within the lumen of the secretory pathway, whereas manganese toxicity is sensed within an extra-Golgi/cytosolic compartment of the cell.

  4. Manganese: Recent advances in understanding its transport and neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Aschner, Michael . E-mail: Michael.Aschner@vanderbilt.edu; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Schneider, Jay S.; Zheng Wei

    2007-06-01

    The present review is based on presentations from the meeting of the Society of Toxicology in San Diego, CA (March 2006). It addresses recent developments in the understanding of the transport of manganese (Mn) into the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain imaging and neurocognitive studies in non-human primates aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities for treating Mn intoxication in humans.

  5. Manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a hard, brittle, gray-white transition metal, with the most numerous oxidation states of the elements in the first series of the Periodic Table. Since the manganese atom can donate up to seven electrons from its outer two shells, manganese compounds exist with valences from -3 to +7, the most common being +2, +4, and +7. Due to its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties, as well as its low cost, the principal commercial application for manganese is in iron and steel production. Manganese is also employed in non-ferrous metallurgy, batteries and chemical processes. Although potentially harmful to the respiratory and nervous systems, manganese is an essential element for animals and humans, and a micronutrient for plants.

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae high affinity phosphate transporter encoded by PHO84 also functions in manganese homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Laran T; Ajua-Alemanji, Mispa; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2003-10-24

    In the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, high affinity manganese uptake and intracellular distribution involve two members of the Nramp family of genes, SMF1 and SMF2. In a search for other genes involved in manganese homeostasis, PHO84 was identified. The PHO84 gene encodes a high affinity inorganic phosphate transporter, and we find that its disruption results in a manganese-resistant phenotype. Resistance to zinc, cobalt, and copper ions was also demonstrated for pho84Delta yeast. When challenged with high concentrations of metals, pho84Delta yeast have reduced metal ion accumulation, suggesting that resistance is due to reduced uptake of metal ions. Pho84p accounted for virtually all the manganese accumulated under metal surplus conditions, demonstrating that this transporter is the major source of excess manganese accumulation. The manganese taken in via Pho84p is indeed biologically active and can not only cause toxicity but can also be incorporated into manganese-requiring enzymes. Pho84p is essential for activating manganese enzymes in smf2Delta mutants that rely on low affinity manganese transport systems. A role for Pho84p in manganese accumulation was also identified in a standard laboratory growth medium when high affinity manganese uptake is active. Under these conditions, cells lacking both Pho84p and the high affinity Smf1p transporter accumulated low levels of manganese, although there was no major effect on activity of manganese-requiring enzymes. We conclude that Pho84p plays a role in manganese homeostasis predominantly under manganese surplus conditions and appears to be functioning as a low affinity metal transporter.

  7. [Manganese uptake and transportation as well as antioxidant response to excess manganese in plants].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; You, Jiang-Feng; Yang, Zhen-Ming

    2007-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient throughout all stages of plant development. Mn plays an important role in many metabolic processes in plants. It is of particular importance to photosynthetic organisms in the chloroplast of which a cluster of Mn atoms at the catalytic centre function in the light-induced water oxidation by photosystem II, and also function as a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, such as Mn-SOD. But excessive Mn is toxic to plants which is one of the most toxic metals in acid soils. The knowledge of Mn(2+) uptake and transport mechanisms, especially the genes responsible for transition metal transport, could facilitate the understanding of both Mn tolerance and toxicity in plants. Recently, several plant genes were identified to encode transporters with Mn(2+) transport activity, such as zinc-regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT1)-related protein (ZIP) transporters, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) transporters, cation/H(+) antiporters, the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) transporter family, and P-type ATPase. In addition, excessive Mn frequently induces oxidative stress, then several defense enzymes and antioxidants are stimulated to scavenge the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formed under stress. Mn-induced oxidative stress and anti-oxidative reaction are very important mechanisms of Mn toxicity and Mn tolerance respectively in plants. This article reviewed the transporters identified as or proposed to be functioning in Mn(2+) transport, Mn toxicity-induced oxidative stress, and the response of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes in plants to excessive Mn to facilitate further study. Meanwhile, basing on our research results, new problems and views are brought forward.

  8. Regulation of cellular manganese and manganese transport rates in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Sunda, W.G.; Huntsman, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The cellular accumulation and uptake kinetics of manganese by Chlamydomonas sp. were studied in model chelate buffer systems. Cellular manganese concentrations and uptake rates were related to the computed free manganese ion concentration and were independent of the total or chelated manganese concentration. Cellular manganese was constant at about 1 mmol liter/sup -1/ of cellular volume at free manganese ion concentrations of 10/sup -7/ /sup 6/-10/sup -6/ /sup 3/ mol liter/sup -1/ and decreased below this range. Manganese uptake rates followed saturation kinetics and V/sub max/, but not K/sub s/, varied with the free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium. V/sub max/ appeared to be under negative feedback control and increased with decreasing manganese ion concentration. Variations of up to 30-fold in this parameter seemed to be instrumental in limiting the variation in cellular manganese to a sixfold range despite a 1000-fold variation in free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium.

  9. VERTEX: Manganese transport with CaCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John H.; Knauer, George A.

    1983-04-01

    Manganese transport was studied off central California in August and September 1981 as part of the VERTEX (Vertica l Transport and Exchange) research program. Refractory, leachable, and dissolved Mn fractions associated with particles caught in traps set at 11 depths (50 to 2000 m) were analyzed. Through intentional and unintentional CaCO 3 dissolution 'experiments', it was learned that the weakly leachable Mn was originally in association with the carbonate phase. Adsorption on surfaces rather than absorption in CaCO 3 matrices was indicated by the finding that Mn was not released in proportion to the CaCo 3 dissolved, instead it appeared to keep readsorbing to the dissolving surface. Ultimately, Mn went into solution when the particulate CaCO 3 was essentially depleted, suggesting that sufficient sites for adsorption were no longer available. Manganese fluxes with CaCO 3 were low near the surface (0.1 mg cm -2 ky -1), but increased rapidly in the 50 to 200-m depth interval, and then became more or less constant (1.3 mg cm -2 ky -1 for the remainder of the water column (300 to 2000 m). Rate-of-change estimates indicate that Mn is rapidly scavenged in near-surface waters (-130 ng 1 -1 y -1) and slowly regenerated at depth (2.7 ng 1 -1 y -1) in our near-shore study area. Residence times for dissolved Mn were estimated at 1.2 y for surface waters and 17 y at depth. The implications of Mn transport with CaCO 3 in relation to open-ocean sediment excess Mn are discussed.

  10. Manganese

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Manganese ; CASRN 7439 - 96 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  11. Direct Comparison of Manganese Detoxification/Efflux Proteins and Molecular Characterization of ZnT10 Protein as a Manganese Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Nishito, Yukina; Tsuji, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Takeda, Taka-aki; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Teranishi, Fumie; Okazaki, Fumiko; Matsunaga, Ayu; Tuschl, Karin; Rao, Rajini; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Narita, Hiroshi; Himeno, Seiichiro; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Manganese homeostasis involves coordinated regulation of specific proteins involved in manganese influx and efflux. However, the proteins that are involved in detoxification/efflux have not been completely resolved nor has the basis by which they select their metal substrate. Here, we compared six proteins, which were reported to be involved in manganese detoxification/efflux, by evaluating their ability to reduce manganese toxicity in chicken DT40 cells, finding that human ZnT10 (hZnT10) was the most significant contributor. A domain swapping and substitution analysis between hZnT10 and the zinc-specific transporter hZnT1 showed that residue Asn43, which corresponds to the His residue constituting the potential intramembranous zinc coordination site in other ZnT transporters, is necessary to impart hZnT10's unique manganese mobilization activity; residues Cys52 and Leu242 in transmembrane domains II and V play a subtler role in controlling the metal specificity of hZnT10. Interestingly, the His → Asn reversion mutant in hZnT1 conferred manganese transport activity and loss of zinc transport activity. These results provide important information about manganese detoxification/efflux mechanisms in vertebrate cells as well as the molecular characterization of hZnT10 as a manganese transporter. PMID:27226609

  12. Direct Comparison of Manganese Detoxification/Efflux Proteins and Molecular Characterization of ZnT10 Protein as a Manganese Transporter.

    PubMed

    Nishito, Yukina; Tsuji, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Teranishi, Fumie; Okazaki, Fumiko; Matsunaga, Ayu; Tuschl, Karin; Rao, Rajini; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Narita, Hiroshi; Himeno, Seiichiro; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-08

    Manganese homeostasis involves coordinated regulation of specific proteins involved in manganese influx and efflux. However, the proteins that are involved in detoxification/efflux have not been completely resolved nor has the basis by which they select their metal substrate. Here, we compared six proteins, which were reported to be involved in manganese detoxification/efflux, by evaluating their ability to reduce manganese toxicity in chicken DT40 cells, finding that human ZnT10 (hZnT10) was the most significant contributor. A domain swapping and substitution analysis between hZnT10 and the zinc-specific transporter hZnT1 showed that residue Asn(43), which corresponds to the His residue constituting the potential intramembranous zinc coordination site in other ZnT transporters, is necessary to impart hZnT10's unique manganese mobilization activity; residues Cys(52) and Leu(242) in transmembrane domains II and V play a subtler role in controlling the metal specificity of hZnT10. Interestingly, the His → Asn reversion mutant in hZnT1 conferred manganese transport activity and loss of zinc transport activity. These results provide important information about manganese detoxification/efflux mechanisms in vertebrate cells as well as the molecular characterization of hZnT10 as a manganese transporter.

  13. Maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese in perfused human placental lobule in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandakumaran, Moorkath; Al-Sannan, Baydaa; Al-Sarraf, Hameed; Al-Shammari, Majed

    2016-01-01

    There have been no detailed reports relating to maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, an essential trace element in the human pregnancies, and hence we have attempted to study the transport kinetics of this trace element in the human placenta in vitro. Human placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies were collected postpartum. Manganese chloride solution (GFS Chem Inc., Columbus, OH), 10 times the physiological concentrations, along with antipyrine (Sigma Chem Co., St. Louis, MO) as reference marker were then injected as a single bolus (100 µl) into the maternal arterial circulation of perfused placental lobules and perfusate samples collected from maternal and fetal circulations over a period of five minutes. National Culture and Tissue Collection medium, diluted with Earle's buffered salt solution was used as the perfusate and serial perfusate samples from fetal venous perfusate collected for a period of 30 min. Concentration of manganese in perfusate samples was assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while that of antipyrine was assessed by spectrophotometry. Transport kinetics of substances studied were computed using established permeation parameters. Differential transport rates of manganese and antipyrine in 12 perfusions differed significantly for 25.75, 90% efflux fractions (ANOVA test, p < 0.05), while those of 10 and 50% efflux fractions were not significantly different between the study and reference substances. Transport fraction (TF) of manganese averaged 54.9% of bolus dose in 12 perfusions, whereas that of antipyrine averaged 89% of bolus dose, representing 61.80% of reference marker TF. The difference observed in TF values of manganese and antipyrine was statistically significant (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the curve, clearance, absorption rate, elimination rate of manganese compared to reference marker were significantly different (ANOVA test, p < 0

  14. Prion infection in cells is abolished by a mutated manganese transporter but shows no relation to zinc.

    PubMed

    Pass, Rachel; Frudd, Karen; Barnett, James P; Blindauer, Claudia A; Brown, David R

    2015-09-01

    The cellular prion protein has been identified as a metalloprotein that binds copper. There have been some suggestions that prion protein also influences zinc and manganese homeostasis. In this study we used a series of cell lines to study the levels of zinc and manganese under different conditions. We overexpressed either the prion protein or known transporters for zinc and manganese to determine relations between the prion protein and both manganese and zinc homeostasis. Our observations supported neither a link between the prion protein and zinc metabolism nor any effect of altered zinc levels on prion protein expression or cellular infection with prions. In contrast we found that a gain of function mutant of a manganese transporter caused reduction of manganese levels in prion infected cells, loss of observable PrP(Sc) in cells and resistance to prion infection. These studies strengthen the link between manganese and prion disease.

  15. Spin-dependent electron transport in zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-28

    The spin-dependent electron transport properties of zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules connected to zigzag graphene leads are studied in the zero bias regime using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The conductance of the adenine molecule increased and became spin-dependent when a zinc or manganese atom was doped into the molecules. The effects of a transverse electric field on the spin-polarization of the transmitted electrons were investigated and the spin-polarization was controlled by changing the transverse electric field. Under the presence of a transverse electric field, both the zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules acted as spin-filters. The maximum spin-polarization of the manganese-doped adenine molecule was greater than the molecule doped with zinc.

  16. Deficiency in the manganese efflux transporter SLC30A10 induces severe hypothyroidism in mice.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Steven; Liu, Chunyi; Jursa, Thomas; Shawlot, William; Chaffee, Beth K; Yin, Weiling; Gore, Andrea C; Aschner, Michael; Smith, Donald R; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra

    2017-06-09

    Manganese is an essential metal that becomes toxic at elevated levels. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A10, a cell-surface-localized manganese efflux transporter, cause a heritable manganese metabolism disorder resulting in elevated manganese levels and parkinsonian-like movement deficits. The underlying disease mechanisms are unclear; therefore, treatment is challenging. To understand the consequences of loss of SLC30A10 function at the organism level, we generated Slc30a10 knock-out mice. During early development, knock-outs were indistinguishable from controls. Surprisingly, however, after weaning and compared with controls, knock-out mice failed to gain weight, were smaller, and died prematurely (by ∼6-8 weeks of age). At 6 weeks, manganese levels in the brain, blood, and liver of the knock-outs were ∼20-60-fold higher than controls. Unexpectedly, histological analyses revealed that the brain and liver of the knock-outs were largely unaffected, but their thyroid exhibited extensive alterations. Because hypothyroidism leads to growth defects and premature death in mice, we assayed for changes in thyroid and pituitary hormones. At 6 weeks and compared with controls, the knock-outs had markedly reduced thyroxine levels (∼50-80%) and profoundly increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (∼800-1000-fold), indicating that Slc30a10 knock-out mice develop hypothyroidism. Importantly, a low-manganese diet produced lower tissue manganese levels in the knock-outs and rescued the phenotype, suggesting that manganese toxicity was the underlying cause. Our unanticipated discovery highlights the importance of determining the role of thyroid dysfunction in the onset and progression of manganese-induced disease and identifies Slc30a10 knock-out mice as a new model for studying thyroid biology. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Amanda L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

  18. OsNRAMP3 is a vascular bundles-specific manganese transporter that is responsible for manganese distribution in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Wan; Dong, Huaxia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Kai; Wang, Dujun; Lian, Xingming

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for plants. Recently, the genes responsible for uptake of Mn in plants were identified in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the mechanism of Mn distribution in plants has not been clarified. In the present study we identified a natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family gene in rice, OsNRAMP3, involved in Mn distribution. OsNRAMP3 encodes a plasma membrane-localized protein and was specifically expressed in vascular bundles, especially in phloem cells. Yeast complementation assay showed that OsNRAMP3 is a functional Mn-influx transporter. When OsNRAMP3 was absent, rice plants showed high sensitivity to Mn deficiency. Serious necrosis appeared on young leaves and root tips of the OsNRAMP3 knockout line cultivated under low Mn conditions, and high Mn supplies could rescue this phenotype. However, the necrotic young leaves of the knockout line possessed similar levels of Mn to the wild type, suggesting that the necrotic appearance was caused by disturbed distribution of Mn but not a general Mn shortage. Additionally, compared with wild type, leaf Mn content in osnramp3 plants was mostly in older leaves. We conclude that OsNRAMP3 is a vascular bundle-localized Mn-influx transporter involved in Mn distribution and contributes to remobilization of Mn from old to young leaves.

  19. OsNRAMP3 Is a Vascular Bundles-Specific Manganese Transporter That Is Responsible for Manganese Distribution in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Wan; Dong, Huaxia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Kai; Wang, Dujun; Lian, Xingming

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for plants. Recently, the genes responsible for uptake of Mn in plants were identified in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the mechanism of Mn distribution in plants has not been clarified. In the present study we identified a natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family gene in rice, OsNRAMP3, involved in Mn distribution. OsNRAMP3 encodes a plasma membrane-localized protein and was specifically expressed in vascular bundles, especially in phloem cells. Yeast complementation assay showed that OsNRAMP3 is a functional Mn-influx transporter. When OsNRAMP3 was absent, rice plants showed high sensitivity to Mn deficiency. Serious necrosis appeared on young leaves and root tips of the OsNRAMP3 knockout line cultivated under low Mn conditions, and high Mn supplies could rescue this phenotype. However, the necrotic young leaves of the knockout line possessed similar levels of Mn to the wild type, suggesting that the necrotic appearance was caused by disturbed distribution of Mn but not a general Mn shortage. Additionally, compared with wild type, leaf Mn content in osnramp3 plants was mostly in older leaves. We conclude that OsNRAMP3 is a vascular bundle-localized Mn-influx transporter involved in Mn distribution and contributes to remobilization of Mn from old to young leaves. PMID:24391861

  20. Hypothyroidism induced by loss of the manganese efflux transporter SLC30A10 may be explained by reduced thyroxine production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyi; Hutchens, Steven; Jursa, Thomas; Shawlot, William; Polishchuk, Elena V; Polishchuk, Roman S; Dray, Beth K; Gore, Andrea C; Aschner, Michael; Smith, Donald R; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra

    2017-10-06

    SLC30A10 and SLC39A14 are manganese efflux and influx transporters, respectively. Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding either transporter induce hereditary manganese toxicity. Patients have elevated manganese in the blood and brain and develop neurotoxicity. Liver manganese is increased in patients lacking SLC30A10 but not SLC39A14. These organ-specific changes in manganese were recently recapitulated in knockout mice. Surprisingly, Slc30a10 knockouts also had elevated thyroid manganese and developed hypothyroidism. To determine the mechanisms of manganese-induced hypothyroidism and understand how SLC30A10 and SLC39A14 cooperatively mediate manganese detoxification, here we produced Slc39a14 single and Slc30a10/Slc39a14 double knockout mice and compared their phenotypes with that of Slc30a10 single knockouts. Compared with wild-type controls, Slc39a14 single and Slc30a10/Slc39a14 double knockouts had higher manganese levels in the blood and brain but not in the liver. In contrast, Slc30a10 single knockouts had elevated manganese levels in the liver as well as in the blood and brain. Furthermore, SLC30A10 and SLC39A14 localized to the canalicular and basolateral domains of polarized hepatic cells, respectively. Thus, transport activities of both SLC39A14 and SLC30A10 are required for hepatic manganese excretion. Compared with Slc30a10 single knockouts, Slc39a14 single and Slc30a10/Slc39a14 double knockouts had lower thyroid manganese levels and normal thyroid function. Moreover, intrathyroid thyroxine levels of Slc30a10 single knockouts were lower than those of controls. Thus, the hypothyroidism phenotype of Slc30a10 single knockouts is induced by elevated thyroid manganese, which blocks thyroxine production. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of manganese detoxification and manganese-induced thyroid dysfunction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Polymorphisms in manganese transporters show developmental stage and sex specific associations with manganese concentrations in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Arora, Manish; Curtin, Austen; Curtin, Paul; Wright, Robert O; Smith, Donald R; Lucchini, Roberto G; Broberg, Karin; Austin, Christine

    2017-09-13

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that can become neurotoxic at elevated levels with negative consequences on neurodevelopment. We have evaluated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mn transporter genes SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 on Mn concentrations in dentine, a validated biomarker that reflects Mn tissue concentrations early in life. The study included 195 children with variable environmental Mn exposure. Mn concentrations in dentine representing fetal, early postnatal and early childhood developmental periods were measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. SLC30A10 rs12064812 (T/C) and SLC39A8 rs13107325 (C/T) were genotyped by TaqMan real time PCR and SLC30A10 rs1776029 (G/A) by pyrosequencing; and SNPs were analyzed in association with Mn in dentine. SLC39A8 rs13107325 rare allele (T) carriers had significantly higher Mn concentrations in postnatal dentine (110%, p=0.008). For all SNPs we also observed non-significant associations with Mn concentrations in dentine in opposite directions for fetal and early postnatal periods. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the influence of SLC30A10 rs1776929 genotypes on Mn concentrations in dentine between sexes. The findings from this study indicate that common SNPs in Mn transporters influence Mn homeostasis in early development and may therefore be important to consider in future studies of early life Mn exposure and health effects. Our results also suggest that the influence of these transporters on Mn regulation may differ by developmental stage, as well as between girls and boys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Structural basis for the metal-selective activation of the manganese transport regulator of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kliegman, Joseph I; Griner, Sarah L; Helmann, John D; Brennan, Richard G; Glasfeld, Arthur

    2006-03-21

    The manganese transport regulator (MntR) of Bacillus subtilis is activated by Mn(2+) to repress transcription of genes encoding transporters involved in the uptake of manganese. MntR is also strongly activated by cadmium, both in vivo and in vitro, but it is poorly activated by other metal cations, including calcium and zinc. The previously published MntR.Mn(2+) structure revealed a binuclear complex of manganese ions with a metal-metal separation of 3.3 A (herein designated the AB conformer). Analysis of four additional crystal forms of MntR.Mn(2+) reveals that the AB conformer is only observed in monoclinic crystals at 100 K, suggesting that this conformation may be stabilized by crystal packing forces. In contrast, monoclinic crystals analyzed at room temperature (at either pH 6.5 or pH 8.5), and a second hexagonal crystal form (analyzed at 100 K), all reveal the shift of one manganese ion by 2.5 A, thereby leading to a newly identified conformation (the AC conformer) with an internuclear distance of 4.4 A. Significantly, the cadmium and calcium complexes of MntR also contain binuclear complexes with a 4.4 A internuclear separation. In contrast, the zinc complex of MntR contains only one metal ion per subunit, in the A site. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms the stoichiometry of Mn(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) binding to MntR. We propose that the specificity of MntR activation is tied to productive binding of metal ions at two sites; the A site appears to act as a selectivity filter, determining whether the B or C site will be occupied and thereby fully activate MntR.

  3. SLC39A8 Deficiency: A Disorder of Manganese Transport and Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julien H.; Hogrebe, Max; Grüneberg, Marianne; DuChesne, Ingrid; von der Heiden, Ava L.; Reunert, Janine; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Boycott, Kym M.; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Mhanni, Aziz A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Biskup, Saskia; Gleixner, Eva M.; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Fiedler, Barbara; Omran, Heymut; Rutsch, Frank; Wada, Yoshinao; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Santer, René; Nebert, Daniel W.; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    SLC39A8 is a membrane transporter responsible for manganese uptake into the cell. Via whole-exome sequencing, we studied a child that presented with cranial asymmetry, severe infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia, and dysproportionate dwarfism. Analysis of transferrin glycosylation revealed severe dysglycosylation corresponding to a type II congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) and the blood manganese levels were below the detection limit. The variants c.112G>C (p.Gly38Arg) and c.1019T>A (p.Ile340Asn) were identified in SLC39A8. A second individual with the variants c.97G>A (p.Val33Met) and c.1004G>C (p.Ser335Thr) on the paternal allele and c.610G>T (p.Gly204Cys) on the maternal allele was identified among a group of unresolved case subjects with CDG. These data demonstrate that variants in SLC39A8 impair the function of manganese-dependent enzymes, most notably β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, a Golgi enzyme essential for biosynthesis of the carbohydrate part of glycoproteins. Impaired galactosylation leads to a severe disorder with deformed skull, severe seizures, short limbs, profound psychomotor retardation, and hearing loss. Oral galactose supplementation is a treatment option and results in complete normalization of glycosylation. SLC39A8 deficiency links a trace element deficiency with inherited glycosylation disorders. PMID:26637979

  4. SLC39A8 Deficiency: A Disorder of Manganese Transport and Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Park, Julien H; Hogrebe, Max; Grüneberg, Marianne; DuChesne, Ingrid; von der Heiden, Ava L; Reunert, Janine; Schlingmann, Karl P; Boycott, Kym M; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Mhanni, Aziz A; Innes, A Micheil; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Biskup, Saskia; Gleixner, Eva M; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Fiedler, Barbara; Omran, Heymut; Rutsch, Frank; Wada, Yoshinao; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Santer, René; Nebert, Daniel W; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2015-12-03

    SLC39A8 is a membrane transporter responsible for manganese uptake into the cell. Via whole-exome sequencing, we studied a child that presented with cranial asymmetry, severe infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia, and dysproportionate dwarfism. Analysis of transferrin glycosylation revealed severe dysglycosylation corresponding to a type II congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) and the blood manganese levels were below the detection limit. The variants c.112G>C (p.Gly38Arg) and c.1019T>A (p.Ile340Asn) were identified in SLC39A8. A second individual with the variants c.97G>A (p.Val33Met) and c.1004G>C (p.Ser335Thr) on the paternal allele and c.610G>T (p.Gly204Cys) on the maternal allele was identified among a group of unresolved case subjects with CDG. These data demonstrate that variants in SLC39A8 impair the function of manganese-dependent enzymes, most notably β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, a Golgi enzyme essential for biosynthesis of the carbohydrate part of glycoproteins. Impaired galactosylation leads to a severe disorder with deformed skull, severe seizures, short limbs, profound psychomotor retardation, and hearing loss. Oral galactose supplementation is a treatment option and results in complete normalization of glycosylation. SLC39A8 deficiency links a trace element deficiency with inherited glycosylation disorders.

  5. Short-term manganese inhalation decreases brain dopamine transporter levels without disrupting motor skills in rats.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Devina; Chang, JuOae; Lee, Byeong-Jae; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, Kyuhong

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is used in industrial metal alloys and can be released into the atmosphere during methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl combustion. Increased Mn deposition in the brain after long-term exposure to the metal by inhalation is associated with altered dopamine metabolism and neurobehavioral problems, including impaired motor skills. However, neurotoxic effects of short-term exposure to inhaled Mn are not completely characterized. The purpose of this study is to define the neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of short-term inhalation exposure to Mn at a high concentration using rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to MnCl2 aerosol in a nose-only inhalation chamber for 3 weeks (1.2 µm, 39 mg/m(3)). Motor coordination was tested on the day after the last exposure using a rotarod device at a fixed speed of 10 rpm for 2 min. Also, dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor protein expression levels in the striatum region of the brain were determined by Western blot analysis. At a rotarod speed of 10 rpm, there were no significant differences in the time on the bar before the first fall or the number of falls during the two-minute test observed in the exposed rats, as compared with controls. The Mn-exposed group had significantly higher Mn levels in the lung, blood, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum compared with the control group. A Mn concentration gradient was observed from the olfactory bulb to the striatum, supporting the idea that Mn is transported via the olfactory pathway. Our results demonstrated that inhalation exposure to 39 mg/m(3) Mn for 3 weeks induced mild lung injury and modulation of dopamine transporter expression in the brain, without altering motor activity.

  6. Metal Transporter Zip14 (Slc39a14) Deletion in Mice Increases Manganese Deposition and Produces Neurotoxic Signatures and Diminished Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Jinhee; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Banan, Guita; Mareci, Thomas H; Febo, Marcelo; Cousins, Robert J

    2017-06-21

    Mutations in human ZIP14 have been linked to symptoms of the early onset of Parkinsonism and Dystonia. This phenotype is likely related to excess manganese accumulation in the CNS. The metal transporter ZIP14 (SLC39A14) is viewed primarily as a zinc transporter that is inducible via proinflammatory stimuli. In vitro evidence shows that ZIP14 can also transport manganese. To examine a role for ZIP14 in manganese homeostasis, we used Zip14 knock-out (KO) male and female mice to conduct comparative metabolic, imaging, and functional studies. Manganese accumulation was fourfold to fivefold higher in brains of Zip14 KO mice compared with young adult wild-type mice. There was less accumulation of subcutaneously administered (54)Mn in the liver, gallbladder, and gastrointestinal tract of the KO mice, suggesting that manganese elimination is impaired with Zip14 ablation. Impaired elimination creates the opportunity for atypical manganese accumulation in tissues, including the brain. The intensity of MR images from brains of the Zip14 KO mice is indicative of major manganese accumulation. In agreement with excessive manganese accumulation was the impaired motor function observed in the Zip14 KO mice. These results also demonstrate that ZIP14 is not essential for manganese uptake by the brain. Nevertheless, the upregulation of signatures of brain injury observed in the Zip14 KO mice demonstrates that normal ZIP14 function is an essential factor required to prevent manganese-linked neurodegeneration.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Manganese is an essential micronutrient. When acquired in excess, manganese accumulates in tissues of the CNS and is associated with neurodegenerative disease, particularly Parkinson-like syndrome and dystonia. Some members of the ZIP metal transporter family transport manganese. Using mutant mice deficient in the ZIP14 metal transporter, we have discovered that ZIP14 is essential for manganese elimination via the gastrointestinal tract, and a lack of ZIP14

  7. Estrogen and tamoxifen reverse manganese-induced glutamate transporter impairment in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook Y; Sidoryk, Marta; Jiang, Haiyan; Yin, Zhaobao; Aschner, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) can cause manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. The toxicity of Mn includes impairment of astrocytic glutamate transporters. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) has been shown to be neuroprotective in various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and some selective estrogen receptor modulators, including tamoxifen (TX), also possess neuroprotective properties. We have tested our hypothesis that E2 and TX reverse Mn-induced glutamate transporter impairment in astrocytes. The results established that E2 and TX increased glutamate transporter function and reversed Mn-induced glutamate uptake inhibition, primarily via the up-regulation of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). E2 and TX also increased astrocytic GLAST mRNA levels and attenuated the Mn-induced inhibition of GLAST mRNA expression. In addition, E2 and TX effectively increased the expression of transforming growth factor beta1, a potential modulator of the stimulatory effects of E2/TX on glutamate transporter function. This effect was mediated by the activation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. These novel findings suggest, for the first time, that E2 and TX enhance astrocytic glutamate transporter expression via increased transforming growth factor beta1 expression. Furthermore, the present study is the first to show that both E2 and TX effectively reverse Mn-induced glutamate transport inhibition by restoring its expression and activity, thus offering a potential therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by altered glutamate homeostasis.

  8. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.

  9. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia. PMID:25709405

  10. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury. PMID:24614235

  11. Estrogen attenuates manganese-induced glutamate transporter impairment in rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsook; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, Marta; Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The astrocytic glutamate transporters (GLT-1, GLAST) are critical for removing excess glutamate from synaptic sites, thereby maintaining glutamate homeostasis within the brain. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is one of the most active estrogen hormones possessing neuroprotective effects both in in vivo and in vitro models, and it has been shown to enhance astrocytic glutamate transporter function (Liang et al. in J Neurochem 80:807-814, 2002; Pawlak et al. in Brain Res Mol Brain Res 138:1-7, 2005). However, E2 is not clinically optimal for neuroprotection given its peripheral feminizing and proliferative effects; therefore, brain selective estrogen receptor modulators (neuro SERMs) (Zhao et al. in Neuroscience 132:299-311, 2005) that specifically target estrogenic mechanisms, but lack the systemic estrogen side effects offer more promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive synaptic glutamate levels. This review highlights recent studies from our laboratory showing that E2 and SERMs effectively reverse glutamate transport inhibition in a manganese (Mn)-induced model of glutamatergic deregulation. Specifically, we discuss mechanisms by which E2 restores the expression and activity of glutamate uptake. We advance the hypothesis that E2 and related compounds, such as tamoxifen may offer a potential therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by altered glutamate homeostasis.

  12. Estrogen attenuates Manganese-induced glutamate transporter impairment in rat primary astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsook; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, Marta; Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, Joao BT; Aschner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The astrocytic glutamate transporters (GLT-1, GLAST) are critical for removing excess glutamate from synaptic sites, thereby maintaining glutamate homeostasis within the brain. 17 -Estradiol (E2) is one of the most active estrogen hormones possessing neuroprotective effects both in in vivo and in vitro models, and it has been shown to enhance astrocytic glutamate transporter function (Liang et al. 2002; Pawlak et al. 2005). However, E2 is not clinically optimal for neuroprotection given its peripheral feminizing and proliferative effects; therefore, brain selective estrogen receptor modulators (neuroSERMs) (Zhao et al. 2005) that specifically target estrogenic mechanisms, but lack the systemic estrogen side effects offer more promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive synaptic glutamate levels. This review highlights recent studies from our laboratory showing that E2 and SERMs effectively reverse glutamate transport inhibition in a manganese (Mn)-induced model of glutamatergic deregulation. Specifically, we discuss mechanisms by which E2 restores the expression and activity of glutamatergic neurotransmission. We advance the hypothesis that E2 and related compounds, such as tamoxifen (TX) may offer a potential therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by altered glutamate homeostasis. PMID:22878846

  13. Role of transcription factor yin yang 1 in manganese-induced reduction of astrocytic glutamate transporters: Putative mechanism for manganese-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Karki, Pratap; Smith, Keisha; Johnson, James; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant non-neuronal glial cells in the brain. Once relegated to a mere supportive role for neurons, contemporary dogmas ascribe multiple active roles for these cells in central nervous system (CNS) function, including maintenance of optimal glutamate levels in synapses. Regulation of glutamate levels in the synaptic cleft is crucial for preventing excitotoxic neuronal injury. Glutamate levels are regulated predominantly by two astrocytic glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Indeed, the dysregulation of these transporters has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as manganism, which is caused by overexposure to the trace metal, manganese (Mn). Although Mn is an essential trace element, its excessive accumulation in the brain as a result of chronic occupational or environmental exposures induces a neurological disorder referred to as manganism, which shares common pathological features with Parkinsonism. Mn decreases the expression and function of both GLAST and GLT-1. Astrocytes are commonly targeted by Mn, and thus reduction in astrocytic glutamate transporter function represents a critical mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. In this review, we will discuss the role of astrocytic glutamate transporters in neurodegenerative diseases and Mn-induced neurotoxicity.

  14. Role of transcription factor yin yang 1 in manganese-induced reduction of astrocytic glutamate transporters: putative mechanism for manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Smith, Keisha; Johnson, James; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant non-neuronal glial cells in the brain. Once relegated to a mere supportive role for neurons, contemporary dogmas ascribe multiple active roles for these cells in central nervous system (CNS) function, including maintenance of optimal glutamate levels in synapses. Regulation of glutamate levels in the synaptic cleft is crucial for preventing excitotoxic neuronal injury. Glutamate levels are regulated predominantly by two astrocytic glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Indeed, the dysregulation of these transporters has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as manganism, which is caused by overexposure to the trace metal, manganese (Mn). Although Mn is an essential trace element, its excessive accumulation in the brain as a result of chronic occupational or environmental exposures induces a neurological disorder referred to as manganism, which shares common pathological features with Parkinsonism. Mn decreases the expression and function of both GLAST and GLT-1.Astrocytes are commonly targeted by Mn, and thus reduction in astrocytic glutamate transporter function represents a critical mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. In this review, we will discuss the role of astrocytic glutamate transporters in neurodegenerative diseases and Mn-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25128239

  15. Spinel-structured surface layers for facile Li ion transport and improved chemical stability of lithium manganese oxide spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hae Ri; Seo, Hyo Ree; Lee, Boeun; Cho, Byung Won; Lee, Kwan-Young; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion conducting spinel-structured oxide layer with a manganese oxidation state close to being tetravalent was prepared on aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide spinel for improving the electrochemical performances at the elevated temperatures. This nanoscale surface layer provides a good ionic conduction path for lithium ion transport to the core and also serves as an excellent chemical barrier for protecting the high-capacity core material from manganese dissolution into the electrolyte. In this work, a simple wet process was employed to prepare thin LiAlMnO4 and LiMg0.5Mn1.5O4 layers on the surface of LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4. X-ray absorption studies revealed an oxidation state close to tetravalent manganese on the surface layer of coated materials. Materials with these surface coating layers exhibited excellent capacity retentions superior to the bare material, without undermining the lithium ion transport characteristics and the high rate performances.

  16. High-Affinity Manganese Uptake by the Metal Transporter NRAMP1 Is Essential for Arabidopsis Growth in Low Manganese Conditions[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Cailliatte, Rémy; Schikora, Adam; Briat, Jean-François; Mari, Stéphane; Curie, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In contrast with many other essential metals, the mechanisms of Mn acquisition in higher eukaryotes are seldom studied and poorly understood. We show here that Arabidopsis thaliana relies on a high-affinity uptake system to acquire Mn from the soil in conditions of low Mn availability and that this activity is catalyzed by the divalent metal transporter NRAMP1 (for Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1). The nramp1-1 loss-of-function mutant grows poorly, contains less Mn than the wild type, and fails to take up Mn in conditions of Mn limitation, thus demonstrating that NRAMP1 is the major high-affinity Mn transporter in Arabidopsis. Based on confocal microscopy observation of an NRAMP1-green fluorescent protein fusion, we established that NRAMP1 is localized to the plasma membrane. Consistent with its function in Mn acquisition from the soil, NRAMP1 expression is restricted to the root and stimulated by Mn deficiency. Finally, we show that NRAMP1 restores the capacity of the iron-regulated transporter1 mutant to take up iron and cobalt, indicating that NRAMP1 has a broad selectivity in vivo. The role of transporters of the NRAMP family is well established in higher eukaryotes for iron but has been controversial for Mn. This study demonstrates that NRAMP1 is a physiological manganese transporter in Arabidopsis. PMID:20228245

  17. Metal binding studies and EPR spectroscopy of the manganese transport regulator MntR.

    PubMed

    Golynskiy, Misha V; Gunderson, William A; Hendrich, Michael P; Cohen, Seth M

    2006-12-26

    Manganese transport regulator (MntR) is a member of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) family of transcription factors that is responsible for manganese homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis. Prior biophysical studies have focused on the metal-mediated DNA binding of MntR [Lieser, S. A., Davis, T. C., Helmann, J. D., and Cohen, S. M. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12634-12642], as well as metal stabilization of the MntR structure [Golynskiy, M. V., Davis, T. C., Helmann, J. D., and Cohen, S. M. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 3380-3389], but only limited data on the metal-binding affinities for MntR are available. Herein, the metal-binding affinities of MntR were determined by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, as well as competition experiments with the fluorimetric dyes Fura-2 and Mag-fura-2. MntR was not capable of competing with Fura-2 for the binding of transition metal ions. Therefore, the metal-binding affinities and stoichiometries of Mag-fura-2 for Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ were determined and utilized in MntR/Mag-fura-2 competition experiments. The measured Kd values for MntR metal binding are comparable to those reported for DtxR metal binding [Kd from 10(-)7 to 10(-4) M; D'Aquino, J. A., et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18408-18413], AntR [a homologue from Bacillus anthracis; Sen, K. I. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4295-4303], and generally follow the Irving-Williams series. Direct detection of the dinuclear Mn2+ site in MntR with EPR spectroscopy is presented, and the exchange interaction was determined, J = -0.2 cm-1. This value is lower in magnitude than most known dinuclear Mn2+ sites in proteins and synthetic complexes and is consistent with a dinuclear Mn2+ site with a longer Mn...Mn distance (4.4 A) observed in some of the available crystal structures. MntR is found to have a surprisingly low binding affinity (approximately 160 microM) for its cognate metal ion Mn2+. Moreover, the results of DNA binding studies in

  18. Metal Binding Studies and EPR Spectroscopy of the Manganese Transport Regulator MntR†

    PubMed Central

    Golynskiy, Misha V.; Gunderson, William A.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2007-01-01

    Manganese transport regulator (MntR) is a member of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) family of transcription factors that is responsible for manganese homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis. Prior biophysical studies have focused on the metal-mediated DNA binding of MntR [Lieser, S. A., Davis, T. C., Helmann, J. D., and Cohen, S. M. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12634-12642], as well as metal stabilization of the MntR structure [Golynskiy, M. V., Davis, T. C., Helmann, J. D., and Cohen, S. M. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 3380-3389], but only limited data on the metal-binding affinities for MntR are available. Herein, the metal-binding affinities of MntR were determined by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, as well as competition experiments with the fluorimetric dyes Fura-2 and Mag-fura-2. MntR was not capable of competing with Fura-2 for the binding of transition metal ions. Therefore, the metal-binding affinities and stoichiometries of Mag-fura-2 for Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ were determined and utilized in MntR/Mag-fura-2 competition experiments. The measured Kd values for MntR metal binding are comparable to those reported for DtxR metal binding [Kd from 10-7 to 10-4 M; D’Aquino, J. A., et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18408-18413], AntR [a homologue from Bacillus anthracis; Sen, K. I. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4295-4303], and generally follow the Irving-Williams series. Direct detection of the dinuclear Mn2+ site in MntR with EPR spectroscopy is presented, and the exchange interaction was determined, J = -0.2 cm-1. This value is lower in magnitude than most known dinuclear Mn2+ sites in proteins and synthetic complexes and is consistent with a dinuclear Mn2+ site with a longer Mn···Mn distance (4.4 Å) observed in some of the available crystal structures. MntR is found to have a surprisingly low binding affinity (∼160 μM) for its cognate metal ion Mn2+. Moreover, the results of DNA binding studies in the presence

  19. Manganese transport by rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cell-based transwell model in the presence of astrocyte conditioned media.

    PubMed

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Piccola, Greg; Aschner, Judy L; Aschner, Michael

    2005-07-15

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is neurotoxic at high levels and has been associated with the development of a parkinsonian syndrome termed manganism. Currently, the mechanisms responsible for transporting Mn across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are unknown. By using rat brain endothelial 4 (RBE4) cell monolayers cultured in astrocyte-conditioned media (ACM), we examine the effects of temperature, energy, proton (pH), iron (Fe), and sodium (Na(+)) dependence on Mn transport. Our results suggest that Mn transport is temperature, energy, and pH dependent, but not Fe or Na(+) dependent. These data suggest that Mn transport across the BBB is an active process, but they also demonstrate that the presence of ACM in endothelial cell cultures decreases the permeability of these cells to Mn, reinforcing the use of ACM or astrocyte cocultures in studies examining metal transport across the BBB.

  20. The Structural Basis for the Metal Selective Activation of the Manganese Transport Regulator of Bacillus subtilis†,§

    PubMed Central

    Kliegman, Joseph I.; Griner, Sarah L.; Helmann, John D.; Brennan, Richard G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The manganese transport regulator (MntR) of Bacillus subtilis is activated by Mn2+ to repress transcription of genes encoding transporters involved in the uptake of manganese. MntR is also strongly activated by cadmium, both in vivo and in vitro, but it is poorly activated by other metal cations, including calcium and zinc. The previously published MntR•Mn2+ structure revealed a binuclear complex of manganese ions with a metal-metal separation of 3.3 Å (herein designated the AB conformer). Analysis of four additional crystal forms of MntR•Mn2+ reveals that the AB conformer is only observed in monoclinic crystals at 100 K, suggesting that this conformation may be stabilized by crystal packing forces. In contrast, monoclinic crystals analyzed at room temperature (at either pH 6.5 or 8.5), and a second hexagonal crystal form (analyzed at 100 K), all reveal the shift of one manganese ion by 2.5 Å thereby leading to a newly identified conformation (the AC conformer) with an internuclear distance of 4.4 Å. Significantly, the cadmium and calcium complexes of MntR also contain binuclear complexes with a 4.4 Å internuclear separation. In contrast, the zinc complex of MntR contains only one metal ion per subunit, in the A site. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms the stoichiometry of Mn2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ binding to MntR. We propose that the specificity of MntR activation is tied to productive binding of metal ions at two sites; the A site appears to act as a selectivity filter, determining whether the B or C site will be occupied and thereby fully activate MntR. PMID:16533030

  1. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Seckin; Meier, Bastian; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Infectious Prion Protein Alters Manganese Transport and Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model of Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Dustin P.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are considered key features of many neurodegenerative diseases, but biochemical mechanisms underlying protein misfolding and the propagation of protein aggregates are not well understood. Prion disease is a classical neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the misfolding of endogenously expressed normal cellular prion protein (PrPC). Although the exact function of PrPC has not been fully elucidated, studies have suggested that it can function as a metal binding protein. Interestingly, increased brain manganese (Mn) levels have been reported in various prion diseases indicating divalent metals also may play a role in the disease process. Recently, we reported that PrPC protects against Mn-induced cytotoxicity in a neural cell culture model. To further understand the role of Mn in prion diseases, we examined Mn neurotoxicity in an infectious cell culture model of prion disease. Our results show CAD5 scrapie-infected cells were more resistant to Mn neurotoxicity as compared to uninfected cells (EC50 = 428.8 μM for CAD5 infected cells vs. 211.6 μM for uninfected cells). Additionally, treatment with 300 μM Mn in persistently infected CAD5 cells showed a reduction in mitochondrial impairment, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation when compared to uninfected cells. Scrapie-infected cells also showed significantly reduced Mn uptake as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and altered expression of metal transporting proteins DMT1 and transferrin. Together, our data indicate that conversion of PrP to the pathogenic isoform enhances its ability to regulate Mn homeostasis, and suggest that understanding the interaction of metals with disease-specific proteins may provide further insight to protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21871919

  3. The mntH gene encodes the major Mn2+ transporter in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and is regulated by manganese via the Fur protein

    PubMed Central

    Hohle, Thomas H.; O’Brian, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Nramp family protein MntH is a divalent metal transporter, but mntH mutants have little or no phenotype in organisms where it has been studied. Here, we identify the mntH homolog of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and demonstrate that it is essential for Mn2+ transport and for maintenance of cellular manganese homeostasis. Transport activity was induced under manganese deficiency, and Fe2+ did not compete with 54Mn2+ for uptake by cells. The steady state level of mntH mRNA was negatively regulated by manganese, but was unaffected by iron. Control of mntH expression and Mn2+ transport by manganese was lost in a fur strain, resulting in constitutively high activity. Fur protected a 35 bp region of the mntH promoter in DNase I footprinting analysis that includes three imperfect direct repeat hexamers that are needed for full occupancy. Mn2+ increased the affinity of Fur for the mntH promoter by over 50-fold, with a Kd value of 2.2 nM in the presence of metal. The findings identify MntH as the major Mn2+ transporter in B. japonicum, and show that Fur is a manganese-responsive regulator in that organism. Furthermore, Fe2+ is neither a substrate for MntH nor a regulator of mntH expression in vivo. PMID:19298371

  4. Structural Elements in the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of the Metal Transporter SLC30A10 Are Required for Its Manganese Efflux Activity.

    PubMed

    Zogzas, Charles E; Aschner, Michael; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra

    2016-07-29

    Homozygous mutations in SLC30A10 lead to the development of familial manganese-induced parkinsonism. We previously demonstrated that SLC30A10 is a cell surface-localized manganese efflux transporter, and parkinsonism-causing mutations block its trafficking and efflux activity. Interestingly, other transporters in the SLC30 family mediate zinc efflux. Determining the mechanisms that allow SLC30A10 to transport manganese, which are unclear, is essential to understand its role in parkinsonism. Here, we generated a predicted structure of SLC30A10, based on the structure of the bacterial zinc transporter YiiP, and performed functional studies. In YiiP, side chains of residues Asp-45 and Asp-49 in the second and His-153 and Asp-157 in the fifth transmembrane segments coordinate zinc and are required for transport. In SLC30A10, the corresponding residues are Asn-43 and Asp-47 in the second and His-244 and Asp-248 in the fifth transmembrane segments. Surprisingly, although alanine substitution of Asp-248 abolished manganese efflux, that of Asn-43 and Asp-47 did not. Instead, side chains of charged or polar residues adjacent to Asp-248 in the first (Glu-25) or fourth (Asn-127) transmembrane segments were required. Further analyses revealed that residues His-333 and His-350 in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain were required for full activity. However, the C-terminal domain failed to transfer manganese transport capability to a related zinc transporter. Overall, our results indicate that residues in the transmembrane and C-terminal domains together confer optimal manganese transport capability to SLC30A10 and suggest that the mechanism of ion coordination in the transmembrane domain of SLC30A10 may be substantially different from that in YiiP/other SLC30 proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Vitamin D3 transactivates the zinc and manganese transporter SLC30A10 via the Vitamin D receptor.

    PubMed

    Claro da Silva, Tatiana; Hiller, Christian; Gai, Zhibo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D3 regulates genes critical for human health and its deficiency is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, inflammatory and immunological diseases. To study the impact of vitamin D3 on genes relevant for the transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs, we employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed global gene expression of the human-derived Caco-2 cell line treated with 500nM vitamin D3. Genes involved in neuropeptide signaling, inflammation, cell adhesion and morphogenesis were differentially expressed. Notably, genes implicated in zinc, manganese and iron homeostasis were largely increased by vitamin D3 treatment. An ∼10-fold increase in ceruloplasmin and ∼4-fold increase in haptoglobin gene expression suggested a possible association between vitamin D and iron homeostasis. SLC30A10, the gene encoding the zinc and manganese transporter ZnT10, was the chiefly affected transporter, with ∼15-fold increase in expression. SLC30A10 is critical for zinc and manganese homeostasis and mutations in this gene, resulting in impaired ZnT10 function or expression, cause manganese intoxication, with Parkinson-like symptoms. Our NGS results were validated by real-time PCR in Caco-2 cells, as well as in duodenal biopsies taken from healthy human subjects treated with 0.5μg vitamin D3 daily for 10 days. In addition to increasing gene expression of SLC30A10 and the positive control TRPV6, vitamin D3 also increased ZnT10 protein expression, as indicated by Western blot and cytofluorescence. In silico identification of potential vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in the 5'-flanking region of the SLC30A10 promoter and dual-luciferase reporter assay showed enhanced promoter activity in the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) constructs, as well as vitamin D3, but not when one of these factors was absent. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and

  6. Genetic dys-regulation of astrocytic glutamate transporter EAAT2 and its implications in neurological disorders and manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Smith, Keisha; Johnson, James; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic glutamate transporters, the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 2 and EAAT1 [glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in rodents, respectively], are the main transporters for maintaining optimal glutamate levels in the synaptic clefts by taking up more than 90% of glutamate from extracellular space thus preventing excitotoxic neuronal death. Reduced expression and function of these transporters, especially EAAT2, has been reported in numerous neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia and epilepsy. The mechanism of down-regulation of EAAT2 in these diseases has yet to be fully established. Genetic as well as transcriptional dys-regulation of these transporters by various modes, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenetics, resulting in impairment of their functions, might play an important role in the etiology of neurological diseases. Consequently, there has been an extensive effort to identify molecular targets for enhancement of EAAT2 expression as a potential therapeutic approach. Several pharmacological agents increase expression of EAAT2 via NF-κB and CREB at the transcriptional level. However, the negative regulatory mechanisms of EAAT2 have yet to be identified. Recent studies, including those from our laboratory, suggest that the transcriptional factor yin yang 1 (YY1) plays a critical role in the repressive effects of various neurotoxins, such as manganese (Mn), on EAAT2 expression. In this review, we will focus on transcriptional epigenetics, and translational regulation of EAAT2. PMID:25064045

  7. Electrochemical transport of manganese between the flux and the weld metal in submerged arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Indacochea, J.E.; Blander, M.; Polar, A.

    1989-01-01

    Submerged arc welds were made using a SiO/sub 2/-CaO-CaF/sub 2/MnO flux containing 20 w/o MnO, 15 w/o CaF/sub 2/, and SiO/sub 2/ to CaO ratios that varied from 5.5 to 1.17; the slags formed from this flux system show good detachability and the welds produced have good bead morphology. The effect of dilution was eliminated by drawing the filler metal from the same material as the base plate. The welding parameters were the same for all welds and two polarities were used. The stability of the arc was also monitored and found to be stable, but more so for the reverse polarity welds. Chemical analyses were performed on flux, slag, and weld samples. The manganese content in the weld metal increases for all the fluxes, with the increases being larger the smaller the silica to calcium oxide ratio. This behavior can be explained by thermodynamically driven kinetic factors since, in this composition range, the activity of the manganese oxide increases with a decrease in the SiO/sub 2//CaO ratio. When the SiO/sub 2//CaO ratio is smaller than about 2.25, the manganese content in the welds made with reverse polarity is higher than those made with straight polarity. This difference in the manganese level is explained in terms of an electrochemical mechanism. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Intracellular Localization and Subsequent Redistribution of Metal Transporters in a Rat Choroid Plexus Model Following Exposure to Manganese or Iron

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqian; Miller, David S.; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) exposure on the subcellular distribution of metal transporting proteins, i.e., divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), and transferrin receptor (TfR), in the rat intact choroid plexus which comprises the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In control tissue, DMT1 was concentrated below the apical epithelial membrane, MTP1 was diffuse within the cytosol, and TfR was distributed in vesicles around nuclei. Following Mn or Fe treatment (1 and 10 µM), the distribution of DMT1 was not affected. However, MTP1 and TfR moved markedly toward the apical pole of the cells. These shifts were abolished when microtubules were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels of TfR but not DMT1 and MTP1 after Mn exposure. These results suggest that early events in the tissue response to Mn or Fe exposure involve microtubule-dependent, intracellular trafficking of MTP1 and TfR. The intracellular trafficking of metal transporters in the choroid plexus following Mn exposure may partially contribute to Mn-induced disruption in Fe homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Mn exposure. PMID:18420243

  9. Intracellular localization and subsequent redistribution of metal transporters in a rat choroid plexus model following exposure to manganese or iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xueqian; Miller, David S.

    2008-07-15

    Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) exposure on the subcellular distribution of metal transporting proteins, i.e., divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), and transferrin receptor (TfR), in the rat intact choroid plexus which comprises the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In control tissue, DMT1 was concentrated below the apical epithelial membrane, MTP1 was diffuse within the cytosol, and TfR was distributed in vesicles around nuclei. Following Mn or Fe treatment (1 and 10 {mu}M), the distribution of DMT1 was not affected. However, MTP1 and TfR moved markedly toward the apical pole of the cells. These shifts were abolished when microtubules were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels of TfR but not DMT1 and MTP1 after Mn exposure. These results suggest that early events in the tissue response to Mn or Fe exposure involve microtubule-dependent, intracellular trafficking of MTP1 and TfR. The intracellular trafficking of metal transporters in the choroid plexus following Mn exposure may partially contribute to Mn-induced disruption in Fe homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Mn exposure.

  10. Transport properties of nano manganese ferrite-propylene glycol dispersion (nanofluids): new observations and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aishwarya, V.; Suganthi, K. S.; Rajan, K. S.

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted on the preparation of manganese ferrite nanoparticles and their surface modification for dispersion in propylene glycol. The appropriate concentrations of ferrous sulphate and manganese sulphate (precursors) for synthesis of uniform Mn0.43Fe2.57O4 nanoparticles (size range 20-25 nm) were found to be 0.05 and 0.025 M, respectively. These nanoparticles were coated with citric acid and dispersed in propylene glycol for the preparation of nanofluids. The effects of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on nanofluid viscosity and thermal conductivity have been studied. Our study on the influence of nanoparticle concentration on viscosity reveals the existence of a viscosity minimum for 0.25 vol% of citric acid-modified Mn0.43Fe2.57O4-propylene glycol nanofluid. A thermal conductivity enhancement of 68 % was observed for 2 vol% nanofluid. Correlating viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements, particle clustering seems to be the major factor responsible for thermal conductivity enhancement.

  11. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on the transport of manganese and zinc and tissue uptake of radioactivity following subcutaneous administration of tritiated estrone in manganese deficient and nondeficient rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M; Ho, S K

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four eight month old virgin New Zealand doe rabbits were used in an experiment designed to study the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on the transport of 54Mn and 65Zn in their tissues. Although human chorionic gonadotropin treatment did not result in any change in 65Zn transport, that of 54Mn was affected. In another experiment, the tissue uptake of tritiated estrone was studied in manganese deficient and nondeficient rabbits. There were no differences in radioactivity uptake between the two diets but the pattern of tissue uptake was different from other reports. PMID:861839

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Manganese Transport Protein C (MntC) Is an Extracellular Matrix- and Plasminogen-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Natália; Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica Marcela; da Silva, Ludmila Bezerra; de Castro, Íris Arantes; Monaris, Denize; Masuda, Hana Paula; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Arêas, Ana Paula Mattos

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus – particularly nosocomial infections - represent a great concern. Usually, the early stage of pathogenesis consists on asymptomatic nasopharynx colonization, which could result in dissemination to other mucosal niches or invasion of sterile sites, such as blood. This pathogenic route depends on scavenging of nutrients as well as binding to and disrupting extracellular matrix (ECM). Manganese transport protein C (MntC), a conserved manganese-binding protein, takes part in this infectious scenario as an ion-scavenging factor and surprisingly as an ECM and coagulation cascade binding protein, as revealed in this work. This study showed a marked ability of MntC to bind to several ECM and coagulation cascade components, including laminin, collagen type IV, cellular and plasma fibronectin, plasminogen and fibrinogen by ELISA. The MntC binding to plasminogen appears to be related to the presence of surface-exposed lysines, since previous incubation with an analogue of lysine residue, ε-aminocaproic acid, or increasing ionic strength affected the interaction between MntC and plasminogen. MntC-bound plasminogen was converted to active plasmin in the presence of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The newly released plasmin, in turn, acted in the cleavage of the α and β chains of fibrinogen. In conclusion, we describe a novel function for MntC that may help staphylococcal mucosal colonization and establishment of invasive disease, through the interaction with ECM and coagulation cascade host proteins. These data suggest that this potential virulence factor could be an adequate candidate to compose an anti-staphylococcal human vaccine formulation. PMID:25409527

  13. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Wei, Chao; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zuo, Qian-Fei; Zhuang, Yuan; Feng, You-Jun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC), which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detailed MntC-specific B cell epitope mapping and particularly epitope vaccines, which are less-time consuming and more convenient. In this study, we generated a recombinant protein rMntC which induced strong antibody response when used for immunisation with CFA/IFA adjuvant. On the basis of the results, linear B cell epitopes within MntC were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Further studies indicate that MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 might be the original linear B-cell immune dominant epitope of MntC, furthermore, three-dimensional (3-d) crystal structure results indicate that the three immunodominant epitopes were displayed on the surface of the MntC antigen. On the basis of immunodominant MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 peptides, the epitope vaccine for S. aureus induces a high antibody level which is biased to TH2 and provides effective immune protection and strong opsonophagocytic killing activity in vitro against MRSA infection. In summary, the study provides strong proof of the optimisation of MRSA B cell epitope vaccine designs and their use, which was based on the MntC antigen in the development of an MRSA vaccine. PMID:26895191

  14. pH modulates transport rates of manganese and cadmium in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through non-competitive interactions: implications for an algal BLM.

    PubMed

    François, Laura; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G C

    2007-08-30

    The influence of pH on short-term uptake of manganese and cadmium by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied to better understand the nature of proton interactions with metal membrane transporters. Manganese and cadmium internalization fluxes (J(int)) were measured over a wide range of free metal ion concentrations from 1 x 10(-10) to 4 x 10(-4)M at several pH values (Mn: 5.0, 6.5 and 8.0; Cd: 5.0 and 6.5). For both metals, first-order biological internalization kinetics were observed but the maximum transport flux (J(max)) decreased when pH decreased, in contradiction with the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). This result suggested a non-competitive inhibition of metal uptake by the H(+)-ion. A Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering proton and calcium competition was tested. The metal biotic ligand stability constants and the stability constants for competitive binding of Ca(2+) and H(+) with the metal transporters were calculated: for manganese, K(Mn)=10(4.20) and K(Ca)=10(3.71); for cadmium, K(Cd)=10(4.19) and K(Ca)=10(4.76); for both metal transport systems, K(H) was not a significant parameter. Furthermore, metal uptake was not significantly influenced by the pH of the antecedent growth medium, suggesting that increases in metal fluxes as the pH is raised are caused by conformational changes of the surface transport proteins rather than by the synthesis of additional transport sites. Our results demonstrate that the BLM in its present state does not properly describe the true influence of pH on manganese and cadmium uptake by algae and that a non-competitive inhibition component must be integrated.

  15. Metal transport protein 8 in Camellia sinensis confers superior manganese tolerance when expressed in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghui; Li, Yue; Wu, Xiayuan; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Xujun; Fang, Wanping

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an important micronutrient element required for plant growth and development, playing catalytic roles in enzymes, membranes and DNA replication. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is able to accumulate high concentration of Mn without showing signs of toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this remain largely unknown. In this study, the C. sinensis cultivar ‘LJCY’ had higher Mn tolerance than cultivar ‘YS’, because chlorophyll content reduction was lower under the high Mn treatment. Proteomic analysis of the leaves revealed that C. sinensis Metal Tolerance Protein 8 (CsMTP8) accumulated in response to Mn toxicity in cultivar ‘LJCY’. The gene encoding CsMTP8, designated as CsMTP8 was also isolated, and its expression enhanced Mn tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similarly, the overexpression of CsMTP8 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased plant tolerance and reduced Mn accumulation in plant tissues under excess Mn conditions. Subcellular localization analysis of green florescence fused protein indicated that CsMTP8 was localized to the plasma membranes. Taken together, the results suggest that CsMTP8 is a Mn-specific transporter, which is localized in the plasma membrane, and transports excess Mn out of plant cells. The results also suggest that it is needed for Mn tolerance in shoots. PMID:28051151

  16. The Staphylococcus aureus ABC-Type Manganese Transporter MntABC Is Critical for Reinitiation of Bacterial Replication Following Exposure to Phagocytic Oxidative Burst.

    PubMed

    Coady, Alison; Xu, Min; Phung, Qui; Cheung, Tommy K; Bakalarski, Corey; Alexander, Mary Kate; Lehar, Sophie M; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Tan, Man-Wah; Nishiyama, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Manganese plays a central role in cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, manganese acquisition is considered to be important for bacterial pathogenesis by counteracting the oxidative burst of phagocytic cells during host infection. However, detailed analysis of the interplay between bacterial manganese acquisition and phagocytic cells and its impact on bacterial pathogenesis has remained elusive for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Here, we show that a mntC mutant, which lacks the functional manganese transporter MntABC, was more sensitive to killing by human neutrophils but not murine macrophages, unless the mntC mutant was pre-exposed to oxidative stress. Notably, the mntC mutant formed strikingly small colonies when recovered from both type of phagocytic cells. We show that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the inability of the mntC mutant to reinitiate growth after exposure to phagocytic oxidative burst. Transcript and quantitative proteomics analyses revealed that the manganese-dependent ribonucleotide reductase complex NrdEF, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair, was highly induced in the mntC mutant under oxidative stress conditions including after phagocytosis. Since NrdEF proteins are essential for S. aureus viability we hypothesize that cells lacking MntABC might attempt to compensate for the impaired function of NrdEF by increasing their expression. Our data suggest that besides ROS detoxification, functional manganese acquisition is likely crucial for S. aureus pathogenesis by repairing oxidative damages, thereby ensuring efficient bacterial growth after phagocytic oxidative burst, which is an attribute critical for disseminating and establishing infection in the host.

  17. The Arabidopsis MTP8 transporter determines the localization of manganese and iron in seeds.

    PubMed

    Chu, Heng-Hsuan; Car, Suzana; Socha, Amanda L; Hindt, Maria N; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2017-09-08

    Understanding how seeds obtain and store nutrients is key to developing crops with higher agronomic and nutritional value. We have uncovered unique patterns of micronutrient localization in seeds using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Although all four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana Mn-CDF family can transport Mn, here we show that only mtp8-2 has an altered Mn distribution pattern in seeds. In an mtp8-2 mutant, Mn no longer accumulates in hypocotyl cortex cells and sub-epidermal cells of the embryonic cotyledons, but rather accumulates with Fe in the cells surrounding the vasculature, a pattern previously shown to be determined by the vacuolar transporter VIT1. We also show that MTP8, unlike the other three Mn-CDF family members, can transport Fe and is responsible for localization of Fe to the same cells that store Mn. When both the VIT1 and MTP8 transporters are non-functional, there is no accumulation of Fe or Mn in specific cell types; rather these elements are distributed amongst all cell types in the seed. Disruption of the putative Fe binding sites in MTP8 resulted in loss of ability to transport Fe but did not affect the ability to transport Mn.

  18. Visualization of lithium-ion transport and phase evolution within and between manganese oxide nanorods

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Lijun; Meng, Qingping; ...

    2017-05-24

    Multiple lithium-ion transport pathways and local phase changes upon lithiation in silver hollandite are revealed via in situ microscopy including electron diffraction, imaging and spectroscopy, coupled with density functional theory and phase field calculations. Here, we report unexpected inter-nanorod lithium-ion transport, where the reaction fronts and kinetics are maintained within the neighbouring nanorod. Notably, this is the first time-resolved visualization of lithium-ion transport within and between individual nanorods, where the impact of oxygen deficiencies is delineated. Initially, fast lithium-ion transport is observed along the long axis with small net volume change, resulting in two lithiated silver hollandite phases distinguishable bymore » orthorhombic distortion. As a result, a slower reaction front is observed, with formation of polyphase lithiated silver hollandite and face-centred-cubic silver metal with substantial volume expansion. Our results indicate lithium-ion transport is not confined within a single nanorod and may provide a paradigm shift for one-dimensional tunnelled materials, particularly towards achieving high-rate capability.« less

  19. Visualization of lithium-ion transport and phase evolution within and between manganese oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Lijun; Meng, Qingping; Kaltak, Merzuk; Huang, Jianping; Durham, Jessica L; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi; Sun, Litao; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Hybertsen, Mark S; Zhu, Yimei

    2017-05-24

    Multiple lithium-ion transport pathways and local phase changes upon lithiation in silver hollandite are revealed via in situ microscopy including electron diffraction, imaging and spectroscopy, coupled with density functional theory and phase field calculations. We report unexpected inter-nanorod lithium-ion transport, where the reaction fronts and kinetics are maintained within the neighbouring nanorod. Notably, this is the first time-resolved visualization of lithium-ion transport within and between individual nanorods, where the impact of oxygen deficiencies is delineated. Initially, fast lithium-ion transport is observed along the long axis with small net volume change, resulting in two lithiated silver hollandite phases distinguishable by orthorhombic distortion. Subsequently, a slower reaction front is observed, with formation of polyphase lithiated silver hollandite and face-centred-cubic silver metal with substantial volume expansion. These results indicate lithium-ion transport is not confined within a single nanorod and may provide a paradigm shift for one-dimensional tunnelled materials, particularly towards achieving high-rate capability.

  20. The importance of glutamate, glycine, and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transport and regulation in manganese, mercury and lead neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Aschner, Michael . E-mail: michael.aschner@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-05-01

    Historically, amino acids were studied in the context of their importance in protein synthesis. In the 1950s, the focus of research shifted as amino acids were recognized as putative neurotransmitters. Today, many amino acids are considered important neurochemicals. Although many amino acids play a role in neurotransmission, glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are among the more prevalent and better understood. Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, and Gly and GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters, in the central nervous system, are known to be tightly regulated. Prolonged exposure to environmental toxicants, such as manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb), however, can lead to dysregulation of these neurochemicals and subsequent neurotoxicity. While the ability of these metals to disrupt the regulation of Glu, Gly and GABA have been studied, few articles have examined the collective role of these amino acids in the respective metal's mechanism of toxicity. For each of the neurotransmitters above, we will provide a brief synopsis of their regulatory function, including the importance of transport and re-uptake in maintaining their optimal function. Additionally, the review will address the hypothesis that aberrant homeostasis of any of these amino acids, or a combination of the three, plays a role in the neurotoxicity of Mn, Hg, or Pb.

  1. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Koltick, David; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23µSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject.

  2. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Koltick, David; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium–deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23μSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject. PMID:24165395

  3. Electrical transport studies of molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium manganese arsenide epilayers and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng

    2008-10-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been drawing attention in the context of emerging spintronics, which utilizes electron spins to develop devices with new functionalities. The canonical DMS---(Ga,Mn)As---has been on center stage for almost a decade, and extensive efforts have been dedicated to understanding its hole-mediated ferromagnetism, optimizing growth and annealing conditions to achieve higher-Tc, studying the magneto-transport, exploiting its abundant magnetic anisotropy, and so on. This dissertation focuses on three aspects of the study of (Ga,Mn)As: (1) Magneto-transport under hard magnetization reversal; (2) Electrical noise properties; and (3) Exchange-biasing and spin-dependent transport in (Ga,Mn)As/MnAs hybrid structures. The first chapter provides the motivation for this dissertation and introduces several aspects of the current understanding of (Ga,Mn)As. Both the theoretical models and experimentally established observations are reviewed, focusing on the magnetic and transport properties of (Ga,Mn)As epilayers. Next, the hybrid ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor heterostructures are introduced. As an excellent candidate for making these heterostructures, the semi-metal MnAs is reviewed in terms of its structural and magnetic properties, which are essential for making the exchange-biased devices described in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. The second chapter describes the experimental techniques encompassed in the scope of this dissertation. Several important techniques, such as MBE growth, device patterning, magnetometry and transport measurements are discussed. The third chapter reports the first experiment in this dissertation, which describes the longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) anomalies of a (Ga,Mn)As epilayer experiencing hard axis magnetization reversal in an perpendicular magnetic field. By probing the MRs for currents running along different crystallographic directions, the origins of these anomalies

  4. The HvNramp5 Transporter Mediates Uptake of Cadmium and Manganese, But Not Iron.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Yamaji, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Kashino-Fujii, Miho; Sato, Kazuhiro; Feng Ma, Jian

    2016-11-01

    The Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Nramp) represents a transporter family for metal ions in all organisms. Here, we functionally characterized a member of Nramp family in barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvNramp5. This member showed different expression patterns, transport substrate specificity, and cellular localization from its close homolog in rice (Oryza sativa), OsNramp5, although HvNramp5 was also localized to the plasma membrane. HvNramp5 was mainly expressed in the roots and its expression was not affected by Cd and deficiency of Zn, Cu, and Mn, but slightly up-regulated by Fe deficiency. Spatial expression analysis showed that the expression of HvNramp5 was higher in the root tips than that in the basal root regions. Furthermore, analysis with laser microdissection revealed higher expression of HvNramp5 in the outer root cell layers. HvNramp5 showed transport activity for both Mn(2+) and Cd(2+), but not for Fe(2+) when expressed in yeast. Immunostaining with a HvNramp5 antibody showed that this protein was localized in the root epidermal cells without polarity. Knockdown of HvNramp5 in barley resulted in a significant reduction in the seedling growth at low Mn supply, but this reduction was rescued at high Mn supply. The concentration of Mn and Cd, but not other metals including Cu, Zn, and Fe, was decreased in both the roots and shoots of knockdown lines compared with the wild-type barley. These results indicate that HvNramp5 is a transporter required for uptake of Mn and Cd, but not for Fe, and that barley has a distinct uptake system from rice.

  5. Manganese Research Health Project (MHRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    disease and dysfunction; • Investigation of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms (including toxicokinetic considerations); • Investigation of...the physiological mechanisms that govern manganese accumulation within the brain, with special emphasis on the role of olfactory transport of the...dysfunction. Section 3 - MECHANISMS: Papers on the physiological , biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of manganese

  6. The yeast p5 type ATPase, spf1, regulates manganese transport into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yifat; Megyeri, Márton; Chen, Oscar C W; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Riezman, Isabelle; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Rimon, Nitzan; Riezman, Howard; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H; Schuldiner, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn(2+) homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn(2+) in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it's overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn(2+) we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn(2+)-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn(2+)-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn(2+) transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn(2+)-dependent neurological disorders.

  7. Manganese Toxicity Inhibited Root Growth by Disrupting Auxin Biosynthesis and Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Huichun; Pan, Xiangliang; Xu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mn toxicity inhibits both primary root (PR) growth and lateral root development. However, the mechanism underlying Mn-mediated root growth inhibition remains to be further elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in Mn-mediated inhibition of PR growth in Arabidopsis using physiological and genetic approaches. Mn toxicity inhibits PR elongation by reducing meristematic cell division potential. Mn toxicity also reduced auxin levels in root tips by reducing IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN4 and PIN7. Loss of function pin4 and pin7 mutants showed less inhibition of root growth than col-0 seedlings. These results indicated that this inhibitory effect of Mn toxicity on PR growth was mediated by affecting auxin biosynthesis and the expression of auxin efflux transporters PIN4 and PIN7. PMID:28316607

  8. Manganese Toxicity Inhibited Root Growth by Disrupting Auxin Biosynthesis and Transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Huichun; Pan, Xiangliang; Xu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mn toxicity inhibits both primary root (PR) growth and lateral root development. However, the mechanism underlying Mn-mediated root growth inhibition remains to be further elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in Mn-mediated inhibition of PR growth in Arabidopsis using physiological and genetic approaches. Mn toxicity inhibits PR elongation by reducing meristematic cell division potential. Mn toxicity also reduced auxin levels in root tips by reducing IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN4 and PIN7. Loss of function pin4 and pin7 mutants showed less inhibition of root growth than col-0 seedlings. These results indicated that this inhibitory effect of Mn toxicity on PR growth was mediated by affecting auxin biosynthesis and the expression of auxin efflux transporters PIN4 and PIN7.

  9. Identification of a rice metal tolerance protein OsMTP11 as a manganese transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Liu, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are a gene family of cation efflux transporters that occur widely in plants and might serve an essential role in metal homeostasis and tolerance. Our research describes the identification, characterization, and localization of OsMTP11, a member of the MTP family from rice. OsMTP11 was expressed constitutively and universally in different tissues in rice plant. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that OsMTP11 complemented the hypersensitivity of mutant strains to Mn, and also complemented yeast mutants to other metals, including Co and Ni. Real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated OsMTP11 expression was substantially enhanced following 4 h under Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn treatments, suggesting possible roles of OsMTP11 involvement in heavy metal stress responses. Promoter analysis by transgenic assays with GUS as a reporter gene and mRNA in situ hybridization experiments showed that OsMTP11 was expressed specifically in conducting tissues in rice. DNA methylation assays of genomic DNA in rice treated with Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn revealed that decreased DNA methylation levels were present in the OsMTP11 promoter region, which was consistent with OsMTP11 induced-expression patterns resulting from heavy metal stress. This result suggested that DNA methylation is one of major factors regulating expression of OsMTP11 through epigenetic mechanisms. OsMTP11 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to the entire onion epidermal cell cytoplasm, while vacuolar membrane exhibited increased GFP signals, consistent with an OsMTP11 function in cation sequestration. Our results indicated that OsMTP11 might play vital roles in Mn and other heavy metal transportation in rice.

  10. The Yeast P5 Type ATPase, Spf1, Regulates Manganese Transport into the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yifat; Megyeri, Márton; Chen, Oscar C. W.; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Riezman, Isabelle; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Rimon, Nitzan; Riezman, Howard; Platt, Frances M.; Futerman, Anthony H.; Schuldiner, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn2+ homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn2+ in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it’s overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn2+ we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn2+-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn2+-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn2+ transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn2+-dependent neurological disorders. PMID:24392018

  11. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. PMID:26668333

  12. Magnetism and Transport in the Group-IV Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Germanium(1-x) Manganese(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Melissa Ann Commisso

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have gained interest over the past decade because of their potential applications in spintronics. DMS systems exhibit carriermediated ferromagnetism, a property which enables electric-field control over the magnetization. In this thesis, the DMS Ge1-xMn x was studied. Germanium (Ge) is a desirable semiconductor because of its high hole mobility and its compatibility with silicon. Manganese (Mn) was chosen for its exhibition of indirect ferromagnetic coupling. These properties are deemed necessary for the realization of a magnetic quantum-dot based device such as a magnetic spin switch. Ion implantation of Mn into Ge-on-insulator and molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) were two methods utilized to synthesize the studied Ge1-x Mnx thin films. Several of the Ge1-xMn x films were treated with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or pulsed laser melting (PLM) in an attempt to improve the crystallinity and make more of the Mn ferromagnetically active. Of all the Ge1-xMn x systems studied, those that exhibited correlated magnetic and magneto-transport properties were those with hole concentrations on the order of 1019 --1020 holes/cm3. Although these systems exhibited robust magneto-transport properties, electric-field biasing proved ineffective at modulating the carrier concentration and ultimately the magnetization as monitored by the ordinary and anomalous Hall effects and the resistivity. The inefficiency of the electric gating was attributed to localized trap states which reside in the energy band gap of the defect-plagued Ge semiconductor. If crystallinity is a prerequisite for gatability, PLM may prove useful as it was found to restore the single crystal structure damaged during Mn implantation. However, PLM resulted in an undesirable segregation of Mn toward the surface of the film (as observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)); a decrease in the saturation magnetization after PLM was attributed to this segregation. The information

  13. A Novel Metal Transporter Mediating Manganese Export (MntX) Regulates the Mn to Fe Intracellular Ratio and Neisseria meningitidis Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Boneca, Ivo G.; Cellier, Mathieu F.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) and N. gonorrhoeae (Ng) are adapted to different environments within their human host. If the basis of this difference has not yet been fully understood, previous studies (including our own data) have reported that, unlike Ng, Nm tolerates high manganese concentrations. As transition metals are essential regulators of cell growth and host pathogen interactions, we aimed to address mechanisms of Nm Mn2+ tolerance and its pathogenic consequences. Using bioinformatics, gene deletion and heterologous expression we identified a conserved bacterial manganese resistance factor MntX (formerly YebN). The predicted structure suggests that MntX represents a new family of transporters exporting Mn. In the Neisseria genus, this exporter is present and functional in all Nm isolates but it is mutated in a majority of Ng strains and commonly absent in nonpathogenic species. In Nm, Mn2+ export via MntX regulates the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio and protects against manganese toxicity that is exacerbated in low iron conditions. MntX is also important for N. meningitidis to resist killing by human serum and for survival in mice blood during septicemia. The present work thus points to new clues about Mn homeostasis, its interplay with Fe metabolism and the influence on N. meningitidis physiology and pathogenicity. PMID:21980287

  14. Pre-weaning manganese exposure causes hyperactivity, disinhibition, and spatial learning and memory deficits associated with altered dopamine receptor and transporter levels

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Cynthia; Stanwood, Gregg; Smith, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in children have reported associations between elevated dietary manganese (Mn) exposure and neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. To better understand the relationship between early Mn exposure and neurobehavioral deficits, we treated neonate rats with oral Mn doses of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d over postnatal day (PND) 1 – 21, and evaluated behavioral performance using open arena (PND 23), elevated plus maze (PND 23), and 8-arm radial maze (PND 33–46) paradigms. Brain dopamine D1 and D2-like receptors, and DAT transporter densities were determined on PND 24, and blood and brain Mn levels were measured to coincide with behavioral testing (PND 24, PND 36). Pre-weaning Mn exposure caused hyperactivity and behavioral disinhibition in the open arena, but no altered behavior in the elevated plus maze. Manganese-exposed males committed significantly more reference and marginally more working errors in the radial arm maze compared to controls. Fewer Mn exposed males achieved the radial maze learning criterion, and they required more session days to reach it compared to controls. Manganese-exposed animals also exhibited a greater frequency of stereotypic response strategy in searching for the baited arms in the maze. These behavioral and learning deficits were associated with altered expression of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine transporter in prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. These data corroborate epidemiological studies in children, and suggest that exposure to Mn during neurodevelopment significantly alters dopaminergic synaptic environments in brain nuclei that mediate control of executive function behaviors, such as reactivity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:20029834

  15. Deficits in axonal transport in hippocampal-based circuitry and the visual pathway in APP knock-out animals witnessed by manganese enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Joseph J.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ziomek, Greg; Jacobs, Russell E.; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence implicates axonal transport defects, typified by the presence of axonal varicosities with aberrant accumulations of cargo, as an early event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Work identifying amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a vesicular motor receptor for anterograde axonal transport further implicates axonal transport in AD. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) detects axonal transport dynamics in preclinical studies. Here we pursue an understanding of the role of APP in axonal transport in the central nervous system by applying MEMRI to hippocampal circuitry and to the visual pathway in living mice homozygous for either wild type or a deletion in the APP gene (n = 12 for each genotype). Following intra-ocular or stereotaxic hippocampal injection, we performed time-lapse MRI to detect Mn2+ transport. Three dimensional whole brain datasets were compared on a voxel-wise basis using within-group pair-wise analysis. Quantification of transport to structures connected to injection sites via axonal fiber tracts was also performed. Histology confirmed consistent placement of hippocampal injections and no observable difference in glial-response to the injections. APP −/− mice had significantly reduced transport from the hippocampus to the septal nuclei and amygdala after 7 hours and reduced transport to the contralateral hippocampus after 25 hours; axonal transport deficits in the APP −/− animals were also identified in the visual pathway. These data support a system-wide role for APP in axonal transport within the central nervous system and demonstrate the power of MEMRI for assessing neuronal circuitry involved in memory and learning. PMID:22500926

  16. Deficits in axonal transport in hippocampal-based circuitry and the visual pathway in APP knock-out animals witnessed by manganese enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Joseph J; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ziomek, Gregory J; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2012-04-15

    Mounting evidence implicates axonal transport defects, typified by the presence of axonal varicosities with aberrant accumulations of cargo, as an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Work identifying amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a vesicular motor receptor for anterograde axonal transport further implicates axonal transport in AD. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) detects axonal transport dynamics in preclinical studies. Here we pursue an understanding of the role of APP in axonal transport in the central nervous system by applying MEMRI to hippocampal circuitry and to the visual pathway in living mice homozygous for either wild type or a deletion in the APP gene (n=12 for each genotype). Following intra-ocular or stereotaxic hippocampal injection, we performed time-lapse MRI to detect Mn(2+) transport. Three dimensional whole brain datasets were compared on a voxel-wise basis using within-group pair-wise analysis. Quantification of transport to structures connected to injection sites via axonal fiber tracts was also performed. Histology confirmed consistent placement of hippocampal injections and no observable difference in glial-response to the injections. APP-/- mice had significantly reduced transport from the hippocampus to the septal nuclei and amygdala after 7h and reduced transport to the contralateral hippocampus after 25 h; axonal transport deficits in the APP-/- animals were also identified in the visual pathway. These data support a system-wide role for APP in axonal transport within the central nervous system and demonstrate the power of MEMRI for assessing neuronal circuitry involved in memory and learning.

  17. A mutagenic study identifying critical residues for the structure and function of rice manganese transporter OsMTP8.1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiyu; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) MTP8.1 (OsMTP8.1) is a tonoplast-localized manganese transporter of the cation diffusion facilitator family. Here we present a structure-function analysis of OsMTP8.1 based on the site-directed and random mutagenesis and complementation assays in manganese hypersensitive yeast, in combination with three-dimensional (3D) structure modeling based on the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli CDF family member, EcYiiP. Two metal-binding sites are conserved in OsMTP8.1 with EcYiiP, one is between transmembrane helices TM2 and TM5, the other is the cytoplasmic C-terminus. In addition to these two metal-binding sites, there may exist other Mn-binding sites such as that at the very end of the CTD. Two residues (R167 and L296) may play an important role for the hinge-like movement of CTDs. Several mutations such as E357A and V374D may affect dimer formation, and S132A may induce a conformational change, resulting in a loss of transport function or modification in metal selectivity. The N-terminus of OsMTP8.1 was not functional for Mn transport activity, and the real function of NTD remains to be investigated in the future. The findings of the present study illustrate the structure-function relationship of OsMTP8.1 in Mn transport activity, which may also be applied to other plant Mn-CDF proteins. PMID:27555514

  18. Manganese uptake and streptococcal virulence.

    PubMed

    Eijkelkamp, Bart A; McDevitt, Christopher A; Kitten, Todd

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcal solute-binding proteins (SBPs) associated with ATP-binding cassette transporters gained widespread attention first as ostensible adhesins, next as virulence determinants, and finally as metal ion transporters. In this mini-review, we will examine our current understanding of the cellular roles of these proteins, their contribution to metal ion homeostasis, and their crucial involvement in mediating streptococcal virulence. There are now more than 35 studies that have collected structural, biochemical and/or physiological data on the functions of SBPs across a broad range of bacteria. This offers a wealth of data to clarify the formerly puzzling and contentious findings regarding the metal specificity amongst this group of essential bacterial transporters. In particular we will focus on recent findings related to biological roles for manganese in streptococci. These advances will inform efforts aimed at exploiting the importance of manganese and manganese acquisition for the design of new approaches to combat serious streptococcal diseases.

  19. Relative contribution of CTR1 and DMT1 in copper transport by the blood–CSF barrier: Implication in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Jingyuan; Zheng, Wei

    2012-05-01

    The homeostasis of copper (Cu) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is partially regulated by the Cu transporter-1 (CTR1) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) at the blood–CSF barrier (BCB) in the choroid plexus. Data from human and animal studies suggest an increased Cu concentration in blood, CSF, and brains following in vivo manganese (Mn) exposure. This study was designed to investigate the relative role of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport under normal or Mn-exposed conditions using an immortalized choroidal Z310 cell line. Mn exposure in vitro resulted in an increased cellular {sup 64}Cu uptake and the up-regulation of both CTR1 and DMT1. Knocking down CTR1 by siRNA counteracted the Mn-induced increase of {sup 64}Cu uptake, while knocking down DMT1 siRNA resulted in an increased cellular {sup 64}Cu uptake in Mn-exposed cells. To distinguish the roles of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport, the Z310 cell-based tetracycline (Tet)-inducible CTR1 and DMT1 expression cell lines were developed, namely iZCTR1 and iZDMT1 cells, respectively. In iZCTR1 cells, Tet induction led to a robust increase (25 fold) of {sup 64}Cu uptake with the time course corresponding to the increased CTR1. Induction of DMT1 by Tet in iZDMT1 cells, however, resulted in only a slight increase of {sup 64}Cu uptake in contrast to a substantial increase in DMT1 mRNA and protein expression. These data indicate that CTR1, but not DMT1, plays an essential role in transporting Cu by the BCB in the choroid plexus. Mn-induced cellular overload of Cu at the BCB is due, primarily, to Mn-induced over-expression of CTR1. -- Highlights: ► This study compares the relative role of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport by the BCB. ► Two novel tetracycline-inducible CTR1 and DMT1 expression cell lines are created. ► CTR1, but not DMT1, plays an essential role in transporting Cu by the BCB. ► Mn-induced cellular Cu overload is due to its induction of CTR1 rather than DMT1. ► Induction of CTR1 by Mn in the BCB

  20. Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Eker, Selim; Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Erenoglu, Bulent; Romheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2006-12-27

    Evidence clearly shows that cationic micronutrients in spray solutions reduce the herbicidal effectiveness of glyphosate for weed control due to the formation of metal-glyphosate complexes. The formation of these glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissue may also impair micronutrient nutrition of nontarget plants when exposed to glyphosate drift or glyphosate residues in soil. In the present study, the effects of simulated glyphosate drift on plant growth and uptake, translocation, and accumulation (tissue concentration) of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown in nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. Glyphosate was sprayed on plant shoots at different rates between 1.25 and 6.0% of the recommended dosage (i.e., 0.39 and 1.89 mM glyphosate isopropylamine salt). Glyphosate applications significantly decreased root and shoot dry matter production and chlorophyll concentrations of young leaves and shoot tips. The basal parts of the youngest leaves and shoot tips were severely chlorotic. These effects became apparent within 48 h after the glyphosate spray. Glyphosate also caused substantial decreases in leaf concentration of Fe and Mn while the concentration of Zn and Cu was less affected. In short-term uptake experiments with radiolabeled Fe (59Fe), Mn (54Mn), and Zn (65Zn), root uptake of 59Fe and 54Mn was significantly reduced in 12 and 24 h after application of 6% of the recommended dosage of glyphosate, respectively. Glyphosate resulted in almost complete inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of 59Fe within 12 h and 54Mn within 24 h after application. These results suggest that glyphosate residues or drift may result in severe impairments in Fe and Mn nutrition of nontarget plants, possibly due to the formation of poorly soluble glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissues and/or rhizosphere interactions.

  1. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Fig. 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published...

  2. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect. PMID:24367764

  3. The role of transition metal transporters for iron, zinc, manganese, and copper in the pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Robert D; Bobrov, Alexander G; Fetherston, Jacqueline D

    2015-06-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic plague, encodes a multitude of Fe transport systems. Some of these are defective due to frameshift or IS element insertions, while others are functional in vitro but have no established role in causing infections. Indeed only 3 Fe transporters (Ybt, Yfe and Feo) have been shown to be important in at least one form of plague. The yersiniabactin (Ybt) system is essential in the early dermal/lymphatic stages of bubonic plague, irrelevant in the septicemic stage, and critical in pneumonic plague. Two Mn transporters have been characterized (Yfe and MntH). These two systems play a role in bubonic plague but the double yfe mntH mutant is fully virulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. The same in vivo phenotype occurs with a mutant lacking two (Yfe and Feo) of four ferrous transporters. A role for the Ybt siderophore in Zn acquisition has been revealed. Ybt-dependent Zn acquisition uses a transport system completely independent of the Fe-Ybt uptake system. Together Ybt components and ZnuABC play a critical role in Zn acquisition in vivo. Single mutants in either system retain high virulence in a mouse model of septicemic plague while the double mutant is completely avirulent.

  4. The Role of Transition Metal Transporters for Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Robert D.; Bobrov, Alexander G.; Fetherston, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic plague, encodes a multitude of Fe transport systems. Some of these are defective due to frameshift or IS element insertions, while others are functional in vitro but have no established role in causing infections. Indeed only 3 Fe transporters (Ybt, Yfe and Feo) have been shown to be important in at least one form of plague. The yersiniabactin (Ybt) system is essential in the early dermal/lymphatic stages of bubonic plague, irrelevant in the septicemic stage, and critical in pneumonic plague. Two Mn transporters have been characterized (Yfe and MntH). These two systems play a role in bubonic plague but the double yfe mntH mutant is fully virulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. The same in vivo phenotype occurs with a mutant lacking two (Yfe and Feo) of four ferrous transporters. A role for the Ybt siderophore in Zn acquisition has been revealed. Ybt-dependent Zn acquisition uses a transport system completely independent of the Fe-Ybt uptake system. Together Ybt components and ZnuABC play a critical role in Zn acquisition in vivo. Single mutants in either system retain high virulence in a mouse model of septicemic plague while the double mutant is completely avirulent. PMID:25891079

  5. Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Cerebellar Atrophy Syndrome Caused by Mutation of the Manganese and Zinc Transporter Gene SLC39A8.

    PubMed

    Boycott, Kym M; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Kernohan, Kristin D; Gebril, Ola H; Mhanni, Aziz; Chudley, Albert E; Redl, David; Qin, Wen; Hampson, Sarah; Küry, Sébastien; Tetreault, Martine; Puffenberger, Erik G; Scott, James N; Bezieau, Stéphane; Reis, André; Uebe, Steffen; Schumacher, Johannes; Hegele, Robert A; McLeod, D Ross; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Majewski, Jacek; Ramaekers, Vincent T; Nebert, Daniel W; Innes, A Micheil; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2015-12-03

    Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are essential divalent cations used by cells as protein cofactors; various human studies and animal models have demonstrated the importance of Mn and Zn for development. Here we describe an autosomal-recessive disorder in six individuals from the Hutterite community and in an unrelated Egyptian sibpair; the disorder is characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, strabismus, cerebellar atrophy, and variable short stature. Exome sequencing in one affected Hutterite individual and the Egyptian family identified the same homozygous variant, c.112G>C (p.Gly38Arg), affecting a conserved residue of SLC39A8. The affected Hutterite and Egyptian individuals did not share an extended common haplotype, suggesting that the mutation arose independently. SLC39A8 is a member of the solute carrier gene family known to import Mn, Zn, and other divalent cations across the plasma membrane. Evaluation of these two metal ions in the affected individuals revealed variably low levels of Mn and Zn in blood and elevated levels in urine, indicating renal wasting. Our findings identify a human Mn and Zn transporter deficiency syndrome linked to SLC39A8, providing insight into the roles of Mn and Zn homeostasis in human health and development.

  6. The effects of manganese (II) but not nickel (II) ions on Enterococcus hirae cell growth, redox potential decrease, and proton-coupled membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae grow well under anaerobic conditions by fermenting glucose, accompanied with the decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) from positive values to negative ones. It was shown that heavy metals-copper and iron ions-affect E. hirae growth and alter Eh and proton-potassium ions fluxes through the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of manganese (II) ions on bacterial growth within the concentration range of 0.01-1 mM and compare with nickel (II) ions' effect. The presence of Mn(2+) during E. hirae ATCC9790 growth had significant effects: The lag phase duration decreased while the specific growth rate was increased; decrease in E h was shifted. In contrast, no visible changes in bacterial growth and Eh were observed in the case of Ni(2+). The effects of these ions on proton-potassium ions fluxes through the cell membrane were estimated in the presence and absence of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), inhibitor of the FoF1 ATPase. Stronger effect of Mn(2+) on H(+)-K(+) exchange was detected in the presence of DCCD that can be explained by a possible complex formation between these substances and its direct influence on membrane transport proteins.

  7. Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Cerebellar Atrophy Syndrome Caused by Mutation of the Manganese and Zinc Transporter Gene SLC39A8

    PubMed Central

    Boycott, Kym M.; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Kernohan, Kristin D.; Gebril, Ola H.; Mhanni, Aziz; Chudley, Albert E.; Redl, David; Qin, Wen; Hampson, Sarah; Küry, Sébastien; Tetreault, Martine; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Scott, James N.; Bezieau, Stéphane; Reis, André; Uebe, Steffen; Schumacher, Johannes; Hegele, Robert A.; McLeod, D. Ross; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Majewski, Jacek; Ramaekers, Vincent T.; Nebert, Daniel W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are essential divalent cations used by cells as protein cofactors; various human studies and animal models have demonstrated the importance of Mn and Zn for development. Here we describe an autosomal-recessive disorder in six individuals from the Hutterite community and in an unrelated Egyptian sibpair; the disorder is characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, strabismus, cerebellar atrophy, and variable short stature. Exome sequencing in one affected Hutterite individual and the Egyptian family identified the same homozygous variant, c.112G>C (p.Gly38Arg), affecting a conserved residue of SLC39A8. The affected Hutterite and Egyptian individuals did not share an extended common haplotype, suggesting that the mutation arose independently. SLC39A8 is a member of the solute carrier gene family known to import Mn, Zn, and other divalent cations across the plasma membrane. Evaluation of these two metal ions in the affected individuals revealed variably low levels of Mn and Zn in blood and elevated levels in urine, indicating renal wasting. Our findings identify a human Mn and Zn transporter deficiency syndrome linked to SLC39A8, providing insight into the roles of Mn and Zn homeostasis in human health and development. PMID:26637978

  8. SLC30A10 is a cell surface-localized manganese efflux transporter, and parkinsonism-causing mutations block its intracellular trafficking and efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Chen, Pan; Zogzas, Charles E; Hutchens, Steven; Mercado, Jonathan M; Swaim, Caleb D; Morrisett, Richard A; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra

    2014-10-15

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal, but elevated cellular levels are toxic and may lead to the development of an irreversible parkinsonian-like syndrome that has no treatment. Mn-induced parkinsonism generally occurs as a result of exposure to elevated Mn levels in occupational or environmental settings. Additionally, patients with compromised liver function attributable to diseases, such as cirrhosis, fail to excrete Mn and may develop Mn-induced parkinsonism in the absence of exposure to elevated Mn. Recently, a new form of familial parkinsonism was reported to occur as a result of mutations in SLC30A10. The cellular function of SLC30A10 and the mechanisms by which mutations in this protein cause parkinsonism are unclear. Here, using a combination of mechanistic and functional studies in cell culture, Caenorhabditis elegans, and primary midbrain neurons, we show that SLC30A10 is a cell surface-localized Mn efflux transporter that reduces cellular Mn levels and protects against Mn-induced toxicity. Importantly, mutations in SLC30A10 that cause familial parkinsonism blocked the ability of the transporter to traffic to the cell surface and to mediate Mn efflux. Although expression of disease-causing SLC30A10 mutations were not deleterious by themselves, neurons and worms expressing these mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Mn toxicity. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in the onset of a familial form of parkinsonism and highlight the possibility of using enhanced Mn efflux as a therapeutic strategy for the potential management of Mn-induced parkinsonism, including that occurring as a result of mutations in SLC30A10.

  9. SLC30A10 Is a Cell Surface-Localized Manganese Efflux Transporter, and Parkinsonism-Causing Mutations Block Its Intracellular Trafficking and Efflux Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Chen, Pan; Zogzas, Charles E.; Hutchens, Steven; Mercado, Jonathan M.; Swaim, Caleb D.; Morrisett, Richard A.; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal, but elevated cellular levels are toxic and may lead to the development of an irreversible parkinsonian-like syndrome that has no treatment. Mn-induced parkinsonism generally occurs as a result of exposure to elevated Mn levels in occupational or environmental settings. Additionally, patients with compromised liver function attributable to diseases, such as cirrhosis, fail to excrete Mn and may develop Mn-induced parkinsonism in the absence of exposure to elevated Mn. Recently, a new form of familial parkinsonism was reported to occur as a result of mutations in SLC30A10. The cellular function of SLC30A10 and the mechanisms by which mutations in this protein cause parkinsonism are unclear. Here, using a combination of mechanistic and functional studies in cell culture, Caenorhabditis elegans, and primary midbrain neurons, we show that SLC30A10 is a cell surface-localized Mn efflux transporter that reduces cellular Mn levels and protects against Mn-induced toxicity. Importantly, mutations in SLC30A10 that cause familial parkinsonism blocked the ability of the transporter to traffic to the cell surface and to mediate Mn efflux. Although expression of disease-causing SLC30A10 mutations were not deleterious by themselves, neurons and worms expressing these mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Mn toxicity. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in the onset of a familial form of parkinsonism and highlight the possibility of using enhanced Mn efflux as a therapeutic strategy for the potential management of Mn-induced parkinsonism, including that occurring as a result of mutations in SLC30A10. PMID:25319704

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from electrolytic manganese residue.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-10-01

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) is a solid waste found in filters after sulphuric acid leaching of manganese carbonate ore, which mainly contains manganese and ammonia nitrogen and seriously damages the ecological environment. This work demonstrated the use of electrokinetic (EK) remediation to remove ammonia nitrogen and manganese from EMR. The transport behavior of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from EMR during electrokinetics, Mn fractionation before and after EK treatment, the relationship between Mn fractionation and transport behavior, as well as the effects of electrolyte and pretreatment solutions on removal efficiency and energy consumption were investigated. The results indicated that the use of H2SO4 and Na2SO4 as electrolytes and pretreatment of EMR with citric acid and KCl can reduce energy consumption, and the removal efficiencies of manganese and ammonia nitrogen were 27.5 and 94.1 %, respectively. In these systems, electromigration and electroosmosis were the main mechanisms of manganese and ammonia nitrogen transport. Moreover, ammonia nitrogen in EMR reached the regulated level, and the concentration of manganese in EMR could be reduced from 455 to 37 mg/L. In general, the electrokinetic remediation of EMR is a promising technology in the future.

  11. The HvNramp5 Transporter Mediates Uptake of Cadmium and Manganese, But Not Iron1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dezhi; Yamaji, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Kashino-Fujii, Miho

    2016-01-01

    The Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Nramp) represents a transporter family for metal ions in all organisms. Here, we functionally characterized a member of Nramp family in barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvNramp5. This member showed different expression patterns, transport substrate specificity, and cellular localization from its close homolog in rice (Oryza sativa), OsNramp5, although HvNramp5 was also localized to the plasma membrane. HvNramp5 was mainly expressed in the roots and its expression was not affected by Cd and deficiency of Zn, Cu, and Mn, but slightly up-regulated by Fe deficiency. Spatial expression analysis showed that the expression of HvNramp5 was higher in the root tips than that in the basal root regions. Furthermore, analysis with laser microdissection revealed higher expression of HvNramp5 in the outer root cell layers. HvNramp5 showed transport activity for both Mn2+ and Cd2+, but not for Fe2+ when expressed in yeast. Immunostaining with a HvNramp5 antibody showed that this protein was localized in the root epidermal cells without polarity. Knockdown of HvNramp5 in barley resulted in a significant reduction in the seedling growth at low Mn supply, but this reduction was rescued at high Mn supply. The concentration of Mn and Cd, but not other metals including Cu, Zn, and Fe, was decreased in both the roots and shoots of knockdown lines compared with the wild-type barley. These results indicate that HvNramp5 is a transporter required for uptake of Mn and Cd, but not for Fe, and that barley has a distinct uptake system from rice. PMID:27621428

  12. EfaR Is a Major Regulator of Enterococcus faecalis Manganese Transporters and Influences Processes Involved in Host Colonization and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, M. C.; Lopes, M. de F.

    2013-01-01

    Metal ions, in particular manganese, are important modulators of bacterial pathogenicity. However, little is known about the role of manganese-dependent proteins in the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, a major cause of bacterial endocarditis. The present study demonstrates that the DtxR/MntR family metalloregulator EfaR of E. faecalis controls the expression of several of its regulon members in a manganese-dependent way. We also show that efaR inactivation impairs the ability of E. faecalis to form biofilms, to survive inside macrophages, and to tolerate oxidative stress. Our results reveal that EfaR is an important modulator of E. faecalis virulence and link manganese homeostasis to enterococcal pathogenicity. PMID:23297382

  13. Control of bacterial iron homeostasis by manganese

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sumant; Hohle, Thomas H.; O'Brian, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Perception and response to nutritional iron availability by bacteria are essential to control cellular iron homeostasis. The Irr protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum senses iron through the status of heme biosynthesis to globally regulate iron-dependent gene expression. Heme binds directly to Irr to trigger its degradation. Here, we show that severe manganese limitation created by growth of a Mn2+ transport mutant in manganese-limited media resulted in a cellular iron deficiency. In wild-type cells, Irr levels were attenuated under manganese limitation, resulting in reduced promoter occupancy of target genes and altered iron-dependent gene expression. Irr levels were high regardless of manganese availability in a heme-deficient mutant, indicating that manganese normally affects heme-dependent degradation of Irr. Manganese altered the secondary structure of Irr in vitro and inhibited binding of heme to the protein. We propose that manganese limitation destabilizes Irr under low-iron conditions by lowering the threshold of heme that can trigger Irr degradation. The findings implicate a mechanism for the control of iron homeostasis by manganese in a bacterium. PMID:20498065

  14. Nramp5 Is a Major Transporter Responsible for Manganese and Cadmium Uptake in Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Akimasa; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Ma, Jian Feng

    2012-01-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa) is able to accumulate high concentrations of Mn without showing toxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mn uptake are unknown. Here, we report that a member of the Nramp (for the Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) family, Nramp5, is involved in Mn uptake and subsequently the accumulation of high concentrations of Mn in rice. Nramp5 was constitutively expressed in the roots and encodes a plasma membrane–localized protein. Nramp5 was polarly localized at the distal side of both exodermis and endodermis cells. Knockout of Nramp5 resulted in a significant reduction in growth and grain yield, especially when grown at low Mn concentrations. This growth reduction could be partially rescued by supplying high concentrations of Mn but not by the addition of Fe. Mineral analysis showed that the concentration of Mn and Cd in both the roots and shoots was lower in the knockout line than in wild-type rice. A short-term uptake experiment revealed that the knockout line lost the ability to take up Mn and Cd. Taken together, Nramp5 is a major transporter of Mn and Cd and is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from the external solution to root cells. PMID:22589467

  15. Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport.

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Marius; Hoexum Brouwer, Thea; Grater, Walter; Brown-Peterson, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab. PMID:12769817

  16. Cucumber metal transport protein MTP8 confers increased tolerance to manganese when expressed in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Maciaszczyk-Dziubińska, Ewa; Poździk, Piotr; Posyniak, Ewelina; Garbiec, Arnold; Filleur, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are ubiquitous divalent cation transporters that have been proved to be essential for metal homeostasis and tolerance in Archaebacteria, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. In plants, CDFs are designated as metal tolerance proteins (MTPs). Due to the lack of genomic resources, studies on MTPs in other plants, including cultivated crops, are lacking. Here, the identification and organization of genes encoding members of the MTP family in cucumber are described. The first functional characterization of a cucumber gene encoding a member of the Mn-CDF subgroup of CDF proteins, designated as CsMTP8 based on the highest homology to plant MTP8, is also presented. The expression of CsMTP8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased Mn accumulation in yeast cells and fully restored the growth of mutants hypersensitive to Mn in Mn excess. Similarly, the overexpression of CsMTP8 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant tolerance to high Mn in nutrition media as well as the accumulation of Mn in plant tissues. When fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), CsMTP8 localized to the vacuolar membranes in yeast cells and to Arabidopsis protoplasts. In cucumber, CsMTP8 was expressed almost exclusively in roots, and the level of gene transcript was markedly up-regulated or reduced under elevated Mn or Mn deficiency, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that CsMTP8 is an Mn transporter localized in the vacuolar membrane, which participates in the maintenance of Mn homeostasis in cucumber root cells. PMID:25039075

  17. Cucumber metal transport protein MTP8 confers increased tolerance to manganese when expressed in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Maciaszczyk-Dziubińska, Ewa; Poździk, Piotr; Posyniak, Ewelina; Garbiec, Arnold; Filleur, Sophie

    2014-10-01

    Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are ubiquitous divalent cation transporters that have been proved to be essential for metal homeostasis and tolerance in Archaebacteria, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. In plants, CDFs are designated as metal tolerance proteins (MTPs). Due to the lack of genomic resources, studies on MTPs in other plants, including cultivated crops, are lacking. Here, the identification and organization of genes encoding members of the MTP family in cucumber are described. The first functional characterization of a cucumber gene encoding a member of the Mn-CDF subgroup of CDF proteins, designated as CsMTP8 based on the highest homology to plant MTP8, is also presented. The expression of CsMTP8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased Mn accumulation in yeast cells and fully restored the growth of mutants hypersensitive to Mn in Mn excess. Similarly, the overexpression of CsMTP8 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant tolerance to high Mn in nutrition media as well as the accumulation of Mn in plant tissues. When fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), CsMTP8 localized to the vacuolar membranes in yeast cells and to Arabidopsis protoplasts. In cucumber, CsMTP8 was expressed almost exclusively in roots, and the level of gene transcript was markedly up-regulated or reduced under elevated Mn or Mn deficiency, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that CsMTP8 is an Mn transporter localized in the vacuolar membrane, which participates in the maintenance of Mn homeostasis in cucumber root cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cross-sectional study of expression of divalent metal transporter-1, transferrin, and hepcidin in blood of smelters who are occupationally exposed to manganese

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Yu, Changyin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is widely used in industries including the manufacture of Mn-iron (Fe) alloy. Occupational Mn overexposure causes manganism. Mn is known to affect Fe metabolism; this study was designed to test the hypothesis that workers exposed to Mn may have an altered expression of mRNAs encoding proteins in Fe metabolism. Methods Workers occupationally exposed to Mn (n = 71) from a Mn–Fe alloy factory and control workers without Mn-exposure (n = 48) from a pig-iron plant from Zunyi, China, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected into Trizol-containing tubes. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Metal concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Working environment and genetic background of both groups were similar except for marked differences in airborne Mn concentrations (0.18 mg/m3 in Mn–Fe alloy factory vs. 0.0022 mg/m3 in pig-Fe plant), and in blood Mn levels (34.3 µg/L vs. 10.4 µg/L). Mn exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf) and hepcidin by 58.2%, 68.5% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to controls, while the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) was unaltered. Linear regression analysis revealed that expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin were inversely correlated with the accumulative Mn exposure; the correlation coefficients (r) are −0.47, −0.54, and −0.49, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion The data suggest that occupational Mn exposure causes decreased expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin in blood cells; the finding will help understand the mechanism underlying Mn exposure-associated alteration in Fe homeostasis among workers. PMID:27635361

  19. Three-Dimensional Structure and Biophysical Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Surface Antigen-Manganese Transporter MntC

    SciTech Connect

    Gribenko, Alexey; Mosyak, Lidia; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Parris, Kevin; Svenson, Kristine; Moran, Justin; Chu, Ling; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Green, Bruce A.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Matsuka, Yury V.

    2013-08-23

    MntC is a metal-binding protein component of the Mn2 +-specific mntABC transporter from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The protein is expressed during the early stages of infection and was proven to be effective at reducing both S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in a murine animal model when used as a vaccine antigen. MntC is currently being tested in human clinical trials as a component of a multiantigen vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus infections. To better understand the biological function of MntC, we are providing structural and biophysical characterization of the protein in this work. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å resolution and suggests two potential metal binding modes, which may lead to reversible as well as irreversible metal binding. Precise Mn2 +-binding affinity of the protein was determined from the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments using a competition approach. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments confirmed that divalent metals can indeed bind to MntC reversibly as well as irreversibly. Finally, Mn2 +-induced structural and dynamics changes have been characterized using spectroscopic methods and deuterium–hydrogen exchange mass spectroscopy. Results of the experiments show that these changes are minimal and are largely restricted to the structural elements involved in metal coordination. Therefore, it is unlikely that antibody binding to this antigen will be affected by the occupancy of the metal-binding site by Mn2 +.

  20. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published in the journal Economic Geology (Mero, 1962) and later as a book (Mero, 1965). By the mid-1970s, large consortia had formed to search for and mine Mn nodules that occur between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (CCZ) in the NE Pacific (Figure 2). This is still the area considered of greatest economic potential in the global ocean because of high nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and Mn contents and the dense distribution of nodules in the area. While the mining of nodules was fully expected to begin in the late 1970s or early 1980s, this never occurred due to a downturn in the price of metals on the global market. Since then, many research cruises have been undertaken to study the CCZ nodules, and now 15 contracts for exploration sites have been given or are pending by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Many books and science journal articles have been published summarizing the early work (e.g., Baturin, 1988; Halbach et al., 1988), and research has continued to the present day (e.g., ISA, 1999; ISA, 2010). Although the initial attraction for nodules was their high Ni, Cu, and Mn contents, subsequent work has shown that nodules host large quantities of other critical metals needed for high-tech, green-tech, and energy applications (Hein et al., 2013; Hein and Koschinsky, 2014).

  1. Chronic manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

  2. Competition for Manganese at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, J L; Kehl-Fie, T E

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as manganese are essential nutrients for both pathogen and host. Vertebrates exploit this necessity to combat invading microbes by restricting access to these critical nutrients, a defense known as nutritional immunity. During infection, the host uses several mechanisms to impose manganese limitation. These include removal of manganese from the phagolysosome, sequestration of extracellular manganese, and utilization of other metals to prevent bacterial acquisition of manganese. In order to cause disease, pathogens employ a variety of mechanisms that enable them to adapt to and counter nutritional immunity. These adaptations include, but are likely not limited to, manganese-sensing regulators and high-affinity manganese transporters. Even though successful pathogens can overcome host-imposed manganese starvation, this defense inhibits manganese-dependent processes, reducing the ability of these microbes to cause disease. While the full impact of host-imposed manganese starvation on bacteria is unknown, critical bacterial virulence factors such as superoxide dismutases are inhibited. This chapter will review the factors involved in the competition for manganese at the host-pathogen interface and discuss the impact that limiting the availability of this metal has on invading bacteria.

  3. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Lee, Eunsook; Paoliello, Monica M B; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal that is naturally found in the environment. Daily intake through dietary sources provides the necessary amount required for several key physiological processes, including antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, immune function and others. However, overexposure from environmental sources can result in a condition known as manganism that features symptomatology similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). This disorder presents with debilitating motor and cognitive deficits that arise from a neurodegenerative process. In order to maintain a balance between its essentiality and neurotoxicity, several mechanisms exist to properly buffer cellular Mn levels. These include transporters involved in Mn uptake, and newly discovered Mn efflux mechanisms. This review will focus on current studies related to mechanisms underlying Mn import and export, primarily the Mn transporters, and their function and roles in Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Though and essential metal, overexposure to manganese may result in neurodegenerative disease analogous to Parkinson's disease. Manganese homeostasis is tightly regulated by transporters, including transmembrane importers (divalent metal transporter 1, transferrin and its receptor, zinc transporters ZIP8 and Zip14, dopamine transporter, calcium channels, choline transporters and citrate transporters) and exporters (ferroportin and SLC30A10), as well as the intracellular trafficking proteins (SPCA1 and ATP12A2). A manganese-specific sensor, GPP130, has been identified, which affords means for monitoring intracellular levels of this metal.

  4. Manganese Oxidation State Assignment for Manganese Catalase.

    PubMed

    Beal, Nathan J; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2016-04-06

    The oxidation state assignment of the manganese ions present in the superoxidized manganese (III/IV) catalase active site is determined by comparing experimental and broken symmetry density functional theory calculated (14)N, (17)O, and (1)H hyperfine couplings. Experimental results have been interpreted to indicate that the substrate water is coordinated to the Mn(III) ion. However, by calculating hyperfine couplings for both scenarios we show that water is coordinated to the Mn(IV) ion and that the assigned oxidation states of the two manganese ions present in the site are the opposite of that previously proposed based on experimental measurements alone.

  5. Manganese and the brain.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, Karin; Mills, Philippa B; Clayton, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that is pivotal for normal cell function and metabolism. Its homeostasis is tightly regulated; however, the mechanisms of Mn homeostasis are poorly characterized. While a number of proteins such as the divalent metal transporter 1, the transferrin/transferrin receptor complex, the ZIP family metal transporters ZIP-8 and ZIP-14, the secretory pathway calcium ATPases SPCA1 and SPCA2, ATP13A2, and ferroportin have been suggested to play a role in Mn transport, the degree that each of them contributes to Mn homeostasis has still to be determined. The recent discovery of SLC30A10 as a crucial Mn transporter in humans has shed further light on our understanding of Mn transport across the cell. Although essential, Mn is toxic at high concentrations. Mn neurotoxicity has been attributed to impaired dopaminergic (DAergic), glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. As a result of preferential accumulation of Mn in the DAergic cells of the basal ganglia, particularly the globus pallidus, Mn toxicity causes extrapyramidal motor dysfunction. Firstly described as "manganism" in miners during the nineteenth century, this movement disorder resembles Parkinson's disease characterized by hypokinesia and postural instability. To date, a variety of acquired causes of brain Mn accumulation can be distinguished from an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of Mn metabolism caused by mutations in the SLC30A10 gene. Both, acquired and inherited hypermanganesemia, lead to Mn deposition in the basal ganglia associated with pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging appearances of hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted images. Current treatment strategies for Mn toxicity combine chelation therapy to reduce the body Mn load and iron (Fe) supplementation to reduce Mn binding to proteins that interact with both Mn and Fe. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of Mn

  6. Indium antimonide doped with manganese grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-05-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for infrared detecting and emitting devices and for magnetic field sensors. In this study, indium antimonide doped with manganese and grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to show that the incorporation of managenese is near unity over a wide range of manganese concentrations. Manganese is observed to be an acceptor with a dopant efficiency which follows a power law in which the hole density is proportional to the manganese concentration raised to the power α. The power α depends on the growth temperature; at 300°C, α = 0.86 and at 360°C, α = 0.78. Lightly manganese doped samples have transport dominated by electrons at low temperatures due to hole freeze out, followed by holes at intermediate temperatures and finally by intrinsic electrons at high temperatures. Additional SIMS studies showed that manganese diffuses relatively slowly in indium antimonide.

  7. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  8. Effects of manganese deficiency and added cerium on nitrogen metabolism of maize.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaolan; Qu, Chunxiang; Liu, Chao; Hong, Mengmeng; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2011-12-01

    Manganese is one of the essential microelements for plant growth, and cerium is a beneficial element for plant growth. However, whether manganese deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism of plants and cerium improves the nitrogen metabolism of plants by exposure to manganese-deficient media are still unclear. The main aim of the study was to determine the effects of manganese deficiency in nitrogen metabolism and the roles of cerium in the improvement of manganese-deficient effects in maize seedlings. Maize seedlings were cultivated in manganese present Meider's nutrient solution. They were subjected to manganese deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the manganese-present and manganese-deficient media. Maize seedlings grown in the various media were measured for key enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamic-oxaloace transaminase. We found that manganese deficiency restricted uptake and transport of NO(3)(-), inhibited activities of nitrogen-metabolism-related enzymes, such as nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamic-oxaloace transaminase, thus decreasing the synthesis of chlorophyll and soluble protein, and inhibited the growth of maize seedlings. Manganese deficiency promoted the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and reduced the toxicity of excess ammonia to the plant, while added cerium relieved the damage to nitrogen metabolism caused by manganese deficiency in maize seedlings. However, cerium addition exerted positively to relieve the damage of nitrogen metabolism process in maize seedlings caused by exposure to manganese-deficient media.

  9. O-atom transport catalysis by neutral manganese oxide clusters in the gas phase: Reactions with CO, C2H4, NO2, and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shi; Wang, Zhechen; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2013-08-01

    Reactions of CO, C2H4, NO2, and O2 with neutral MnmOn clusters in a fast flow reactor are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Single photon ionization at 118 nm is used to detect neutral cluster distributions through time of flight mass spectrometry. MnmOn clusters are generated through laser ablation of a manganese target in the presence of 5% O2/He carrier gas. A strong size dependent reactivity of MnmOn clusters is characterized. Reactions Mn2O5/Mn3O7 + CO → Mn2O4/Mn3O6 + CO2 are found for CO oxidation by MnmOn clusters, while only association products Mn2O3-5C2H4 and Mn3O5-7C2H4 are observed for reactions of C2H4 with small MnmOn clusters. Reactions of MnmOn clusters with NO2 and O2 are also investigated, and the small Mn2On clusters are easily oxidized by NO2. This activation suggests that a catalytic cycle can be generated for the Mn2O5 cluster: Mn2O5 + CO + NO2 → Mn2O4 + CO2 + NO2 → Mn2O5 + CO2 + NO. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the potential energy surfaces for the reactions Mn2O4,5/Mn3O7 + CO → Mn2O3,4/Mn3O6 + CO2, Mn2O5 + C2H4 → Mn2O4 + CH3CHO, and Mn2O4 + NO2 → Mn2O5 + NO. Barrierless and thermodynamically favorable pathways are obtained for Mn2O5/Mn3O7 + CO and Mn2O4 + NO2 reactions. A catalytic cycle for CO oxidation by NO2 over a manganese oxide surface is proposed based on our experimental and theoretical investigations. The various atom related reaction mechanisms explored by DFT are in good agreement with the experimental results. Condensed phase manganese oxide is suggested to be a good catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation by NO2, especially for an oxygen rich sample.

  10. Mutations in SLC39A14 disrupt manganese homeostasis and cause childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Tuschl, Karin; Meyer, Esther; Valdivia, Leonardo E.; Zhao, Ningning; Dadswell, Chris; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Hung, Christina Y.; Simpson, Michael A.; Chong, W. K.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Woltjer, Randy L.; Eaton, Simon; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Kara, Eleanna; Houlden, Henry; Cuno, Stephan M.; Prokisch, Holger; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria; Younis, Rasha; Maher, Eamonn R.; Spencer, John; Straatman-Iwanowska, Ania; Gissen, Paul; Selim, Laila A. M.; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Coroleu-Lletget, Wifredo; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Dale, Russell C.; Thomas, Maya; Rihel, Jason; Bodamer, Olaf A.; Enns, Caroline A.; Hayflick, Susan J.; Clayton, Peter T.; Mills, Philippa B.; Kurian, Manju A.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese is an essential trace metal, little is known about its transport and homeostatic regulation. Here we have identified a cohort of patients with a novel autosomal recessive manganese transporter defect caused by mutations in SLC39A14. Excessive accumulation of manganese in these patients results in rapidly progressive childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia with distinctive brain magnetic resonance imaging appearances and neurodegenerative features on post-mortem examination. We show that mutations in SLC39A14 impair manganese transport in vitro and lead to manganese dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity in zebrafish with CRISPR-induced slc39a14 null mutations. Chelation with disodium calcium edetate lowers blood manganese levels in patients and can lead to striking clinical improvement. Our results demonstrate that SLC39A14 functions as a pivotal manganese transporter in vertebrates. PMID:27231142

  11. Air Manganese Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In November 2011 US EPA researchers conducted a health study of airborne manganese exposure in East Liverpool, Ohio. This Web site discusses preliminary results of the study and provides background and other related information.

  12. [Function and disease in manganese].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    Manganese is a metal that has been known named a Greek word "Magnesia" meaning magnesia nigra from Roman Empire. Manganese provide the wide range of metablic function and the multiple abnomalities from its deficiency or toxicity. In 1931, the essentiality of manganese was demonstrated with the authoritative poor growth and declined reproduction in its deficiency. Manganese deficiency has been recognized in a number of species and its signs are impaired growth, impaired reproduction, ataxia, skeletal abnormalities and disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese toxicity is also acknowledged as health hazard for animals and humans. Here manganese nutrition, metabolism and metabolic function are summarized.

  13. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    PubMed

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  14. Conserved histidine of metal transporter AtNRAMP1 is crucial for optimal plant growth under manganese deficiency at chilling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ihnatowicz, Anna; Siwinska, Joanna; Meharg, Andrew A; Carey, Manus; Koornneef, Maarten; Reymond, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient required for plant growth, in particular in the process of photosynthesis. Plant performance is influenced by various environmental stresses including contrasting temperatures, light or nutrient deficiencies. The molecular responses of plants exposed to such stress factors in combination are largely unknown. Screening of 108 Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) accessions for reduced photosynthetic performance at chilling temperatures was performed and one accession (Hog) was isolated. Using genetic and molecular approaches, the molecular basis of this particular response to temperature (G × E interaction) was identified. Hog showed an induction of a severe leaf chlorosis and impaired growth after transfer to lower temperatures. We demonstrated that this response was dependent on the nutrient content of the soil. Genetic mapping and complementation identified NRAMP1 as the causal gene. Chlorotic phenotype was associated with a histidine to tyrosine (H239Y) substitution in the allele of Hog NRAMP1. This led to lethality when Hog seedlings were directly grown at 4°C. Chemical complementation and hydroponic culture experiments showed that Mn deficiency was the major cause of this G × E interaction. For the first time, the NRAMP-specific highly conserved histidine was shown to be crucial for plant performance. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Magnesium-dependent processes are targets of bacterial manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hohle, Thomas H.; O’Brian, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the gene encoding the high affinity Mn2+ transporter MntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation. Here, we isolated suppressor mutants of an mntH strain that grew under manganese limitation, and activities of high affinity Mn2+ transport and Mn2+-dependent enzymes were partially rescued. The suppressor strains harbor gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the Mg2+ channel MgtE. The MgtE variants likely allow Mn2+ entry via loss of a gating mechanism that normally holds the transporter in the closed state when cellular Mg2+ levels are high. Both MgtE-dependent and -independent suppressor phenotypes were recapitulated by magnesium-limited growth of the mntH strain. Growth studies of wild type cells suggest that manganese is toxic to cells when environmental magnesium is low. Moreover, extracellular manganese and magnesium levels were manipulated to inhibit growth without substantially altering the intracellular content of either metal, implying that manganese toxicity depends on its cellular distribution rather than the absolute concentration. Mg2+-dependent enzyme activities were found to be inhibited or stimulated by Mn2+. We conclude that Mn2+ can occupy Mg2+-binding sites in cells, and suggest that Mg2+-dependent processes are targets of manganese toxicity. PMID:24975873

  16. Magnesium-dependent processes are targets of bacterial manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hohle, Thomas H; O'Brian, Mark R

    2014-08-01

    A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the gene encoding the high-affinity Mn(2+) transporter MntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation. Here, we isolated suppressor mutants of an mntH strain that grew under manganese limitation, and activities of high-affinity Mn(2+) transport and Mn(2+) -dependent enzymes were partially rescued. The suppressor strains harbour gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the Mg(2+) channel MgtE. The MgtE variants likely allow Mn(2+) entry via loss of a gating mechanism that normally holds the transporter in the closed state when cellular Mg(2+) levels are high. Both MgtE-dependent and MgtE-independent suppressor phenotypes were recapitulated by magnesium-limited growth of the mntH strain. Growth studies of wild-type cells suggest that manganese is toxic to cells when environmental magnesium is low. Moreover, extracellular manganese and magnesium levels were manipulated to inhibit growth without substantially altering the intracellular content of either metal, implying that manganese toxicity depends on its cellular distribution rather than the absolute concentration. Mg(2+) -dependent enzyme activities were found to be inhibited or stimulated by Mn(2+) . We conclude that Mn(2+) can occupy Mg(2+) binding sites in cells, and suggest that Mg(2+) -dependent processes are targets of manganese toxicity.

  17. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  18. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  19. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sarić, M; Markićević, A; Hrustić, O

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

  20. Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin acts as a pro-oxidant to inhibit electron transport chain proteins, modulate bioenergetics, and enhance the response to chemotherapy in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Melba C; Briehl, Margaret M; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Tome, Margaret E

    2015-06-01

    The manganese porphyrin, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)), acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of intracellular H2O2. Mitochondria are the most prominent source of intracellular ROS and important regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the increased oxidants near and within the mitochondria, we hypothesized that the mitochondria are a target of the pro-oxidative activity of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and that we could exploit this effect to enhance the chemotherapeutic response in lymphoma. In this study, we demonstrate that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) modulates the mitochondrial redox environment and sensitizes lymphoma cells to antilymphoma chemotherapeutics. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial ROS and oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool in lymphoma cells. The combination treatment induced glutathionylation of Complexes I, III, and IV in the electron transport chain, and decreased the activity of Complexes I and III, but not the activity of Complex IV. Treatment with the porphyrin and dexamethasone also decreased cellular ATP levels. Rho(0) malignant T-cells with impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function were less sensitive to the combination treatment than wild-type cells. These findings suggest that mitochondria are important for the porphyrin's ability to enhance cell death. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) also augmented the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an antiglycolytic agent. In combination with 2DG, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased protein glutathionylation, decreased ATP levels more than 2DG treatment alone, and enhanced 2DG-induced cell death in primary B-ALL cells. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) did not enhance dexamethasone- or 2DG-induced cell death in normal cells. Our findings suggest that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) has potential as an adjuvant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  1. Manganese Research Health Project (MHRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    MRI) of Manganese Role of Manganese in Prion Disease Pathogenesis Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron - Deficiency and Supplementation...Imaging (MRI) of Manganese Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron -Deficiency and Supplementation Aschner, Michael, Ph.D. Fitsanakis, Vanessa...Aschner (2006). Determination of brain manganese and iron accumulation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. 4 2 nd

  2. Manganese biomining: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Sukla, L B; Pradhan, N; Nayak, S

    2011-08-01

    Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future.

  3. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo; Aykol, Muratahan; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Myers, Benjamin D.; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T.; Saldana, Spencer J.; Kumar, Rajan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.

  4. Roles of ZIP8, ZIP14, and DMT1 in transport of cadmium and manganese in mouse kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Hitomi; Yano, Yu; Takada, Yukina; Tanihara, Maya; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2012-07-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes preferential accumulation of cadmium in the kidney, leading to nephrotoxicity. In the process of renal cadmium accumulation, the cadmium bound to a low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein, metallothionein, has been considered to play an important role in reabsorption by epithelial cells of proximal tubules in the kidney. However, the role and mechanism of the transport of Cd(2+) ions in proximal tubule cells remain unclear. Zinc transporters such as Zrt, Irt-related protein 8 (ZIP8) and ZIP14, and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) have been reported to have affinities for Cd(2+) and Mn(2+). To examine the roles of these metal transporters in the absorption of luminal Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) into proximal tubule cells, we utilized a cell culture system, in which apical and basolateral transport of metals can be separately examined. The uptake of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) from the apical side of proximal tubule cells was inhibited by simultaneous addition of Mn(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively. The knockdown of ZIP8, ZIP14 or DMT1 by siRNA transfection significantly reduced the uptake of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) from the apical membrane. The excretion of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) was detected predominantly in the apical side of the proximal tubule cells. In situ hybridization of these transporters revealed that ZIP8 and ZIP14 are highly expressed in the proximal tubules of the outer stripe of the outer medulla. These results suggest that ZIP8 and ZIP14 expressed in the S3 segment of proximal tubules play significant roles in the absorption of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) in the kidney.

  5. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  9. Manganese reduction by microbes from oxic regions of the Lake Vanda (Antarctica) water column

    SciTech Connect

    Bratina, B.J.; Stevenson, B.S.; Schmidt, T.M.; Green, W.J.

    1998-10-01

    Depth profiles of metals in Lake Vanda, a permanently ice-covered, stratified Antarctic lake, suggest the importance of particulate manganese oxides in the scavenging, transport, and release of metals. Since manganese oxides can be solubilized by manganese-reducing bacteria, microbially mediated manganese reduction was investigated in Lake Vanda. Microbes concentrated from oxic regions of the water column, encompassing a peak of soluble manganese [Mn(II)], reduced synthetic manganese oxides (MnO{sub 2}) when incubated aerobically, Pure cultures of manganese-reducing bacteria were readily isolated from waters collected near the oxic Mn(II) peak. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, most of the isolated manganese reducers belong to the genus Carnobacterium. Cultures of a phylogenetically representative strain of Carnobacterium reduced synthetic MnO{sub 2} in the presence of sodium azide, as was seen in field assays. Unlike anaerobes that utilize manganese oxides as terminal electron acceptors in respiration, isolates of the genus Carnobacterium reduced Mn(IV) via a diffusible compound under oxic conditions. The release of adsorbed trace metals accompanying the solubilization of manganese oxides may provide populations of Carnobacterium with a source of nutrients in this extremely oligotrophic environment.

  10. Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI): neurophysiological applications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Taeko; Majid, Tabassum; Pautler, Robia G.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese ion (Mn2+) is a calcium (Ca2+) analog that can enter neurons and other excitable cells through voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Mn2+ is also a paramagnetic that shortens the spin-lattice relaxation time constant (T1) of tissues where it has accumulated, resulting in positive contrast enhancement. Mn2+ was first investigated as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent approximately 20 years ago to assess the toxicity of the metal in rats. In the late 1990s, Alan Koretsky and colleagues pioneered the use of manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) towards studying brain activity, tract tracing and enhancing anatomical detail. This review will describe the methodologies and applications of MEMRI in the following areas: monitoring brain activity in animal models, in vivo neuronal tract tracing and using MEMRI to assess in vivo axonal transport rates. PMID:22098448

  11. Tensile Strain Effects on the Magneto-transport in Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films: Comparison with its Hole-doped Counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Bridget; Neubauer, Samuel; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Ferrone, Natalie; Houston, David; Yong, Grace; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    Magnetoresistance properties of the epitaxial thin films of doped rare earth manganites are known to be influenced by the effect of bi-axial strain induced by lattice mismatch with the substrate. In hole-doped manganites, the effect of both compressive and tensile strain is qualitatively consistent with the expected changes in unit cell symmetry from cubic to tetragonal, leading to Jahn-Teller strain fields that affect the energy levels of Mn3 + energy levels. Recent work in our laboratory on CaMnO3 thin films has pointed out that tetragonal distortions introduced by tensile lattice mismatch strain may also have the effect of modulating the oxygen content of the films in agreement with theoretical models that propose such coupling between strain and oxygen content. Our research focuses on comparing the magneto-transport properties of hole-doped manganite LaCaMnO3 thin films with that of its electron doped counter parts, in an effort to delineate the effects of oxygen stoichiometry changes on magneto-transport from the effects of Jahn-Teller type strain. Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant and Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies and the NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  12. Manganese in Madison's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Thomas; Hausbeck, John; Sorsa, Kirsti

    2008-12-01

    Public concern over events of manganese-discolored drinking water and the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to excess manganese reached a high level in 2005. In response, Public Health Madison Dane County, together with the Madison Water Utility, conceived and implemented a public health/water utility strategy to quantify the extent of the manganese problem, determine the potential for adverse human health effects, and communicate these findings to the community. This strategy included five basic parts: taking an inventory of wells and their manganese levels, correlating manganese concentration with turbidity, determining the prevalence and distribution of excess manganese in Madison households, reviewing the available scientific literature, and effectively communicating our findings to the community. The year-long public health/water utility strategy successfully resolved the crisis of confidence in the safety of Madison's drinking water.

  13. Nonoccupational environmental exposure to manganese is linked to deficits in peripheral and central olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Guarneros, Marco; Ortiz-Romo, Nahum; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Drucker-Colín, René; Hudson, Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Manganese is of growing concern as a toxic air pollutant. It is readily transported from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, and unlike other metals, it is transported transynaptically to structures deep within the brain. However, little is known regarding the possible effect of nonoccupational exposure to manganese on olfactory function. Using the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, we compared the olfactory performance of subjects from a manganese mining district living <1 km from a manganese processing plant, with nonexposed subjects living 50 km from the closest source of exposure (N = 30/group). Groups were matched for age, sex, and schooling, and none had ever worked in mining-related activities. Concentrations of manganese in hair were measured as a biomarker of exposure; exposed subjects had significantly higher concentrations than nonexposed subjects. They were also significantly outperformed by the nonexposed subjects on all olfactory measures (threshold, discrimination, and identification), indicating adverse effects of manganese exposure on a range of olfactory functions, including those involving higher order cognitive processes. This contrasts with previous findings showing adverse peripheral but not central effects on olfactory function of big city air pollution, which mostly consists of toxicants known to affect the olfactory epithelium but with lower transynaptic transport capacity compared with manganese. We conclude that nonoccupational exposure to airborne manganese is associated with decrements in both peripheral and central olfactory function.

  14. The anomalous Hall effect and related transport phenomena in ferromagnetic spinel copper chromium selenium bromide, manganese-doped chalcopyrite copper gallium ditelluride, and ruthenate bismuth ruthenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Li

    One of the interesting and unsettled transport phenomena is the, so called, "anomalous Hall Effect". It generally refers to the phenomenon of a non-linear field dependence of the Hall resistivity rhoxy. An emerging idea relates to the "gauge field O" experienced by electrons. It gives rise to Berry phase accumulation. In ferromagnets, a non-vanishing O( k⃗ ) is related to the spin-orbit coupling and the time-reversal asymmetry. We show that, in the ferromagnetic spinel CuCr2Se 4-xBrx, the anomalous Hall conductivity sigma xy (normalized to per carrier, at 5K) remains unchanged with a 1000-fold increase in resistivity. From the anomalous Nernst effect, we uncover a simple relation for the off-diagonal Peltier conductivity tensor alphaxy, which is a measure of a transverse electrical current density generated per unit of applied temperature gradient. They both strongly support the anomalous-velocity theory based on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the electrons. An alternative way to procure O is from the spin-chirality effect. In the Mn-doped chalcopyrite semiconductor CuGaTe2, with a few percent doping, the orbitals of the Mn ions overlap to form an impurity band. Therefore, the electrons will accumulate Berry phase while hopping around the Mn ions that have a non-collinear magnetic ground state. We observed the enhanced and non-monotonic field dependence of rhoxy, which may be understood from the spin-chirality effect. Finally, we studied the Hall effect and thermopower in the ruthenate Bi3Ru3O 11. From the Hall effect, we observed field-tuning of electron and hole populations. We also found a large field dependence of the thermopower at low temperature. The origin of the colossal field-dependence in the thermopower is still an open question, but it is linked to the unusual electronic properties in the Bi3Ru3O11.

  15. Microtopography of manganese crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Charles L.

    Quantitative examination of the seafloor surface roughness will be necessary for any design of equipment intended for use in collecting surface deposits such as cobalt-rich manganese crusts or nodules. Furthermore, it is an essential prerequisite to the confident interpretation of returns from high frequency side-scan and other acoustic systems. The objectives of the project were to develop the capability at the University of Hawaii of generating high resolution (less than 1 cm horizontal and vertical) topographic models of the seafloor from 35 mm stereo photographs; to produce such models from existing photographs of cobalt-rich manganese crust deposits; and to optimize the configuration of the existing Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) camera system for stereo photograph collection and correlation of acoustic data with the photographic ground-truth. These tasks were accomplished and have also led to the development of a follow-on project (MMTC/OBD Project 1512) dedicated to the simultaneous acquisition of both optical and side-scan acoustic data for future accurate determination of seabed microtopography.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b) The...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate (C12H22MnO14... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b)...

  3. Effect of olfactory manganese exposure on anxiety-related behavior in a mouse model of iron overload hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-07-01

    Manganese in excess promotes unstable emotional behavior. Our previous study showed that olfactory manganese uptake into the brain is altered in Hfe(-/-) mice, a model of iron overload hemochromatosis, suggesting that Hfe deficiency could modify the neurotoxicity of airborne manganese. We determined anxiety-related behavior and monoaminergic protein expression after repeated intranasal instillation of MnCl2 to Hfe(-/-) mice. Compared with manganese-instilled wild-type mice, Hfe(-/-) mice showed decreased manganese accumulation in the cerebellum. Hfe(-/-) mice also exhibited increased anxiety with decreased exploratory activity and elevated dopamine D1 receptor and norepinephrine transporter in the striatum. Moreover, Hfe deficiency attenuated manganese-associated impulsivity and modified the effect of manganese on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter and serotonin transporter. Together, our data indicate that loss of HFE function alters manganese-associated emotional behavior and further suggest that HFE could be a potential molecular target to alleviate affective disorders induced by manganese inhalation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of manganese-excess on CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, carbohydrates and photosynthetic electron transport of leaves, and antioxidant systems of leaves and roots in Citrus grandis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the effects of manganese (Mn)-excess on citrus photosynthesis and antioxidant systems. Seedlings of sour pummelo (Citrus grandis) were irrigated for 17 weeks with nutrient solution containing 2 μM (control) or 500 μM (excess) MnSO4. The objective of this study were to understand the mechanisms by which Mn-excess leads to a decrease in CO2 assimilation and to test the hypothesis that Mn-induced changes in antioxidant systems differ between roots and leaves. Results Mn-excess decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, increased intercellular CO2 concentration, but did not affect chlorophyll (Chl) level. Both initial and total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in Mn-excess leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Contents of glucose, fructose, starch and total nonstructural carbohydrates did not differ between Mn-excess leaves and controls, while sucrose content was higher in the former. Chl a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from Mn-excess leaves showed increased O-step and decreased P-step, accompanied by positive L- and K-bands. Mn-excess decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and total performance index (PItot,abs), but increased relative variable fluorescence at I-steps (VI) and energy dissipation. On a protein basis, Mn-excess leaves displayed higher activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and contents of antioxidants, similar ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and lower dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activities; while Mn-excess roots had similar or lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants. Mn-excess did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of roots and leaves. Conclusions Mn-excess impaired the whole photosynthetic electron transport chain from the donor side of photosystem II (PSII) up

  5. Homeostatic control of manganese excretion in the neonatal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, N.; Miles, E.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies in neonatal and suckling animals showed that immature animals have a greatly diminished capacity to excrete manganese and therefore were considered to be unable to regulate tissue manganese concentrations. In contrast, the present studies indicate that suckling rats have the capacity to excrete excess manganese at rates nearly comparable to those of adults. Eight- to 10-day-old rats given a tracer dose of /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ (essentially carrier free), either via gavage or by intraperitoneal injection showed little elimination of the /sup 54/Mn until the 18-19th day of life, when there was an abrupt increase in the rate of the metal's excretion. However, when manganese was given in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg, the young animals excreted from 30-70% of the dose in only 4 days, at which time a new rate of excretion was achieved. This enhanced rate of excretion remained constant until the 18-19th day of life, when it was again accelerated. Biliary excretion of manganese, the primary route for the elimination of the metal, was only 30-60% lower in 14-day-old rats compared with adults at doses ranging from tracer to 10 mg /sup 54/Mn/kg. For both the 14-day-old and adult rats, an apparent biliary transport maximum was reached at a dose of 10 mg Mn/kg. These studies indicate that the excretory pathways for manganese are well developed in the neonatal rat. The avid retention of tracer quantities of manganese by the neonate may be a consequence of the scarcity of this essential trace metal in its diet.

  6. Np and Pu Sorption to Manganese Oxide Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Zavarin, M

    2005-08-30

    Manganese oxide minerals are a significant component of the fracture lining mineralogy at Yucca Mountain (Carlos et al., 1993) and within the tuff-confining unit at Yucca Flat (Prothro, 1998), Pahute Mesa (Drellack et al., 1997), and other locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radionuclide sorption to manganese oxide minerals was not included in recent Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrologic source term (HST) models which attempt to predict the migration behavior of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests. However, experiments performed for the Yucca Mountain Program suggest that these minerals may control much of the retardation of certain radionuclides, particularly Np and Pu (Triay et al., 1991; Duff et al., 1999). As a result, recent HST model results may significantly overpredict radionuclide transport away from underground nuclear tests. The sorption model used in HST calculations performed at LLNL includes sorption to iron oxide, calcite, zeolite, smectite, and mica minerals (Zavarin and Bruton 2004a; 2004b). For the majority of radiologic source term (RST) radionuclides, we believe that this accounts for the dominant sorption processes controlling transport. However, for the case of Np, sorption is rather weak to all but the iron and manganese oxides (Figure 1). Thus, we can expect to significantly reduce predicted Np transport by accounting for Np sorption to manganese oxides. Similarly, Pu has been shown to be predominantly associated with manganese oxides in Yucca Mountain fractured tuffs (Duff et al., 1999). Recent results on colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Kersting and Reimus, 2003) also suggest that manganese oxide coatings on fracture surfaces may compete with colloids for Pu, thus reducing the effects of colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Figure 1b). The available data suggest that it is important to incorporate Np and Pu sorption to manganese oxides in reactive transport models. However, few data are available for

  7. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is a pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from manganese...

  8. Mineral of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most important ferrous metals and one of the few for which the United States is totally dependent on imports. It is a black, brittle element predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production, which together provide the largest market for manganese (about 83 percent). It is also used as an alloy with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Nonmetallurgical applications of manganese include battery cathodes, soft ferrite magnets used in electronics, micronutrients found in fertilizers and animal feed, water treatment chemicals, and a colorant for bricks and ceramics.

  9. Manganese waste water treatment by fungi derived from manganese slag.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Yu-Zhu; Cao, Jian-Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate a mould from the surface of manganese slag which had strong resistance and high adsorption of Mn(2 + ), and to determine the effects of initial Mn(2 + ) concentration, incubation temperature, rotation speed and inoculation amount on adsorption of Mn(2 + ) from manganese waste water solution. The result showed that a mould (A5) which was isolated from manganese slag had the adsorption rate of Mn(2 + ) to 97.5% at the initial pH value 6, inoculation amount 2%, rotation speed 150 r/min, a concentration of Mn(2 + ) 500 mg/L, and a temperature of 28 degrees C cultivated for 50 h. As there is no research on adsorption of Mn(2 + ) from manganese waste water by fungi before, this research showed a theoretical guidance on this field.

  10. Transport in Manganese-Zinc Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David J.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.

    2002-03-01

    Density functional studies of the electronic and magnetic structure of the spinel ferrites ZnFe_2O4 and MnFe_2O4 are reported. Correct magnetic orderings are obtained. ZnFe_2O4 is predicted to be a small gap insulator in agreement with experiment. MnFe_2O4 is found to be a low carrier density half-metal in the fully ordered state. However, strong effects on the band structure near the band edges are found upon partial interchange of Fe and Mn atoms. These are above the criterion for disorder induced localization. This indicates that the insulating character may well be due to Anderson localization associated with the intersite Mn-Fe disorder in contrast to the usual picture of a Mott insulating ground state. This possibility is discussed in relation to experimental data.

  11. Tellurium content of marine manganese oxides and other manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, H.W.; Thompson, C.E.; Davidson, D.F.

    1963-01-01

    Tellurium in amounts ranging from 5 to 125 parts per million was present in all of 12 samples of manganese oxide nodules from the floor of the Pacific and Indian oceans. These samples represent the first recognized points of high tellurium concentration in a sedimentary cycle. The analyses may lend support to the theory that the minor-element content of seafloor manganese nodules is derived from volcanic emanations.

  12. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Conversion coatings 3 . Phosphating bath 20 AGrjC onln odd*. ta It .. c..soMV midP 1J.,alft. by block noc.mb) Work was conducted to determine the mechanism by...34 TABULAR DATA Table I Analyses of Solution and Coating for Phosphating Baths 4 of Di-ferlng Compositions 11 Atomic Absorption...manganese and iron phosphate coating: k * a. Mn(H 2PO4) 2 Nn-P0 4 + H3PO0 k2 k) b. 3MnHPO4 - Mn3 (P04) 2 + H3i’O4 k4 k5 c. Fe(H 2PO4) 2 -01 FeHPO4

  13. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  14. Manganese toxicity and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mam3p, a member of the ACDP (ancient conserved domain protein) family.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Jensen, Laran T; Gardner, Allison J; Culotta, Valeria C

    2005-03-15

    Manganese is an essential, but potentially toxic, trace metal in biological systems. Overexposure to manganese is known to cause neurological deficits in humans, but the pathways that lead to manganese toxicity are largely unknown. We have employed the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to identify genes that contribute to manganese-related damage. In a genetic screen for yeast manganese-resistance mutants, we identified S. cerevisiae MAM3 as a gene which, when deleted, would increase cellular tolerance to toxic levels of manganese and also increased the cell's resistance towards cobalt and zinc. By sequence analysis, Mam3p shares strong similarity with the mammalian ACDP (ancient conserved domain protein) family of polypeptides. Mutations in human ACDP1 have been associated with urofacial (Ochoa) syndrome. However, the functions of eukaryotic ACDPs remain unknown. We show here that S. cerevisiae MAM3 encodes an integral membrane protein of the yeast vacuole whose expression levels directly correlate with the degree of manganese toxicity. Surprisingly, Mam3p contributes to manganese toxicity without any obvious changes in vacuolar accumulation of metals. Furthermore, through genetic epistasis studies, we demonstrate that MAM3 operates independently of the well-established manganese-trafficking pathways in yeast, involving the manganese transporters Pmr1p, Smf2p and Pho84p. This is the first report of a eukaryotic ACDP family protein involved in metal homoeostasis.

  15. Iron-Responsive Olfactory Uptake of Manganese Improves Motor Function Deficits Associated with Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghan; Li, Yuan; Buckett, Peter D.; Böhlke, Mark; Thompson, Khristy J.; Takahashi, Masaya; Maher, Timothy J.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D2 (D2R) levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed “rescue response” with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status. PMID:22479410

  16. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    84003 _____________ 4 . TTLE and -bitle)5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...rosion resistance of the Endurion phosphate was significantly superior to the 4 . basic manganese phosphate . Endurion phosphate with a Supplementary...OF CONTENTS Page STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 BACKGROUND 1 APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 3 RESULTS 4 CONCLUSIONS 7 TABLES I. Falex Wear Life Test Procedure 8

  17. Manganese Homeostasis in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Lee, Eunsook; Paoliello, Monica MB; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal that is naturally found in the environment. Daily intake through dietary sources provides the necessary amount required for several key physiological processes, including antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, immune function and others. However, overexposure from environmental sources can result in a condition known as manganism that features symptomatology similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). This disorder presents with debilitating motor and cognitive deficits that arise from a neurodegenerative process. In order to maintain a balance between its essentiality and neurotoxicity, several mechanisms exist to properly buffer cellular Mn levels. These include transporters involved in Mn uptake, and newly discovered Mn efflux mechanisms. This review will focus on current studies related to mechanisms underlying Mn import and export, primarily the Mn transporters, and their function and roles in Mn-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25982296

  18. Olfactory uptake of manganese requires DMT1 and is enhanced by anemia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon M.; Donaghey, Thomas; Schwob, James E.; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Manganese, an essential nutrient, can also elicit toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). The route of exposure strongly influences the potential neurotoxicity of manganese-containing compounds. Recent studies suggest that inhaled manganese can enter the rat brain through the olfactory system, but little is known about the molecular factors involved. Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is the major transporter responsible for intestinal iron absorption and its expression is regulated by body iron status. To examine the potential role of this transporter in uptake of inhaled manganese, we studied the Belgrade rat, since these animals display significant defects in both iron and manganese metabolism due to a glycine-to-arginine substitution (G185R) in their DMT1 gene product. Absorption of intranasally instilled 54Mn was significantly reduced in Belgrade rats and was enhanced in iron-deficient rats compared to iron-sufficient controls. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that DMT1 was localized to both the lumen microvilli and end feet of the sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium. Importantly, we found that DMT1 protein levels were increased in anemic rats. The apparent function of DMT1 in olfactory manganese absorption suggests that the neurotoxicity of the metal can be modified by iron status due to the iron-responsive regulation of the transporter. PMID:17116743

  19. Manganese cycles and the origin of manganese nodules, Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Moore, W.S.; Nealson, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oneida Lake is a large shallow lake in central New York that is characterized by high algal productivity and concentrated deposits of freshwater manganese nodules. Budgets for Mn in the lake and its tributaries show a net loss of 23 metric tons of manganese within the lake per year with ???95% deposited in manganese nodules and the rest incorporated in the sediments. Erosion of nodules in the shallow well-oxygenated central part of the lake produces fragments of nodules as well as Mn-coated sand grains that are transported to adjacent deeper, more reducing parts of the lake where they sink into the anoxic sediments and MnO2 is reduced to Mn2+. This produces a high concentration of Mn2+ in the pore waters of these sediments and Mn2+ diffuses back into the water column. Growth of manganese nodules in Oneida Lake is characterized by periods of rapid accretion (> 1 mm 100 yr.) alternating with periods of no-growth or erosion. Rapid growth of nodules may be aided by the stripping of Mn from the water column by algae and bacteria. In addition, the high algal productivity of Oneida Lake produces a high-pH high-oxygen environment during the summer months that is maintained throughout the water column in the central part of the lake by almost continuous wind mixing. Thus, the cycle of Mn within the lake involves an interaction of the weather, the biota, the sediments, the nodules, and Mn dissolved in the lake and interstitial waters. ?? 1981.

  20. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  1. Alteration of iron homeostasis following chronic exposure to manganese in rats1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Qiuqu; Slavkovich, Vesna; Aschner, Michael; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that manganese-induced neurodegenerative toxicity may be partly due to its action on aconitase, which participates in cellular iron regulation and mitochondrial energy production. This study was performed to investigate whether chronic manganese exposure in rats influenced the homeostasis of iron in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Groups of 8–10 rats received intraperitoneal injections of MnCl2 at the dose of 6 mg Mn/kg/day or equal volume of saline for 30 days. Concentrations of manganese and iron in plasma and CSF were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats exposed to manganese showed a greatly elevated manganese concentration in both plasma and CSF. The magnitude of increase in CSF manganese (11-fold) was equivalent to that of plasma (10-fold). Chronic manganese exposure resulted in a 32% decrease in plasma iron (p < 0.01) and no changes in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC). However, it increased CSF iron by 3-fold as compared to the controls (p < 0.01). Northern blot analyses of whole brain homogenates revealed a 34% increase in the expression of glutamine synthetase (p < 0.05) with unchanged metallothionein-I in manganese-intoxicated rats. When the cultured choroidal epithelial cells derived from rat choroid plexus were incubated with MnCl2 (100 µM) for four days, the expression of transferrin receptor mRNA appeared to exceed by 50% that of control (p < 0.002). The results indicate that chronic manganese exposure alters iron homeostasis possibly by expediting unidirectional influx of iron from the systemic circulation to cerebral compartment. The action appears likely to be mediated by manganese-facilitated iron transport at brain barrier systems. PMID:10375687

  2. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452... GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate (C12H22MnO14·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 648-0953-0998) is a slightly pink colored powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese carbonate with gluconic...

  3. Biological manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida in trickling filters.

    PubMed

    McKee, Kyle P; Vance, Cherish C; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy

    2016-01-01

    Biological oxidation has been researched as a viable alternative for treating waters with high manganese (Mn) concentrations, typically found in mine drainage or in some geological formations. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were constructed to compare the Mn removal efficiency between filters inoculated with the Mn oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, and filters without inoculation. Manganese oxidation and removal was found to be significantly greater in trickling filters with Pseudomonas putida after startup times of only 48 h. Mn oxidation in Pseudomonas putida inoculated trickling filters was up to 75% greater than non-inoculated filters. One-dimensional advective-dispersive models were formulated to describe the transport of Mn in trickling filter porous media. Based on the experimental transport parameters obtained, the model predicted that a filter depth of only 16 cm is needed to reduce influent concentration of 10 mg L(-1) to 0.05 mg L(-1).

  4. MntABC and MntH Contribute to Systemic Staphylococcus aureus Infection by Competing with Calprotectin for Nutrient Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Zhang, Yaofang; Moore, Jessica L.; Farrand, Allison J.; Hood, M. Indriati; Rathi, Subodh; Chazin, Walter J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, vertebrates limit access to manganese and zinc, starving invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, of these essential metals in a process termed “nutritional immunity.” The manganese and zinc binding protein calprotectin is a key component of the nutrient-withholding response, and mice lacking this protein do not sequester manganese from S. aureus liver abscesses. One potential mechanism utilized by S. aureus to minimize host-imposed manganese and zinc starvation is the expression of the metal transporters MntABC and MntH. We performed transcriptional analyses of both mntA and mntH, which revealed increased expression of both systems in response to calprotectin treatment. MntABC and MntH compete with calprotectin for manganese, which enables S. aureus growth and retention of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity. Loss of MntABC and MntH results in reduced staphylococcal burdens in the livers of wild-type but not calprotectin-deficient mice, suggesting that these systems promote manganese acquisition during infection. During the course of these studies, we observed that metal content and the importance of calprotectin varies between murine organs, and infection leads to profound changes in the anatomical distribution of manganese and zinc. In total, these studies provide insight into the mechanisms utilized by bacteria to evade host-imposed nutrient metal starvation and the critical importance of restricting manganese availability during infection. PMID:23817615

  5. Bacteriology of Manganese Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, R. B.; Ehrlich, H. L.

    1968-01-01

    MnO2 reduction by aerobic growing cultures of Bacillus 29 and coccus 32, isolated from ferromanganese nodules, was assessed for 7 days. A 1-day lag was observed before the onset of MnO2 reduction by either culture. Addition of HgCl2 to a final concentration of about 10-3 M caused a rapid cessation of MnO2 reduction by the growing cultures. Neither culture reduced MnO2 when grown under continued anaerobiosis from the start of an experiment. However, if conditions were made anaerobic after MnO2 reduction was initiated, reduction continued at a rate only slightly lower than that under aerobic conditions. Resting-cell cultures reduced MnO2 equally well aerobically and anaerobically, provided that ferricyanide was present to serve as electron carrier. These findings showed that oxygen is needed for culture adaptation to MnO2 reduction, and that oxygen does not interfere with microbial MnO2 reduction itself. Both cultures caused sharp drops in the pH of the medium during MnO2 reduction: with coccus 32, during the entire incubation time; with Bacillus 29, for the first 3 days. The Eh of the medium fluctuated with either culture and never fell below 469 mv with Bacillus 29 and below 394 mv with coccus 32. The rates of glucose consumption and Mn2+ release by Bacillus 29 and coccus 32 were fairly constant, but the rates of lactate and pyruvate production were not. Although acid production undoubtedly helped in the reduction of pyrolusite (MnO2) by the bacteria, it did not appear to be important in the reduction of manganese oxide in ferromanganese nodules, as shown by the results with a nodule enrichment. PMID:16349802

  6. Access to Manganese in the Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-14

    current production of manganese is consumed by the iron and steel industry where it is combined with sulphur to produce a manganese sulphide slag that...unexploited. The principal minerals produced include iron ore, limestone, bauxite, salt, asbestos ore, manganese, kaolin clay, chrome ore barite, zinc ore

  7. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate. (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate. (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of use...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of use...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of use...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. Manganese depresses rat heart muscle respiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has previously been reported that moderately high dietary manganese (Mn) in combination with marginal magnesium (Mg) resulted in ultrastructural damage to heart mitochondria. Manganese may replace Mg in biological functions, including the role of enzyme cofactor. Manganese may accumulate and subs...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS... dichloride. It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore in...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  19. Manganese is required for oxidative metabolism in unstressed Bradyrhizobium japonicum cells

    PubMed Central

    Hohle, Thomas H.; O’Brian, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of Mn2+ transport mutants indicate that manganese is essential for unstressed growth in some bacterial species, but is required primarily for induced stress responses in others. A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the high affinity Mn2+ transporter gene mntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation, suggesting a requirement for the metal under unstressed growth. Here, we found that activities of superoxide dismutase and the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase were deficient in an mntH strain grown under manganese limitation. We identified pykM as the only pyruvate kinase-encoding gene based on deficiency in activity of a pykM mutant, rescue of the growth phenotype with pyruvate, and pyruvate kinase activity of purified recombinant PykM. PykM is unusual in that it required Mn2+ rather than Mg2+ for high activity, and that neither fructose 1,6-bisphosphate nor AMP was a positive allosteric effector. The mntH-dependent superoxide dismutase is encoded by sodM, the only expressed superoxide dismutase-encoding gene under unstressed growth conditions. An mntH mutant grew more slowly on pyruvate under manganese-limited conditions than did a pykM sodM double mutant, implying additional manganese-dependent processes. The findings implicate roles for manganese in key steps in unstressed oxidative metabolism in B. japonicum. PMID:22463793

  20. Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of tether transportation is given. Four steps were used over a period of time. First, theoretical engineering feasibility and technology requirements were determined. Then the survivors of that effort went into step two in the analysis of promising candidates. Those survivors went into the third phase which is engineering design and cost benefits. Survivors entered into the demonstration mission definition phase. Transportation studies have covered two kinds of deployments. First, steady state deployment was studied. Like the TSS, it's nearly vertical. It takes a long time to deploy and involves relatively high tether tension. Secondly, dynamic deployment was studied. Deployment started in an almost horizontal direction under a very shallow angle which allows a high deployment rate under very low tension. Momentum transfer here occurs by libration. Specific payloads were used to study tethered transportation benefits. Four transportation concepts were studied with regard to cost benefits. A tethered orbiter deboost from the space station, an OTV boost up from the Space Station, a science platform on a tether with a possible micro-g lab moving in between platform and station, and a tethered boost of payloads fromthe orbiter are the four concepts. These benefits are examined in detail.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  3. Transportability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    psi). (g) Maximum axle load (pneumatic tires) - 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). (h) Maximum wheel load (pneumatic tires) - 1,134 kg (2,500 lb). (i...survivability following the shock or vibration environment induced. Vehicles not typically transported with payload such as wreckers, truck tractors ...combination weight rating (GCWR) means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of the combination vehicle. (d) Gross axle weight

  4. Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    International (cont.) European Commission – Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Brussels, Belgium Headquarters Netherlands Customs ...100,000 by 2014. As a result of these challenges and due to the increase in intermodal freight traffic, a customer /client relationship has...increase by 50% domestically and 110% internationally by 2016 (CRS, 2007). United Parcel Service (UPS), FedEx, and DHL currently control the package

  5. Soluble manganese removal by porous media filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Jung, S

    2008-12-01

    Filtration experiments were conducted to investigate soluble manganese removal in granular media filtration; sand, manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS), sand + MOCS (1:1) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as filter media. Manganese removal, manganese oxide accumulation, turbidity removal, and regeneration of MOCS under various conditions were examined. Soluble manganese removal by the MOCS column was rapid and efficient; most of the removal happened at the top (e.g. 5 cm) of the filter. When filter influent with an average manganese concentration of 0.204 mg l(-1) was fed through the filter columns, the sand + MOCS and MOCS columns removed 98.9% and 99.2% of manganese, respectively. However, manganese removal in sand and the GAC columns was not significant during the initial stage of filtration, but after eight months of filter run they could remove 99% and 35% of manganese, respectively. It was revealed that partial replacement of sand with MOCS showed comparable manganese removal to that of the MOCS filter media.

  6. Mapping prefrontal circuits in vivo with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Janine M; Saad, Ziad S; Lizak, Martin J; Ortiz, Michael; Koretsky, Alan P; Richmond, Barry J

    2008-07-23

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) provides a powerful tool to study multisynaptic circuits in vivo and thereby to link information about neural structure and function within individual subjects. Making the best use of MEMRI in monkeys requires minimizing manganese-associated neurotoxicity, maintaining sensitivity to manganese-dependent signal changes and mapping transport throughout the brain without a priori anatomical hypotheses. Here, we performed intracortical injections of isotonic MnCl(2), comparisons of preinjection and postinjection scans, and voxelwise statistical mapping. Isotonic MnCl(2) did not cause cell death at the injection site, damage to downstream targets of manganese transport, behavioral deficits, or changes in neuronal responsiveness. We detected and mapped manganese transport throughout cortical-subcortical circuits by using voxelwise statistical comparisons of at least 10 preinjection and two postinjection scans. We were able to differentiate between focal and diffuse projection fields and to distinguish between the topography of striatal projections from orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in a single animal. This MEMRI approach provides a basis for combining circuit-based anatomical analyses with simultaneous single-unit recordings and/or functional magnetic resonance imaging in individual monkeys. Such studies will enhance our interpretations of functional data and our understanding of how neuronal activity is transformed as it propagates through a circuit.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese is a silver-colored metal resembling iron and often found in conjunction with iron. The earliest-known human use of manganese compounds was in the Stone Age, when early humans used manganese dioxide as pigments in cave paintings. In ancient Rome and Egypt, people started using it to color or remove the color from glass - a practice that continued to modern times. Today, manganese is predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production. Steel and cast iron together provide the largest market for manganese (historically 85 to 90 percent), but it is also alloyed with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Its importance to steel cannot be overstated, as almost all types of steel contain manganese and could not exist without it.

  9. Microbial Formation of Manganese Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anthony C.; Madgwick, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial manganese oxidation was demonstrated at high Mn2+ concentrations (5 g/liter) in bacterial cultures in the presence of a microalga. The structure of the oxide produced varied depending on the bacterial strain and mode of culture. A nonaxenic, acid-tolerant microalga, a Chlamydomonas sp., was found to mediate formation of manganite (γ-MnOOH). Bacteria isolated from associations with crude cultures of this alga grown in aerated bioreactors formed disordered γ-MnO2 from Mn2+ at concentrations of 5 g/liter over 1 month, yielding 3.3 g of a semipure oxide per liter. All algal-bacterial cultures removed Mn2+ from solution, but only those with the highest removal rates formed an insoluble oxide. While the alga was an essential component of the reaction, a Pseudomonas sp. was found to be primarily responsible for the formation of a manganese precipitate. Medium components—algal biomass and urea—showed optima at 5.7 and 10 g/liters, respectively. The scaled-up culture (50 times) gave a yield of 22.3 g (53 mg/liter/day from a 15-liter culture) of semipure disordered γ-MnO2, identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and had a manganese oxide O/Mn ratio of 1.92. The Mn(IV) content in the oxide was low (30.5%) compared with that of mined or chemically formed γ-MnO2 (ca. 50%). The shortfall in the bacterial oxide manganese content was due to biological and inorganic contaminants. FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction studies have identified manganite as a likely intermediate product in the formation of disordered γ-MnO2. PMID:16348459

  10. Fur Is Involved in Manganese-Dependent Regulation of mntA (sitA) Expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Platero, Raúl; Peixoto, Lucía; O'Brian, Mark R.; Fabiano, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Fur is a transcriptional regulator involved in iron-dependent control of gene expression in many bacteria. In this work we analyzed the phenotype of a fur mutant in Sinorhizobium meliloti, an α-proteobacterium that fixes N2 in association with host plants. We demonstrated that some functions involved in high-affinity iron transport, siderophore production, and iron-regulated outer membrane protein expression respond to iron in a Fur-independent manner. However, manganese-dependent expression of the MntABCD manganese transport system was lost in a fur strain as discerned by constitutive expression of a mntA::gfp fusion reporter gene in the mutant. Thus, Fur directly or indirectly regulates a manganese-dependent function. The data indicate a novel function for a bacterial Fur protein in mediating manganese-dependent regulation of gene expression. PMID:15240318

  11. MntR(Rv2788): a transcriptional regulator that controls manganese homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ruchi; Russo, Riccardo; Ghanny, Saleena; Huang, Xiaojuan; Helmann, John; Rodriguez, G Marcela

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two members of the DtxR/MntR family of metalloregulators, IdeR and SirR. IdeR represses gene expression in response to ferrous iron, and we here demonstrate that SirR (Rv2788), although also annotated as an iron-dependent repressor, functions instead as a manganese-dependent transcriptional repressor and is therefore renamed MntR. MntR regulates transporters that promote manganese import and genes that respond to metal ion deficiency such as the esx3 system. Repression of manganese import by MntR is essential for survival of M. tuberculosis under conditions of high manganese availability, but mntR is dispensable during infection. In contrast, manganese import by MntH and MntABCD was found to be indispensable for replication of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. These results suggest that manganese is limiting in the host and that interfering with import of this essential metal may be an effective strategy to attenuate M. tuberculosis.

  12. Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health.

    PubMed

    Horning, Kyle J; Caito, Samuel W; Tipps, K Grace; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of manganese (Mn) biology, in particular its cellular regulation and role in neurological disease, is an area of expanding interest. Mn is an essential micronutrient that is required for the activity of a diverse set of enzymatic proteins (e.g., arginase and glutamine synthase). Although necessary for life, Mn is toxic in excess. Thus, maintaining appropriate levels of intracellular Mn is critical. Unlike other essential metals, cell-level homeostatic mechanisms of Mn have not been identified. In this review, we discuss common forms of Mn exposure, absorption, and transport via regulated uptake/exchange at the gut and blood-brain barrier and via biliary excretion. We present the current understanding of cellular uptake and efflux as well as subcellular storage and transport of Mn. In addition, we highlight the Mn-dependent and Mn-responsive pathways implicated in the growing evidence of its role in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. We conclude with suggestions for future focuses of Mn health-related research.

  13. Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Perry, Clint J.; LaMora, Angie; Barron, Andrew B.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects. PMID:25808001

  14. OLFACTORY FUNCTIONS AT THE INTERSECTION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO MANGANESE AND PARKINSONISM

    PubMed Central

    Zoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Giulia; Lucchini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory function can be affected by occupational and environmental exposure to various neurotoxicants that can be transported through the olfactory pathway. Olfactory impairment is a highly recurrent non-motor dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease and is considered an early predictive sign of neurodegeneration. Changes in olfactory perception may be caused by a dopaminergic dysregulation, possibly related to changes at the level of dopamine receptors. Manganese is an essential element that can become neurotoxic in various conditions inducing an overload in the organism. Being actively transported through the olfactory tract, manganese can cause impairment of olfactory function and motor coordination in different age groups like children and elderly. Odor and motor changes are interrelated and may be caused by a Mn-induced dopaminergic dysregulation affecting both functions. Given these findings, further research is imperative on the possible role of manganese exposure as a pathogenetic factor for Parkinsonism. PMID:22664337

  15. Manganese olivine I: Electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Quan; Wang, Z.-C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the point defect chemistry and the kinetic properties of manganese olivine Mn2SiO4, electrical conductivity ( ’) of single crystals was measured along either the [100] or the [010] direction. The experiments were carried out at temperatures T=850 1200 °C and oxygen fugacities f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 atm under both Mn oxide ( MO) buffered and MnSiO3 ( MS) buffered conditions. Under the same thermodynamic conditions, charge transport along [100] is 2.5 3.0 times faster than along [010]. At high oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity of samples buffered against MS is ˜1.6 times larger than that of samples buffered against MO; while at low oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity is nearly identical for the two buffer cases. The dependencies of electrical conductivity on oxygen fugacity and temperature are essentially the same for conduction along the [100] and [010] directions, as well as for samples coexisting with a solid-state buffer of either MO or MS. Hence, it is proposed that the same conduction mechanisms operate for samples of either orientation in contact with either solid-state buffer. The electrical conductivity data lie on concave upward curves on a log-log plot of σ vs f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } , giving rise to two f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regimes with different oxygen fugacity exponents. In the low-f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } < 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), the f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 exponent, m, is 0, the MnSiO3-activity exponent, q, is ˜0, and the activation energy, Q, is 45 kJ/mol. In the high f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } > 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), m=1/6, q=1/4 1/3, and Q=45 and 200 kJ/mol for T<1100 °C and T>1100 °C, respectively. Based on a comparison of experimental data with results from point defect chemistry calculations, it is

  16. Battles with Iron: Manganese in Oxidative Stress Protection*

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, J. Dafhne; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2012-01-01

    The redox-active metal manganese plays a key role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress. As a cofactor for manganese superoxide dismutase or through formation of non-proteinaceous manganese antioxidants, this metal can combat oxidative damage without deleterious side effects of Fenton chemistry. In either case, the antioxidant properties of manganese are vulnerable to iron. Cellular pools of iron can outcompete manganese for binding to manganese superoxide dismutase, and through Fenton chemistry, iron may counteract the benefits of non-proteinaceous manganese antioxidants. In this minireview, we highlight ways in which cells maximize the efficacy of manganese as an antioxidant in the midst of pro-oxidant iron. PMID:22247543

  17. Discrete Responses to Limitation for Iron and Manganese in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Influence on Attachment and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hibbing, Michael E.; Xu, Jing; Natarajan, Ramya; Buechlein, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transition metals such as iron and manganese are crucial trace nutrients for the growth of most bacteria, functioning as catalytic cofactors for many essential enzymes. Dedicated uptake and regulatory systems have evolved to ensure their acquisition for growth, while preventing toxicity. Transcriptomic analysis of the iron- and manganese-responsive regulons of Agrobacterium tumefaciens revealed that there are discrete regulatory networks that respond to changes in iron and manganese levels. Complementing earlier studies, the iron-responsive gene network is quite large and includes many aspects of iron-dependent metabolism and the iron-sparing response. In contrast, the manganese-responsive network is restricted to a limited number of genes, many of which can be linked to transport and utilization of the transition metal. Several of the target genes predicted to drive manganese uptake are required for growth under manganese-limited conditions, and an A. tumefaciens mutant with a manganese transport deficiency is attenuated for plant virulence. Iron and manganese limitation independently inhibit biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens, and several candidate genes that could impact biofilm formation were identified in each regulon. The biofilm-inhibitory effects of iron and manganese do not rely on recognized metal-responsive transcriptional regulators, suggesting alternate mechanisms influencing biofilm formation. However, under low-manganese conditions the dcpA operon is upregulated, encoding a system that controls levels of the cyclic di-GMP second messenger. Mutation of this regulatory pathway dampens the effect of manganese limitation. IMPORTANCE Responses to changes in transition metal levels, such as those of manganese and iron, are important for normal metabolism and growth in bacteria. Our study used global gene expression profiling to understand the response of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to changes of transition metal availability

  18. Discrete Responses to Limitation for Iron and Manganese in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Influence on Attachment and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Jason E; Hibbing, Michael E; Xu, Jing; Natarajan, Ramya; Buechlein, Aaron M; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-12-28

    Transition metals such as iron and manganese are crucial trace nutrients for the growth of most bacteria, functioning as catalytic cofactors for many essential enzymes. Dedicated uptake and regulatory systems have evolved to ensure their acquisition for growth, while preventing toxicity. Transcriptomic analysis of the iron- and manganese-responsive regulons of Agrobacterium tumefaciens revealed that there are discrete regulatory networks that respond to changes in iron and manganese levels. Complementing earlier studies, the iron-responsive gene network is quite large and includes many aspects of iron-dependent metabolism and the iron-sparing response. In contrast, the manganese-responsive network is restricted to a limited number of genes, many of which can be linked to transport and utilization of the transition metal. Several of the target genes predicted to drive manganese uptake are required for growth under manganese-limited conditions, and an A. tumefaciens mutant with a manganese transport deficiency is attenuated for plant virulence. Iron and manganese limitation independently inhibit biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens, and several candidate genes that could impact biofilm formation were identified in each regulon. The biofilm-inhibitory effects of iron and manganese do not rely on recognized metal-responsive transcriptional regulators, suggesting alternate mechanisms influencing biofilm formation. However, under low-manganese conditions the dcpA operon is upregulated, encoding a system that controls levels of the cyclic di-GMP second messenger. Mutation of this regulatory pathway dampens the effect of manganese limitation. Responses to changes in transition metal levels, such as those of manganese and iron, are important for normal metabolism and growth in bacteria. Our study used global gene expression profiling to understand the response of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to changes of transition metal availability. Among the properties

  19. The role of the Parkinson's disease gene PARK9 in essential cellular pathways and the manganese homeostasis network in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Alessandra; Kilaru, Austin; Fang, Xiaodong; Cooper, Antony A; Gitler, Aaron D

    2012-01-01

    YPK9 (Yeast PARK9; also known as YOR291W) is a non-essential yeast gene predicted by sequence to encode a transmembrane P-type transport ATPase. However, its substrate specificity is unknown. Mutations in the human homolog of YPK9, ATP13A2/PARK9, have been linked to genetic forms of early onset parkinsonism. We previously described a strong genetic interaction between Ypk9 and another Parkinson's disease (PD) protein α-synuclein in multiple model systems, and a role for Ypk9 in manganese detoxification in yeast. In humans, environmental exposure to toxic levels of manganese causes a syndrome similar to PD and is thus an environmental risk factor for the disease. How manganese contributes to neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we describe multiple genome-wide screens in yeast aimed at defining the cellular function of Ypk9 and the mechanisms by which it protects cells from manganese toxicity. In physiological conditions, we found that Ypk9 genetically interacts with essential genes involved in cellular trafficking and the cell cycle. Deletion of Ypk9 sensitizes yeast cells to exposure to excess manganese. Using a library of non-essential gene deletions, we screened for additional genes involved in tolerance to excess manganese exposure, discovering several novel pathways involved in manganese homeostasis. We defined the dependence of the deletion strain phenotypes in the presence of manganese on Ypk9, and found that Ypk9 deletion modifies the manganese tolerance of only a subset of strains. These results confirm a role for Ypk9 in manganese homeostasis and illuminates cellular pathways and biological processes in which Ypk9 likely functions.

  20. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal...

  2. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-04

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.

  3. Dinuclear manganese centers in the manganese-lead-tellurate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rada, S; Dehelean, A; Culea, M; Culea, E

    2011-07-01

    FTIR, UV-VIS and EPR spectra of manganese doped lead-tellurate glasses with composition xMnO·(100-x)[4TeO2·PbO2] where x=0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40mol% have been studied. The FTIR spectra show the formation of the Mn-O-Pb and Mn-O-Te bridging bonds by increasing of MnO concentration. The UV-VIS spectra show the Mn(+3) species exhibit pronounced absorption, which masks the Mn(+2) spin-forbidden absorption bands when Mn(+2) ions are in high concentrations in these glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit resonance signals characteristic of Mn(+2) ions. The resonance signal located at g≈2 is due to Mn(+2) ions in an environment close to octahedral symmetry, whereas the resonance at g≈4.3 and 3.3 are attributed to the rhombic surroundings of the Mn(+2) ions. The increase in the MnO content gives rise to absorption at g≈2.4 and the paramagnetic ions are involved in dinuclear manganese centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RNASeq in C. elegans following manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    Parmalee, Nancy L.; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Ye, Bin; Calder, Brent; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a metal that is required for optimal biological functioning of organisms. Absorption, cellular import and export, and excretion of manganese are all tightly regulated. While some genes involved in regulation, such as DMT-1 and ferroportin are known, it is presumed that many more are involved and as yet unknown. Excessive exposure to manganese, usually in industrial settings, such as mining or welding, can lead to neurotoxicity and a condition known as manganism that closely resembles Parkinson's disease. Elucidating transcriptional changes following manganese exposure could lead to the development of biomarkers for exposure. This unit presents a protocol for RNA sequencing in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans to assay for transcriptional changes following exposure to manganese. This protocol is adaptable to any environmental exposure in C. elegans. The protocol results in counts of gene transcripts in control versus exposed conditions, and a ranked list of differentially expressed genes for further study. PMID:26250396

  5. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  6. RNASeq in C. elegans Following Manganese Exposure.

    PubMed

    Parmalee, Nancy L; Maqbool, Shahina B; Ye, Bin; Calder, Brent; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-08-06

    Manganese is a metal that is required for optimal biological functioning of organisms. Absorption, cellular import and export, and excretion of manganese are all tightly regulated. While some genes involved in regulation, such as DMT-1 and ferroportin, are known, it is presumed that many more are involved and as yet unknown. Excessive exposure to manganese, usually in industrial settings such as mining or welding, can lead to neurotoxicity and a condition known as manganism that closely resembles Parkinson's disease. Elucidating transcriptional changes following manganese exposure could lead to the development of biomarkers for exposure. This unit presents a protocol for RNA sequencing in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans to assay for transcriptional changes following exposure to manganese. This protocol is adaptable to any environmental exposure in C. elegans. The protocol results in counts of gene transcripts in control versus exposed conditions and a ranked list of differentially expressed genes for further study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Expression of an "Arabidopsis CAX2" variant in potato tubers increases calcium levels with no accumulation of manganese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we made a chimeric "Arabidopsis thaliana" vacuolar transporter CAX2B [a variant of N-terminus truncated form of CAX2 (sCAX2) containing the "B" domain from CAX1] that has enhanced calcium (Ca[2+]) substrate specificity and lost the manganese (Mn[2+]) transport capability of sCAX2. Here, ...

  8. Manganese Neurotoxicity and the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Gavin, Claire E; Aschner, Michael; Gunter, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary nutrient but excess or accumulations can be toxic. Disease states, like manganism, are associated with overexposure or accumulation of Mn and are due to the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals and toxic metabolites, alteration of mitochondrial function and ATP production and depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. This review focuses on all of the preceding mechanisms and the scientific studies that support them as well as provides an overview of the absorption, distribution, and excretion of Mn and the stability and transport of Mn compounds in the body. PMID:23395780

  9. Manganese neurotoxicity and the role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J; Gavin, Claire E; Aschner, Michael; Gunter, Thomas E

    2013-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary nutrient, but an excess or accumulation can be toxic. Disease states, such as manganism, are associated with overexposure or accumulation of Mn and are due to the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and toxic metabolites; alteration of mitochondrial function and ATP production; and depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. This review focuses on all of the preceding mechanisms and the scientific studies that support them as well as providing an overview of the absorption, distribution, and excretion of Mn and the stability and transport of Mn compounds in the body.

  10. Manganese Homeostasis and Utilization in Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Juttukonda, Lillian J.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manganese is a required cofactor for all forms of life. Given the importance of Mn to bacteria, the host has devised strategies to sequester Mn from invaders. In the macrophage phagosome, NRAMP1 removes Mn and other essential metals to starve intracellular pathogens; in the extracellular space, calprotectin chelates Mn and Zn. Calprotectin-mediated Mn sequestration is a newly appreciated host defense mechanism and recent findings are highlighted herein. In order to acquire Mn when extracellular concentrations are low, bacteria have evolved efficient Mn acquisition systems that are under elegant transcriptional control. To counteract Mn overload, some bacteria possess Mn-specific export systems which are important in vivo, presumably for control of intracellular Mn levels. Mn transporters, their transcriptional regulators, and some Mn-requiring enzymes are necessary for virulence of certain bacterial pathogens, as revealed by animal models of infection. Furthermore, Mn is an important facet of the cellular response to oxidative stress, a host antibacterial strategy. The battle for Mn between host and pathogen is now appreciated to be a major determinant of the outcome of infection. In this MicroReview, the contribution of Mn to the host-pathogen interaction is reviewed and key questions are proposed for future study. PMID:25898914

  11. Iron and manganese removal by using manganese ore constructed wetlands in the reclamation of steel wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Cheng; Chen, Gu; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Liu, Jia; Yang, Na; Gao, Sai-Nan

    2009-09-30

    To reclaim treated steel wastewater as cooling water, manganese ore constructed wetland was proposed in this study for the removal of iron and manganese. In lab-scale wetlands, the performance of manganese ore wetland was found to be more stable and excellent than that of conventional gravel constructed wetland. The iron and manganese concentration in the former was below 0.05 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 2-5 days when their influent concentrations were in the range of 0.16-2.24 mg/L and 0.11-2.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, its removals for COD, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were 55%, 90%, 67% and 93%, respectively, superior to the corresponding removals in the gravel wetland (31%, 86%, 58% and 78%, respectively). The good performance of manganese ore was ascribed to the enhanced biological manganese removal with the aid of manganese oxide surface and the smaller size of the medium. The presence of biological manganese oxidation was proven by the facts of good manganese removal in wetlands at chemical unfavorable conditions (such as ORP and pH) and the isolation of manganese oxidizing strains from the wetlands. Similar iron and manganese removal was later observed in a pilot-scale gravel-manganese-ore constructed wetland, even though the manganese ore portion in total volume was reduced from 100% (in the lab-scale) to only 4% (in the pilot-scale) for the sake of cost-saving. The quality of the polished wastewater not only satisfied the requirement for cooling water but also suitable as make-up water for other purposes.

  12. The Manganese Toxicity of Cotton 1

    PubMed Central

    Sirkar, Sheela; Amin, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. Linn. var. Sankar 4) were grown at normal and toxic levels of substrate manganese, and the altered metabolism of manganese toxic plants was studied. The tissues of plants exposed to toxic levels of manganese had higher activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and the activities of catalase, ascorbic acid oxidase, glutathione oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase were lowered. In addition, the high manganese tissue had lower contents of ATP and glutathione but higher amounts of ascorbic acid. The respiration of the partially expanded leaves and the growing tips of toxic plants were depressed when compared to that of the normal tissues. The metabolic changes of manganese toxicity of cotton are placed in the following order: accumulation of manganese in the leaf tissue; a rise in respiration; stimulation of polyphenol oxidase; the appearance of initial toxicity symptoms; the evolution of ethylene and stimulation of peroxidase; the presence of severe toxicity symptoms; the depression of terminal oxidases and respiration; abscission of the growing tip and proliferation of the stem tissue. The early stimulation of polyphenol oxidase may be used to detect potential manganese toxicity. PMID:16658924

  13. Optimization of Fluorescence Assay of Cellular Manganese Status for High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Aboud, Asad A.; Patel, Devin K.; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra-and inter-plate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport. PMID:23169769

  14. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower.

  15. Manganese oxide nanoparticles, methods and applications

    DOEpatents

    Abruna, Hector D.; Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.

    2017-08-29

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles having a chemical composition that includes Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, a sponge like morphology and a particle size from about 65 to about 95 nanometers may be formed by calcining a manganese hydroxide material at a temperature from about 200 to about 400 degrees centigrade for a time period from about 1 to about 20 hours in an oxygen containing environment. The particular manganese oxide nanoparticles with the foregoing physical features may be used within a battery component, and in particular an anode within a lithium battery to provide enhanced performance.

  16. Reduction Mechanisms in Manganese Ore Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetsee, Theresa; Reinke, Christian; Nell, Johannes; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan

    2015-12-01

    Manganese ores are highly heterogeneous and contain various minerals with different levels of contained manganese and iron and therefore the ore reduction behavior is not uniform. Both phase chemistry and phase morphology at the reaction interface, at micron scale, must be investigated to understand the reaction mechanism effects in manganese ore reduction. This approach is applied here to reacted material mixture samples taken from the AlloyStream pilot plant furnace over a period of 4 months. The mineralogical features are reported and discussed. Deductions are made on the likely dominant reduction mechanism in this reaction system, given the phase morphology observations presented.

  17. Role of Manganese Deposition on Graphite in the Capacity Fading of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Daniel R.; Chen, Zonghai; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Das, Ujjal; Redfern, Paul C.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Pan, Baofei; Liu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-06

    Lithium-ion batteries utilizing manganese based cathodes have received considerable interest in recent years for their lower cost and favorable environmental friendliness relative to their cobalt counterparts. However, Li-ion batteries using manganese based cathodes and graphite anodes suffer from severe capacity fading at higher operating temperature. In this article, we report on an astute investigation into how the dissolution of manganese impacts the capacity fading within the Li-ion batteries. Our investigation reveals that the manganese dissolves from the cathode, transports to the graphite electrode, and deposits onto the outer surface of the inner most solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer which is known to be a mixture of inorganic salts (e.g. Li2CO3, LiF, and Li2O). In this location, the manganese facilitates the reduction of the electrolyte and the subsequent formation of lithium containing products on the graphite which removes lithium ions from the normal operation of the cell and thereby induces the severe capacity fade.

  18. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks can slightly reduce weight in overweight people. Wound healing. Early research suggests that applying a dressing containing ... to chronic wounds for 12 weeks may improve wound healing. Anemia. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to ...

  19. Absorption of Manganese and Iron in a Mouse Model of Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghan; Buckett, Peter D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease associated with excessive intestinal iron absorption, is commonly caused by loss of HFE gene function. Both iron and manganese absorption are regulated by iron status, but the relationships between the transport pathways of these metals and how they are affected by HFE-associated hemochromatosis remain poorly understood. Loss of HFE function is known to alter the intestinal expression of DMT1 (divalent metal transporter-1) and Fpn (ferroportin), transporters that have been implicated in absorption of both iron and manganese. Although the influence of HFE deficiency on dietary iron absorption has been characterized, potential effects on manganese metabolism have yet to be explored. To investigate the role of HFE in manganese absorption, we characterized the uptake and distribution of the metal in Hfe−/− knockout mice after intravenous, intragastric, and intranasal administration of 54Mn. These values were compared to intravenous and intragastric administration of 59Fe. Intestinal absorption of 59Fe was increased and clearance of injected 59Fe was also increased in Hfe−/− mice compared to controls. Hfe−/− mice displayed greater intestinal absorption of 54Mn compared to wild-type Hfe+/+ control mice. After intravenous injection, the distribution of 59Fe to heart and liver was greater in Hfe−/− mice but no remarkable differences were observed for 54Mn. Although olfactory absorption of 54Mn into blood was unchanged in Hfe−/− mice, higher levels of intranasally-instilled 54Mn were associated with Hfe−/− brain compared to controls. These results show that manganese transport and metabolism can be modified by HFE deficiency. PMID:23705020

  20. Manganese-containing ionic liquids: synthesis, crystal structures and electrodeposition of manganese films and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Malaquias, João C; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2017-02-21

    Manganese(ii)-containing ionic liquids were synthesized, in which the manganese atoms are coordinated by glymes (diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme), pyridine-N-oxide, dimethylsulfoxide or N-alkylimidazoles (N-methylimidazole, N-butylimidazole and N-hexylimidazole). As anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (bistriflimide, Tf2N(-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate, OTf(-)) or methanesulfonate (mesylate, OMs(-)) were used. The compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, DSC and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. All manganese atoms were six-coordinate. It was found that the glyme-type ligands were replaced by atmospheric water upon leaving the crystals open to the air for several days. The crystal structures of seven compounds were described in detail and the compounds with the lowest melting temperatures were tested as electrolytes for the electrodeposition of manganese (thin) films. An irreversible reduction wave from Mn(ii) to Mn(0) and granular manganese deposits were observed for all compounds, except for liquid manganese salts with N-alkylimidazole ligands and bistriflimide anions, where the electrochemical formation of manganese nanoparticles was observed instead of the deposition of a manganese layer. However, for compounds with the same cation but with a triflate or methanesulfonate anion, manganese metal deposits were obtained, indicating that the nature of the anion has an important effect on the electrochemical properties of liquid metal salts.

  1. Manganese concentrate usage in steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhihina, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the research process of producing metalized products by solid-phase reduction of iron using solid carbonaceous reducing agents. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out on the model of the unit the Fe-C-O and system with iron ore and coal. As a result of modeling the thermodynamic boundary reducing, oxidizing, and transition areas and the value of the ratio of carbon and oxygen in the system. Simulation of real systems carried out with the gas phase obtained in the pyrolys of coal. The simulation results allow to determine the optimal cost of coal required for complete reduction of iron ore from a given composition. The kinetics of the processes of solid-phase reduction of iron using coal of various technological brands. The paper describes experiments on effects of metal deoxidizer composition, component proportion, pelletizing mixture, particle size distribution of basic materials and flux on manganese recovering from oxides under direct melting.

  2. Neurotoxicity of manganese oxide nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Diana M.; Khoshnan, Ali; Patterson, Paul H.; Hering, Janet G.

    2009-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity in humans has been observed as manganism, a disease that resembles Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of Mn toxicity and the chemical forms that may be responsible for its neurotoxicity are not well understood. We examined the toxicity of Mn oxide nanomaterials in a neuronal precursor cell model, using the MTS assay to evaluate mitochondrial function in living cells and the LDH assay to quantify the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase as a result of damage to the cell membrane. Both assays show that the toxicity of Mn is dependent on the type of Mn oxide nanomaterial and its concentration as well as on the state of cell differentiation. Following exposure to Mn oxide nanomaterials, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, and flow cytometry experiments suggest that cell death occurred through apoptosis. During exposure to Mn oxide nanomaterials, increased levels of the transcription factor NF-κB (which mediates the cellular inflammatory response) were observed.

  3. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pale pink, granular, odorless powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese compounds with sulfuric acid... products as defined in § 170.3(n(13) of this chapter; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of...

  5. Iron and Manganese Removal by Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    structures. Well 118 is a comparatively highly contaminated water source but is otherwtse representative of RIJA groundwater; a successful treatment process...Evaluation Division Contamination Control C. Love",. Chtef H. Lswless, Chewical Engineer SMM: During eqidzzwtal. treaftiet of gzvroudwater from Well US with...could tolerate one or two ppm manganese, corresponding respectively to conversion levels of 96% and 92% of the original manganese concentration. These

  6. Manganese-induced Neurotoxicity: From C. elegans to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Peres, Tanara V.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is one of the most abundant metals on the earth. It is required for normal cellular activities, but overexposure leads to toxicity. Neurons are more susceptible to Mn-induced toxicity than other cells, and accumulation of Mn in the brain results in Manganism that presents with Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms. In the last decade, a number of Mn transporters have been identified, which improves our understanding of Mn transport in and out of cells. However, the mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity is only partially uncovered, with further research needed to explore the whole picture of Mn-induced toxicity. In this review, we will address recent progress in Mn-induced neurotoxicity from C. elegans to humans, and explore future directions that will help understand the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. PMID:25893090

  7. Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

  8. Sulfide, iron, manganese, and phosphate in the deep water of the Chesapeake Bay during anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavis, Jerome; Grant, Virginia

    1986-10-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfide, and of dissolved and particulate iron, manganese, and phosphate were measured as functions of salinity at a station in the Chesapeake Bay during stratification and deep water anoxia in spring and summer, 1981. The observed concentration/salinity profiles showed that oxygen was transported in a direction opposite to that of salt, while dissolved sulfide was transported in the same direction as salt through the anoxic water to be oxidized in oxygen consumption zones located below the steepest parts of the halocline. Both oxygen and sulfide were transported conservatively on 18 June. Their fluxes were 1·2 and 2 mol m -2 d -1, respectively. The oxygen flux was 30% of that stoichiometrically needed to oxidize the sulfide transported, suggesting that the oxygen consumption zone was advancing to shallower, less saline water, thus increasing the volume of anoxic water. Although oxygen was transported conservatively, sulfide was produced as it was transported through the anoxic water on 8 July. The anoxic water was supersaturated with respect to ferrous sulfide on 18 June, but most of the anoxic water was saturated on 8 July. Precipitation of ferrous sulfide had little effect on the sulfide flux on 18 June. The manganese(II) concentration/salinity profile exhibited a maximum in the oxygen consumption zone on 18 June. On 8 July the profile was independent of salinity at high salinities. Iron(II) and manganese(II) consumed little if any oxygen in the oxygen consumption zone. Soluble reactive phosphate was transported conservatively through the anoxic water on 18 June. It was produced as it was transported on 8 July. All of the phosphate was consumed in the oxygen consumption zones by sulfide oxidizing bacteria. On 18 June its flux, estimated to be 2·8 mmol m -2 d -1, was less than 10% of that required for bacterial oxidation of the sulfide reaching the oxygen consumption zone. The rest was oxidized chemically. The growth and

  9. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A.; Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  10. Manganese mineralogy and diagenesis in the sedimentary rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jena E.; Webb, Samuel M.; Ma, Chi; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of manganese (II) to manganese (III,IV) demands oxidants with very high redox potentials; consequently, manganese oxides are both excellent proxies for molecular oxygen and highly favorable electron acceptors when oxygen is absent. The first of these features results in manganese-enriched sedimentary rocks (manganese deposits, commonly Mn ore deposits), which generally correspond to the availability of molecular oxygen in Earth surface environments. And yet because manganese reduction is promoted by a variety of chemical species, these ancient manganese deposits are often significantly more reduced than modern environmental manganese-rich sediments. We document the impacts of manganese reduction and the mineral phases that form stable manganese deposits from seven sedimentary examples spanning from modern surface environments to rocks over 2 billion years old. Integrating redox and coordination information from synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microprobe imaging with scanning electron microscopy and energy and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, we find that unlike the Mn(IV)-dominated modern manganese deposits, three manganese minerals dominate these representative ancient deposits: kutnohorite (CaMn(CO3)2), rhodochrosite (MnCO3), and braunite (Mn(III)6Mn(II)O8SiO4). Pairing these mineral and textural observations with previous studies of manganese geochemistry, we develop a paragenetic model of post-depositional manganese mineralization with kutnohorite and calcian rhodochrosite as the earliest diagenetic mineral phases, rhodochrosite and braunite forming secondarily, and later alteration forming Mn-silicates.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling of manganese in Oneida Lake, New York: whole lake studies of manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, C.; Nealson, K. H.

    1998-01-01

    Oneida Lake, New York is a eutrophic freshwater lake known for its abundant manganese nodules and a dynamic manganese cycle. Temporal and spatial distribution of soluble and particulate manganese in the water column of the lake were analyzed over a 3-year period and correlated with other variables such as oxygen, pH, and temperature. Only data from 1988 are shown. Manganese is removed from the water column in the spring via conversion to particulate form and deposited in the bottom sediments. This removal is due to biological factors, as the lake Eh/pH conditions alone can not account for the oxidation of the soluble manganese Mn(II). During the summer months the manganese from microbial reduction moves from the sediments to the water column. In periods of stratification the soluble Mn(II) builds up to concentrations of 20 micromoles or more in the bottom waters. When mixing occurs, the soluble Mn(II) is rapidly removed via oxidation. This cycle occurs more than once during the summer, with each manganese atom probably being used several times for the oxidation of organic carbon. At the end of the fall, whole lake concentrations of manganese stabilize, and remain at about 1 micromole until the following summer, when the cycle begins again. Inputs and outflows from the lake indicate that the active Mn cycle is primarily internal, with a small accumulation each year into ferromanganese nodules located in the oxic zones of the lake.

  12. Biogeochemical cycling of manganese in Oneida Lake, New York: whole lake studies of manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, C.; Nealson, K. H.

    1998-01-01

    Oneida Lake, New York is a eutrophic freshwater lake known for its abundant manganese nodules and a dynamic manganese cycle. Temporal and spatial distribution of soluble and particulate manganese in the water column of the lake were analyzed over a 3-year period and correlated with other variables such as oxygen, pH, and temperature. Only data from 1988 are shown. Manganese is removed from the water column in the spring via conversion to particulate form and deposited in the bottom sediments. This removal is due to biological factors, as the lake Eh/pH conditions alone can not account for the oxidation of the soluble manganese Mn(II). During the summer months the manganese from microbial reduction moves from the sediments to the water column. In periods of stratification the soluble Mn(II) builds up to concentrations of 20 micromoles or more in the bottom waters. When mixing occurs, the soluble Mn(II) is rapidly removed via oxidation. This cycle occurs more than once during the summer, with each manganese atom probably being used several times for the oxidation of organic carbon. At the end of the fall, whole lake concentrations of manganese stabilize, and remain at about 1 micromole until the following summer, when the cycle begins again. Inputs and outflows from the lake indicate that the active Mn cycle is primarily internal, with a small accumulation each year into ferromanganese nodules located in the oxic zones of the lake.

  13. New insights into manganese toxicity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard; Fernsebner, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) is known to be a neurotoxic agent for nearly 175 years now. A lot of research has therefore been carried out over the last century. From preliminary describing only symptoms of Mn-(over)exposed workers, research was preceded to more detail on toxic mechanisms of Mn. Unraveling those neurotoxic mechanisms implicated a number of studies, which were summarized partly in several reviews (e.g. Yokel RA. Neuromol Med 2009;11(4):297-310; Aschner M, et al. Toxicology Appl Pharmacol 2007;221(2):131-47; Michalke B, et al. J Environ Monit 2007;9(7):650). Since our recent review on Mn-speciation in 2007 (Michalke B, et al. J Environ Monit 2007;9(7):650), Mn-research was considerably pushed forward and several new research articles were published. The very recent years though, Mn toxicity investigating science is spreading into different fields with very detailed and complex study designs. Especially the mechanisms of Mn-induced neuronal injury on cellular and molecular level was investigated in more detail, discussing neurotransmitter and enzyme interactions, mechanisms of action on DNA level and even inclusion of genetic influences. Depicting the particular Mn-species was also a big issue to determine which molecule is transporting Mn at the cell membranes and which one is responsible for the injury of neuronal tissue. Other special foci on epidemiologic studies were becoming more and more important: These foci were directed toward environmental influences of Mn on especially Parkinson disease prevalence and the ability to carry out follow-up studies about Mn-life-span exposure. All these very far-reaching research applications may finally lead to a suitable future human Mn-biomonitoring for being able to prevent or at least detect the early onset of manganism at the right time.

  14. Biological Superoxide In Manganese Oxide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, C.; Learman, D.; Zeiner, C.; Santelli, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the strongest sorbents and oxidants within the environment, controlling the fate and transport of numerous elements and the degradation of recalcitrant carbon. Both bacteria and fungi mediate the oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides but the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the physiological basis for microbial Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. We have recently reported that a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b) oxidizes Mn(II) via reaction with extracellular superoxide (O2-) produced during exponential growth. Here we expand this superoxide-mediated Mn(II) oxidation pathway to fungi, introducing a surprising homology between prokaryotic and eukaryotic metal redox processes. For instance, Stibella aciculosa, a common soil Ascomycete filamentous fungus, precipitates Mn oxides at the base of asexual reproductive structures (synnemata) used to support conidia (Figure 1). This distribution is a consequence of localized production of superoxide (and it's dismutation product hydrogen peroxide, H2O2), leading to abiotic oxidation of Mn(II) by superoxide. Disruption of NADPH oxidase activity using the oxidoreductase inhibitor DPI leads to diminished cell differentiation and subsequent Mn(II) oxidation inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) (an effective superoxide scavenger) leads to a concentration dependent decrease in Mn oxide formation. We predict that due to the widespread production of extracellular superoxide within the fungal and likely bacterial kingdoms, biological superoxide may be an important contributor to the cycling of Mn, as well as other metals (e.g., Hg, Fe). Current and future explorations of the genes and proteins involved in superoxide production and Mn(II) oxidation will ideally lend insight into the physiological and biochemical basis for these processes.

  15. Antioxidants and NOS inhibitors selectively targets manganese-induced cell volume via Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Khalid A; Prabhakaran, Harini; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Ramugounder, Ramakrishnan

    2015-06-12

    Manganese has shown to be involved in astrocyte swelling. Several factors such as transporters, exchangers and ion channels are attributed to astrocyte swelling as a result in the deregulation of cell volume. Products of oxidation and nitration have been implied to be involved in the pathophysiology of swelling; however, the direct link and mechanism of manganese induced astrocyte swelling has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we used rat primary astrocyte cultures to investigate the activation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) a downstream mechanism for free radical induced astrocyte swelling as a result of manganese toxicity. Our results showed manganese, oxidants and NO donors as potent inducer of oxidation and nitration of NKCC1. Our results further confirmed that manganese (50 μM) increased the total protein, phosphorylation and activity of NKCC1 as well as cell volume (p < 0.05 vs. control). NKCC1 inhibitor (bumetanide), NKCC1-siRNA, antioxidants; DMTU, MnTBAP, tempol, catalase and Vit-E, NOS inhibitor; L-NAME, peroxinitrite scavenger; uric acid all significantly reversed the effects of NKCC1 activation (p < 0.05). From the current investigation we infer that manganese or oxidants and NO induced activation, oxidation/nitration of NKCC1 play an important role in the astrocyte swelling.

  16. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers.

    PubMed

    Barrington, W W; Angle, C R; Willcockson, N K; Padula, M A; Korn, T

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a "frog shop" for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6-10 years before and 1.2-3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m3 in 29% and 0.2 mg/m3 in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR' interval) and the rates of change at low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz). MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used. The five frog shop workers had abnormal sympathovagal balance with decreased high frequency variability (increased ln LF/ln HF). Seven of the eight workers had symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and significantly decreased heart rate variability (rMSSD) but these did not distinguish the relative exposure. Mood or affect was disturbed in all with associated changes in short-term memory and attention in four of the subjects. There were no significant correlations with serum or urine manganese. Power spectrum analysis of 24-h ambulatory ECG indicating a decrease in parasympathetic high frequency activation of heart rate variability may provide a sensitive index of central autonomic dysfunction reflecting increased exposure to manganese, although the contribution of exposures to solvents and other metals cannot be excluded. Neurotoxicity due to the gouging

  17. Leaching of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by electro-reduction.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Chen, Hongliang; Tao, Changyuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an improved process for leaching manganese from electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) by electro-reduction was developed. The mechanisms of the electro-reduction leaching were investigated through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and Brunauer Emmett Teller. The results show that the electric field could change the surface charge distribution of EMR particles, and the high-valent manganese can be reduced by electric field. The leaching efficient of manganese reached 84.1% under the optimal leaching condition: 9.2 wt% H2SO4, current density of 25 mA/cm(2), solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5, and leaching time for 1 h. It is 37.9% higher than that attained without an electric field. Meanwhile, the manganese content in EMR decreased from 2.57% to 0.48%.

  18. Study of high performance alloy electroforming. [nickel manganese and nickel cobalt manganese alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-manganese alloy electrodeposits from an electrolyte containing more manganese ion than previously used is being evaluated at two bath operating temperatures with a great variety of pulse plating conditions. Saccharine was added as a stress reducing agent for the electroforming of several of the samples with highest manganese content. All specimens for mechanical property testing have been produced but are not through the various heat treatments as yet. One of the heat treatment will be at 343 C (650 F), the temperature at which the MCC outer electroformed nickel shell is stress relieved. A number of retainer specimens from prior work have been tested for hardness before and after heat treatment. There appears to be a fairly good correlation between hardness and mechanical properties. Comparison of representative mechanical properties with hardnesses are made for nickel-manganese electrodeposits and nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits.

  19. In vivo imaging of axonal transport using MRI: aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna

    2008-03-01

    MRI using manganese as a trans-synaptic axonal tracing agent can unveil dynamics of axonal transport in living subjects. We use this technology to test the hypotheses if impaired axonal transport is a significant pathophysiological process in aging and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in part accounting for "selective vulnerability" of projection neurons in AD. To allow quantitative assessment of axonal transport in vivo, we developed voxel-based statistical mapping technology as well as a tracer kinetic modeling method based on mass transport for manganese-enhanced MRI to estimate axonal transport rates in aging rats and AD transgenic mice. These techniques demonstrated manganese-enhanced signal changes in axonal projections of the olfactory tract and decreased axonal transport rates in rodent models of aging and AD. Altered axonal transport may be a critical pathophysiological process in aging and AD. Manganese-enhanced MRI provides exciting opportunities for the investigations of altered axonal transport in AD and related disorders.

  20. Manganese-induced trafficking and turnover of TMEM165

    PubMed Central

    Potelle, Sven; Dulary, Eudoxie; Duvet, Sandrine; Morelle, Willy; Vicogne, Dorothée; Spriet, Corentin; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Marquardt, Thorsten; deBettignies, Geoffroy; Matthijs, Gert; Lupashin, Vladimir; Foulquier, François

    2017-01-01

    TMEM165 deficiencies lead to one of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG), a group of inherited diseases where the glycosylation process is altered. We recently demonstrated that the Golgi glycosylation defect due to TMEM165 deficiency resulted from Golgi manganese homeostasis defect and that Mn2+ supplementation was sufficient to rescue a normal glycosylation. In this paper we highlight TMEM165 as a novel Golgi protein sensitive to manganese. When cells were exposed to high Mn2+ concentrations, TMEM165 was degraded into lysosomes. The Mn2+ induced lysosomal targeting of TMEM165 occurred via a Rab7 and Rab5 independent pathways, suggesting a direct trafficking from the Golgi to lysosomes in response to Mn2+. Remarkably, the variant p.E108G recently identified in a novel TMEM165-CDG patient, was found insensitive to Mn2+ supplementation. Moreover, this mutation abolished the function of TMEM165, suggesting that a transport function may be necessary for its regulation. Altogether our results identified the Golgi protein TMEM165 as a novel cytosolic Mn2+ sensor in mammalian cells and pointed to the crucial importance of the cytosolical ELGDK motif in both Mn2+ sensitivity and function. PMID:28270545

  1. Studies of C-Axis Charge Transport in BISMUTH(2) STRONTIUM(2) Calcium COPPER(2) OXYGEN(8 + Delta) and Anomalous Hall Effect in (LANTHANUM(0.67) CALCIUM(0.33)) Manganese OXYGEN(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi-Feng, Yan

    In this thesis I report my studies on charge transport on two perovskite metal oxides: La_ {1-x}Ca_{x}MnO_3(LCMO) --a colossal magnetoresistance oxide and Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+delta } (BSCCO)--a high temperature superconducting compound. Large and high quality Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O_{8+delta} single crystals were grown by self-flux method. The quality of the crystals were examined by x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. I have systematically investigated the c-axis magnetoresistance (MR) of various BSCCO single crystals with different oxygen contents. With field H parallel to c-axis and the current (H//c//J), we observed that MR is negative if rho_ {c} is semiconducting and positive if rho_{c} is pseudo-metallic. We consider that the negative MR is a normal state property. We have also measured the field dependence of rho_{c} in the flux flow state (H//c//J) at fields up to 14T. Whereas rho_{c} increases rapidly in weak fields, it saturates to the extrapolated normal-state curve when the field H_ {2D} is attained (H_ {2D} is the field at which the vortex pancakes in adjacent layers are completely decoupled). At fields above H_{2D}, rho_{c} decreases slowly. We verify that this is a continuation of the negative MR observed above Tc. We propose that the antiferromagnetic coupling along the c-axis in adjacent CuO_2 planes and spin singlet formation are the cause of negative magnetoresistance in c-axis in bilayer cuprates. We found that the c-axis resistivity in bilayer cuprates can be fitted into the following empirical formula: rho_{c}{= }a/Te^{Delta/T} + cT + d where a, c and d are temperature independent constants; Delta is called pseudogap. In Y -doped BSCCO, rho_{c} displays a logarithmic temperature dependence. The LCMO thin films used in this experiment were grown by Plasma Enhanced-MOCVD method. The Hall effect and magnetoresistance of LCMO thin films have been systematically investigated. At low temperature, the Hall effect is linear with field and positive

  2. Environmental effects and exposures to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Lynam, D R; Roos, J W; Pfeifer, G D; Fort, B F; Pullin, T G

    1999-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since the 1970s in the U.S. as a gasoline octane enhancer Extensive testing of the effects of MMT on regulated gaseous emissions carried out on a wide variety of automobiles showed that use of MMT resulted in significantly lower NOx emissions Tests showed that less than 15% of the manganese from MMT combustion was emitted from the tailpipe, mostly in the PM2.5 fraction as manganese phosphate, with some manganese sulfate and a very small amount of manganese oxide. MMT has been used in Canada in virtually all unleaded gasoline for about 20 years. A probability-based study involving over 900 personal exposure samples in Toronto confirmed exposures to airborne PM2.5 Mn in the general population are quite low (.008 microgram/m3-median). Ambient levels of airborne manganese in Toronto are about the same as those in areas where MMT is not used. Exposures to manganese among the general population in Toronto are well within safe limits determined by the U.S. EPA and other standard setting bodies around the world.

  3. Real-Time Manganese Phase Dynamics during Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jena E; Savalia, Pratixa; Davis, Ryan; Kocar, Benjamin D; Webb, Samuel M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-04-19

    Manganese oxides are often highly reactive and easily reduced, both abiotically, by a variety of inorganic chemical species, and biologically during anaerobic respiration by microbes. To evaluate the reaction mechanisms of these different reduction routes and their potential lasting products, we measured the sequence progression of microbial manganese(IV) oxide reduction mediated by chemical species (sulfide and ferrous iron) and the common metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under several endmember conditions, using synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic measurements complemented by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on precipitates collected throughout the reaction. Crystalline or potentially long-lived phases produced in these experiments included manganese(II)-phosphate, manganese(II)-carbonate, and manganese(III)-oxyhydroxides. Major controls on the formation of these discrete phases were alkalinity production and solution conditions such as inorganic carbon and phosphate availability. The formation of a long-lived Mn(III) oxide appears to depend on aqueous Mn(2+) production and the relative proportion of electron donors and electron acceptors in the system. These real-time measurements identify mineralogical products during Mn(IV) oxide reduction, contribute to understanding the mechanism of various Mn(IV) oxide reduction pathways, and assist in interpreting the processes occurring actively in manganese-rich environments and recorded in the geologic record of manganese-rich strata.

  4. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Fuller, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    We determined the role of the hyporheic zone (the subsurface zone where stream water and shallow groundwater mix) in enhancing microbially mediated oxidation of dissolved manganese (to form manganese precipitates) in a drainage basin contaminated by copper mining. The fate of manganese is of overall importance to water quality in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, because manganese reactions affect the transport of trace metals. The basin-scale role of the hyporheic zone is difficult to quantify because stream-tracer studies do not always reliably characterize the cumulative effects of the hyporheic zone. This study determined cumulative effects of hyporheic reactions in Pinal Creek basin by characterizing manganese uptake at several spatial scales (stream-reach scale, hyporheicflow-path scale, and sediment-grain scale). At the stream-reach scale a one-dimensional stream-transport model (including storage zones to represent hyporheic flow paths) was used to determine a reach-averaged time constant for manganese uptake in hyporheic zones, 1/??(s), of 1.3 hours, which was somewhat faster but still similar to manganese uptake time constants that were measured directly in centimeter-scale hyporheic flow paths (1/??(h) = 2.6 hours), and in laboratory batch experiments using streambed sediment (1/?? = 2.7 hours). The modeled depths of subsurface storage zones (d(s) = 4-17 cm) and modeled residence times of water in storage zones (t(s) = 3-12 min) were both consistent with direct measurements in hyporheic flow paths (d(h) = 0-15 cm, and t(h) = 1-25 min). There was also good agreement between reach-scale modeling and direct measurements of the percentage removal of dissolved manganese in hyporheic flow paths (f(s) = 8.9%, and f(h) = 9.3%). Manganese uptake experiments in the laboratory using sediment from Pinal Creek demonstrated (through comparison of poisoned and unpoisoned treatments) that the manganese removal process was enhanced by microbially mediated oxidation. The

  5. Manganese (II) induces chemical hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase: Implication in manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongoh; Lee, Jong-Suk; Choi, Daekyu; Lee, Youna; Hong, Sungchae; Choi, Jungyun; Han, Songyi; Ko, Yujin; Kim, Jung-Ae; Mi Kim, Young; Jung, Yunjin

    2009-03-15

    Manganese (II), a transition metal, causes pulmonary inflammation upon environmental or occupational inhalation in excess. We investigated a potential molecular mechanism underlying manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation. Manganese (II) delayed HIF-1{alpha} protein disappearance, which occurred by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (HPH), the key enzyme for HIF-1{alpha} hydroxylation and subsequent von Hippel-Lindau(VHL)-dependent HIF-1{alpha} degradation. HPH inhibition by manganese (II) was neutralized significantly by elevated dose of iron. Consistent with this, the induction of cellular HIF-1{alpha} protein by manganese (II) was abolished by pretreatment with iron. Manganese (II) induced the HIF-1 target gene involved in pulmonary inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in lung carcinoma cell lines. The induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Manganese-induced VEGF promoted tube formation of HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that HIF-1 may be a potential mediator of manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  6. Manganese concentrations in Scottish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Homoncik, Sally C; Macdonald, Alan M; Heal, Kate V; Dochartaigh, Brighid E O; Ngwenya, Bryne T

    2010-05-15

    Groundwater is increasingly being used for public and private water supplies in Scotland, but there is growing evidence that manganese (Mn) concentrations in many groundwater supplies exceed the national drinking water limit of 0.05 mg l(-1). This study examines the extent and magnitude of high Mn concentrations in groundwater in Scotland and investigates the factors controlling Mn concentrations. A dataset containing 475 high quality groundwater samples was compiled using new data from Baseline Scotland supplemented with additional high quality data where available. Concentrations ranged up to 1.9 mg l(-1); median Mn concentration was 0.013 mg l(-1) with 25th and 75th percentiles 0.0014 and 0.072 mg l(-1) respectively. The Scottish drinking water limit (0.05 mg l(-1)) was exceeded for 30% of samples and the WHO health guideline (0.4 mg l(-1)) by 9%; concentrations were highest in the Carboniferous sedimentary aquifer in central Scotland, the Devonian sedimentary aquifer of Morayshire, and superficial aquifers. Further analysis using 137 samples from the Devonian aquifers indicated strong redox and pH controls (pH, Eh and dissolved oxygen accounted for 58% of variance in Mn concentrations). In addition, an independent relationship between Fe and Mn was observed, suggesting that Fe behaviour in groundwater may affect Mn solubility. Given the redox status and pH of Scottish groundwaters the most likely explanation is sorption of Mn to Fe oxides, which are released into solution when Fe is reduced. Since the occurrence of elevated Mn concentrations is widespread in groundwaters from all aquifer types, consideration should be given to monitoring Mn more widely in both public and private groundwater supplies in Scotland and by implication elsewhere. Copyright 2010 NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617) are...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617) are...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617) are...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617) are...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. Essentiality, Toxicity and Uncertainty in the Risk Assessment of Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments of manganese by inhalation or oral routes of exposure typically acknowledge the duality of manganese as an essential element at low doses and a toxic metal at high doses. Previously, however, risk assessors were unable to describe manganese pharmacokinetics quant...

  17. Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Matthew Ervin, Vinay Raju, Mary Hendrickson, and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6289 December 2012 Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide...From - To) October 2011 to September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

  18. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. Essentiality, Toxicity and Uncertainty in the Risk Assessment of Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments of manganese by inhalation or oral routes of exposure typically acknowledge the duality of manganese as an essential element at low doses and a toxic metal at high doses. Previously, however, risk assessors were unable to describe manganese pharmacokinetics quant...

  3. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  4. Manganous Ion as a Spin Label in Studies of Mitochondrial Uptake of Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, T. E.; Puskin, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Manganous ion (Mn2+) has been used as a spin label for studies of divalent cation uptake by rat liver mitochondria. Spin exchange, observed in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of a fraction of the transported Mn2+, shows that this fraction is bound in regions of high local concentration within the mitochondria. The average separation of manganese ions in that fraction is estimated to be 4.0 ±0.6 A at the time of greatest concentration. PMID:4337705

  5. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

  6. Studies on manganese nodule leached residues 2. Adsorption of aqueous phosphate on manganese nodule leached residues.

    PubMed

    Parida, K M; Mallick, S; Dash, S S

    2005-10-01

    Adsorption of phosphate onto manganese nodule leached residues was investigated as a possible alternative to conventional methods of phosphate removal from industrial effluents. Adsorption behaviors were studied as a function of time, temperature, pH, and concentration level of adsorbate and adsorbent in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer medium. The adsorption of phosphate follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The magnitude of adsorption of phosphate in manganese nodule leached residues was compared with that in naturally occurring Mn nodule. Manganese nodule leached residues show better affinity toward phosphate adsorption.

  7. Metal Uptake by Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense metalloenzyme that protects cells from damage by the toxic oxygen metabolite, superoxide free radical, formed as an unavoidable by-product of aerobic metabolism. Many years of research have gone into understanding how the metal cofactor interacts with small molecules in its catalytic role. In contrast, very little is presently known about how the protein acquires its metal cofactor, an important step in the maturation of the protein and one that is absolutely required for its biological function. Recent work is beginning to provide insight into the mechanisms of metal delivery to manganese superoxide dismutase in vivo and in vitro. PMID:19699328

  8. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    SciTech Connect

    Rousselet, Estelle |; Richaud, Pierre ||; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain |||; Moulis, Jean-Marc ||

    2008-08-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 {mu}M of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 {mu}M of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals.

  9. Tissue distribution of manganese in iron-sufficient or iron-deficient rats after stainless steel welding-fume exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Won; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Han, Jeong Hee; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Kwon, Il Hoon; Mun, Je-Hyeok; Yu, Il Je

    2007-05-01

    Welders can be exposed to high levels of manganese through welding fumes. Although it has already been suggested that excessive manganese exposure causes neurotoxicity, called manganism, the pathway of manganese transport to the brain with welding-fume exposure remains unclear. Iron is an essential metal that maintains a homeostasis in the body. The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) transports iron and other divalent metals, such as manganese, and the depletion of iron is known to upregulate DMT1 expression. Accordingly, this study investigated the tissue distribution of manganese in iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats after welding-fume exposure. The feeding of an iron-deficient diet for 4 wk produced a depletion of body iron, such as decreased iron levels in the serum and tissues, and upregulated the DMT1 expression in the rat duodenum. The iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats were then exposed to welding fumes generated from manual metal arc stainless steel at a concentration of 63.5 +/- 2.3 mg/m3 for 2 h per day over a 30-day period. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 15, and 30. The level of body iron in the iron-deficient rats was restored to the control level after the welding-fume exposure. However, the tissue distributions of manganese after the welding-fume exposure showed similar patterns in both the iron-sufficient and iron-deficient groups. The concentration of manganese increased in the lungs and liver on days 15 and 30, and increased in the olfactory bulb on day 30. Slight and heterogeneous increases of manganese were observed in different brain regions. Consequently, these findings suggest that the presence of Fe in the inhaled welding fumes may not have a significant effect on the uptake of Mn into the brain. Thus, the condition of iron deficiency did not seem to have any apparent effect on the transport of Mn into the brain after the inhalation of welding fumes.

  10. Importance of vegetation for manganese cycling in temperate forested watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Jin, Lixin; Andrews, Danielle M.; Eissenstat, David M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-02-01

    Many surface soils are enriched in metals due to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs. To predict the persistence of these contaminants in soils, factors that impact rates of metal removal from soils into streams must be understood. Experiments at containerized seedling (mesocosm), pedon, and catchment scales were used to investigate the influence of vegetation on manganese (Mn) transport at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania, USA, where past atmospheric inputs from industrial sources have enriched Mn in surface soils. Large quantities of Mn that were leached from soil components into solution were taken up by vegetation; as a result, only relatively small quantities of Mn were removed from soil into effluent and streams. Manganese uptake into vegetation exceeded Mn losses in soil leachate by 20-200X at all scales, and net Mn loss from soils decreased in the presence of vegetation due to uptake into plant tissues. The majority of Mn taken up by forest vegetation at SSHCZO each year was returned to the soil in leaf litter and consequently immobilized as Mn oxides that formed during litter decomposition. Thus, plant uptake of Mn combined with rapid oxidation of Mn during litter decomposition contribute to long-term retention. Current release rates of soluble Mn from SSHCZO soils were similar to release rates from the larger Susquehanna River Basin, indicating that the processes observed at SSHCZO may be widespread across the region. Indeed, although atmospheric deposition of Mn has declined, surface soils at SSHCZO and throughout the eastern United States remain enriched in Mn. If recycling through vegetation can attenuate the removal of Mn from soils, as observed in this study, then Mn concentrations in soils and river waters will likely decrease slowly over time following watershed contamination. Understanding the role of vegetation in regulating metal transport is important for evaluating the long-term effects of historical

  11. Manganese control during ozonation of water containing organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczak, A.; Aieta, E.M. ); Knocke, W.R. ); Hubel, R.E. )

    1993-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the removal of dissolved manganese from Delaware River water. Prior pilot-plant results had indicated that manganese was not effectively removed by ozonation, sludge blanket clarification, and filtration, because of the breakthrough or resolubilization of colloidal manganese dioxide [MnO[sub 2](s)] species. Increasing the alkalinity was not an effective means of controlling manganese. But application of potassium permanganate after ozonation and at the beginning of coagulation considerably improved the removal of soluble manganese.

  12. Manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase expression and lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens

    SciTech Connect

    Perie, F.; Gold, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Extracellular manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were detected in cultures of Dichomitus squalens (Polyporus anceps) under conditions favoring lignin degradation. In contrast, neither extracellular lignin peroxidase nor aryl alcohol oxidase activity was detected in cultures grown under a wide variety of conditions. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-ring-, -side chain-, and -methoxy-labeled synthetic guaiacyl lignins by D. squalens and the expression of extracellular manganese peroxidase were dependent on the presence of Mn(II), suggesting that manganese peroxidase is an important component of this organism's lignin degradation system. The expression of laccase activity was independent of manganese. In contrast to previous findings with Phanero-chaete chrysosporium, lignin degradation by D. squalens proceeded in the cultures containing excess carbon and nitrogen.

  13. Thermal and magnetic properties of manganese oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninova, Vera Nikolaevna

    This thesis reports a study of the thermal, magnetic and transport properties of perovskite manganese oxides A1-xBxMnO3 (A = La, Nd, and Pr; B = Ca, Ba, and Sr). The ferromagnetic (FM) metallic (low x) and the charge-ordered (CO) (high x) doping regimes were studied in order to better understand the complex behavior of these materials. In the metallic doping range the low temperature magnetization was found to be in agreement with the Bloch law for ferromagnetic spin waves, and the spin-wave stiffness was determined. Important parameters such as the Debye temperature and the effective mass of the charge carriers were determined from low temperature specific heat experiments. The effective mass of the charge carriers was found to be 2--4 times heavier than the mass obtained from band structure calculations suggesting an important role of electron-phonon interactions in these materials. In order to better understand the nature of the metal-insulator transition at the ferromagnetic TC the resistivity and magnetization of epitaxial thin films of La0.67Ca 0.33MnO3 and Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were studied. It was found that the behavior of the resistivity and magnetization near TC is inconsistent with Anderson localization as proposed by several theories. Various compositions of charge-ordered La1-xCaxMnO3 and Pr1-xCa1-xMnO 3 were studied to better understand the CO transition and its ground state. From powder neutron diffraction measurements we found that the CO antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic metallic phases coexist at low temperatures. Charge ordered Pr1-xCaxMnO3 and La1-xCax MnO3 (x ≈ 0.5) were found to have an anomalous excess specific heat ( C') at low temperatures (T < 20 K). This C' contribution has a temperature dependence consistent with non-magnetic excitations with a dispersion relation e = Delta' + Bq2. Surprisingly, it was found that a magnetic field sufficient to induce the transition from the insulating CO (and AFM) state to the metallic FM state is

  14. Thermodynamics of carbon and oxygen solutions in manganese melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashevskii, V. Ya.

    2007-12-01

    The thermodynamics of carbon and oxygen solutions in manganese melts is studied. An equation for the temperature dependence of the activity coefficient of carbon in liquid manganese is obtained (γ{C(Mn)/0}= -1.5966 + (1.0735 × 10-3) T). The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of the reaction of carbon dissolved in liquid manganese with the oxygen of manganese oxide is shown to be described by the equation Δ G {T/0}= 375264 - 184.66 T(J/mol). This reaction can noticeably be developed depending on the carbon content at temperatures of 1700 1800°C. The deoxidation ability of carbon in manganese melts is shown to be much lower than that in iron and nickel melts due to the higher affinity of manganese to both oxygen and carbon. Although the deoxidation ability of carbon in manganese melts increases with temperature, the process develops at rather high carbon contents in all cases.

  15. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos

    2015-01-01

    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings.

  16. Transcriptome profile of yeast reveals the essential role of PMA2 and uncharacterized gene YBR056W-A (MNC1) in adaptation to toxic manganese concentration.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N; Kulakovskaya, E; Zvonarev, A; Penin, A; Eliseeva, I; Teterina, A; Lando, A; Kulakovskiy, I V; Kulakovskaya, T

    2017-02-22

    Adaptation of S. cerevisiae to toxic concentrations of manganese provides a physiological model of heavy metal homeostasis. Transcriptome analysis of adapted yeast cells reveals upregulation of cell wall and plasma membrane proteins including membrane transporters. The gene expression in adapted cells differs from that of cells under short-term toxic metal stress. Among the most significantly upregulated genes are PMA2, encoding an ortholog of Pma1 H(+)-ATPase of the plasma membrane, and YBR056W-A, encoding a putative membrane protein Mnc1 that belongs to the CYSTM family and presumably chelates manganese at the cell surface. We demonstrate that these genes are essential for the adaptation to toxic manganese concentration and propose an extended scheme of manganese detoxification in yeast.

  17. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for 2...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for 2...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manganese violet is a violet pigment obtained by reacting phosphoric acid, ammonium dihydrogen... less than 81 percent. Volatile matter at 135 °C for 3 hours, not more than 1 percent. Water soluble... hours with 100 milliliters of freshly boiled distilled water), not more than 4.7 and not less than 2.5...

  20. Geology of the manganese deposits of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Straczek, John A.

    1958-01-01

    Deposits of manganese ore have been found in five of the six provinces of Cuba and have been reported from the sixth.  Only Oriente and Pinar del Rio provinces have more than a few known deposits and only the deposits of Oriente have yielded any appreciable amount of ore.

  1. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash (at 600 °C), not... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for 2...

  3. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  4. Chemically activated manganese dioxide for dry batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, M.; Abbas, H.

    1994-10-01

    The present investigation has enabled us to convert inactive beta-manganese dioxide to high electrochemically active types by chemical processes. Natural and chemically prepared beta-manganese dioxides were roasted at 1050 C to form Mn3O4. This compound was subjected to activation treatment using hydrochloric and sulfuric acid under various reaction conditions. The manganese dioxide so obtained was examined by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential thermal, and chemical analyses. The structure of the dioxide obtained was found to be greatly dependent on the origin of MnO2 and type of acid used. Treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded the so-called gamma-variety while sulfuric acid tended to produce gamma- or alpha-MnO2. In addition, waste manganese sulfate obtained as by-product from sulfuric acid digestion treatment was recycled and electrolytically oxidized to gamma-MnO2. The discharge performance of the above-mentioned MnO2 samples as battery cathodic active material was evaluated and compared with the ordinary battery grade.

  5. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong

    As the fast development of the electronic portable devices and drastic fading of fossil energy sources. The need for portable secondary energy sources is increasingly urgent. As a result, lithium ion batteries are being investigated intensely to meet the performance requirements. Among various electrode materials, the most expensive and capacity limiting component is the positive materials. Based on this, researches have been mostly focused on the development of novel cathode materials with high capacity and energy density and the lithium transition metal orthosilicates have been identified as possible high performance cathodes. Here in, we report the synthesis of a kind of lithium transition metal orthosilicates electrode lithium manganese silicate. Lithium manganese silicate has the advantage of high theoretical capacity, low cost raw material and safety. In this thesis, lithium manganese silicate are prepared using different silicon sources. The structure of silicon sources preferred are examined. Nonionic block copolymers surfactant, P123, is tried as carbon source and mophology directing agent. Lithium manganese silicate's performances are improved by adding P123.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  12. Soil manganese enrichment from industrial inputs: a gastropod perspective.

    PubMed

    Bordean, Despina-Maria; Nica, Dragos V; Harmanescu, Monica; Banatean-Dunea, Ionut; Gergen, Iosif I

    2014-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems.

  13. Soil Manganese Enrichment from Industrial Inputs: A Gastropod Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bordean, Despina-Maria; Nica, Dragos V.; Harmanescu, Monica; Banatean-Dunea, Ionut; Gergen, Iosif I.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems. PMID:24454856

  14. Reduction of liver manganese concentration in response to the ingestion of excess zinc: identification using metallomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tomoya; Terachi, Tomohiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-08-01

    To date, minerals of interest have been analyzed individually to understand mineral dynamics and metabolism. Our recent development of metallomic analyses enabled us to evaluate minerals in an unbiased and global manner. Here, we evaluated the effects of ingestion of excess zinc to plasma and tissue concentrations of minerals in growing rats. A total of 26 minerals were simultaneously evaluated by metallomic analyses using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in semi-quantification mode; the concentrations of several minerals exhibited consistent changes in response to the concentrations of dietary zinc. Manganese concentrations in plasma and femur increased, while concentrations in the liver and pancreas decreased with increasing dietary zinc concentrations. Because the interaction between zinc and manganese is not known, we further focused our analysis on liver manganese. Quantitative analyses also indicated that the hepatic concentration of manganese decreased in response to the ingestion of diets containing excess zinc, a result that is partly explained by the decreased expression of hepatic Zip8, a manganese transporter. The present study reveals mineral interaction by using metallomic analyses and proposes a possible mechanism that underlies this novel interaction.

  15. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne . E-mail: wessling@hsph.harvard.edu

    2006-01-15

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased {approx}2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, {sup 54}Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. {sup 54}Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected {sup 54}Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration.

  16. A SLC39A8 variant causes manganese deficiency, and glycosylation and mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Riley, Lisa G; Cowley, Mark J; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Roscioli, Tony; Thorburn, David R; Prelog, Kristina; Bahlo, Melanie; Sue, Carolyn M; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Christodoulou, John

    2017-03-01

    SLC39A8 variants have recently been reported to cause a type II congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) in patients with intellectual disability and cerebellar atrophy. Here we report a novel SLC39A8 variant in siblings with features of Leigh-like mitochondrial disease. Two sisters born to consanguineous Lebanese parents had profound developmental delay, dystonia, seizures and failure to thrive. Brain MRI of both siblings identified bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities on T2-weighted imaging and cerebral atrophy. CSF lactate was elevated in patient 1 and normal in patient 2. Respiratory chain enzymology was only performed on patient 1 and revealed complex IV and II + III activity was low in liver, with elevated complex I activity. Complex IV activity was borderline low in patient 1 muscle and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was reduced. Whole genome sequencing identified a homozygous Chr4(GRCh37):g.103236869C>G; c.338G>C; p.(Cys113Ser) variant in SLC39A8, located in one of eight regions identified by homozygosity mapping. SLC39A8 encodes a manganese and zinc transporter which localises to the cell and mitochondrial membranes. Patient 2 blood and urine manganese levels were undetectably low. Transferrin electrophoresis of patient 2 serum revealed a type II CDG defect. Oral supplementation with galactose and uridine led to improvement of the transferrin isoform pattern within 14 days of treatment initiation. Oral manganese has only recently been added to the treatment. These results suggest SLC39A8 deficiency can cause both a type II CDG and Leigh-like syndrome, possibly via reduced activity of the manganese-dependent enzymes β-galactosyltransferase and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase.

  17. Manganese accumulation in the mouse ear following systemic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ci; Schneider, Scott N; Miller, Marian; Nebert, Daniel W; Lind, Caroline; Roda, Sandy M; Afton, Scott E; Caruso, Joseph A; Genter, Mary Beth

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence in human populations that exposure to manganese (Mn), or Mn in combination with excessive noise exposure, results in hearing loss. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of the metal transporters DMT1, ZIP8, and ZIP14 in control mouse ears. ZIP8 is known to have a high affinity (K(m) = 2.2 microM) for Mn transport, and ZIP8 protein was localized to the blood vessels of the ear by immunohistochemistry. We treated mice (strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) with Mn (100 mg/kg MnCl(2), by subcutaneous injection, on three alternating days), and Mn was significantly elevated in the ears of the treated mice. Mn concentrations remained elevated over controls for at least 2 weeks after treatment. These studies demonstrate that metal transporters are present in the mouse ear and that Mn can accumulate in the ear following systemic exposure. Future studies should focus on whether Mn exposure is associated with hearing deficits.

  18. Neuroimaging identifies increased manganese deposition in infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Judy L; Anderson, Adam; Slaughter, James Christopher; Aschner, Michael; Steele, Steven; Beller, Amy; Mouvery, Amanda; Furlong, Heather M; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2015-12-01

    Manganese, an essential metal for normal growth and development, is neurotoxic on excessive exposure. Standard trace element-supplemented neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) has a high manganese content and bypasses normal gastrointestinal absorptive control mechanisms, which places infants at risk of manganese neurotoxicity. Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry demonstrating short T1 relaxation time (T1R) in the basal ganglia reflects excessive brain manganese accumulation. This study tested the hypothesis that infants with greater parenteral manganese exposure have higher brain manganese accumulation, as measured by MR imaging, than do infants with lower parenteral manganese exposure. Infants exposed to parenteral manganese were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Infants classified as having high manganese exposure received >75% of their nutrition in the preceding 4 wk as PN. All others were classified as having low exposure. Daily parenteral and enteral manganese intakes were calculated. Whole-blood manganese was measured by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Brain MR relaxometry was interpreted by a masked reviewer. Linear regression models, adjusted for gestational age (GA) at birth, estimated the association of relaxometry indexes with total and parenteral manganese exposures. Seventy-three infants were enrolled. High-quality MR images were available for 58 infants, 39 with high and 19 with low manganese exposure. Four infants with a high exposure had blood manganese concentrations >30 μg/L. After controlling for GA, higher parenteral and total manganese intakes were associated with a lower T1R (P = 0.01) in the globus pallidus and putamen but were not associated with whole-blood manganese (range: 3.6-56.6 μg/L). Elevated conjugated bilirubin magnified the association between parenteral manganese and decreasing T1R. A short T1R for GA identifies infants at risk of increased brain manganese deposition associated with PN

  19. Organic matter interactions with natural manganese oxide and synthetic birnessite.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Fontaine, Claude; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Gallard, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Redox reactions of inorganic and organic contaminants on manganese oxides have been widely studied. However, these reactions are strongly affected by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) at the surface of the manganese oxide. Interestingly, the mechanism behind NOM adsorption onto manganese oxides remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of different NOM isolates to synthetic manganese oxide (birnessite) and natural manganese oxide (Mn sand) were investigated. Natural manganese oxide is composed of both amorphous and well-crystallised Mn phases (i.e., lithiophorite, birnessite, and cryptomelane). NOM adsorption on both manganese oxides increased with decreasing pH (from pH7 to 5), in agreement with surface complexation and ligand exchange mechanisms. The presence of calcium enhanced the rate of NOM adsorption by decreasing the electrostatic repulsion between NOM and Mn sand. Also, the adsorption was limited by the diffusion of NOM macromolecules through the Mn sand pores. At equilibrium, a preferential adsorption of high molecular weight molecules enriched in aromatic moieties was observed for both the synthetic and natural manganese oxide. Hydrophobic interactions may explain the adsorption of organic matter on manganese oxides. The formation of low molecular weight UV absorbing molecules was detected with the synthetic birnessite, suggesting oxidation and reduction processes occurring during NOM adsorption. This study provides a deep insight for both environmental and engineered systems to better understand the impact of NOM adsorption on the biogeochemical cycle of manganese.

  20. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-03-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of /sup 54/Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed.

  1. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  2. Manganese Redistribution by Calcium-stimulated Vesicle Trafficking Bypasses the Need for P-type ATPase Function*

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn2+/Ca2+ transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn2+ transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn2+ transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  3. Manganese redistribution by calcium-stimulated vesicle trafficking bypasses the need for P-type ATPase function.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-04-10

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn(2+)/Ca(2+) transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn(2+) transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn(2+) transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Ferroportin deficiency impairs manganese metabolism in flatiron mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ah; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We examined the physiologic role of ferroportin (Fpn) in manganese (Mn) export using flatiron (ffe/+) mice, a genetic model of Fpn deficiency. Blood (0.0123 vs. 0.0107 mg/kg; P = 0.0003), hepatic (1.06 vs. 0.96 mg/kg; P = 0.0125), and bile Mn levels (79 vs. 38 mg/kg; P = 0.0204) were reduced in ffe/+ mice compared to +/+ controls. Erythrocyte Mn–superoxide dismutase was also reduced at 6 (0.154 vs. 0.096, P = 0.0101), 9 (0.131 vs. 0.089, P = 0.0162), and 16 weeks of age (0.170 vs. 0.090 units/mg protein/min; P < 0.0001). 54Mn uptake after intragastric gavage was markedly reduced in ffe/+ mice (0.0187 vs. 0.0066% dose; P = 0.0243), while clearance of injected isotope was similar in ffe/+ and +/+ mice. These values were compared to intestinal absorption of 59Fe, which was significantly reduced in ffe/+ mice (8.751 vs. 3.978% dose; P = 0.0458). The influence of the ffe mutation was examined in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and human embryonic HEK293T cells. While expression of wild-type Fpn reversed Mn-induced cytotoxicity, ffe mutant H32R failed to confer protection. These combined results demonstrate that Fpn plays a central role in Mn transport and that flatiron mice provide an excellent genetic model to explore the role of this exporter in Mn homeostasis.—Seo, Y. A., Wessling-Resnick, M. Ferroportin deficiency impairs manganese metabolism in flatiron mice. PMID:25782988

  5. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    reaction, used to produce neutrons by the KN, were conducted to determine neutron spectral information, angular distributions and yields. These data were used as input for the transport code MCNP, and computer simulations of experimental conditions were performed. The simulations consistently overestimate experiment measurements by a constant factor, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. It has been concluded that IVNAA measurements of the brain would only provide limited information, however, measurement of both the liver and hand bone should be possible. It is recommended that preliminary in vivo measurements be pursued for the hand, as metabolic data suggest that bone may be a long term storage site for manganese.

  6. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  7. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Sutphin, David M.; Cannon, William F.

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of manganese, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of manganese on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  8. Conversion of aminonitrotoluenes by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M

    1998-01-01

    Preparations of extracellular manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Nematoloma frowardii and the litter decaying fungus Stropharia rugosoannulata converted rapidly the main intermediates of the explosive 2,4,-trinitrotoluene--the aminonitrotoluenes. In a cell-free system, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene were degraded without formation of identifiable metabolites. Radioactive experiments using a complex mixture of uniform ring-labeled 14C-TNT reduction products demonstrated the partial direct mineralization of these compounds by manganese peroxidase. The extent of aminonitrotoluene conversion as well as the release of 14CO2 from TNT reduction products were considerably enhanced in the presence of thiols like reduced glutathione or the amino acid L-cystein, which probably act as secondary mediators.

  9. Kinetics of decomposition of manganese slimes by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhaparidze, P.I.; Kelbakiani, N.V.

    1982-02-20

    Lean manganese ores, and slimes obtained during mechanical beneficiation of Chiatura manganese ores, have been treated by the sulfite process, by saturation of suspensions with sulfur dioxide. The kinetics of saturation of the suspensions with sulfur dioxide, and transfer of manganese into solution was studied. Manganese was leached out by passing sulfur dioxide through the slime suspension. The sulfur dioxide dissolved in water to form the weakly dissociated sulfurous acid in equilibrium with its anhydrides. The leaching was conducted without access of air at room temperature. An equation for determination of the rate of sulfur dioxide adsorption by a manganese-containing slurry and for calculation of the degree of manganese extraction into solution was developed from the experimental results. The reaction order and the control regime of the processes were determined.

  10. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

  12. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Suib, Steven Lawrence [Storrs, CT; Yuan, Jikang [Storrs, CT

    2011-02-15

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves.

  13. Maternal Blood Manganese Levels and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Bouchard, Maryse; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Manganese is both an essential element and a known neurotoxicant to children. High manganese exposures have been associated with negative reproductive outcomes in animals, but few epidemiologic studies have examined the effects of human fetal manganese exposure. Methods We studied the association between maternal and umbilical cord blood manganese levels and birth weight in a cohort of 470 mother-infant pairs born at term (≥37 weeks gestation) in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Nonlinear spline and quadratic regression models were used to test the hypothesis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between manganese levels and birth weight. Results Mean (standard deviation) concentration of manganese was 2.4 (0.95) μg/dL in the maternal blood and 4.2 (1.6) μg/dL in the cord blood. Umbilical cord manganese was not associated with birth weight. A nonlinear relationship was observed between maternal manganese and birth weight after adjusting for potential confounders. Birth weight increased with manganese levels up to 3.1 μg/L, and then a slight reduction in weight was observed at higher levels. Compared with the 3.1-μg/L point of inflection, birth weight estimates at the 5th (1.3 μg/L) and 95th (4.0 μg/L) percentiles of exposure were −160 g (95% confidence interval = −286 to −33) and −46 g (−38 to 131), respectively. Conclusions Maternal blood manganese levels during pregnancy are associated with birth weight in a nonlinear pattern in full-term infants. These findings suggest that manganese may affect fetal growth. Possible detrimental effects of elevated manganese levels on the fetus should be further examined in more highly exposed populations. PMID:19289966

  14. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

  15. Manganese toxicity to chlorophyll synthesis in tobacco callus. [Nicotiana tabacum

    SciTech Connect

    Clairmont, K.B.; Hagar, W.G.; Davis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pith explants were grown on manganese containing medium. At moderate concentration (10 millimolar), manganese selectivity inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, resulting initially in growth of white callus. Several weeks later the white callus turned brown due to the accumulation of a pigment identified as protoporphyrin IX by its elution profile using high performance liquid chromatography, by its absorption spectrum, and by its fluorescence properties. At a concentration of 100 millimolar manganese the pigment accumulated without growth of the explant.

  16. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez-Librado, José Luis; Anaya-Martínez, Verónica; Gutierrez-Valdez, Ana Luisa; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Montiel-Flores, Enrique; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21209715

  17. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Manganese-induced turnover of TMEM165.

    PubMed

    Potelle, Sven; Dulary, Eudoxie; Climer, Leslie; Duvet, Sandrine; Morelle, Willy; Vicogne, Dorothée; Lebredonchelle, Elodie; Houdou, Marine; Spriet, Corentin; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Peanne, Romain; Klein, André; DE Bettignies, Geoffroy; Morsomme, Pierre; Matthijs, Gert; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lupashin, Vladimir; Foulquier, Francois

    2017-03-07

    TMEM165 deficiencies lead to one of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG), a group of inherited diseases where the glycosylation process is altered. We recently demonstrated that the Golgi glycosylation defect due to TMEM165 deficiency resulted from Golgi manganese homeostasis defect and that Mn2+ supplementation was sufficient to rescue normal glycosylation. In this paper we highlight TMEM165 as a novel Golgi protein sensitive to manganese. When cells were exposed to high Mn2+ concentrations, TMEM165 was degraded in lysosomes. Remarkably, while the variant R126H was sensitive upon manganese exposure, the variant E108G recently identified in a novel TMEM165-CDG patient, was found to be insensitive. We also showed that the E108G mutation did not abolish the function of TMEM165 in Golgi glycosylation. Altogether this study identified the Golgi protein TMEM165 as a novel Mn2+ sensitive protein in mammalian cells and pointed to the crucial importance of the glutamic acid (E108) in the cytosolic ELGDK motif in Mn2+ induced degradation of TMEM165.

  19. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  20. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

  1. MANGANESE IN EUKARYOTES: THE ROLE OF DMT1

    PubMed Central

    Au, Catherine; Benedetto, Alexandre; Aschner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a transition metal that is essential for normal cell growth and development, but is toxic at high concentrations. While Mn deficiency is uncommon in humans, Mn toxicity is known to be readily prevalent due to occupational overexposure in miners, smelters and possibly welders. Excessive exposure to Mn can cause Parkinson's disease-like syndrome; patients typically exhibit extrapyramidal symptoms that include tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia (Calne et al., 1994; Dobson et al., 2004). Mn-induced motor neuron diseases have been the subjects of numerous studies; however, this review is not intended to discuss its neurotoxic potential or its role in the etiology of motor neuron disorders. Rather, it will focus on Mn uptake and transport via the orthologues of the divalent metal transporter (DMT1) and its possible implications to Mn toxicity in various categories of eukaryotic systems, such as in vitro cell lines, in vivo rodents, the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:18565586

  2. A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

  3. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy of mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnick, I.E.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; Newbury, D.E.; Small, J.A.; Potter, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paramagnetic manganese (II) can be employed as a calcium surrogate to sensitize magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to the processing of calcium during bone formation. At high doses, osteoblasts can take up sufficient quantities of manganese, resulting in marked changes in water proton T1, T2 and magnetization transfer ratio values compared to those for untreated cells. Accordingly, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results confirm that the manganese content of treated cell pellets was 10-fold higher than that for untreated cell pellets. To establish that manganese is processed like calcium and deposited as bone, calvaria from the skull of embryonic chicks were grown in culture medium supplemented with 1 mM MnCl2 and 3 mM CaCl2. A banding pattern of high and low T2 values, consistent with mineral deposits with high and low levels of manganese, was observed radiating from the calvarial ridge. The results of ICP-MS studies confirm that manganese-treated calvaria take up increasing amounts of manganese with time in culture. Finally, elemental mapping studies with electron probe microanalysis confirmed local variations in the manganese content of bone newly deposited on the calvarial surface. This is the first reported use of manganese-enhanced MRM to study the process whereby calcium is taken up by osteoblasts cells and deposited as bone. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese.

  6. Alteration at translational but not transcriptional level of transferrin receptor expression following manganese exposure at the blood–CSF barrier in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, G. Jane; Zhao, Qiuqu; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese exposure alters iron homeostasis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), possibly by acting on iron transport mechanisms localized at the blood–brain barrier and/or blood–CSF barrier. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that manganese exposure may change the binding affinity of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) to mRNAs encoding transferrin receptor (TfR), thereby influencing iron transport at the blood–CSF barrier. A primary culture of choroidal epithelial cells was adapted to grow on a permeable membrane sandwiched between two culture chambers to mimic blood–CSF barrier. Trace 59Fe was used to determine the transepithelial transport of iron. Following manganese treatment (100 µM for 24 h), the initial flux rate constant (Ki) of iron was increased by 34%, whereas the storage of iron in cells was reduced by 58%, as compared to controls. A gel shift assay demonstrated that manganese exposure increased the binding of IRP1 and IRP2 to the stem loop-containing mRNAs. Consequently, the cellular concentrations of TfR proteins were increased by 84% in comparison to controls. Assays utilizing RT-PCR, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and nuclear run off techniques showed that manganese treatment did not affect the level of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) encoding TfR, nor did it affect the level of nascent TfR mRNA. However, manganese exposure resulted in a significantly increased level of TfR mRNA and reduced levels of ferritin mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that manganese exposure increases iron transport at the blood–CSF barrier; the effect is likely due to manganese action on translational events relevant to the production of TfR, but not due to its action on transcriptional, gene expression of TfR. The disrupted protein–TfR mRNA interaction in the choroidal epithelial cells may explain the toxicity of manganese at the blood–CSF barrier. PMID:15893546

  7. Alteration at translational but not transcriptional level of transferrin receptor expression following manganese exposure at the blood-CSF barrier in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G. Jane; Zhao Qiuqu; Zheng Wei . E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2005-06-01

    Manganese exposure alters iron homeostasis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), possibly by acting on iron transport mechanisms localized at the blood-brain barrier and/or blood-CSF barrier. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that manganese exposure may change the binding affinity of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) to mRNAs encoding transferrin receptor (TfR), thereby influencing iron transport at the blood-CSF barrier. A primary culture of choroidal epithelial cells was adapted to grow on a permeable membrane sandwiched between two culture chambers to mimic blood-CSF barrier. Trace {sup 59}Fe was used to determine the transepithelial transport of iron. Following manganese treatment (100 {mu}M for 24 h), the initial flux rate constant (K {sub i}) of iron was increased by 34%, whereas the storage of iron in cells was reduced by 58%, as compared to controls. A gel shift assay demonstrated that manganese exposure increased the binding of IRP1 and IRP2 to the stem loop-containing mRNAs. Consequently, the cellular concentrations of TfR proteins were increased by 84% in comparison to controls. Assays utilizing RT-PCR, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and nuclear run off techniques showed that manganese treatment did not affect the level of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) encoding TfR, nor did it affect the level of nascent TfR mRNA. However, manganese exposure resulted in a significantly increased level of TfR mRNA and reduced levels of ferritin mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that manganese exposure increases iron transport at the blood-CSF barrier; the effect is likely due to manganese action on translational events relevant to the production of TfR, but not due to its action on transcriptional, gene expression of TfR. The disrupted protein-TfR mRNA interaction in the choroidal epithelial cells may explain the toxicity of manganese at the blood-CSF barrier.

  8. Manganese Catalyzed C-H Halogenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C-H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon-halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds to C-Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L-Mn(V)═O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn-F fluorine source, effecting carbon-fluorine bond formation. Indeed, this idea

  9. Manganese Catalyzed C–H Halogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T.

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C–H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon–halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C–H bonds to C–Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L–MnV$=$O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn–F fluorine source, effecting carbon–fluorine bond

  10. TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Bilskis, Christina L.; Kennedy, David W.

    2006-09-01

    cells with very low contrast produced principally by electron-dense manganese precipitates. Thin sections were imaged and analyzed using JEOL 2010 HRTEM coupled with EDS (Oxford) and EELS (Gatan) systems. Manganese uptake was measured using a colorimetric method. Cells incubated with Mn solutions were able to take up about 150uM of Mn(II) or Mn(IV) in 48 hours. The predominant accumulation of Mn was associated with the outer membrane for both Mn substrates. Massive deposits seemed to be related in a large extent to the external polymeric substances (EPS) as shown in Fig. 1A-C. Elemental analyses of these precipitates revealed a signal consistent with manganese phosphate. The potential of EPS such as polysaccharides for biosorption or reduction of metals has been described [4], however, the fact that Mn bound to the EPS withstood multiple washes during TEM sample processing is remarkable. From our work with Gram-negative soil bacteria, we hypothesized that the periplasm, an area between the outer and plasma membrane, might be the storage space for internal Mn in pool B. This phenomenon was not observed at any time point for either culture exposed to the Mn. Instead, thin layers of Mn deposits were often found lining the outer and plasma membrane (F). In the MnCl2 solution only, we also observed fine deposits of Mn precipitates along the thylakoid membranes deep inside the cells (Fig. E). Localization of Mn precipitation sites in Synechocystis has important implications for better understanding of the Mn transport and storage processes within cyanobacterial cells, as well as of metal precipitation, solubilization and cycling in the environment.

  11. Thermodynamics of Manganese Oxides at Bulk and Nanoscale: Phase Formation, Transformation, Oxidation-Reduction, and Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Nancy R.

    Natural manganese oxides are generally formed in surficial environments that are near ambient temperature and water-rich, and may be exposed to wet-dry cycles and a variety of adsorbate species that influence dramatically their level of hydration. Manganese oxide minerals are often poorly crystalline, nanophase, and hydrous. In the near-surface environment they are involved in processes that are important to life, such as water column oxygen cycling, biomineralization, and transport of minerals/nutrients through soils and water. These processes, often involving transformations among manganese oxide polymorphs, are governed by a complex interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics. Manganese oxides are also used in technology as catalysts, and for other applications. The major goal of this dissertation is to examine the energetics of bulk and nanophase manganese oxide phases as a function of particle size, composition, and surface hydration. Careful synthesis and characterization of manganese oxide phases with different surface areas provided samples for the study of enthalpies of formation by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and of the energetics of water adsorption on their surfaces. These data provide a quantitative picture of phase stability and how it changes at the nanoscale. The surface energy of the hydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 0.96 +/- 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.29 +/- 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 1.64 +/- 0.10 J/m2. The surface energy of the anhydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 1.62 +/- 0.08 J/m 2, of Mn2O3 is 1.77 +/- 0.10 J/m 2, and of MnO2 is 2.05 +/- 0.10 J/m2. Supporting preliminary findings (Navrotsky et al., 2010), the spinel phase (Mn3O4) has a lower surface energy (more stabilizing) than bixbyite, while the latter has a smaller surface energy than pyrolusite. These differences significantly change the positions in oxygen fugacity---temperature space of the redox couples Mn3O4-Mn2O 3 and Mn2O3-MnO2 favoring the lower surface enthalpy phase (the

  12. Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Das, Sumistha; Chandra, Sourov; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Akbar, Shirin; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-11-19

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants which intervenes mainly in photosynthesis. In this study we establish that manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) work as a better micronutrient than commercially available manganese salt, MnSO4 (MS) at recommended doses on leguminous plant mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory condition. At higher doses it does not impart toxicity to the plant unlike MS. MnNP-treated chloroplasts show greater photophosphorylation, oxygen evolution with respect to control and MS-treated chloroplasts as determined by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Water splitting by an oxygen evolving complex is enhanced by MnNP in isolated chloroplast as confirmed by polarographic and spectroscopic techniques. Enhanced activity of the CP43 protein of a photosystem II (PS II) Mn4Ca complex influenced better phosphorylation in the electron transport chain in the case of MnNP-treated chloroplast, which is evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and corresponding Western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to augment photosynthesis using MnNP and its detailed correlation with different molecular, biochemical and biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pathways. At effective dosage, MnNP is found to be biosafe both in plant and animal model systems. Therefore MnNP would be a novel potential nanomodulator of photochemistry in the agricultural sector.

  13. Determining the Oxidation States of Manganese in NT2 Cells and Cultured Astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter,K.; Aschner, M.; Miller, L.; Eliseev, R.; Salter, J.; Andersen, K.; Gunter, T.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive brain manganese (Mn) can produce a syndrome called 'manganism', which correlates with loss of striatal dopamine and cell death in the striatum and globus pallidus. The prevalent hypothesis for the cause of this syndrome has been oxidation of cell components by the strong oxidizing agent, Mn{sup 3+}, either formed by oxidation of intracellular Mn{sup 2+} or transported into the cell as Mn{sup 3+}. We have recently used X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the oxidation states of manganese complexes in brain and liver mitochondria and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced and non-induced PC12 cells. No evidence was found for stabilization or accumulation of Mn{sup 3+} complexes because of oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} by reactive oxygen species in these tissues. Here we extend these studies of manganese oxidation state to cells of brain origin, human neuroteratocarcinoma (NT2) cells and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Again we find no evidence for stabilization or accumulation of any Mn{sup 3+} complex derived from oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} under a range of conditions.

  14. Molecular identification of indigenous manganese solubilising bacterial biodiversity from manganese mining deposits.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shreya; Mohanty, Sansuta; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Sukla, Lala B; Das, Alok P

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) ranks twelfth among the most exuberant metal present in the earth's crust and finds its imperative application in the manufacturing steel, chemical, tannery, glass, and battery industries. Solubilisation of Mn can be performed by several bacterial strains which are useful in developing environmental friendly solutions for mining activities. The present investigation aims to isolate and characterize Mn solubilising bacteria from low grade ores from Sanindipur Manganese mine of Sundargh district in Odisha state of India. Four morphologically distinct bacterial strains showing visible growth on Mn supplemented plates were isolated. Mn solubilising ability of the bacterial strains was assessed by visualizing the lightening of the medium appearing around the growing colonies. Three isolates were gram negative and rod shaped while the remaining one was gram positive, coccobacilli. Molecular identification of the isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA sequencing and the bacterial isolates were taxonomically classified as Bacillus anthrasis MSB 2, Acinetobacter sp. MSB 5, Lysinibacillus sp. MSB 11, and Bacillus sp. MMR-1 using BLAST algorithm. The sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP635223, KP635224, KP635225 and JQ936966, respectively. Manganese solubilisation efficiency of 40, 96, 97.5 and 48.5% were achieved by MMR-1, MSB 2, MSB 5 and MSB 11 respectively. The efficiency of Mn solubilisation is suggested with the help of a pH variation study. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in Manganese solubilisation efficiency of bacterial isolates.

  15. Blood-brain barrier flux of aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A

    2006-11-01

    The etiology of many neurodegenerative diseases has been only partly attributed to acquired traits, suggesting environmental factors may also contribute. Metal dyshomeostasis causes or has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Metal flux across the blood-brain barrier (the primary route of brain metal uptake) and the choroid plexuses as well as sensory nerve metal uptake from the nasal cavity are reviewed. Transporters that have been described at the blood-brain barrier are listed to illustrate the extensive possibilities for moving substances into and out of the brain. The controversial role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease, evidence suggesting brain aluminum uptake by transferrin-receptor mediated endocytosis and of aluminum citrate by system Xc;{-} and an organic anion transporter, and results suggesting transporter-mediated aluminum brain efflux are reviewed. The ability of manganese to produce a parkinsonism-like syndrome, evidence suggesting manganese uptake by transferrin- and non-transferrin-dependent mechanisms which may include store-operated calcium channels, and the lack of transporter-mediated manganese brain efflux, are discussed. The evidence for transferrin-dependent and independent mechanisms of brain iron uptake is presented. The copper transporters, ATP7A and ATP7B, and their roles in Menkes and Wilson's diseases, are summarized. Brain zinc uptake is facilitated by L- and D-histidine, but a transporter, if involved, has not been identified. Brain lead uptake may involve a non-energy-dependent process, store-operated calcium channels, and/or an ATP-dependent calcium pump. Methyl mercury can form a complex with L-cysteine that mimics methionine, enabling its transport by the L system. The putative roles of zinc transporters, ZnT and Zip, in regulating brain zinc are discussed. Although brain uptake mechanisms for some metals have been identified, metal efflux from the brain has received little attention, preventing integration of

  16. Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

    2012-11-01

    Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments.

  17. Formation of manganese oxides by bacterially generated superoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learman, D. R.; Voelker, B. M.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A. I.; Hansel, C. M.

    2011-02-01

    Manganese oxide minerals are among the strongest sorbents and oxidants in the environment. The formation of these minerals controls the fate of contaminants, the degradation of recalcitrant carbon, the cycling of nutrients and the activity of anaerobic-based metabolisms. Oxidation of soluble manganese(II) ions to manganese(III/IV) oxides has been primarily attributed to direct enzymatic oxidation by microorganisms. However, the physiological reason for this process remains unknown. Here we assess the ability of a common species of marine bacteria-Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b-to oxidize manganese(II) in the presence of chemical and biological inhibitors. We show that Roseobacter AzwK-3b oxidizes manganese(II) by producing the strong and versatile redox reactant superoxide. The oxidation of manganese(II), and concomitant production of manganese oxides, was inhibited in both the light and dark in the presence of enzymes and metals that scavenge superoxide. Oxidation was also inhibited by various proteases, enzymes that break down bacterial proteins, confirming that the superoxide was bacterially generated. We conclude that bacteria can oxidize manganese(II) indirectly, through the enzymatic generation of extracellular superoxide radicals. We suggest that dark bacterial production of superoxide may be a driving force in metal cycling and mineralization in the environment.

  18. In vitro response of Heterobasidion annosum to manganese

    Treesearch

    W.J. Otrosina; B.L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is postulated to play a role in wood decay caused by certain basidiomycetes. We determined the in vitro response of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. to Mn and compared differences between three isolates each of the S and the P intersterility groups from the Western United States.On manganese-amended malt agar plates, H. annosum produced a brownish-...

  19. Non-heme manganese catalase--the 'other' catalase.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, James W

    2012-09-15

    Non-heme manganese catalases are widely distributed over microbial life and represent an environmentally important alternative to heme-containing catalases in antioxidant defense. Manganese catalases contain a binuclear manganese complex as their catalytic active site rather than a heme, and cycle between Mn(2)(II,II) and Mn(2)(III,III) states during turnover. X-ray crystallography has revealed the key structural elements of the binuclear manganese active site complex that can serve as the starting point for computational studies on the protein. Four manganese catalase enzymes have been isolated and characterized, and the enzyme appears to have a broad phylogenetic distribution including both bacteria and archae. More than 100 manganese catalase genes have been annotated in genomic databases, although the assignment of many of these putative manganese catalases needs to be experimentally verified. Iron limitation, exposure to low levels of peroxide stress, thermostability and cyanide resistance may provide the biological and environmental context for the occurrence of manganese catalases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and structure of the manganese-responsive transcriptional regulator ScaR.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Kate E; Draper, William E; Kliegman, Joseph I; Golynskiy, Misha V; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A T; Phillips, Rebecca K; Brown, Hattie K; Breyer, Wendy A; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Jenkinson, Howard F; Brennan, Richard G; Cohen, Seth M; Glasfeld, Arthur

    2009-11-03

    The streptococcal coaggregation regulator (ScaR) of Streptococcus gordonii is a manganese-dependent transcriptional regulator. When intracellular manganese concentrations become elevated, ScaR represses transcription of the scaCBA operon, which encodes a manganese uptake transporter. A member of the DtxR/MntR family of metalloregulators, ScaR shares sequence similarity with other family members, and many metal-binding residues are conserved. Here, we show that ScaR is an active dimer, with two dimers binding the 46 base pair scaC operator. Each ScaR subunit binds two manganese ions, and the protein is activated by a variety of other metal ions, including Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) but not Zn(2+). The crystal structure of apo-ScaR reveals a tertiary and quaternary structure similar to its homologue, the iron-responsive regulator DtxR. While each DtxR subunit binds a metal ion in two sites, labeled primary and ancillary, crystal structures of ScaR determined in the presence of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) show only a single occupied metal-binding site that is novel to ScaR. The site analogous to the primary site in DtxR is unoccupied, and the ancillary site is absent from ScaR. Instead, metal ions bind to ScaR at a site labeled "secondary", which is composed of Glu80, Cys123, His125, and Asp160 and lies roughly 5 A away from where the ancillary site would be predicted to exist. This difference suggests that ScaR and its closely related homologues are activated by a mechanism distinct from that of either DtxR or MntR.

  1. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  2. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Manganese Export Protein in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Carolyn R; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Peng, Eric D; Payne, Shelley M

    2016-10-15

    Manganese plays an important role in the cellular physiology and metabolism of bacterial species, including the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae The intracellular level of manganese ions is controlled through coordinated regulation of the import and export of this element. We have identified a putative manganese exporter (VC0022), named mneA (manganese exporter A), which is highly conserved among Vibrio spp. An mneA mutant exhibited sensitivity to manganese but not to other cations. Under high-manganese conditions, the mneA mutant showed an almost 50-fold increase in intracellular manganese levels and reduced intracellular iron relative to those of its wild-type parent, suggesting that the mutant's manganese sensitivity is due to the accumulation of toxic levels of manganese and reduced iron. Expression of mneA suppressed the manganese-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli strain carrying a mutation in the nonhomologous manganese export gene, mntP, further supporting a manganese export function for V. cholerae MneA. The level of mneA mRNA was induced approximately 2.5-fold after addition of manganese to the medium, indicating regulation of this gene by manganese. This study offers the first insights into understanding manganese homeostasis in this important pathogen. Bacterial cells control intracellular metal concentrations by coordinating acquisition in metal-limited environments with export in metal-excess environments. We identified a putative manganese export protein, MneA, in Vibrio cholerae An mneA mutant was sensitive to manganese, and this effect was specific to manganese. The mneA mutant accumulated high levels of intracellular manganese with a concomitant decrease in intracellular iron levels when grown in manganese-supplemented medium. Expression of mneA in trans suppressed the manganese sensitivity of an E. coli mntP mutant. This study is the first to investigate manganese export in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology

  3. Toxicity of manganese metallodrugs toward Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Anderson; Borella, Maria Inês; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2014-02-01

    Manganese is an essential metal which can be neurotoxic in some instances. As Mn-based metallodrugs are ever more prevalent in clinical practice, concern regarding the toxic effects of Mn discharges to water bodies on the biota prompted us to study the physicochemical parameters of these complexes and to assess their acute toxicity toward adult Danio rerio individuals, particularly in terms of brain tissue damage. Our results show that the Mn(III)-salen acetate complex EUK108 is toxic, which can be rationalized in terms of its lipophilicity, stability and redox activity.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Chih; Venkataraman, Vijay Shankar; Kee, Hae-Young

    2015-03-01

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) are promising thermoelectric materials that may be broadly deployable because of the abundance of the constituent elements and their non-toxic nature. We study the thermoelectric properties of HMS using density functional theory calculations and tight-binding models to fit these calculations. We estimate charge carrier density and mobility, and compare with experimental data. Theoretically obtained thermal and electrical conductivities, and the Seebeck coefficients are presented. Possible scattering mechanisms and relations to figure of merit are also discussed. NSERC CREATE - HEATER Program.

  5. Oxidation state of marine manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Basler, J.R.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the bulk oxidation state of marine manganese nodules indicates that more than 98% of the Mn in deep ocean nodules is present as Mn(IV). The samples were collected from three quite different areas: the hemipelagic environment of the Guatemala Basin, the pelagic area of the North Pacific, and seamounts in the central Pacific. Results of the study suggest that todorokite in marine nodules is fully oxidized and has the following stoichiometry: (K, Na, Ca, Ba).33(Mg, Cu, Ni).76Mn5O22(H2O)3.2. ?? 1984.

  6. Preparation of highly efficient manganese catalase mimics.

    PubMed

    Triller, Michael U; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-10-21

    The series of compounds [Mn(bpia)(mu-OAc)](2)(ClO(4))(2) (1), [Mn(2)(bpia)(2)(muO)(mu-OAc)](ClO(4))(3).CH(3)CN (2), [Mn(bpia)(mu-O)](2)(ClO(4))(2)(PF(6)).2CH(3)CN (3), [Mn(bpia)(Cl)(2)](ClO)(4) (4), and [(Mn(bpia)(Cl))(2)(mu-O)](ClO(4))(2).2CH(3)CN (5) (bpia = bis(picolyl)(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)amine) represents a structural, spectroscopic, and functional model system for manganese catalases. Compounds 3 and 5 have been synthesized from 2 via bulk electrolysis and ligand exchange, respectively. All complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies. The different bridging ligands including the rare mono-mu-oxo and mono-mu-oxo-mono-mu-carboxylato motifs lead to a variation of the Mn-Mn separation across the four binuclear compounds of 1.50 A (Mn(2)(II,II) = 4.128 A, Mn(2)(III,III) = 3.5326 and 3.2533 A, Mn(2)(III,IV) = 2.624 A). Complexes 1, 2, and 3 are mimics for the Mn(2)(II,II), the Mn(2)(III,III), and the Mn(2)(III,IV) oxidation states of the native enzyme. UV-vis spectra of these compounds show similarities to those of the corresponding oxidation states of manganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Compound 2 exhibits a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compression. While complexes 1 and 3 are efficient catalysts for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide and contain an N(4)O(2) donor set, 4 and 5 show no catalase activity. These complexes have an N(4)Cl(2) and N(4)OCl donor set, respectively, and serve as mimics for halide inhibited manganese catalases. Cyclovoltammetric data show that the substitution of oxygen donor atoms with chloride causes a shift of redox potentials to more positive values. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the most efficient binuclear functional manganese catalase mimic exhibiting saturation kinetics to date.

  7. Manganese enzymes with binuclear active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, to review the recent literature dealing with the mechanisms of catalysis by binuclear manganese enzymes. Second, to summarize and illustrate the general principles of catalysis which distinguish binuclear metalloenzymes from monometallic centers. This review covers primarily the published literature from 1991 up to May 1996. A summary of the major structurally characterized dimanganese enzymes is given. These perform various reaction types including several redox reactions, (de)hydrations, isomerizations, (de)phosphorylation, and phosphoryl transfer. 114 refs.

  8. Essentiality, toxicity, and uncertainty in the risk assessment of manganese.

    PubMed

    Boyes, William K

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessments of manganese by inhalation or oral routes of exposure typically acknowledge the duality of manganese as an essential element at low doses and a toxic metal at high doses. Previously, however, risk assessors were unable to describe manganese pharmacokinetics quantitatively across dose levels and routes of exposure, to account for mass balance, and to incorporate this information into a quantitative risk assessment. In addition, the prior risk assessment of inhaled manganese conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified a number of specific factors that contributed to uncertainty in the risk assessment. In response to a petition regarding the use of a fuel additive containing manganese, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), the U.S. EPA developed a test rule under the U.S. Clean Air Act that required, among other things, the generation of pharmacokinetic information. This information was intended not only to aid in the design of health outcome studies, but also to help address uncertainties in the risk assessment of manganese. To date, the work conducted in response to the test rule has yielded substantial pharmacokinetic data. This information will enable the generation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models capable of making quantitative predictions of tissue manganese concentrations following inhalation and oral exposure, across dose levels, and accounting for factors such as duration of exposure, different species of manganese, and changes of age, gender, and reproductive status. The work accomplished in response to the test rule, in combination with other scientific evidence, will enable future manganese risk assessments to consider tissue dosimetry more comprehensively than was previously possible.

  9. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  10. State of manganese in the photosynthetic apparatus. 2. X-ray absorption edge studies on manganese in photosynthetic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Goodin, D. B.; Wydrzynski, T.; Robertson, A. S.; Klein, M. P.

    1981-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Manganese K-edge are presented for spinach chloroplasts, and chloroplasts which have been Tris treated and hence unable to evolve oxygen. A significant change in the electronic environment of manganese is observed and is attributed to the release of manganese from the thylakoid membranes with a concomitant change in oxidation state. A correlation of the K-edge energy, defined as the energy at the first inflection point, with coordination charge has been established for a number of manganese compounds of known structure and oxidation state. In this study, comparison of the manganese K-edge energies of the chloroplast samples with the reference compounds places the average oxidation state of the chloroplasts between 2+ and 3+. Using the edge spectra for Tris treated membranes which were osmotically shocked to remove the released manganese, difference edge spectra were synthesized to approximate the active pool of manganese. Coordination charge predictions for this fraction are consistent with an average resting oxidation state higher than 2+. The shape at the edge is also indicative of heterogeneity of the manganese site, of low symmetry, or both.

  11. Manganese efflux in Parkinsonism: insights from newly characterized SLC30A10 mutations.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Margaret R; Chen, Pan; Aschner, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Although manganese (Mn) is required for normal cellular function, overexposure to this metal may cause an extrapyramidal syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Notably, high whole-blood Mn levels have been reported in patients with idiopathic PD. Because Mn is both essential at low dose and toxic at higher dose; its transport and homeostasis are tightly regulated. Previously, the only protein known to be operant in cellular Mn export was the iron-regulating transporter, ferroportin (Fpn). The causal role for Mn in PD has yet to be fully understood, but evidence of a familial predisposition to PD associated with Mn toxicity is mounting. A recently discovered mutation in SLC30A10 identified its gene product as putatively involved in Mn efflux. Patients with the SLC30A10 mutation display Parkinsonian-like gate disturbances and hypermanganesemia. This review will address Mn transport proteins, the newly discovered SLC30A10 mutations and their implications to Parkinsonism and Mn regulation.

  12. Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide: CDMO) as positive material for a lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohma, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishio, K.; Nakane, I.; Furukawa, N.

    1990-12-01

    Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (CDMO) has been developed as the positive material for lithium secondary batteries. CDMO is prepared from lithium salt and manganese dioxide by heat treatment. It is a composite oxide of γ/β-MnO 2 and Li 2MnO 3. The influence on rechargeability of lithium salts, heat-treatment temperature, and manganese dioxide type has been investigated by conducting cycle tests with flat cells. Lithium hydroxide is more reactive with MnO 2 in the production of Li 2MnO 3 than either Li 2O or Li 2CO 3. The optimum condition for preparing CDMO is to heat treat LiOH and MnO 2 at about 375 °C. CDMO prepared from EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) yields a larger and more stable capacity than CDMO prepared from CMD (chemical manganese dioxide). Sodium-free EMD exhibits the largest discharge capacity.

  13. Compendium and synthesis of bacterial manganese reduction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandstra, Joel Z.; Ross, Daniel E.; Brantley, Susan L.; Burgos, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We have compiled time-series concentration data for the biological reduction of manganese(III/IV) published between 1985 and 2004 and fit these data with a simple hyperbolic rate expression or, when appropriate, one of its limiting forms. The compiled data and rate constants are available in Electronic Annex EA-1. The zero- and first-order rate constants appear to follow a log-normal distribution that could be used, for example, in predictive modeling of Mn-oxide reduction in a reactive transport scenario. We have also included details of the experimental procedures used to generate each time-series data-set in our compilation. These meta-data—mostly pertaining to the type and concentration of micro-organism, electron donor, and electron acceptor—enable us to examine the rate data for trends. We have computed a number of rudimentary, mono-variate statistics on the compiled data with the hope of stimulating both more detailed statistical analyses of the data and new experiments to fill gaps in the existing data-set. We have also analyzed the data with parametric models based on the log-normal distribution and rate equations that are hyperbolic in the concentration of cells and Mn available for reduction. This parametric analysis allows us to provide best estimates of zero- and first-order rate constants both ignoring and accounting for the meta-data.

  14. Manganese and copper fluxes from continental margin sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Heggie, D.; Klinkhammer, G.; Cullen, D.

    1987-05-01

    Total dissolvable Cu and Mn have been measured in sea water collected from the continental shelf of the eastern Bering Sea. Copper concentrations of <3 nmole kg/sup -1/ were measured over the shelf break but concentrations increased to >4 nmole kg/sup -1/ inshore of a hydrographic front over the 100 m isobath. Manganese concentrations also were low over the shelf break, <10 nmole kg/sup -1/, and increased systematically to concentrations >10 nmole kg/sup -1/ inshore of the hydrographic front. Depth distributions of Mn at all continental shelf stations showed gradients into the sediments, with concentrations typically >20 nmole kg/sup -1/ in a bottom layer extending about 30 m off the bottom. Benthic Cu and Mn fluxes are indicated by cross-shelf pore water profiles that show interfacial concentrations more than an order of magnitude greater than in bottom water. These data and the results of a model of metal transport across the shelf suggest that Cu and Mn fluxes, estimated at 2 and 18 nmole cm/sup -2/y/sup -1/, respectively, from continental shelf sediments may be one source of these metals to the deep sea.

  15. Multiple metal accumulation within a manganese-specific genus.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Forster, Paul I; Hoebee, Susan E; Siegele, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Plants that strongly accumulate metals may be practically beneficial, and also serve as novel resources for increasing fundamental understanding of plant biology. Australian Gossia (Myrtaceae) species are delineated by a conspicuous affinity for the heavy metal manganese (Mn), which is a micronutrient crucial to photosynthesis. This genus includes several Mn hyperaccumulators such as G. bidwillii. Unusually, in G. bidwillii foliar Mn is most highly concentrated in photosynthetic cells, an observation thus far restricted to foliar-Mn accumulation in Mn hyperaccumulators. Recent discovery that several of these Gossia species accumulate other metals in addition to Mn will enable investigation as to whether primary sequestration of metals in photosynthetic tissues is restricted to Mn. Gossia species known to accumulate nickel (Ni) or aluminum (Al) in addition to Mn were sampled in the field. Complementary proton- and electron-probe data were combined to evaluate in vivo microdistribution patterns of excessively accumulated foliar metals. It was discovered that in addition to Mn and Ni, Gossia fragrantissima accumulated foliar zinc (Zn) and cobalt (Co), with Mn, Ni, and Co most highly localized in mesophyll cells and Zn primarily located in the upper epidermis. In G. hillii, Mn and Al were highly concentrated in the palisade and epidermis, respectively. This investigation provides evidence that the primary disposal of excess foliar metals in photosynthetic cells is not exclusive to Mn. It offers rare intrageneric perspective on metal compartmentation, pointing to significant variation among tonoplastal metal transporters associated with detoxification.

  16. Rates of manganese oxidation in aqueous systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of crystal growth of Mn3O4 (hausmannite) and ??MnOOH (feitknechtite) in aerated aqueous manganous perchlorate systems, near 0.01 M in total manganese, was determined at pH levels ranging from 7.00 to 9.00 and at temperatures from 0.5 to 37.4??C. The process is autocatalytic, but becomes psuedo first-order in dissolved Mn2+ activity when the amount of precipitate surface is large compared to the amount of unreacted manganese. Reaction rates determined by titrations using an automated pH-stat were fitted to an equation for precipitate growth. The rates are proportional to surface area of oxide and degree of supersaturation with respect to Mn2+. The oxide obtained at the higher temperature was Mn3O4, but at 0.5?? C only ??MnOOH was formed. At intermediate temperatures, mixtures of these solids were formed. The rate of precipitation of hausmannite is strongly influenced by temperature, and that of feitknechtite much less so. The difference in activation energy may be related to differences in crystal structure of the oxides and the geometry of polymeric hydroxy ion precursors. ?? 1981.

  17. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and hand tremor in adult community residents. Mn exposed residents were recruited in two Ohio towns: Marietta, a town near a ferro-manganese smelter, and East Liverpool, a town adjacent to a facility processing, crushing, screening, and packaging Mn products.METHODS: Chronic (≥10years) exposure to ambient air Mn in adult residents and effects on neuropsychological and neurological outcomes were investigated. Participants from Marietta (n=100) and East Liverpool (n=86) were combined for analyses. AERMOD dispersion modeling of fixed-site outdoor air monitoring data estimated Mn inhalation over a ten year period. Adult Mn­ exposed residents' psychomotor ability was assessed using Finger Tapping, Hand Dynamometer, Grooved Pegbcard, and the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) Tremor system.Bayesian structural equation modeling was used to assess associations between air-Mn and motor function and tremor .RESULTS: Air-Mn exposure was significantly correlated in bivariate analyses with the tremor test (CATSYS) for intensity, center frequency and harmonic index. The Bayesian path analysis model showed associations of air-Mn with the CATSYS non-dominant center frequency and harmonic ind

  18. Ferromagnetic properties of manganese doped iron silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Reyes, Angel; Fonseca, Luis F.; Sabirianov, Renat

    We report the synthesis of high quality Iron silicide (FeSi) nanowires via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The materials exhibits excellent magnetic response at room temperature, especially when doped with manganese showing values of 2.0 X 10-04 emu for the FexMnySi nanowires. SEM and TEM characterization indicates that the synthesized nanowires have a diameter of approximately 80nm. MFM measurements present a clear description of the magnetic domains when the nanowires are doped with manganese. Electron Diffraction and XRD measurements confirms that the nanowires are single crystal forming a simple cubic structure with space group P213. First-principle calculations were performed on (111) FeSi surface using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The exchange correlations were treated under the Ceperley-Alder (CA) local density approximation (LDA). The Brillouin Zone was sampled with 8x8x1 k-point grid. A total magnetic moment of about 10 μB was obtained for three different surface configuration in which the Iron atom nearest to the surface present the higher magnetization. To study the effect of Mn doping, Fe atom was replaced for a Mn. Stronger magnetization is presented when the Mn atom is close to the surface. The exchange coupling constant have been evaluated calculating the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic configurations.

  19. Early Postnatal Blood Manganese Levels and Children’s Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Birgit Claus; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Schnaas, Lourdes; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C.; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that low-level environmental exposure to manganese adversely affects child growth and neurodevelopment. Previous studies have addressed the effects of prenatal exposure, but little is known about developmental effects of early postnatal exposure. Methods We studied 448 children born in Mexico City from 1997 through 2000, using a longitudinal study to investigate neurotoxic effects of early life manganese exposure. Archived blood samples, collected from children at 12 and 24 months of age, were analyzed for manganese levels using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mental and psychomotor development were scored using Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6-month intervals between 12 and 36 months of age. Results At 12 months of age, the mean (SD) blood manganese level was 24.3 (4.5) μg/l and the median was 23.7 μg/l; at 24 months, these values were 21.1 (6.2) μg/l and 20.3 μg/l, respectively. Twelve- and 24-month manganese concentrations were correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.55) and levels declined over time (β = −5.7 [95% CI = −6.2 to −5.1]). We observed an inverted U-shaped association between 12-month blood manganese and concurrent mental development scores (compared with the middle 3 manganese quintiles, for the lowest manganese quintile, β = −3.3 [−6.0 to −0.7] and for the highest manganese quintile, β = −2.8 [−5.5 to −0.2]). This 12-month manganese effect was apparent but diminished with mental development scores at later ages. The 24-month manganese levels were not associated with neurodevelopment. Conclusions These results suggest a possible biphasic dose-response relationship between early-life manganese exposure at lower exposure levels and infant neurodevelopment. The data are consistent with manganese as both an essential nutrient and a toxicant. PMID:20549838

  20. Production of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Shewanella Species

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Saad M.; White, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several species of the bacterial genus Shewanella are well-known dissimilatory reducers of manganese under anaerobic conditions. In fact, Shewanella oneidensis is one of the most well studied of all metal-reducing bacteria. In the current study, a number of Shewanella strains were tested for manganese-oxidizing capacity under aerobic conditions. All were able to oxidize Mn(II) and to produce solid dark brown manganese oxides. Shewanella loihica strain PV-4 was the strongest oxidizer, producing oxides at a rate of 20.3 mg/liter/day and oxidizing Mn(II) concentrations of up to 9 mM. In contrast, S. oneidensis MR-1 was the weakest oxidizer tested, producing oxides at 4.4 mg/liter/day and oxidizing up to 4 mM Mn(II). Analysis of products from the strongest oxidizers, i.e., S. loihica PV-4 and Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32, revealed finely grained, nanosize, poorly crystalline oxide particles with identical Mn oxidation states of 3.86. The biogenic manganese oxide products could be subsequently reduced within 2 days by all of the Shewanella strains when culture conditions were made anoxic and an appropriate nutrient (lactate) was added. While Shewanella species were detected previously as part of manganese-oxidizing consortia in natural environments, the current study has clearly shown manganese-reducing Shewanella species bacteria that are able to oxidize manganese in aerobic cultures. IMPORTANCE Members of the genus Shewanella are well known as dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacteria. This study shows that a number of species from Shewanella are also capable of manganese oxidation under aerobic conditions. Characterization of the products of the two most efficient oxidizers, S. loihica and S. putrefaciens, revealed finely grained, nanosize oxide particles. With a change in culture conditions, the manganese oxide products could be subsequently reduced by the same bacteria. The ability of Shewanella species both to oxidize and to reduce manganese indicates

  1. Controlled release of manganese into water from coated experimental fertilizers: laboratory characterization.

    PubMed

    Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2001-03-01

    The release of manganese into water from controlled-release formulations containing manganese EDTA or manganese lignosulfonate was studied. These fertilizers were obtained in the laboratory by adhering the source of manganese over urea pellets and by adding a coating. The materials used as adhesives and coatings were mixtures of rosins plus tricalcium phosphate. With regard to the chemical composition, these formulations conformed to national and international standards for commercial fertilizers. The rate of release of manganese was a function of both the source of manganese used and the coating thickness. Under the same conditions the release of manganese was greater for formulations with manganese EDTA than with manganese lignosulfonate. To predict the kinetic behaviors of the two series of formulations, mathematical equations were established. The manganese source plus rosin coatings improved the handling and storage characteristics of the commercial urea pellets. The study of the rosin coatings using scanning electron microscopy showed that they were compact and homogeneous.

  2. BDNF and Huntingtin protein modifications by manganese: implications for striatal medium spiny neuron pathology in manganese neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bowman, Aaron B; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2014-12-01

    High levels of manganese (Mn) exposure decrease striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic length and spine density, but the mechanism(s) are not known. The Huntingtin (HTT) gene has been functionally linked to cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) support of striatal MSNs via phosphorylation at serine 421. In Huntington's disease, pathogenic CAG repeat expansions of HTT decrease synthesis and disrupt transport of cortical-striatal BDNF, which may contribute to disease, and Mn is a putative environmental modifier of Huntington's disease pathology. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that changes in MSN dendritic morphology Mn due to exposure are associated with decreased BDNF levels and alterations in Htt protein. We report that BDNF levels are decreased in the striatum of Mn-exposed non-human primates and in the cerebral cortex and striatum of mice exposed to Mn. Furthermore, proBDNF and mature BDNF concentrations in primary cortical and hippocampal neuron cultures were decreased by exposure to Mn confirming the in vivo findings. Mn exposure decreased serine 421 phosphorylation of Htt in cortical and hippocampal neurons and increased total Htt levels. These data strongly support the hypothesis that Mn-exposure-related MSN pathology is associated with decreased BDNF trophic support via alterations in Htt.

  3. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Peter J; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-02-29

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these 'manganese oxides' were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood's auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand.

  4. Methanogenesis from wastewater stimulated by addition of elemental manganese

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Sen; Tian, Tian; Qi, Benyu; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel procedure for accelerating methanogenesis from wastewater by adding elemental manganese into the anaerobic digestion system. The results indicated that elemental manganese effectively enhanced both the methane yield and the production rate. Compared to the control test without elemental manganese, the total methane yield and production rate with 4 g/L manganese addition increased 3.4-fold (from 0.89 ± 0.03 to 2.99 ± 0.37 M/gVSS within 120 h) and 4.4-fold (from 6.2 ± 0.1 to 27.2 ± 2.2 mM/gVSS/h), respectively. Besides, more acetate consumption and less propionate generation were observed during the methanogenesis with manganese. Further studies demonstrated that the elemental manganese served as electron donors for the methanogenesis from carbon dioxide, and the final proportion of methane in the total generated gas with 4 g/L manganese addition reached 96.9%, which was 2.1-fold than that of the control (46.6%). PMID:26244609

  5. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5–5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27314012

  6. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5-5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Methanogenesis from wastewater stimulated by addition of elemental manganese.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Tian, Tian; Qi, Benyu; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-08-05

    This study presents a novel procedure for accelerating methanogenesis from wastewater by adding elemental manganese into the anaerobic digestion system. The results indicated that elemental manganese effectively enhanced both the methane yield and the production rate. Compared to the control test without elemental manganese, the total methane yield and production rate with 4 g/L manganese addition increased 3.4-fold (from 0.89 ± 0.03 to 2.99 ± 0.37 M/gVSS within 120 h) and 4.4-fold (from 6.2 ± 0.1 to 27.2 ± 2.2 mM/gVSS/h), respectively. Besides, more acetate consumption and less propionate generation were observed during the methanogenesis with manganese. Further studies demonstrated that the elemental manganese served as electron donors for the methanogenesis from carbon dioxide, and the final proportion of methane in the total generated gas with 4 g/L manganese addition reached 96.9%, which was 2.1-fold than that of the control (46.6%).

  8. Manganese carbonates as possible biogenic relics in Archean settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón-Tomás, Blanca; Khonsari, Bahar; Mühlen, Dominik; Wickbold, Christian; Schäfer, Nadine; Hause-Reitner, Dorothea; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate minerals such as dolomite, kutnahorite or rhodochrosite are frequently, but not exclusively generated by microbial processes. In recent anoxic sediments, Mn(II)carbonate minerals (e.g. rhodochrosite, kutnahorite) derive mainly from the reduction of Mn(IV) compounds by anaerobic respiration. The formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling in an oxygenated atmosphere. However, putative anaerobic pathways such as microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidation in ultraviolet light may facilitate manganese cycling even in an early Archean environment, without the availability of oxygen. In addition, manganese carbonates precipitate by microbially induced processes without change of the oxidation state, e.g. by pH shift. Hence, there are several ways how these minerals could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. We will summarize microbially induced manganese carbonate deposition in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen and we will make some considerations about the biogenic deposition of manganese carbonates in early Archean settings.

  9. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Peter J.; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these ‘manganese oxides’ were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood’s auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand. PMID:26922901

  10. Critical Aspects of Alloying of Sintered Steels with Manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryha, Eduard; Dudrova, Eva; Nyborg, Lars

    2010-11-01

    This study examines the sintering behavior and properties of Fe-0.8Mn-0.5C manganese powder metallurgy steels. The study focuses on the influence of mode of alloying—admixing using either high-purity electrolytic manganese or medium carbon ferromanganese as well as the fully prealloying of water-atomized powder. Three main aspects were studied during the whole sintering process—microstructure development, interparticle necks evolution, and changes in the behavior of manganese carrier particles during both heating and sintering stages. The prealloyed powder shows considerable improvement in carbon homogenization and interparticle neck development in comparison with admixed materials. The first indication of pearlite for the fully prealloyed material was registered at ~1013 K (740 °C) in comparison with ~1098 K (825 °C) in the case of the admixed systems. The negative effect of the oxidized residuals of manganese carrier particles and high microstructure inhomogeneity, which is a characteristic feature of admixed systems, is reflected in the lower values of the mechanical properties. The worst results in this respect were obtained for the system admixed with electrolytic manganese because of more intensive manganese sublimation and resulting oxidation at lower temperatures. According to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, the observed high brittleness of admixed materials is connected with intergranular decohesion failure associated with manganese oxide formation on the grain boundaries.

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1994-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This annual topical report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  12. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-06-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the U.S. Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion for the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation give the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  13. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  14. Manganese-based complexes of radical scavengers as neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Vajragupta, Opa; Boonchoong, Preecha; Sumanont, Yaowared; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Kammasud, Naparat

    2003-05-15

    Manganese was incorporated in the structure of the selected antioxidants to mimic the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and to increase radical scavenging ability. Five manganese complexes (1-5) showed potent SOD activity in vitro with IC(50) of 1.18-1.84 microM and action against lipid peroxidation in vitro with IC(50) of 1.97-8.00 microM greater than their ligands and trolox. The manganese complexes were initially tested in vivo at 50 mg/kg for antagonistic activity on methamphetamine (MAP)-induced hypermotility resulting from dopamine release in the mice brain. Only manganese complexes of kojic acid (1) and 7-hydroxyflavone (3) exhibited the significant suppressions on MAP-induced hypermotility and did not significantly decrease the locomotor activity in normal condition. Manganese complex 3 also showed protective effects against learning and memory impairment in transient cerebral ischemic mice. These results supported the brain delivery and the role of manganese in SOD activity as well as in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters in the aberrant condition. Manganese complex 3 from 7-hydroxyflavone was the promising candidate for radical implicated neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, Peter J.; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these ‘manganese oxides’ were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood’s auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand.

  16. Effects of manganese forms on biogenic amines in the brain and behavioral alterations in the mouse: Long-term oral administration of several manganese compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko )

    1992-02-01

    This work has identified the relative toxicity of four forms of manganese, using biogenic amine levels, tissue retention, weight gain, and activity scores as criteria. Male mice were chronically treated with four forms of manganese administered orally, mixed with the diet, for 12 months. The Mn levels were higher in some parts of brain after feeding insoluble salts than after the soluble salts. The concentration of manganese was significantly increased in the liver and spleen of the manganese carbonate-exposed group, compared with the concentration in the control group. Manganese dioxide feeding lowered dopamine and increased homovanilic acid. Since manganese dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent in organic chemistry, it possibly enhanced the oxidative metabolite of dopamine. Accumulation of manganese in the brain correlated with reduced hypothalamic dopamine levels in the manganese acetate-exposed group; and the amount of manganese accumulated correlated with the intensity of suppression of motor activity. These findings indicate that manganese dioxide is more toxic than divalent manganese. Of the divalent manganese compounds, manganese acetate seemed to have the greatest toxic effect.

  17. Hydrolysis of an organophosphate ester by manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, D S; Beattie, J K; Coleman, L M; Jones, D R

    2001-02-15

    Amorphous manganese dioxide facilitates the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol and orthophosphate despite insignificant adsorption of p-nitrophenyl phosphate or p-nitrophenol to the manganese dioxide. At pH 8, the orthophosphate product is released into solution; at pH 4 and pH 6, some remains adsorbed. The rate of hydrolysis is an order of magnitude more rapid than the same reaction facilitated by iron oxides. Because manganese dioxides are ubiquitous components of soils and sediments, this suggests the possibility of significant abiotic pathways for the formation of bioavailable orthophosphate from phosphate ester precursors.

  18. The IRT1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana is a metal transporter with a broad substrate range.

    PubMed

    Korshunova, Y O; Eide, D; Clark, W G; Guerinot, M L; Pakrasi, H B

    1999-05-01

    The molecular basis for the transport of manganese across membranes in plant cells is poorly understood. We have found that IRT1, an Arabidopsis thaliana metal ion transporter, can complement a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in high-affinity manganese uptake (smf1 delta). The IRT1 protein has previously been identified as an iron transporter. The current studies demonstrated that IRT1, when expressed in yeast, can transport manganese as well. This manganese uptake activity was inhibited by cadmium, iron(II) and zinc, suggesting that IRT1 can transport these metals. The IRT1 cDNA also complements a zinc uptake-deficient yeast mutant strain (zrt1zrt2), and IRT1-dependent zinc transport in yeast cells is inhibited by cadmium, copper, cobalt and iron(III). However, IRT1 did not complement a copper uptake-deficient yeast mutant (ctr1), implying that this transporter is not involved in the uptake of copper in plant cells. The expression of IRT1 is enhanced in A. thaliana plants grown under iron deficiency. Under these conditions, there were increased levels of root-associated manganese, zinc and cobalt, suggesting that, in addition to iron, IRT1 mediates uptake of these metals into plant cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the IRT1 protein is a broad-range metal ion transporter in plants.

  19. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

    2006-12-01

    The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by

  1. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  2. Hydrogen, acetate, and lactate as electron donors for microbial manganese reduction in a manganese-rich coastal marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Finke, Niko; Thamdrup, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The role of hydrogen, acetate, and lactate as electron donors for microbial manganese reduction was investigated in manganese-rich marine sediment from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden). Here, manganese reduction accounted for 50% of the anaerobic carbon oxidation at 0-15 cm sediment depth. In anoxic incubations from 0 to 5 cm depth, where manganese reduction dominated completely as terminal electron-accepting process, the combined contribution of acetate and lactate as electron donors for manganese reducers corresponded to < ¼ of the electron flow. The concentrations, ¹⁴C-radiotracer turnover rates, and contributions to carbon oxidation of acetate and lactate associated with manganese reduction were similar to those found in deeper horizons dominated by concomitant iron and sulfate reduction and sulfate reduction alone, respectively. By contrast, hydrogen concentrations increased considerably with sediment depth, indicating thermodynamic control of the competition between the electron-accepting processes, and hydrogen may have contributed substantially to the > 75% of the electron flow that did not involve acetate and lactate. Alternatively, the oxidation of more complex organic substrates could be involved. Our study provides the first direct evidence of substrate utilization by a natural manganese-reducing community and indicates similar mechanisms of thermodynamic control and competition for electron donors as known from sediments dominated by iron reduction, sulfate reduction, or methanogenesis.

  3. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  4. Manganese inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in human cells: a possible mechanism behind manganese-induced toxicity?

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Julia; Ebert, Franziska; Hartwig, Andrea; Michalke, Bernhard; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2010-11-01

    For humans manganese is both an essential trace element and, at higher doses, a toxic metal. Due to the ubiquitous occurrence of manganese in foodstuff, in industrial countries daily dietary uptake is higher as compared to the estimated daily requirement. Therefore manganese deficiency is extremely rare. In contrast chronic manganese toxicity, affecting primarily the central nervous system, is more prevalent. Thus manganese occupational and dietary overexposure has been shown to cause progressive, permanent, neurodegenerative damage, resulting in syndromes similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. To date modes of manganese neurotoxic action are poorly understood and in most studies oxidative stress is postulated as the underlying mechanism. The present study searched on the cellular level for a molecular mechanism behind manganese-induced neurotoxicity and investigated bioavailability, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of MnCl(2), as well as its impact on the DNA damage response in human cells (HeLa S3) in culture. Whereas up to 10 µM MnCl(2) showed no induction of DNA strand breaks after 24 h incubation, manganese strongly inhibited H(2)O(2)-stimulated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation at low, completely non-cytotoxic, for certain human exposure, relevant concentrations starting at 1 µM. Thereby inhibition of this essential DNA damage response signalling reaction was not due to a reduced gene expression or protein level of the responsible polymerase PARP-1. Taken together, the results indicate that manganese, under conditions of either overload due to high exposure or disturbed homeostasis, can disturb the cellular response to DNA strand breaks, which has been shown before (S. Katyal and P. J. McKinnon, Mech. Ageing Dev., 2008, 129, 483-491) to result in neurological diseases.

  5. Isotopic evidence for organic matter oxidation by manganese reduction in the formation of stratiform manganese carbonate ore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okita, P.M.; Maynard, J.B.; Spiker, E. C.; Force, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Unlike other marine-sedimentary manganese ore deposits, which are largely composed of manganese oxides, the primary ore at Molango (Hidalgo State, Mexico) is exclusively manganese carbonate (rhodochrosite, Mn-calcite, kutnahorite). Stable isotope studies of the carbonates from Molango provide critical new information relevant to the controversy over syngenetic and diagenetic models of stratiform manganese deposit formation. Negative ??13C values for carbonates from mineralized zones at Molango are strongly correlated with manganese content both on a whole rock scale and by mineral species. Whole rock ??13C data fall into three groups: high-grade ore = -16.4 to -11.5%.; manganese-rich, sub-ore-grade = -5.2 to 0%.; and unmineralized carbonates = 0 to +2.5%. (PDB). ??18O data show considerable overlap in values among the three groups: +4.8 to -2.8, -5.4 to -0.3%., and -7.4 to +6.2 (PDB), respectively. Isotopic data for individual co-existing minerals suggest a similar separation of ??13C values: ??13C values from calcite range from -1.1 to +0.7%. (PDB), whereas values from rhodochrosite are very negative, -12.9 to -5.5%., and values from kutnahorite or Mn-calcite are intermediate between calcite and rhodochrosite. 13C data are interpreted to indicate that calcite (i.e. unmineralized carbonate) formed from a normal marine carbon reservoir. However, 13C data for the manganese-bearing carbonates suggest a mixed seawater and organic source of carbon. The presence of only trace amounts of pyrite suggests sulfate reduction may have played a minor part in oxidizing organic matter. It is possible that manganese reduction was the predominant reaction that oxidized organic matter and that it released organic-derived CO2 to produce negative ??13C values and manganese carbonate mineralization. ?? 1988.

  6. Correlation between airborne manganese concentration at the workstations in the iron foundry and manganese concentration in workers' blood.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Seyedtaghi; Moghaddasi, Yosef; Yazdani, Jamshid; Yousefinejad, Razyeh; Esfandyari, Yahya; Gorgani, Mohsen; Habibpour, Manijeh

    2017-06-27

    Manganese (Mn) used as raw material for melting process in the ferrous foundry is considered as hazardous neurotoxic substance because it accumulates in the central nervous system and may cause neurological disorders. The furnace-men and melting department workers are potentially exposed to manganese particles or fume in the workplace. The objective of the research has been to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in the foundry by correlation of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and air-manganese (air-Mn) measurement. Air-Mn and Mn of blood serum were measured involving workers who worked in a big-sized foundry during 1 year. The standard method of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ID-121 was used for air and blood assessment and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was carried out for air and blood sample analysis. The air sampling results have revealed that there is a high exposure to manganese (4.5 mg/m3) in the workplace as compared to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) time weighted average (the reference time-weighted average (TWA) = 1 mg/m3). The average blood serum Mn concentration was 2.745 μg/l for subjects working for shorter than 3 months and 274.85 μg/l for subjects working 3-12 months. Against the research hypothesis there was no correlation between the air-Mn concentration and the B-Mn (serum) level of manganese in the serum of the exposed subjects. It may be due to short time of air sampling of manganese airborne particles, and a real-time monitoring of airborne manganese particles is suggested for any future study. Med Pr 2017;68(4):449-458.

  7. Hydrothermal vent yields multitude of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A rising plume of water from an active submarine hydrothermal spring discovered 500 km west of Newport, Ore., contains the highest concentrations of manganese yet reported, according to researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park and at the University of Washington in Seattle. The vent, one of many submarine springs that have deposited large deposits of zinc- and silver-rich metals along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, may be a source of renewable minerals.‘The discovery of the active water discharge from the vent sites is particularly significant because it indicates that the polymetallic deposits are still being deposited and may represent a renewable mineral deposit,’ according to William R. Normark, a marine geologist with the USGS and chief scientist aboard the S. P. Lee, the USGS research ship that was used to collect water samples above the hydrothermal vent.

  8. Untangling the Manganese-α-Synuclein Web

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Parmalee, Nancy L.; Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect a significant portion of the aging population. Several lines of evidence suggest a positive association between environmental exposures, which are common and cumulative in a lifetime, and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been implicated in neurodegeneration due to its ability to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation. The role of the α-Syn protein vis-a-vis Mn is controversial, as it seemingly plays a duplicitous role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. α-Syn has low affinity for Mn, however an indirect interaction cannot be ruled out. In this review we will examine the current knowledge surrounding the interaction of α-Syn and Mn in neurodegenerative process. PMID:27540354

  9. Role of astrocytes in manganese mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). Failure by astrocytes to support essential neuronal metabolic requirements plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of brain injury and the ensuing neuronal death. Astrocyte-neuron interactions play a central role in brain homeostasis, in particular via neurotransmitter recycling functions. Disruption of the glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cycle (GGC) between astrocytes and neurons contributes to changes in Glu-ergic and/or GABA-ergic transmission, and is associated with several neuropathological conditions, including manganese (Mn) toxicity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in support of the important roles for astrocytes in normal as well as neuropathological conditions primarily those caused by exposure to Mn. PMID:23594835

  10. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  11. The hierarchy of transition metal homeostasis: iron controls manganese accumulation in a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Shir; Salomon, Eitan; Kranzler, Chana; Lis, Hagar; Lehmann, Robert; Georg, Jens; Zer, Hagit; Hess, Wolfgang R; Keren, Nir

    2014-12-01

    Iron and manganese are part of a small group of transition metals required for photosynthetic electron transport. Here, we present evidence for a functional link between iron and manganese homeostasis. In the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Fe and Mn deprivation resulted in distinct modifications of the physiological status. The effect on growth and photosynthetic activity under Fe limitation were more severe than those observed under Mn limitation. Moreover, the intracellular elemental quotas of Fe and Mn were found to be linked. Fe limitation reduced the intracellular Mn quota. Mn limitation did not exert a reciprocal effect on Fe quotas. Microarray analysis comparing Mn and Fe limitation revealed a stark difference in the extent of the transcriptional response to the two limiting conditions, reflective of the physiological responses. The effects of Fe limitation on the transcriptional network are widespread while the effects on Mn limitation are highly specific. Our analysis also revealed an overlap in the transcriptional response of specific Fe and Mn transporters. This overlap provides a framework for explaining Fe limitation induced changes in Mn quotas.

  12. Manganese recovery from secondary resources: a green process for carbothermal reduction and leaching of manganese bearing hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Navin; Amritphale, S S; Pal, Deepti

    2011-02-15

    During the hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc by electrowinning process, a hazardous solid waste called anode mud is generated. It contains large quantity of manganese oxides (55-80%) and lead dioxide (6-16%). Due to the presence of a large quantity of lead, the anode mud waste is considered hazardous and has to be disposed of in secure landfills, which is costly, wastes available manganese and valuable land resources. For recovery of manganese content of anode mud, a process comprising of carbothermal treatment using low density oil (LDO) followed by sulphuric acid leaching is developed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodistribution and PET Imaging of pharmacokinetics of manganese in mice using Manganese-52.

    PubMed

    Wooten, A Lake; Aweda, Tolulope A; Lewis, Benjamin C; Gross, Rebecca B; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2017-01-01

    Manganese is essential to life, and humans typically absorb sufficient quantities of this element from a normal healthy diet; however, chronic, elevated ingestion or inhalation of manganese can be neurotoxic, potentially leading to manganism. Although imaging of large amounts of accumulated Mn(II) is possible by MRI, quantitative measurement of the biodistribution of manganese, particularly at the trace level, can be challenging. In this study, we produced the positron-emitting radionuclide 52Mn (t1/2 = 5.6 d) by proton bombardment (Ep<15 MeV) of chromium metal, followed by solid-phase isolation by cation-exchange chromatography. An aqueous solution of [52Mn]MnCl2 was nebulized into a closed chamber with openings through which mice inhaled the aerosol, and a separate cohort of mice received intravenous (IV) injections of [52Mn]MnCl2. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed at 1 h and 1 d post-injection/inhalation (p.i.). In both trials, we observed uptake in lungs and thyroid at 1 d p.i. Manganese is known to cross the blood-brain barrier, as confirmed in our studies following IV injection (0.86%ID/g, 1 d p.i.) and following inhalation of aerosol, (0.31%ID/g, 1 d p.i.). Uptake in salivary gland and pancreas were observed at 1 d p.i. (0.5 and 0.8%ID/g), but to a much greater degree from IV injection (6.8 and 10%ID/g). In a separate study, mice received IV injection of an imaging dose of [52Mn]MnCl2, followed by in vivo imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo biodistribution. The results from this study supported many of the results from the biodistribution-only studies. In this work, we have confirmed results in the literature and contributed new results for the biodistribution of inhaled radiomanganese for several organs. Our results could serve as supporting information for environmental and occupational regulations, for designing PET studies utilizing 52Mn, and/or for predicting the biodistribution of manganese-based MR contrast agents.

  14. Biodistribution and PET Imaging of pharmacokinetics of manganese in mice using Manganese-52

    PubMed Central

    Aweda, Tolulope A.; Lewis, Benjamin C.; Gross, Rebecca B.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese is essential to life, and humans typically absorb sufficient quantities of this element from a normal healthy diet; however, chronic, elevated ingestion or inhalation of manganese can be neurotoxic, potentially leading to manganism. Although imaging of large amounts of accumulated Mn(II) is possible by MRI, quantitative measurement of the biodistribution of manganese, particularly at the trace level, can be challenging. In this study, we produced the positron-emitting radionuclide 52Mn (t1/2 = 5.6 d) by proton bombardment (Ep<15 MeV) of chromium metal, followed by solid-phase isolation by cation-exchange chromatography. An aqueous solution of [52Mn]MnCl2 was nebulized into a closed chamber with openings through which mice inhaled the aerosol, and a separate cohort of mice received intravenous (IV) injections of [52Mn]MnCl2. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed at 1 h and 1 d post-injection/inhalation (p.i.). In both trials, we observed uptake in lungs and thyroid at 1 d p.i. Manganese is known to cross the blood-brain barrier, as confirmed in our studies following IV injection (0.86%ID/g, 1 d p.i.) and following inhalation of aerosol, (0.31%ID/g, 1 d p.i.). Uptake in salivary gland and pancreas were observed at 1 d p.i. (0.5 and 0.8%ID/g), but to a much greater degree from IV injection (6.8 and 10%ID/g). In a separate study, mice received IV injection of an imaging dose of [52Mn]MnCl2, followed by in vivo imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo biodistribution. The results from this study supported many of the results from the biodistribution-only studies. In this work, we have confirmed results in the literature and contributed new results for the biodistribution of inhaled radiomanganese for several organs. Our results could serve as supporting information for environmental and occupational regulations, for designing PET studies utilizing 52Mn, and/or for predicting the biodistribution of manganese-based MR contrast agents. PMID

  15. The Relationship of the Lipoprotein SsaB, Manganese, and Superoxide Dismutase in Streptococcus sanguinis Virulence for Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Katie E.; Bainbridge, Brian; Brusko, Sarah; Turner, Lauren S.; Ge, Xiuchun; Stone, Victoria; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Streptococcus sanguinis colonizes teeth and is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Our prior work showed that the lipoprotein SsaB is critical for S. sanguinis virulence for endocarditis and belongs to the LraI family of conserved metal transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that an ssaB mutant accumulates less manganese and iron than its parent. A mutant lacking the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, SodA, was significantly less virulent than wild-type in a rabbit model of endocarditis, but significantly more virulent than the ssaB mutant. Neither the ssaB nor the sodA mutation affected sensitivity to phagocytic killing or efficiency of heart valve colonization. Animal virulence results for all strains could be reproduced by growing bacteria in serum under physiological levels of O2. SodA activity was reduced, but not eliminated in the ssaB mutant in serum and in rabbits. Growth of the ssaB mutant in serum was restored upon addition of Mn2+ or removal of O2. Antioxidant supplementation experiments suggested that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were together responsible for the ssaB mutant’s growth defect. We conclude that manganese accumulation mediated by the SsaB transport system imparts virulence by enabling cell growth in oxygen through SodA-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24750294

  16. The relationship of the lipoprotein SsaB, manganese and superoxide dismutase in Streptococcus sanguinis virulence for endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Crump, Katie E; Bainbridge, Brian; Brusko, Sarah; Turner, Lauren S; Ge, Xiuchun; Stone, Victoria; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis colonizes teeth and is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Our prior work showed that the lipoprotein SsaB is critical for S. sanguinis virulence for endocarditis and belongs to the LraI family of conserved metal transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that an ssaB mutant accumulates less manganese and iron than its parent. A mutant lacking the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, SodA, was significantly less virulent than wild-type in a rabbit model of endocarditis, but significantly more virulent than the ssaB mutant. Neither the ssaB nor the sodA mutation affected sensitivity to phagocytic killing or efficiency of heart valve colonization. Animal virulence results for all strains could be reproduced by growing bacteria in serum under physiological levels of O(2). SodA activity was reduced, but not eliminated in the ssaB mutant in serum and in rabbits. Growth of the ssaB mutant in serum was restored upon addition of Mn(2+) or removal of O(2). Antioxidant supplementation experiments suggested that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were together responsible for the ssaB mutant's growth defect. We conclude that manganese accumulation mediated by the SsaB transport system imparts virulence by enabling cell growth in oxygen through SodA-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  17. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  18. Manganese resources of the Cuyuna range, east-central Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, R.J.; Holtzman, R.C.; Wahl, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Cuyuna range, located in east-central Minnesota, consists of a sequence of argillite, siltstone, iron-formation, graywacke, slate, and quartzite of early Proterozoic age. Manganese-bearing materials occur within the iron-rich strata of the Trommald Formation and the Rabbit Lake Formation. Computer-assisted resource estimates, based on exploration drill hole information, indicate that the Cuyuna range contains a minimum of 176 million metric tons (MMT) of marginally economic manganiferous rock with an average grade of 10.46 weight percent manganese. The calculated 18.5 MMT of manganese on the Cuyuna range could supply this country's needs for this important and strategic metal for nearly 14 years. An additional resource of 6.9 MMT of manganese metal is available in the lower grade deposits The vast majority of these calculated resources are extractable by current surface mining techniques.

  19. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  20. Manganese, Iron, and sulfur cycling in Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate reduction is considered the primary pathway for organic carbon remineralization on the northern Gulf of Mexico Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) where bottom waters are seasonally hypoxic, yet limited information is available on the importance of iron and manganese cyclin...

  1. Manganese, Iron, and sulfur cycling in Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate reduction is considered the primary pathway for organic carbon remineralization on the northern Gulf of Mexico Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) where bottom waters are seasonally hypoxic, yet limited information is available on the importance of iron and manganese cyclin...

  2. [Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohide

    2007-06-01

    The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal

  3. Impairment of glutamine/glutamate-γ-aminobutyric acid cycle in manganese toxicity in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is required for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. Despite its essentiality, at excessive levels Mn is toxic to the central nervous system. The overdose accumulation of Mn in specific brain areas, such as the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus and the striatum, triggers neurotoxicity resulting in a neurological brain disorder, referred to as manganism. Manganese toxicity is associated with the disruption of glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) GABA cycle (GGC). The GGC represents a complex process, since Gln efflux from astrocytes must be met by its influx in neurons. Mn toxicity is associated with the disruption of both of these critical points in the cycle. In cultured astrocytes, pre-treatment with Mn inhibits the initial net uptake of Gln in a concentration-dependent manner. Manganese added directly to astrocytes induces deregulation in the expression of SNAT3, SNAT2, ASCT2 and LAT2 transporters and significantly decreases in Gln uptake mediated by the transporting Systems N and ASC, and a decrease in Gln efflux mediated by Systems N, ASC and L. Further, Mn disrupts Glu transporting systems leading to both a reduction in Glu uptake and elevation in extracellular Glu levels. Interestingly, there appear to be common signaling targets of Mn in GGC cycling in glial cells. Namely, the PKC signaling is affected by Mn in Gln and Glu transporters expression and function. Additionally, Mn was identified to deregulate glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and activity. Those evidences could triggers depletion of Gln synthesis/metabolism in glia cells and consequently diminish astrocytic-derived glutamine, while disruption of Glu removal/transport can mediate dyshomeostasis in neurotransmission of functioning neurons. Overdose and excessive Mn accumulations in astrocytes not only culminate in pathology, but also affect astrocytic protective properties and defect or

  4. Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolozzi, Mauro; Braccini, Gaetano; Marconi, Filippo; Bonvini, Stefania

    1994-03-01

    The necessity of recycling spent batteries in order to recover metals and to protect the environment is emphasized. Some experiments have been made to develop a hydrometallurgical process for metal recovery in alkaline manganese batteries. The components are easily separated: zinc can be electroplated and manganese(II) can be oxidized to dioxide; Mn(IV) is solubilized in acidic hydrogen peroxide and reprecipitated by bases.

  5. Aquatic environmental risk assessment of manganese processing industries.

    PubMed

    Marks, Becky; Peters, Adam; McGough, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) has been conducted for sites producing and processing manganese and its inorganic compounds, focussing on potential risks to freshwater. A site specific questionnaire was used to collect information. Sites fall into three broad categories: mining sites, refining sites, and sites producing chemicals and pigments. Waste disposal is principally carried out by the treatment of liquid wastes to separate solids for disposal off-site with a consented wastewater discharge, or disposal on-site using evaporation or settlement ponds in order to maintain the waste materials in a suitable manner following site closure. The main source of emissions from refining and alloying sites is from the treatment of emissions to air using wet scrubber air filters. There is also the potential for fugitive environmental emissions of manganese from stockpiles of raw material held on-site. Data provided from the questionnaires were both site-specific and also commercially sensitive. Therefore, this paper has undertaken the manganese exposure assessment, using a probabilistic approach to reflect the distribution of emissions of manganese and also to maintain the confidentiality of site specific data. An inverse correlation was observed between the total annual tonnage of manganese processed at the site and the emission factor, such that sites processing larger quantities resulted in lower emissions of manganese per tonne processed. The hazard assessment determined a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for freshwater using a species sensitivity distribution approach, resulting in a freshwater PNEC of 0.075mgL(-1) for soluble manganese. Based on the exposure data and the freshwater PNEC derived for this study, the distributions of risk characterisation ratios using the probabilistic approach indicates that two thirds of manganese processing sites would not be expected to pose a potential risk to the local aquatic environment due to wastewater emissions

  6. Conversion of adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Tsivunchyk, O; Steinbach, K; von Löw, E; Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M

    2004-02-01

    Fungal manganese peroxidase was found to convert the persistent chemical warfare agent adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) in a cell-free reaction mixture containing sodium malonate, Mn(2+) ions, and reduced glutathione. The organo-arsenical compound disappeared completely within 48 h accompanied by the formation of a more polar metabolite with a clearly modified UV spectrum. Thus, As(III) in the adamsite molecule was oxidized by manganese peroxidase to As(V) which added dioxygen and released chloride.

  7. Mineralogical Characterization of Manganese Oxides in Mine Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, H.; Heaney, P.; Post, J.; Burgos, W.

    2006-05-01

    The removal of manganese(II) from mine water is a significant problem for both operating and abandoned mines across the United States. In many situations, manganese removal represents the most costly aspect of mine water treatment. Active treatment of Mn-containing mine water requires adjustment of pH to 9-10, and results in the abiotic precipitation of manganese oxides (MnOx). After manganese removal, this high pH water must be neutralized before release. Alternatively, passive limestone beds can be used for neutralization of low-pH mine water and subsequent manganese removal. Although limestone beds are effective for Mn removal, the processes involved are not clear (e.g., relative importance of biological Mn(II) oxidation versus surface mediated oxidation) and the characteristics of the manganese "crusts" formed are not well studied. In this field-based study, we have collected natural manganese oxides from two different limestone beds designed to treat mine water from abandoned coal strip mines in Pennsylvania. Samples were collected at different locations in the beds and at different seasons to capture possible variations in mineralogical characteristics. Water samples were also collected to measure the corresponding solution chemistry and revealed that manganese removal was strongly temperature dependent. Solid samples have been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction. Micro-diffraction XRD has been used to tentatively identify disordered buserite as a predominant mineral in many of these crust samples. Additional characterizations will include particle size distribution and surface charge. Synchroton-based X-ray techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) may also be pursued.

  8. Iron and manganese oxide mineralization in the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J. R.; Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Manheim, F. T.; Bau, M.; Jung-Keuk, Kang; Lubick, N.

    1997-01-01

    Iron, manganese, and iron-manganese deposits occur in nearly all geomorphologic and tectonic environments in the ocean basins and form by one or more of four processes: (1) hydrogenetic precipitation from cold ambient seawater, (2) precipitation from hydrothermal fluids, (3) precipitation from sediment pore waters that have been modified from bottom water compositions by diagenetic reactions in the sediment column and (4) replacement of rocks and sediment. These processes are discussed.

  9. OsNRAMP5, a major player for constitutive iron and manganese uptake in rice.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Bashir, Khurram; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2012-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are essential mineral micronutrients for plants and their deficiency and or toxicity represents a serious agricultural problem. In rice the information about genes involved in Mn uptake from soil is scarce. Recently, we showed that OsNRAMP5 is a plasma membrane protein involved in Mn and Fe transport. The concentration of Mn in roots, shoots and xylem sap of OsNRAMP5 RNAi (OsNRAMP5i) plants was significantly reduced compared with WT plants. The expression of OsNRAMP5 is not controlled by Fe deficiency in root and was also observed in pistil, ovary, lemma and palea. These data show that rice would utilize OsNRAMP5 for constitutive Fe and Mn uptake, while OsNRAMP5 would also play a role in Fe and Mn transport during flowering and seed development.

  10. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  11. Permanganate-based synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles in ferritin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Cameron R.; Smith, Trevor J.; Embley, Jacob S.; Maxfield, Jake H.; Hansen, Kameron R.; Peterson, J. Ryan; Henrichsen, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen D.; Buck, David C.; Colton, John S.; Watt, Richard K.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with {{{{MnO}}}4}- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that {{{{MnO}}}4}- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of manganese concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability of manganese concentrations in drinking water (daily, seasonal, spatial) for eight communities who participated in an epidemiological study on neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to manganese in drinking water. We also assessed the performance of residential point-of-use and point-of-entry devices (POE) for reducing manganese concentrations in water. While the total Mn concentrations measured during this study were highly variable depending on the location (< 1-2,700 μg/L), daily or seasonal variations were minimal. Flushing the tap for 5 minutes did not significantly reduce total manganese concentration for 4 out of 5 sampling locations. The efficiency of reverse osmosis and ion exchange for total Mn removal was consistently high while activated carbon provided variable results. The four POE greensand filters investigated all increased (29 to 199%) manganese concentration, indicating deficient operation and/or maintenance practices. Manganese concentrations in the distribution system were equal or lower than at the inlet, indicating that sampling at the inlet of the distribution system is conservative. The decline in total Mn concentration was linked to higher water residence time in the distribution system.

  13. Failure of manganese to protect from Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Marsha A; Pellino, Christine A; Weiss, Alison A

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), the main virulence factor of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, is a major public health threat, causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for these infections; however manganese has been reported to provide protection from the Stx1 variant isolated from Shigella dysenteriae (Stx1-S) both in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the efficacy of manganese protection from Stx1-S and the more potent Stx2a isoform, using experimental systems well-established for studying Stx: in vitro responses of Vero monkey kidney cells, and in vivo toxicity to CD-1 outbred mice. Manganese treatment at the reported therapeutic concentration was toxic to Vero cells in culture and to CD-1 mice. At lower manganese concentrations that were better tolerated, we observed no protection from Stx1-S or Stx2a toxicity. The ability of manganese to prevent the effects of Stx may be particular to certain cell lines, mouse strains, or may only be manifested at high, potentially toxic manganese concentrations.

  14. Permanganate-Based Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles in Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cameron; Smith, Trevor; Embley, Jacob; Maxfield, Jake; Hansen, Kameron; Peterson, J; Henrichsen, Andrew; Erickson, Stephen; Buck, David; Colton, John S; Watt, Richard

    2017-03-23

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with MnO4- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that MnO4- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 eV to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  15. Manganese and limestone interactions during mine water treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Cruz, F L S; Lima, R M F; Teixeira, M C; Leão, V A

    2010-09-15

    Manganese removal from mining-affected waters is an important challenge for the mining industry. Addressed herein is this issue in both batch and continuous conditions. Batch experiments were carried out with synthetic solutions, at 23+/-2 degrees C, initial pH 5.5 and 8.3 g limestone/L. Similarly, continuous tests were performed with a 16.5 mg/L Mn(2+) mine water, at 23 degrees C, initial pH 8.0 and 20.8 g limestone/L. Calcite limestone gave the best results and its fine grinding proved to the most effective parameter for manganese removal. In either synthetic solutions or industrial effluents, the final manganese concentration was below 1 mg/L. A change in limestone surface zeta potential is observed after manganese removal and manganese carbonate formation was suggested by IR spectroscopy. The conclusion is that limestone can remove manganese from industrial effluents for values that comply with environmental regulations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry

    PubMed Central

    Emara, A. M.; El-Ghawabi, S. H.; Madkour, O. I.; El-Samra, G. H.

    1971-01-01

    Emara, A. M., El-Ghawabi, S. H., Madkour, O. I., and El-Samra, G. H. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 78-82. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry. A survey was carried out on 36 workers in the dry battery industry exposed to dust containing 65 to 70% manganese oxide. Eight (22·2%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations, six (16·6%) had chronic manganese psychosis, one had left hemi-parkinsonism, and one had left choreoathetosis. An environmental study revealed a high concentration of manganese dust at the main working areas, far exceeding the accepted MAC. The manganese level in blood was almost within the normal range. Coproporphyrin in urine was normal. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in only two of the affected workers (25%) but there was no association between this and the clinical manifestations or duration of exposure. The concentration of manganese dust in air showed some association with the prevalence and rapidity of effect on workers according to their occupation. However, individual susceptibility was apparent. The shortest latent period was one year. PMID:5101169

  17. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution.

  18. Ion-Selective Deposition of Manganese Sulphate Solution from Trenggalek Manganese Ore by Active Carbon and Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyah, L.; Sulistiyono, E.

    2017-02-01

    One of the step in manganese dioxide manufacturing process for battery industry is a purification process of lithium manganese sulphate solution. The elimination of impurities such as iron removal is important in hydrometallurgical processes. Therefore, this paper present the purification results of manganese sulphate solution by removing impurities using a selective deposition method, namely activated carbon adsorption and NaOH. The experimental results showed that the optimum condition of adsorption process occurs on the addition of 5 g adsorbent and the addition of 10 ml NaOH 1 N, processing time of 30 minutes and the best is the activated carbon adsorption of Japan. Because the absolute requirement of the cathode material of lithium ion manganese are free of titanium then of local wood charcoal is good enough in terms of eliminating ions Ti is equal to 70.88%.

  19. Manganese phytotoxicity: new light on an old problem.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient that is phytotoxic under certain edaphic and climatic conditions. Multiple edaphic factors regulate Mn redox status and therefore its phytoavailability, and multiple environmental factors including light intensity and temperature interact with Mn phytotoxicity. The complexity of these interactions coupled with substantial genetic variation in Mn tolerance have hampered the recognition of Mn toxicity as an important stress in many natural and agricultural systems. Conflicting theories have been advanced regarding the mechanism of Mn phytotoxicity and tolerance. One line of evidence suggests that Mn toxicity ocurrs in the leaf apoplast, while another suggests that toxicity occurs by disruption of photosynthetic electron flow in chloroplasts. These conflicting results may at least in part be attributed to the light regimes employed, with studies conducted under light intensities approximating natural sunlight showing evidence of photo-oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity. Excessive Mn competes with the transport and metabolism of other cationic metals, causing a range of induced nutrient deficiencies. Compartmentation, exclusion and detoxification mechanisms may all be involved in tolerance to excess Mn. The strong effects of light, temperature, precipitation and other climate variables on Mn phytoavailability and phytotoxicity suggest that global climate change is likely to exacerbate Mn toxicity in the future, which has largely escaped scientific attention. Given that Mn is terrestrially ubiquitous, it is imperative that the heightened risk of Mn toxicity to both managed and natural plant ecosystems be factored into evaluation of the potential impacts of global climate change on vegetation. Large inter- and intraspecific genetic variation in tolerance to Mn toxicity suggests that increased Mn toxicity in natural ecosystems may drive changes in community composition, but that in agroecosystems crops may be developed

  20. Manganese phytotoxicity: new light on an old problem

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient that is phytotoxic under certain edaphic and climatic conditions. Multiple edaphic factors regulate Mn redox status and therefore its phytoavailability, and multiple environmental factors including light intensity and temperature interact with Mn phytotoxicity. The complexity of these interactions coupled with substantial genetic variation in Mn tolerance have hampered the recognition of Mn toxcity as an important stress in many natural and agricultural systems. Scope Conflicting theories have been advanced regarding the mechanism of Mn phytotoxicity and tolerance. One line of evidence suggests that Mn toxicity ocurs in the leaf apoplast, while another suggests that toxicity occurs by disruption of photosynthetic electron flow in chloroplasts. These conflicting results may at least in part be attributed to the light regimes employed, with studies conducted under light intensities approximating natural sunlight showing evidence of photo-oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity. Excessive Mn competes with the transport and metabolism of other cationic metals, causing a range of induced nutrient deficiencies. Compartmentation, exclusion and detoxification mechanisms may all be involved in tolerance to excess Mn. The strong effects of light, temperature, precipitation and other climate variables on Mn phytoavailability and phytotoxicity suggest that global climate change is likely to exacerbate Mn toxicity in the future, which has largely escaped scientific attention. Conclusions Given that Mn is terrestrially ubiquitous, it is imperative that the heightened risk of Mn toxicity to both managed and natural plant ecosystems be factored into evaluation of the potential impacts of global climate change on vegetation. Large inter- and intraspecific genetic variation in tolerance to Mn toxicity suggests that increased Mn toxicity in natural ecosystems may drive changes in community composition, but that in

  1. Altered selectivity in an Arabidopsis metal transporter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E E; Eide, D J; Guerinot, M L

    2000-10-24

    Plants require metals for essential functions ranging from respiration to photosynthesis. These metals also contribute to the nutritional value of plants for both humans and livestock. Additionally, plants have the ability to accumulate nonessential metals such as cadmium and lead, and this ability could be harnessed to remove pollutant metals from the environment. Designing a transporter that specifically accumulates certain cations while excluding others has exciting applications in all of these areas. The Arabidopsis root membrane protein IRT1 is likely to be responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. Like other Fe(II) transporters identified to date, IRT1 transports a variety of other cations, including the essential metals zinc and manganese as well as the toxic metal cadmium. By heterologous expression in yeast, we show here that the replacement of a glutamic acid residue at position 103 in wild-type IRT1 with alanine increases the substrate specificity of the transporter by selectively eliminating its ability to transport zinc. Two other mutations, replacing the aspartic acid residues at either positions 100 or 136 with alanine, also increase IRT1 metal selectivity by eliminating transport of both iron and manganese. A number of other conserved residues in or near transmembrane domains appear to be essential for all transport function. Therefore, this study identifies at least some of the residues important for substrate selection and transport in a protein belonging to the ZIP gene family, a large transporter family found in a wide variety of organisms.

  2. Six-coordinate manganese(3+) in catalysis by yeast manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Yuewei; Gralla, Edith Butler; Schumacher, Mikhail; Cascio, Duilio; Cabelli, Diane E.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2012-10-10

    Reduction of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) by manganese-containing superoxide dismutase occurs through either a 'prompt protonation' pathway, or an 'inner-sphere' pathway, with the latter leading to formation of an observable Mn-peroxo complex. We recently reported that wild-type (WT) manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are more gated toward the 'prompt protonation' pathway than human and bacterial MnSODs and suggested that this could result from small structural changes in the second coordination sphere of manganese. We report here that substitution of a second-sphere residue, Tyr34, by phenylalanine (Y34F) causes the MnSOD from S. cerevisiae to react exclusively through the 'inner-sphere' pathway. At neutral pH, we have a surprising observation that protonation of the Mn-peroxo complex in the mutant yeast enzyme occurs through a fast pathway, leading to a putative six-coordinate Mn3+ species, which actively oxidizes O{sub 2}{sup -} in the catalytic cycle. Upon increasing pH, the fast pathway is gradually replaced by a slow proton-transfer pathway, leading to the well-characterized five-coordinate Mn{sup 3+}. We here propose and compare two hypothetical mechanisms for the mutant yeast enzyme, diffeeing in the structure of the Mn-peroxo complex yet both involving formation of the active six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} and proton transfer from a second-sphere water molecule, which has substituted for the -OH of Tyr34, to the Mn-peroxo complex. Because WT and the mutant yeast MnSOD both rest in the 2+ state and become six-coordinate when oxidized up from Mn{sup 2+}, six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species could also actively function in the mechanism of WT yeast MnSODs.

  3. Sorption of ferric iron from ferrioxamine B to synthetic and biogenic layer type manganese oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, Owen W.; Bargar, John R.; Sposito, Garrison

    2008-07-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating agents produced in terrestrial and marine environments that increase the bioavailability of ferric iron. Recent work has suggested that both aqueous and solid-phase Mn(III) may affect siderophore-mediated iron transport, but scant information appears to be available about the potential roles of layer type manganese oxides, which are relatively abundant in soils and the oligotrophic marine water column. To probe the effects of layer type manganese oxides on the stability of aqueous Fe-siderophore complexes, we studied the sorption of ferrioxamine B [Fe(III)HDFOB +, an Fe(III) chelate of the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB)] to two synthetic birnessites [layer type Mn(III,IV) oxides] and a biogenic birnessite produced by Pseudomonas putida GB-1. We found that all of these predominantly Mn(IV) oxides greatly reduced the aqueous concentration of Fe(III)HDFOB + at pH 8. Analysis of Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that a dominant fraction of Fe(III) associated with the Mn(IV) oxides is not complexed by DFOB as in solution, but instead Fe(III) is specifically adsorbed to the mineral structure at multiple sites, thus indicating that the Mn(IV) oxides displaced Fe(III) from the siderophore complex. These results indicate that layer type manganese oxides, including biogenic minerals, may sequester iron from soluble ferric complexes. We conclude that the sorption of iron-siderophore complexes may play a significant role in the bioavailability and biogeochemical cycling of iron in marine and terrestrial environments.

  4. Computational Reconstruction of Iron- and Manganese-Responsive Transcriptional Networks in α-Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Todd, Jonathan D; Curson, Andrew R. J; Johnston, Andrew W. B

    2006-01-01

    We used comparative genomics to investigate the distribution of conserved DNA-binding motifs in the regulatory regions of genes involved in iron and manganese homeostasis in alpha-proteobacteria. Combined with other computational approaches, this allowed us to reconstruct the metal regulatory network in more than three dozen species with available genome sequences. We identified several classes of cis-acting regulatory DNA motifs (Irr-boxes or ICEs, RirA-boxes, Iron-Rhodo-boxes, Fur-alpha-boxes, Mur-box or MRS, MntR-box, and IscR-boxes) in regulatory regions of various genes involved in iron and manganese uptake, Fe-S and heme biosynthesis, iron storage, and usage. Despite the different nature of the iron regulons in selected lineages of alpha-proteobacteria, the overall regulatory network is consistent with, and confirmed by, many experimental observations. This study expands the range of genes involved in iron homeostasis and demonstrates considerable interconnection between iron-responsive regulatory systems. The detailed comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the regulatory systems allowed us to propose a theory about the possible evolution of Fe and Mn regulons in alpha-proteobacteria. The main evolutionary event likely occurred in the common ancestor of the Rhizobiales and Rhodobacterales, where the Fur protein switched to regulating manganese transporters (and hence Fur had become Mur). In these lineages, the role of global iron homeostasis was taken by RirA and Irr, two transcriptional regulators that act by sensing the physiological consequence of the metal availability rather than its concentration per se, and thus provide for more flexible regulation. PMID:17173478

  5. Associations of Early Childhood Manganese and Lead Coexposure with Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese–lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese–lead coexposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children were enrolled at birth in an longitudinal cohort study in Mexico City, provided blood samples, and were followed until 36 months of age. We measured lead and manganese at 12 and 24 months and assessed neurodevelopment at 6-month intervals from 12 to 36 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant Development–II. Results: Mean (± SD) blood concentrations at 12 and 24 months were, respectively, 24.7 ± 5.9 μg/L and 21.5 ± 7.4 μg/L for manganese and 5.1 ± 2.6 μg/dL and 5.0 ± 2.9 μg/dL for lead. Mixed-effects models, including Bayley scores at five time points, showed a significant interaction over time: highest manganese quintile × continuous lead; mental development score, β = –1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI): –2.18, –0.37]; psychomotor development score, β = –0.92 (95% CI: –1.76, –0.09). Slopes for the estimated 12-month lead effect on 18-month mental development and 24- through 36-month psychomotor development scores were steeper for children with high manganese than for children with midrange manganese levels. Conclusions: We observed evidence of synergism between lead and manganese, whereby lead toxicity was increased among children with high manganese coexposure. Findings highlight the importance of understanding health effects of mixed exposures, particularly during potentially sensitive developmental stages such as early childhood. PMID:21885384

  6. Iron-Manganese Redox Processes and Synergism in the Mechanism for Manganese-Catalyzed Autoxidation of Hydrogen Sulfite.

    PubMed

    Fronaeus, Sture; Berglund, Johan; Elding, Lars I.

    1998-09-21

    The mechanism for manganese-catalyzed aqueous autoxidation of hydrogen sulfite at pH 2.4 has been revised on the basis of previous comprehensive kinetic studies and thermodynamic data for iron-manganese redox processes and manganese(II) and -(III) protolysis equilibria. The catalytically active manganese species is concluded to be an oxo- (or hydroxo-) bridged mixed-valence complex of composition (OH)Mn(III)OMn(II)(aq) with a formation constant beta' of (3 +/- 1) x 10(4) M(-)(1) from kinetics or ca. 7 x 10(4) M(-)(1) from thermodynamics. It is formed via rapid reaction between Mn(H(2)O)(6)(2+) and hydrolyzed manganese(III) aqua hydroxo complexes, and it initiates the chain reaction via formation of a precursor complex with HSO(3)(-), within which fast bridged electron transfer from S(IV) to Mn(III) takes place, resulting in formation of chain propagating sulfite radicals, SO(3)(*)(-). The very high acidity of Mn(3+)(aq), indicating a strong bond Mn(III)-OH(2) in hydrolyzed manganese(III), makes an attack by HSO(3)(-) on substitution labile Mn(II) in the bridged complex more favorable than one directly on manganese(III). The synergistic effect observed in systems containing iron as well as manganese and the chain initiation by trace concentrations of iron(III) of ca. 5 x 10(-)(8) M can also be rationalized in terms of formation of this bridged mixed-valence dimanganese(II,III) complex. The presence of iron(III) in a Mn(II)/HSO(3)(-) system results in rapid establishment of an iron-manganese redox equilibrium, increasing the concentration of manganese(III) and of the catalytically active bridged complex. The bridged complex oxidizes HSO(3)(-) several orders of magnitude faster than does iron(III) itself. Comparison with some previous studies shows that the different experimental rate laws reported do not necessarily indicate different reaction mechanisms. Instead, they can be rationalized in terms of different rate-determining steps within the same complex chain

  7. Oxidation kinetics of pentachlorophenol by manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Yu, Zhiqiang; Peng, Pingán; Huang, Weilin; Feng, Shunqing; Zhou, Haiyan

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the abiotic transformation kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by manganese dioxide (MnO2) at different solution chemistry and initial concentrations of PCP and MnO2. The measured PCP transformation rates were found to be on the order of 1.07 with respect to [PCP] and 0.91 and 0.87 with respect to [MnO2] and [H+], respectively. Dissolved Mn2+ and Ca2+ as background electrolytes considerably decreased the reaction rate because of their adsorption and hence blocking of active sites on MnO2 surfaces. The dechlorination number, 0.59 chloride ions per transformed PCP after a 1-h reaction, suggests that a fraction of the transformed PCP was not dechlorinated and may be coupled directly to dimeric products. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify two isomeric nonachlorohydroxybiphenylethers as major products and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-hydroquinone and tetrachlorocatechol as minor products. Product identification suggested that the reaction may include two parallel reactions to form either dimers or 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-hydroquinone and tetrachlorocatechol via simultaneous dehydrochlorination and hydroxylation.

  8. Genetic factors and manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Parmalee, Nancy; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), is a trace metal required for normal physiological processes in humans. Mn levels are tightly regulated, as high levels of Mn result in accumulation in the brain and cause a neurological disease known as manganism. Manganism shares many similarities with Parkinson’s disease (PD), both at the physiological level and the cellular level. Exposure to high Mn-containing environments increases the risk of developing manganism. Mn is absorbed primarily through the intestine and then released in the blood. Excessive Mn is secreted in the bile and excreted in feces. Mn enters and exits cells through a number of non-specific importers localized on the cell membrane. Mutations in one of the Mn exporters, SLC30A10 (solute carrier family 30, member 10), result in Mn induced toxicity with liver impairments and neurological dysfunction. Four PD genes have been identified in connection to regulation of Mn toxicity, shedding new light on potential links between manganism and PD. PMID:25136353

  9. Redundancy among Manganese Peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Salame, Tomer M.; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn2+ amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn2+-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn2+-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn2+-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn2+-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members. PMID:23377936

  10. Redundancy among manganese peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2013-04-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members.

  11. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  12. Validation of tractography: Comparison with manganese tracing

    PubMed Central

    Knösche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred; Liptrot, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we used invasive tracing to evaluate white matter tractography methods based on ex vivo diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dwMRI) data. A representative selection of tractography methods were compared to manganese tracing on a voxel‐wise basis, and a more qualitative assessment examined whether, and to what extent, certain fiber tracts and gray matter targets were reached. While the voxel‐wise agreement was very limited, qualitative assessment revealed that tractography is capable of finding the major fiber tracts, although there were some differences between the methods. However, false positive connections were very common and, in particular, we discovered that it is not possible to achieve high sensitivity (i.e., few false negatives) and high specificity (i.e., few false positives) at the same time. Closer inspection of the results led to the conclusion that these problems mainly originate from regions with complex fiber arrangements or high curvature and are not easily resolved by sophisticated local models alone. Instead, the crucial challenge in making tractography a truly useful and reliable tool in brain research and neurology lies in the acquisition of better data. In particular, the increase of spatial resolution, under preservation of the signal‐to‐noise‐ratio, is key. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4116–4134, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26178765

  13. Sedimentation rates and characteristics of manganese micronodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalnov, V. N.; Ivliev, P. A.; Alekseeva, T. N.

    2017-05-01

    A study of core sections from the northern tropical Pacific (Northeast Basin) revealed that pelagic sediments are represented by Quaternary oxidized carbonate-free clayey‒radiolarian to radiolarian‒clayey mud, miopelagic clays locally enriched in radiolarians, and pre-Pleistocene miopelagic to eupelagic clays, zeolite‒clayey varieties, and zeolitites. The study also included an analysis of the grain-size and chemical composition, abundance, mass, and distribution of manganese micronodules (MN) contained in these sediments. The data made it possible to calculate relative sedimentation rates ( Vr) in sections. In calculations, the estimate of the absolute ( V) sedimentation rates for the upper (homogenous) core layer (approximately 5 ka old) was taken to represent a basic value. The values of relative sedimentation rates give grounds to assume that the mass of micronodules (Pmn), average mass of a single micronodule (Pmn/Nmn), mass of the sediment fraction (Pfr > 005 mm), and abundance of micronodules in sediments (Pmn/Psed) reflect the trends of variations in pelagic sedimentation rates.

  14. Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

  15. Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Mark W; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Redente, Edward F

    2005-05-01

    Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg(-1). Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l(-1). These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used.

  16. The interaction of manganese ions with DNA.

    PubMed

    Millonig, Hans; Pous, Joan; Gouyette, Catherine; Subirana, Juan A; Campos, J Lourdes

    2009-06-01

    We present the structure of the duplex formed by a fragment of auto-complementary DNA with the sequence d(CGTTAATTAACG). The structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Up to date it is the first structure presenting the interaction between a DNA oligonucleotide and manganese ions. The presence of Mn2+ creates bonds among the N7 atom of guanines and phosphates. These bonds stabilize and determine the crystallographic network in a P3(2) space group, unusual in oligonucleotide crystals. The crystal structure observed is compared with those found in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ni2+, which show different kinds of interactions. The double helices show end-to-end interactions, in a manner that the terminal guanines interact with the minor groove of the neighboring duplex, while the terminal cytosines are disordered. We have chosen this sequence since it contains a TTAA repeat. Such repeats are very rare in all genomes. We suggest that this sequence may be very susceptible to the formation of closely spaced thymine dimers.

  17. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Velez-Roman, Joyce M.; St. Clair, Daret K.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell. Aberrant production of mitochondrial ROS can have dramatic effects on cellular function, in part, due to oxidative modification of key metabolic proteins localized in the mitochondrion. The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell. Factors that affect the expression and/or the activity of MnSOD, resulting in diminished antioxidant capacity of the cell, can have extraordinary consequences on the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial metabolic function, leading to the development and progression of numerous diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which MnSOD protects cells from the harmful effects of overproduction of ROS, in particular, the effects of ROS on mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, may contribute to the development of novel treatments for various diseases in which ROS are an important component. PMID:22072939

  18. Determination of manganese in human brain samples.

    PubMed

    Tracqui, A; Tayot, J; Kintz, P; Alves, G; Bosque, M A; Mangin, P

    1995-12-29

    A method is presented for the determination of manganese (Mn) in human tissue samples (especially brain) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophometry (GFAAS). After complete digestion by a mixture of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3)/concentrated perchloric acid (HClO4) (50:50, v/v), the samples are assayed on a Perkin-Elmer 5100 PC apparatus, equipped with transversal graphite tubes and a Mn-specific hollow cathode lamp. The furnace conditions are as follows (for each step: temperature (degree C)/ramp (s)/duration (s)) dry 120/1/40; char 1200/5/10; atomization 2250/0/4; pyrolysis 2400/1/1. Zeeman correction is employed. The method is linear over the range 0.05 to 5.00 micrograms/g wet tissue, and the limit of detection for Mn is about 0.01 microgram/g wet tissue. This simple and rapid method may be of value for the post-mortem assessment of Mn accumulation in brain structures due to occupational or iatrogenic exposure. An application is presented in which elevated levels of Mn were determined in the brain samples of a 63-year-old female deceased after long-term total parenteral nutrition involving Mn supplementation.

  19. Fungal manganese oxidation in a reduced soil.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ian A; Huber, Don M; Guest, Chris A; Schulze, Darrell G

    2005-09-01

    Manganese chemistry in soils is a function of complex, competing biotic and abiotic reactions. The role of soil-borne fungi in mediating these reactions is poorly understood. The objective of this article is to document direct observation of fungal Mn oxidation in soil under near in situ conditions, and to isolate, describe and confirm the role of fungi in the observed Mn oxidation, and present a model to explain our observations. We incubated soil under different moisture contents in sample cells designed to allow us to use synchrotron microspectroscopic techniques to analyse areas as small as 38x40 microm2. Mn was redistributed and accumulated in distinct small circular shapes or in dendritic patterns near the air-soil interface when water-saturated soil was incubated for >or=7 days. Mn oxidation did not occur at 3 or 52 degrees C indicating that oxidation was caused by microbial activity. Mn-oxidizing fungi were isolated from the sample cells and cultured on agar. Reinoculation of sterile soil with the Mn-oxidizing isolates resulted in the formation of Mn oxides around fungal hyphae. A model to describe the distinct zonal distribution of Mn oxides in the sample cells is presented. We believe that our data are the first direct observation of Mn oxidation by soil-inhabiting fungi under in situ conditions. Mn-oxidizing fungi may play an underappreciated role in the cycling of Mn in soils.

  20. Effects of manganese on the microstructures of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., A manganese tolerant plant.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Chuan; Lei, Jie; Hartley, William; Pan, Weisong

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. can tolerate high concentrations of manganese and has potential for its use in the revegetation of manganese mine tailings. Following a hydroponic investigation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) was used to study microstructure changes and the possible accumulation of Mn in leaf cells of C. ambrosioides in different Mn treatments (200, 1000, 10000 μmol·L(-1)). At 200 μmol·L(-1), the ultrastructure of C. ambrosioides was clearly visible without any obvious damage. At 1000 μmol·L(-1), the root, stem and leaf cells remained intact, and the organelles were clearly visible without any obvious damage. However, when the Mn concentration exceeded 1000 μmol·L(-1) the number of mitochondria in root cells decreased and the chloroplasts in stem cells showed a decrease in grana lamellae and osmiophilic granules. Compared to controls, treatment with 1000 μmol·L(-1) or 10000 μmol·L(-1) Mn over 30 days, gave rise to black agglomerations in the cells. At 10000 μmol·L(-1), Mn was observed to form acicular structures in leaf cells and intercellular spaces, which may be a form of tolerance and accumulation of Mn in C. ambrosioides. This study has furthered the understanding of Mn tolerance mechanisms in plants, and is potential for the revegetation of Mn-polluted soils.

  1. Enhanced hydrogen adsorption on graphene by manganese and manganese vanadium alloy decoration.

    PubMed

    Pei, P; Whitwick, M B; Sun, W L; Quan, G; Cannon, M; Kjeang, E

    2017-03-23

    In this work, two kinds of novel manganese decorated (G + Mn) and manganese-vanadium co-decorated (G + MnV) graphene composites are synthesized by in situ wet chemical reduction, and their hydrogen storage properties and microstructures are characterized by Sievert-type adsorption apparatus, BET, SEM, TEM/STEM, EDX and EELS. Compared with pristine graphene, Mn decoration marginally increases the hydrogen adsorption capacity of graphene at room temperature and 4 MPa hydrogen pressure from 0.25 wt% to 0.36 wt%. On the other hand, the co-decoration of Mn and V increases the room temperature hydrogen storage capacity of graphene significantly to 1.81 wt% under 4 MPa hydrogen pressure, which is 1.56 wt% higher than the capacity of pristine graphene. The microstructures and valence states of the decorated Mn and Mn-V nanoparticles are investigated by TEM, EDX and EELS analyses, and strong interactions between the decorated nanoparticles and graphene are observed. Based on the results from structural analyses, potential enhancement mechanisms are suggested in terms of the catalytic effects of nanoparticles on graphene hydrogen adsorption. Given the relatively low cost of Mn and V metals compared to noble metals such as Pd, Pt and Au, these results demonstrate a low cost and effective way to significantly enhance the room temperature hydrogen adsorption properties of graphene for potential hydrogen storage applications.

  2. Manganese and acute paranoid psychosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal development and body function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course and usually starts with complaints of headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability and emotional instability. Later, several organ systems may be affected and, due to neurotoxicity, an atypical parkinsonian syndrome may emerge. With regard to neuropsychiatry, an array of symptoms may develop up to 30 years after intoxication, of which gait and speech abnormalities, cognitive and motor slowing, mood changes and hallucinations are the most common. Psychotic phenomena are rarely reported. Case presentation We describe the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man working as a welder who was referred to our facility for evaluation of acute paranoid psychotic behavior. Our patient's medical history made no mention of any somatic complaints or psychiatric symptoms, and he had been involved in a professional career as a metalworker. On magnetic resonance imaging scanning of his brain, a bilateral hyperdensity of the globus pallidus, suggestive for manganese intoxication, was found. His manganese serum level was 52 to 97 nmol/L (range: 7 to 20 nmol/L). A diagnosis of organic psychotic disorder due to manganese overexposure was made. His psychotic symptoms disappeared within two weeks of treatment with low-dose risperidone. At three months later, serum manganese was decreased to slightly elevated levels and the magnetic resonance imaging T1 signal intensity was reduced. No signs of Parkinsonism were found and a definite diagnosis of manganese-induced apathy syndrome was made. Conclusion Although neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms caused by (chronic) manganese exposure have been reported frequently in the past, in the present day the disorder is rarely diagnosed. In this report we stress that manganese intoxication can still occur, in our case in a confined-space welder, and may present

  3. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.

    2008-08-01

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4π geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The 26Mg(n,γ)27Mg reaction produces γ-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of 27Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV γ-rays from the decay of 56Mn, produced by the 55Mn(n,γ)56Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection limit in the hand of human subjects of 1.6 µg/g Ca. It

  4. Formation and properties of nanostructured colloidal manganese oxide particles obtained through the thermally controlled transformation of manganese carbonate precursor phase.

    PubMed

    Škapin, Srečo D; Čadež, Vida; Suvorov, Danilo; Sondi, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Structurally and morphologically different colloidal manganese oxide solids, including manganosite (MnO), bixbyite (Mn2O3) and hausmannite (Mn(2+)[Mn(3+)]2O4), were obtained through the initial biomimetically induced precipitation of a uniform, nanostructured and micron-sized rhodochrosite (MnCO3) precursor phase and their subsequent thermally controlled transformation into oxide structures in air and Ar/H2 atmospheres. The structures and morphology of the obtained precipitates were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Their surface properties were investigated by electrophoretic mobilities (EPM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. The results showed that the structurally diverse, micron-sized, spherical manganese oxide particles exhibit unusual and fascinating nanostructured surface morphologies. These were developed through the coalescence of an initially formed, nanosized, crystalline, manganese carbonate precursor phase which, during the heating, transformed into coarser, irregular, elongated, micron-sized, manganese oxide solids. It was also shown that structural transformations and morphological tailoring were followed by significant changes in the physico-chemical properties of the obtained solids. Their SSA values were drastically reduced as a result of the progressive coalescence at the particle surfaces occurring at higher temperatures. The isoelectric points (IEPs) of the obtained manganese oxides were diverse. This is the consequence of their range of crystal-chemical properties that governed the complex physico-chemical processes at the interface of the manganese oxide solid and the aqueous solution. The results of this study may lead to a conceptually new method for the synthesis of high-performance, nanostructured, manganese oxide solids with desirable structural, morphological and surface properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treponema denticola TroR is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Fenno, J Christopher; Gherardini, Frank C

    2008-01-01

    Treponema denticola harbours a genetic locus with significant homology to most of the previously characterized Treponema pallidum tro operon. Within this locus are five genes (troABCDR) encoding for the components of an ATP-binding cassette cation-transport system (troABCD) and a DtxR-like transcriptional regulator (troR). In addition, a σ70-like promoter and an 18 bp region of dyad symmetry were identified upstream of the troA start codon. This putative operator sequence demonstrated similarity to the T. pallidum TroR (TroRTp) binding sequence; however, the position of this motif with respect to the predicted tro promoters differed. Interestingly, unlike the T. pallidum orthologue, T. denticola TroR (TroRTd) possesses a C-terminal Src homology 3-like domain commonly associated with DtxR family members. In the present study, we show that TroRTd is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor using Escherichia coli reporter constructs and in T. denticola. In addition, we demonstrate that although TroRTd possessing various C-terminal deletions maintain metal-sensing capacities, these truncated proteins exhibit reduced repressor activities in comparison with full-length TroRTd. Based upon these findings, we propose that TroRTd represents a novel member of the DtxR family of transcriptional regulators and is likely to play an important role in regulating both manganese and iron homeostases in this spirochaete. PMID:18761626

  6. Treponema denticola TroR is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Fenno, J Christopher; Gherardini, Frank C

    2008-10-01

    Treponema denticola harbours a genetic locus with significant homology to most of the previously characterized Treponema pallidum tro operon. Within this locus are five genes (troABCDR) encoding for the components of an ATP-binding cassette cation-transport system (troABCD) and a DtxR-like transcriptional regulator (troR). In addition, a sigma(70)-like promoter and an 18 bp region of dyad symmetry were identified upstream of the troA start codon. This putative operator sequence demonstrated similarity to the T. pallidum TroR (TroR(Tp)) binding sequence; however, the position of this motif with respect to the predicted tro promoters differed. Interestingly, unlike the T. pallidum orthologue, T. denticola TroR (TroR(Td)) possesses a C-terminal Src homology 3-like domain commonly associated with DtxR family members. In the present study, we show that TroR(Td) is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor using Escherichia coli reporter constructs and in T. denticola. In addition, we demonstrate that although TroR(Td) possessing various C-terminal deletions maintain metal-sensing capacities, these truncated proteins exhibit reduced repressor activities in comparison with full-length TroR(Td). Based upon these findings, we propose that TroR(Td) represents a novel member of the DtxR family of transcriptional regulators and is likely to play an important role in regulating both manganese and iron homeostases in this spirochaete.

  7. Aluminum and Manganese Distributions in the Solomon Sea: Results from the 2012 PANDORA Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, S. M.; Resing, J. A.; Jeandel, C.; Lacan, F.

    2016-02-01

    Much is still unknown about the sources of trace nutrients to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), which ultimately contribute to high-nutrient regions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. One region that is possibly a source of trace nutrients to the EUC is the Solomon Sea, located east of Papua New Guinea. A study during the summer of 2012, PANDORA, was conducted on board the R/V l'Atalante to determine currents and the geochemical makeup within the basin. Water samples were analyzed for aluminum and manganese using Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). At many stations, aluminum distributions exhibit a sub-surface minimum, located at approximately the same depth as a salinity maximum. Additionally, aluminum is enriched along coastal areas, particularly in the outflow of the Vitiaz Strait, which is concurrent with the findings of Slemons et al. 2010. These regions of high aluminum are also likely regions of iron enrichment. Manganese distributions in the Solomon Sea are similar to data collected north of the region by Slemons et al. 2010, and show a scavenged distribution with local inputs in the surface and concentrations decreasing at depth. This region has strong western boundary currents, and input from coastal margins, two large rivers, island mining sites, and hydrothermal activity, making it an important study-site to determine how trace nutrients are transported to the open ocean.

  8. Motoric impairment following manganese exposure in asteroid echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Baden, Susanne P; Looström, Jakob; Eriksson, Susanne P; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2015-10-01

    In the oceans, naturally occurring manganese (Mn) is released from the sediments during events of hypoxia. While neuro- and immuno-toxic effects of bioavailable manganese are well documented for crustaceans, studies of similar effects of manganese on other marine invertebrates are comparatively few. Here, we developed a new functional test "the repeated turning assay" to investigate if manganese exposure at ∼12 mg L(-1) affected motoric behaviour of two asteroid echinoderms, the Common sea star, Asterias rubens, and the Black brittle star, Ophiocomina nigra. By measuring of the turning-over capacity, from dorsal to ventral position, after one and two weeks of manganese exposure, we showed that for both species Mn exposure significantly delayed the ability to turn. After a recovery period of two weeks, the capacity of turning-over was not restored to that of unexposed animals neither for A. rubens nor for O. nigra. Further investigation of sea stars showed that Mn accumulated ∼5 fold in the tube feet, organs involved in their turning-over activity, and the high concentration remained after the recovery period. In the tube feet we also recorded an increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), here used as a proxy for neuromuscular disturbances. The results indicated that Mn induces neuromuscular disturbance in echinoderms which is important news, given that previous studies have concluded that adult echinoderms are relatively tolerant to Mn.

  9. Manganese tolerance in yeasts involves polyphosphate, magnesium, and vacuolar alterations.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, Lubov; Zvonarev, Anton; Rusakova, Tatiana; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Basidiomycetous and ascomycetous yeast species were tested for manganese tolerance. Basidiomycetous Cryptococcus humicola, Cryptococcus terricola, Cryptococcus curvatus and ascomycetous Candida maltosa, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kuraishia capsulata, Lindnera fabianii and Sacharomyces cerevisiae were able to grow at manganese excess (2.5 mmol/L), while the growth of basidiomycetous Rhodotorula bogoriensis was completely suppressed. The lag phase duration increased and the exponential growth rate decreased at manganese excess. The increase of cell size and enlargement of vacuoles were characteristics for the cells grown at manganese excess. The alterations in inorganic polyphosphate content and cellular localization were studied. L. fabianii, K. capsulata, C. maltosa, and Cr. humicola accumulated the higher amounts of inorganic polyphosphates, while Cr. terricola and Cr. curvatus demonstrated no such accumulation. The polyphosphate content in the cell wall tested by DAPI staining increased in all species under the study; however, this effect was more pronounced in Cr. terricola and Cr. curvatus. The accumulation of Mg(2+) in the cell wall under Mn(2+) excess was observed in Cr. humicola, Cr. curvatus and Cr. terricola. The accumulation of polyphosphate and magnesium in the cell wall was supposed to be a factor of manganese tolerance in yeasts.

  10. The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Chao, T.T.

    1973-01-01

    The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides was studied using synthesized samples of three members of the manganous manganite (birnessite) group, of different chemical composition and crystallinity, and a poorly organized ??-MnO2. All four oxides sorbed significant quantities of silver. The manganous manganites showed the greatest sorption (up to 0.5 moles silver/mole MnOx at pH 7) while the ??-MnO2 showed the least (0.3 moles silver/ mole MnOx at pH 7). Sorption of silver was adequately described by the Langmuir equation over a considerable concentration range. The relationship failed at low pH values and high equilibrium silver concentrations. The sorption capacity showed a direct relationship with pH. However, the rate of increase of sorption capacity decreased at the higher pH values. Silver sorption maxima. were not directly related to surface area but appeared to vary with the amount of occluded sodium and potassium present in the manganese oxide. The important processes involved in the uptake of silver by the four poorly crystallized manganese oxides ara considered to be surface exchange for manganese, potassium and sodium as well as exchange for structural manganese, potassium and sodium. ?? 1973.

  11. Manganese, iron, and total particulate exposures to welders.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2010-02-01

    Welders are exposed to a variety of metal fumes, including manganese, that may elevate the risk for neurological disease. This study examines several large data sets to characterize manganese, iron, and total particulate mass exposures resulting from welding operations. The data sets contained covariates for a variety of exposure modifiers, including the presence of ventilation, the degree of confinement, and the location of the personal sampler (i.e., behind or in front of the welding helmet). The analysis suggests that exposures to manganese are frequently at or above the current ACGIH(R) threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m(3). In addition, there is evidence that local exhaust ventilation can control the exposures to manganese and total fume but that mechanical ventilation may not. The data suggest that higher exposures are associated with a greater degree of enclosure, particularly when local exhaust ventilation is absent. Samples taken behind the helmet were, in general, lower than those measured outside of it. There were strong correlations among manganese, iron, and total particulate mass exposures, suggesting simple equations to estimate one fume component from any of the others.

  12. The Evolutionarily Conserved Protein PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 Is Required for Efficient Manganese Uptake at the Thylakoid Membrane in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Iris; Herdean, Andrei; Gandini, Chiara; Labs, Mathias; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Geimer, Stefan; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren; Spetea, Cornelia; Leister, Dario

    2016-01-01

    In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of water. The oxygen-evolving complex of PSII is a Mn4CaO5 cluster embedded in a well-defined protein environment in the thylakoid membrane. However, transport of manganese and calcium into the thylakoid lumen remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein involved in Mn2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis in chloroplasts. This protein is required for normal operation of the oxygen-evolving complex (as evidenced by oxygen evolution rates) and for manganese incorporation. Manganese binding to PSII was severely reduced in pam71 thylakoids, particularly in PSII supercomplexes. In cation partitioning assays with intact chloroplasts, Mn2+ and Ca2+ ions were differently sequestered in pam71, with Ca2+ enriched in pam71 thylakoids relative to the wild type. The changes in Ca2+ homeostasis were accompanied by an increased contribution of the transmembrane electrical potential to the proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane. PSII activity in pam71 plants and the corresponding Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant cgld1 was restored by supplementation with Mn2+, but not Ca2+. Furthermore, PAM71 suppressed the Mn2+-sensitive phenotype of the yeast mutant Δpmr1. Therefore, PAM71 presumably functions in Mn2+ uptake into thylakoids to ensure optimal PSII performance. PMID:27020959

  13. Analysis of numerical simulations and influencing factors of seasonal manganese pollution in reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Zheng, Xilai; Chen, Lei; Wei, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal manganese pollution has become an increasingly pressing water quality issue for water supply reservoirs in recent years. Manganese is a redox-sensitive element and is released from sediment under anoxic conditions near the sediment-water interface during summer and autumn, when water temperature stratification occurs. The reservoir water temperature and water dynamic conditions directly influence the formation of manganese pollution. Numerical models are useful tools to quantitatively evaluate manganese pollution and its influencing factors. This paper presents a reservoir manganese pollution model by adding a manganese biogeochemical module to a water quality model-CE-QUAL-W2. The model is applied to the Wangjuan reservoir (Qingdao, China), which experiences manganese pollution during summer and autumn. Field data are used to verify the model, and the results show that the model can reproduce the main features of the thermal stratification and manganese distribution. The model is used to evaluate the manganese pollution process and its four influencing factors, including air temperature, water level, wind speed, and wind directions, through different simulation scenarios. The results show that all four factors can influence manganese pollution. High air temperature, high water level, and low wind speed aggravate manganese pollution, while low air temperature, low water level, and high wind speed reduce manganese pollution. Wind that travels in the opposite direction of the flow aggravates manganese pollution, while wind in the same direction as the flow reduces manganese pollution. This study provides useful information to improve our understanding of seasonal manganese pollution in reservoirs, which is important for reservoir manganese pollution warnings and control.

  14. Effect of Hfe Deficiency on Memory Capacity and Motor Coordination after Manganese Exposure by Drinking Water in Mice.

    PubMed

    Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic. Increased manganese stores in the brain are associated with a number of behavioral problems, including motor dysfunction, memory loss and psychiatric disorders. We previously showed that the transport and neurotoxicity of manganese after intranasal instillation of the metal are altered in Hfe-deficient mice, a mouse model of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, it is not fully understood whether loss of Hfe function modifies Mn neurotoxicity after ingestion. To investigate the role of Hfe in oral Mn toxicity, we exposed Hfe-knockout (Hfe (-/-)) and their control wild-type (Hfe (+/+)) mice to MnCl2 in drinking water (5 mg/mL) for 5 weeks. Motor coordination and spatial memory capacity were determined by the rotarod test and the Barnes maze test, respectively. Brain and liver metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with the water-drinking group, mice drinking Mn significantly increased Mn concentrations in the liver and brain of both genotypes. Mn exposure decreased iron levels in the liver, but not in the brain. Neither Mn nor Hfe deficiency altered tissue concentrations of copper or zinc. The rotarod test showed that Mn exposure decreased motor skills in Hfe (+/+) mice, but not in Hfe (-/-) mice (p = 0.023). In the Barns maze test, latency to find the target hole was not altered in Mn-exposed Hfe (+/+) compared with water-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice. However, Mn-exposed Hfe (-/-) mice spent more time to find the target hole than Mn-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice (p = 0.028). These data indicate that loss of Hfe function impairs spatial memory upon Mn exposure in drinking water. Our results suggest that individuals with hemochromatosis could be more vulnerable to memory deficits induced by Mn ingestion from our environment. The pathophysiological role of HFE in manganese neurotoxicity should be carefully examined in patients with HFE-associated hemochromatosis and

  15. Effect of Hfe Deficiency on Memory Capacity and Motor Coordination after Manganese Exposure by Drinking Water in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Ye, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic. Increased manganese stores in the brain are associated with a number of behavioral problems, including motor dysfunction, memory loss and psychiatric disorders. We previously showed that the transport and neurotoxicity of manganese after intranasal instillation of the metal are altered in Hfe-deficient mice, a mouse model of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, it is not fully understood whether loss of Hfe function modifies Mn neurotoxicity after ingestion. To investigate the role of Hfe in oral Mn toxicity, we exposed Hfe-knockout (Hfe-/-) and their control wild-type (Hfe+/+) mice to MnCl2 in drinking water (5 mg/mL) for 5 weeks. Motor coordination and spatial memory capacity were determined by the rotarod test and the Barnes maze test, respectively. Brain and liver metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with the water-drinking group, mice drinking Mn significantly increased Mn concentrations in the liver and brain of both genotypes. Mn exposure decreased iron levels in the liver, but not in the brain. Neither Mn nor Hfe deficiency altered tissue concentrations of copper or zinc. The rotarod test showed that Mn exposure decreased motor skills in Hfe+/+ mice, but not in Hfe-/- mice (p = 0.023). In the Barns maze test, latency to find the target hole was not altered in Mn-exposed Hfe+/+ compared with water-drinking Hfe+/+ mice. However, Mn-exposed Hfe-/- mice spent more time to find the target hole than Mn-drinking Hfe+/+ mice (p = 0.028). These data indicate that loss of Hfe function impairs spatial memory upon Mn exposure in drinking water. Our results suggest that individuals with hemochromatosis could be more vulnerable to memory deficits induced by Mn ingestion from our environment. The pathophysiological role of HFE in manganese neurotoxicity should be carefully examined in patients with HFE-associated hemochromatosis and other iron overload

  16. Risk assessment of an essential element: manganese.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Annette B; Sulsky, Sandra I

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Mn is present in most tissues of all living organisms and is present naturally in rocks, soil, water, and food. High-dose oral, parenteral, or inhalation exposures are associated with increased tissue Mn levels that may lead to development of adverse neurological, reproductive, or respiratory effects. Manganese-induced clinical neurotoxicity is associated with a motor dysfunction syndrome commonly referred to as manganism. Because Mn is an essential element and absorption and excretion are homeostatically regulated, a reasonable hypothesis is that there should be no adverse effects at low exposures. Therefore, there should be a threshold for exposure, below which adverse effects may occur only rarely, if at all, and the frequency of occurrence of adverse effects may increase with higher exposures above that threshold. Lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs), no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs), and benchmark dose levels (BMDs) have been derived from studies that were conducted to evaluate subclinical neurotoxicity in human occupational cohorts exposed to Mn. Although there is some uncertainty about the predictive value of the subclinical neuromotor or neurobehavioral effects that were observed in these occupational cohort studies, results of the neurological tests were used in risk assessments to establish guidelines and regulations for ambient air levels of Mn in the environment. A discussion of the uncertainties associated with these tests is provided in this review. The application of safety and uncertainty factors result in guidelines for ambient air levels that are lower than the LOAELs, NOAELs, or BMDs from occupational exposure studies by an order of magnitude, or more. Specific early biomarkers of effect, such as subclinical neurobehavioral or neurological changes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes

  17. Hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea which lived in manganese stress environment and inversion model for concentration effect of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sanming; Lin, Gang; Yin, Xianyang; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Jiasheng; Liu, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary manganese deposits widely distribute in North Guangxi with the characteristic existing Celosia argentea. Celosia argentea is a kind of plant which has a strong ability to enrich manganese. In order to study the relationship between the hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea and the concentration effect of manganese in the soil, we used soil of B layer in mining area, background soil and the soil adding reagent of MnCl4 to make up experimental sample soil with 10 levels Manganese content for the same batch Celosia argentea. The levels are 0mg/kg, 4500mg/kg, 9000mg/kg, 13500mg/kg, 18000mg/kg, 18020mg/kg, 18040mg/kg, 18080mg/kg, 18160mg/kg. ASD FieldSpec-4 has been used to measure the abnormal spectrums of these Celosia argentea through a whole growth cycle. After pretreating the spectral data, we used Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) to extract the characteristic variables for extracting 1603 bands into 8 bands. Finally, the relationship between the spectral variables and the concentration of manganese was predicted by the Model of Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). The results show that the correlation coefficient-r2 are 0.8714 and 0.9141 in two sets of data. The prediction results are satisfactory, but the front 5 groups are closer to the regression line than the last 5 groups.

  18. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the oognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 µg/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32 µg/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-0 Immediate B3=0.19, Rey-0 Delayed B3=0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities B3=0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. This study addresses research questions under Sustainable and Healthy Communities (2.2.1.6 lessons learned, best practices and stakeholder feedback from community and tribal participa

  19. Manganese and the Evolution of Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet—it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Constraints from the photoassembly of the Mn-bearing water-oxidizing complex fuel the hypothesis that Mn(II) once played a key role as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis prior to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we review the growing body of geological and geochemical evidence from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary records that supports this idea and demonstrates that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle switched on prior to the rise of oxygen. This Mn-oxidizing phototrophy hypothesis also receives support from the biological record of extant phototrophs, and can be made more explicit by leveraging constraints from structural biology and biochemistry of photosystem II in Cyanobacteria. These observations highlight that water-splitting in photosystem II evolved independently from a homodimeric ancestral type II reaction center capable of high potential photosynthesis and Mn(II) oxidation, which is required by the presence of homologous redox-active tyrosines in the modern heterodimer. The ancestral homodimer reaction center also evolved a C-terminal extension that sterically precluded standard phototrophic electron donors like cytochrome c, cupredoxins, or high-potential iron-sulfur proteins, and could only complete direct oxidation of small molecules like Mn2+, and ultimately water.

  20. Manganese and the Evolution of Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet-it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Constraints from the photoassembly of the Mn-bearing water-oxidizing complex fuel the hypothesis that Mn(II) once played a key role as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis prior to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we review the growing body of geological and geochemical evidence from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary records that supports this idea and demonstrates that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle switched on prior to the rise of oxygen. This Mn-oxidizing phototrophy hypothesis also receives support from the biological record of extant phototrophs, and can be made more explicit by leveraging constraints from structural biology and biochemistry of photosystem II in Cyanobacteria. These observations highlight that water-splitting in photosystem II evolved independently from a homodimeric ancestral type II reaction center capable of high potential photosynthesis and Mn(II) oxidation, which is required by the presence of homologous redox-active tyrosines in the modern heterodimer. The ancestral homodimer reaction center also evolved a C-terminal extension that sterically precluded standard phototrophic electron donors like cytochrome c, cupredoxins, or high-potential iron-sulfur proteins, and could only complete direct oxidation of small molecules like Mn(2+), and ultimately water.

  1. Manganese superoxide dismutase: beyond life and death

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Xu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria. Expression of MnSOD is essential for the survival of aerobic life. Transgenic mice expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human MnSOD promoter demonstrate that the level of MnSOD is reduced prior to the formation of cancer. Overexpression of MnSOD in transgenic mice reduces the incidences and multiplicity of papillomas in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis model. However, MnSOD deficiency does not lead to enhanced tumorigenicity of skin tissue similarly treated because MnSOD can modulate both the p53-mediated apoptosis and AP-1-mediated cell proliferation pathways. Apoptosis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial levels of p53 suggesting a link between MnSOD deficiency and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Activation of p53 is preventable by application of a SOD mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP5+). Thus, p53 translocation to mitochondria and subsequent inactivation of MnSOD explain the observed mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to transcription-dependent mechanisms of p53-induced apoptosis. Administration of MnTE-2-PyP5+ following apoptosis but prior to proliferation leads to suppression of protein carbonyls and reduces the activity of AP-1 and the level of the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, without reducing the activity of p53 or DNA fragmentation following TPA treatment. Remarkably, the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors are drastically reduced in mice that receive MnTE-2-PyP5+ prior to cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the role of MnSOD beyond its essential role for survival and suggest a novel strategy for an antioxidant approach to cancer intervention. PMID:20454814

  2. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  5. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  6. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  11. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  12. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...