Science.gov

Sample records for mango peel waste

  1. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  2. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  5. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  7. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  10. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  12. Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2011-10-10

    An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

  13. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  14. A Study on the Expression of Genes Involved in Carotenoids and Anthocyanins During Ripening in Fruit Peel of Green, Yellow, and Red Colored Mango Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Karanjalker, G R; Ravishankar, K V; Shivashankara, K S; Dinesh, M R; Roy, T K; Sudhakar Rao, D V

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangiferaindica L.) fruits are generally classified based on peel color into green, yellow, and red types. Mango peel turns from green to yellow or red or retain green colors during ripening. The carotenoids and anthocyanins are the important pigments responsible for the colors of fruits. In the present study, peels of different colored cultivars at three ripening stages were characterized for pigments, colors, and gene expression analysis. The yellow colored cultivar "Arka Anmol" showed higher carotenoid content, wherein β-carotene followed by violaxanthin were the major carotenoid compounds that increased during ripening. The red colored cultivars were characterized with higher anthocyanins with cyanidin-3-O-monoglucosides and peonidin-3-O-glucosides as the major anthocyanins. The gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR showed the higher expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes viz. lycopene-β-cyclase and violaxanthin-de-epoxidase in yellow colored cv. Arka Anmol, and the expression was found to increase during ripening. However, in red colored cv. "Janardhan Pasand," there is increased regulation of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including transcription factors MYB and basic helix loop. This indicated the regulation of the anthocyanins by these genes in red mango peel. The results showed that the accumulation pattern of particular pigments and higher expression of specific biosynthetic genes in mango peel impart different colors.

  15. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  17. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc < 6.3%) rapid-set to ultrarapid-set high-methoxyl pectins at starch-adjusted yields of 11-21 g/100 g. However, despite similar high molecular weight fractions and galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratios, their average molecular weight was markedly reduced by a characteristic, almost monodisperse fraction of 16000-19000. Expanded galactans, indicated by galactose/rhamnose ratios of 15-24 mol/mol, probably represented arabinogalactan side-chain fragments withstanding hot-acid extraction at pH 1.5 and 2.0, as implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C.; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A.; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E.

    2017-01-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening. PMID:28425468

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes.

    PubMed

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E

    2017-04-20

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C.; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A.; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E.

    2017-04-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  1. Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System

    PubMed Central

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol−1), tie line length (−3.42–35.27%), NaCl (−2.5–11.5%) and pH (4.5–10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol−1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing. PMID:22489172

  2. Optimization of serine protease purification from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel in polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two phase system.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

  3. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  4. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  5. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  6. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    PubMed

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

  7. Characterization of major and minor alk(en)ylresorcinols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Matthias; Berardini, Nicolai; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    5-Alkyl- and 5-alkenylresorcinols, as well as their hydroxylated derivatives, were extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels, purified on polyamide and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/APcI-MS) for the first time. Among the 15 compounds analyzed, 3 major and 12 minor C(15)-, C(17)-, and C(19)-substituted resorcinols and related analogues, showing varying degrees of unsaturation, were characterized by their specific fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments. This marks the first report on the occurrence of mono-, di-, and triunsaturated C(15)-homologues, saturated and triunsaturated C(17)-homologues, and mono- and diunsaturated C(19)-homologues in mango peels. Additionally, several hydroxylated C(15)- and C(17)-homologues, also not yet described in mango, and a C(14)-monoene, unique because of its even-numbered side chain, were tentatively identified on the basis of their fragmentation patterns. The results obtained in the present study indicate that HPLC-DAD-APcI-MS(n), combined with the newly developed solid-phase extraction, is a powerful tool for the analysis of alk(en)ylresorcinols and could therefore be used for their determination in various matrices.

  8. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  9. Sequence diversity and differential expression of major phenylpropanoid-flavonoid biosynthetic genes among three mango varieties.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van L T; Innes, David J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2015-07-30

    Mango fruits contain a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds which impart potential health benefits; their biosynthesis is catalysed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway. The aim of this study was to reveal the variability in genes involved in the PF pathway in three different mango varieties Mangifera indica L., a member of the family Anacardiaceae: Kensington Pride (KP), Irwin (IW) and Nam Doc Mai (NDM) and to determine associations with gene expression and mango flavonoid profiles. A close evolutionary relationship between mango genes and those from the woody species poplar of the Salicaceae family (Populus trichocarpa) and grape of the Vitaceae family (Vitis vinifera), was revealed through phylogenetic analysis of PF pathway genes. We discovered 145 SNPs in total within coding sequences with an average frequency of one SNP every 316 bp. Variety IW had the highest SNP frequency (one SNP every 258 bp) while KP and NDM had similar frequencies (one SNP every 369 bp and 360 bp, respectively). The position in the PF pathway appeared to influence the extent of genetic diversity of the encoded enzymes. The entry point enzymes phenylalanine lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-mono-oxygenase (C4H) and chalcone synthase (CHS) had low levels of SNP diversity in their coding sequences, whereas anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) showed the highest SNP frequency followed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Quantitative PCR revealed characteristic patterns of gene expression that differed between mango peel and flesh, and between varieties. The combination of mango expressed sequence tags and availability of well-established reference PF biosynthetic genes from other plant species allowed the identification of coding sequences of genes that may lead to the formation of important flavonoid compounds in mango fruits and facilitated characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms between varieties. We discovered an association between the extent of sequence variation and

  10. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  11. Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, A K

    2013-02-01

    Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides.

  12. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    PubMed

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Use of HPLC- and GC-QTOF to determine hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) and its by-products.

    PubMed

    López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Diaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Mango industry processing generates high quantities of mango by-products such as peels and seeds (35%-60% of the fruit). Indeed, it is known that mango and its by-products contain different families of bioactive compounds that possess several health benefits. Thus, the aim of this study has been the determination of different families of phenolic derivatives (free and bound phenolic compounds and alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs)) in mango edible part and its by-products (peel, seed and seed husk) from three different cultivars. This is the first study that evaluates the phenolic compounds and ARs in the four fractions of mango of three different cultivars. Special attention has been paid to the determination of anthocyanins and ARs, because these families of compounds had not been studied in depth in mango. In fact, petunidin rutinoside-(p-coumaric acid) gallate was found in mango pulp, peel, seed and seed husk of the three cultivars and, it had never been described in mango before. It is also important to highlight that this is the first time that the identification and quantification of ARs have been performed in mango seed and seed husk; besides, four and five out of eleven alk(en)ylresorcinols detected in peel and pulp, respectively, were identified for the first time in these mango fractions. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS and FRAP assays. Seed free and bound phenolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan) waste using an aqueous organic phase system: a potential low cost source of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2013-07-15

    As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  16. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  17. Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2013-12-31

    Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products.

  18. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg⁻¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹.

  19. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    PubMed

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of biochar on the anaerobic digestion of citrus peel waste.

    PubMed

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the impact of different types of biochar and biochar ratios on the anaerobic digestion of citrus peel waste was investigated. Citrus peel has an inhibitory effect on anaerobic digestion. The presence of biochar had two effects: a reduction in the length of the lag phase and greater production of methane relative to citrus peel waste only incubations. The microbial lag phases decreased with increase in citrus peel to biochar ratios, with 2:1 having the longest lag phase of 9.4days and 1:3, the shortest, with the value of 7.5days. The cumulative methane production in incubations containing biochar and citrus peel ranged from 163.9 to 186.8ml CH4 gVS(-1), while citrus peel only produced 165.9ml CH4 gVS(-1). Examination of the biochar material revealed colonies of putative methanogens. The synergy of d-limonene adsorption and microbial immobilization by biochar appears to improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  3. Suppressive effect of ethanol extract from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel on IgE production in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Sasaki, Tomoko; Nishi, Kosuke; Tamamoto, Takeshi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2018-04-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the onset of allergic reaction, and the suppression of IgE production leads to alleviation of allergic symptoms. We found that mango peel ethanol extract (MPE) significantly suppresses IgE production by human myeloma cell line U266 cells, suggesting that MPE has an anti-allergic effect by inhibiting the production of IgE. Although mangiferin is contained in mango, which suppresses IgE production by U266 cells, it was not contained in MPE. We investigated the suppressive effect of MPE in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice. The elevation of serum IgE level was significantly suppressed by oral administration of MPE. Intake of MPE also suppressed the expression level of IL-4 in the DNFB-challenged ears, suggesting that MPE suppresses the IL-4-mediated maturation into IgE-producing cells. Our findings indicate that MPE has a potential to alleviate the increase in serum IgE level that is feature of type I allergy.

  4. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, P; Muthuvelayudham, R; Viruthagiri, T

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH(2)PO(4), and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30 g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53 g/L, KH(2)PO(4): 4.90 g/L, and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O: 0.95 g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8 IU/mL.

  5. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  6. Dynamics in the concentrations of health-promoting compounds: lupeol, mangiferin and different phenolic acids during postharvest ripening of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Vithana, Mekhala Dk; Singh, Zora; Johnson, Stuart K

    2018-03-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) is renowned for its pleasant taste and as a rich source of health beneficial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in concentrations of health-promoting compounds, namely ascorbic acid, carotenoids, antioxidants, lupeol, mangiferin, total phenols and individual phenolic acids, as well as ethylene production and respiration rates during climacteric ripening in 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mango fruit. The climacteric ethylene and respiration peaks were noted on the third day of the fruit ripening period. The concentrations of total carotenoids in the pulp, total antioxidants in both pulp and peel, and total phenols of the peel, lupeol and mangiferin were significantly elevated, whereas the concentration of ascorbic acid declined during post-climacteric ripening. Gallic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids were identified as the major phenolic acids in both pulp and peel of 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mangoes. The concentrations of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, ferulic and caffeic acids) also increased during the post-climacteric phase. The concentrations of all phenolic compounds were several-fold higher in the peel than pulp. Mangoes at post-climacteric ripening phase offer the highest concentrations of health-promoting compounds. Peel, at this stage of fruit ripening, could be exploited as a good source for extraction of these compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Characterization of a polyhydroxyalkanoate obtained from pineapple peel waste using Ralsthonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Vega-Castro, Oscar; Contreras-Calderon, Jose; León, Emilson; Segura, Almir; Arias, Mario; Pérez, León; Sobral, Paulo J A

    2016-08-10

    Agro-industrial waste can be the production source of biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The aim of this study was to produce and characterize Polyhydroxyalkanoates produced from pineapple peel waste fermentation processes. The methodology includes different pineapple peel waste fermentation conditions. The produced biopolymer was characterized using FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. The best fermentation condition for biopolymer production was obtained using pH 9, Carbon/Nitrogen 11, carbon/phosphorus 6 and fermentation time of 60h. FTIR analyzes showed PHB group characteristics, such as OH, CH and CO. In addition, GC-MS showed two monomers with 4 and 8 carbons, referred to PHB and PHBHV. H(1) NMR analysis showed 0.88-0.97 and 5.27ppm signals, corresponding to CH3 and CH, respectively. In conclusion, polyhydroxyalkanoate production from pineapple peels waste is an alternative for the treatment of waste generated in Colombia's fruit industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, P.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Viruthagiri, T.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2 ·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30 g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.90 g/L, and CoCl2 ·6H2O: 0.95 g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8 IU/mL. PMID:23304453

  9. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    PubMed

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  10. A comparison of mango seed kernel powder, mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder for decolorization of methylene blue dye and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, B; Muthuramu, K L

    2016-11-01

    The waste mango seed generated from mango pulp industry in India is a major problem in handling the waste and hence, conversion of mango seed kernel. Mango seeds were collected and processed for oil extraction. Decolorization of methylene blue was achieved by mango seed kernel powder, mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. Higher efficiency was attained in mango seed kernel powder when compared to mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. A 60 to 95 % of removal efficiency was achieved by varying concentration. Effect of pH, dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. Mango seed kernel powder is a better option that can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and basic red dye from its aqueous solutions.

  11. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    PubMed

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  14. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l -1 ) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m 3 t -1 substrate compared with 57.35 m 3 t -1 substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  15. A Pontential Agriculture Waste Material as Coagulant Aid: Cassava Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, N.; Abd-Rahim, N.-S.; Tuan-Besar, S.-N.-F.; Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Kumar, V.

    2018-02-01

    All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability. The optimum condition allowed Cassava peel and alum removed high turbidity up to 90. This natural coagulant from cassava peel is found to be an alternative coagulant aid to reduce the usage of chemical coagulants

  16. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  17. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  20. Reutilization of mango byproducts: study of the effect of extraction solvent and temperature on their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; Gonzalez, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Mango biowastes, obtained after processing, contain large amounts of compounds with antioxidant activity that can be reused to reduce their environmental impact. The present study evaluates the effect of solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, methanol:water [1:1], ethanol:water [1:1], and acetone:water [1:1]), and temperature (25, 50, and 75 °C) on the efficiency of the extraction of antioxidants from mango peel and seed. Among the factors optimized, extraction solvent was the most important. The solvents that best obtained extracts with high antioxidant capacity were methanol, methanol:water, ethanol:water, and acetone:water (β-carotene test, antioxidant activity coefficient 173 to 926; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, inhibition ratio 15% to 89%; 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid ABTS(·+); and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH· scavenging, 7 to 22 and 8 to 28 g trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TE] per 100 g mango biowaste on a dry matter basis [DW]). Similarly, the flavonoid (0.21 to 1.4 g (+)-catechin equivalents per 100 g DW), tannin (3.8 to 14 g tannic acid equivalents per 100 g DW), and proanthocyanidin (0.23 to 7.8 g leucoanthocyanidin equivalents per 100 g DW) content was highest in the peel extracts obtained with methanol, ethanol:water, or acetone:water and in the seed extracts obtained with methanol or acetone:water. From the perspective of food security, it is advisable to choose ethanol (which also has a notable antioxidant content), ethanol:water, or acetone:water, as they are all solvents that can be used in compliance with good manufacturing practice. In general, increasing temperature improves the capacity of the extracts obtained from mango peel and seed to inhibit lipid peroxidation; however, its effect on the extraction of phytochemical compounds or on the capacity of the extracts to scavenge free radicals was negligible in comparison to that of the solvent. There are many antioxidant compounds

  1. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids.

  2. Comparison of Two Stationary Phases for the Determination of Phytosterols and Tocopherols in Mango and Its By-Products by GC-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    López-Cobo, Ana; Martín-García, Beatriz; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Two different gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) methodologies were carried out for the analysis of phytosterols and tocopherols in the flesh of three mango cultivars and their by-products (pulp, peel, and seed). To that end, a non-polar column ((5%-phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane (HP-5ms)) and a mid-polar column (crossbond trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane (RTX-200MS)) were used. The analysis time for RTX-200MS was much lower than the one obtained with HP-5ms. Furthermore, the optimized method for the RTX-200MS column had a higher sensibility and precision of peak area than the HP-5ms methodology. However, RTX-200MS produced an overlapping between β-sitosterol and Δ5-avenasterol. Four phytosterols and two tocopherols were identified in mango samples. As far as we are concerned, this is the first time that phytosterols have been studied in mango peel and that Δ5-avenasterol has been reported in mango pulp. α- and γ-tocopherol were determined in peel, and α-tocopherol was the major tocopherol in this fraction (up to 81.2%); however, only α-tocopherol was determined in the pulp and seed. The peel was the fraction with the highest total concentration of phytosterols followed by seed and pulp, and “Sensación” was the cultivar with the highest concentration of total phytosterols in most cases. There were no significant differences between quantification of tocopherols with both columns. However, in most cases, quantification of phytosterols was higher with RTX-200MS than with HP-5ms column. PMID:28737686

  3. Comparison of Two Stationary Phases for the Determination of Phytosterols and Tocopherols in Mango and Its By-Products by GC-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    López-Cobo, Ana; Martín-García, Beatriz; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María

    2017-07-22

    Two different gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) methodologies were carried out for the analysis of phytosterols and tocopherols in the flesh of three mango cultivars and their by-products (pulp, peel, and seed). To that end, a non-polar column ((5%-phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane (HP-5ms)) and a mid-polar column (crossbond trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane (RTX-200MS)) were used. The analysis time for RTX-200MS was much lower than the one obtained with HP-5ms. Furthermore, the optimized method for the RTX-200MS column had a higher sensibility and precision of peak area than the HP-5ms methodology. However, RTX-200MS produced an overlapping between β-sitosterol and Δ⁵-avenasterol. Four phytosterols and two tocopherols were identified in mango samples. As far as we are concerned, this is the first time that phytosterols have been studied in mango peel and that Δ⁵-avenasterol has been reported in mango pulp. α- and γ-tocopherol were determined in peel, and α-tocopherol was the major tocopherol in this fraction (up to 81.2%); however, only α-tocopherol was determined in the pulp and seed. The peel was the fraction with the highest total concentration of phytosterols followed by seed and pulp, and "Sensación" was the cultivar with the highest concentration of total phytosterols in most cases. There were no significant differences between quantification of tocopherols with both columns. However, in most cases, quantification of phytosterols was higher with RTX-200MS than with HP-5ms column.

  4. Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K L; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

    2007-12-01

    A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels). Temperature of 30°C, inoculum size of S. cerevisiae G 6% and (v/v) Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077 4% (v/v), incubation period of 48 h and agitation for the first 24 h were found to be best for ethanol production using the combination of two wastes. The pretreated steam exploded biomass after enzymatic saccharification containing 63 gL(-1) reducing sugars was fermented with both hexose and pentose fermenting yeast strains under optimized conditions resulting in ethanol production, yield and fermentation efficiency of 26.84 gL(-1), 0.426 gg (-1) and 83.52 % respectively. This study could establish the effective utilization of kinnow waste and banana peels for bioethanol production using optimized fermentation parameters.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  6. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits.

  7. Quantification and purification of mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars and its protective effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells under H(2)O(2)-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  8. Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:23109851

  9. Production and characterization of alpha-amylase from mango kernel by Fusarium solani NAIMCC-F-02956 using submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Yadav, Kaushlesh K; Muthukumar, M; Garg, Neelima

    2013-11-01

    Microbial production of enzymes using low valued agro industrial wastes is gaining importance globally. Mango is one of the major fruit processed into a variety of products. During processing 40-50% of solid waste is generated in form of peel and stones. After decortications of mango stone, kernel is obtained which is a rich source of starch (upto 60%). It was utilized as a substrate for alpha-amylase production using Fusarium soloni. Maximum alpha-amylase production (0.889 U g(-1)) was recorded using a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v), pH-4 and temperature 30 degrees C on 9th day of incubation. Supplementation of production medium with micronutrients viz., Ca2+, Fe2+ or Mg2+ improved the enzyme production while, Zn2+, B3+ or Mn2+ ions exhibited inhibitory effect. The extracellular protein was precipitated by ammonium sulphate up to 70% saturation, dialyzed and purified (27.84 fold) by gel-exclusion (Sephadex G-75) chromatography. Protein profiling on 12% SDS-PAGE revealed three bands corresponding to 26, 27 and 30 kDa molecular sizes. The optimum amylase activity was achieved at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The Michaelis constant (KM), Vmax and activation energy (-Ea) were found to be 3.7 mg ml(-1), 0.24 U mg(-1) and 42.39 kJ mole(-1), respectively.

  10. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  11. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  12. Effects of size and thermophilic pre-hydrolysis of banana peel during anaerobic digestion, and biomethanation potential of key tropical fruit wastes.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Mary Jesuyemi; Charnnok, Boonya; Saritpongteeraka, Kanyarat; Chaiprapat, Sumate

    2017-10-01

    Methane production potential of tropical fruit wastes, namely lady-finger banana peel, rambutan waste and longan waste were compared using BMP assay and stoichiometric modified Buswell and Mueller equation. Methane yields based on volatile solid (VS) were in the order of ground banana peel, chopped banana peel, chopped longan waste, and chopped rambutan waste (330.6, 268.3, 234.6 and 193.2 mLCH 4 /gVS) that corresponded to their calculated biodegradability. In continuous operations of banana peel digestion at feed concentrations based on total solid (TS) 1-2%, mesophilic single stage digester run at 20-day hydraulic retention time (20-day HRT) failed at 2%TS, but successfully recovered at 1.5%TS. Pre-hydrolysis thermophilic reactor (4-d HRT) was placed as pre-treatment to mesophilic reactor (20-d HRT). Higher biogas (with an evolution of H 2 ) and energy yields were obtained and greater system stability was achieved over the single stage digestion, particularly at higher solid feedstock. The best performance of two stage digestion was 68.5% VS destruction and energy yield of 2510.9kJ/kgVS added at a feed concentration of 2%TS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  14. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described. PMID:29456572

  15. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  16. [Mango: agroindustrial aspects, nutritional/functional value and health effects].

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Velderrain-Rodriguez, Gustavo R; González-Aguilar, A; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, Jose A; Álvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    To review and discuss the latest information on agroindustrial, functional and nutritional value of one of the most produced/consumed fruit crop in México: The mango. A search was conducted in several databases (PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect) and public repositories (Google Scholar) on Mangifera indica L. This information was further sub-classified into agroindustrial, nutritional, functional aspects and health effects. One out of twenty mangoes consumed worldwide is Mexican. The variety "Ataulfo" variety is the most important crop. Minimal processing of its pulp (MP) generates peel (MC) and seeds as biowastes, which have nutraceutical potential. MP and MC are good sources of ascorbate, fructose, soluble (MP, starches and rhamnogalacturonans) and insoluble (MC, lignin and hemicelluloses) dietary fibers as well as functional lipids (MP). MP and MC are good sources of monomeric (MP) phenolic compounds (PC) such as gallic and protocatehuic acids and polymeric PC (MC) such as -PGG with associated anti-obesigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic potential. However, these benefits are dependent on their bioaccessibility (release from its food matrix) and metabolic fate (bioavailability). Mango is a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with proven health benefits. However, factors such as its variety, seasonality, pre and post-harvest handling, extraction of bioactives and some physiological barriers, can modify their nutraceutical potential. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioethanol Production By Utilizing Cassava Peels Waste Through Enzymatic And Microbiological Hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witantri, R. G.; Purwoko, T.; Sunarto; Mahajoeno, E.

    2017-07-01

    Cassava peels waste contains, cellulose which is quite high at 43.626%, this is a potential candidate as a raw for bioethanol production. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the enzymatic hydrolysis, microbiological (Effective microbe) and fermentation in cassava peel waste is known from the results of quantitative measurement of multiple ethanol parameters (DNS Test, pH, ethanol concentration). This research was carried out in stages, the first stage is hydrolysis with completely randomized design with single factor variation of the catalyst, consisting of three levels ie cellulase enzymes, multienzyme and effective microbial EM4. The second stage is fermentation with factorial randomized block design, consisting of three groups of variations of catalyst, and has two factors: variations of fermipan levels 1, 2, 3% and the duration of fermentation, 2,4,6 days. The parameters in the test is a reducing sugar, pH and concentration of ethanol. The results showed that variation of hydrolysis treatment, fermentation time, and fermipan levels has real effect on the fermentation process. On average the highest ethanol content obtained from the treatment with multienzyme addition, with the addition of 2% fermipan levels and on the 2nd day of fermentation that is equal to 3.76%.

  18. Mango Shake

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/mangoshake.html Mango Shake To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prep time: 5 minutes Cook time: 0 minutes ... cup low-fat (1 percent) milk 4 Tbsp frozen mango juice (or 1 fresh pitted mango) 1 small ...

  19. Chilling Stress Upregulates α-Linolenic Acid-Oxidation Pathway and Induces Volatiles of C6 and C9 Aldehydes in Mango Fruit.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Maoz, Itay; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2017-01-25

    Mango-fruit storage period and shelf life are prolonged by cold storage. However, chilling temperature induces physiological and molecular changes, compromising fruit quality. In our previous transcriptomic study of mango fruit, cold storage at suboptimal temperature (5 °C) activated the α-linolenic acid metabolic pathway. To evaluate changes in fruit quality during chilling, we analyzed mango "Keitt" fruit peel volatiles. GC-MS analysis revealed significant modulations in fruit volatiles during storage at suboptimal temperature. Fewer changes were seen in response to the time of storage. The mango volatiles related to aroma, such as δ-3-carene, (Z)-β-ocimene, and terpinolene, were downregulated during the storage at suboptimal temperature. In contrast, C 6 and C 9 aldehydes and alcohols-α-linolenic acid derivatives 1-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-2-hexenal, and nonanal-were elevated during suboptimal-temperature storage, before chilling-injury symptoms appeared. Detection of those molecules before chilling symptoms could lead to a new agro-technology to avoid chilling injuries and maintain fruit quality during cold storage at the lowest possible temperature.

  20. Antioxidant activity of apple peels.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-01-29

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0

  1. Application of orange peel waste in the production of solid biofuels and biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Monteiro; Dweck, Jo; Viotto, Renata Silva; Rosa, André Henrique; de Morais, Leandro Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed to study the potential use of pyrolyzed orange peels as solid biofuels and biosorption of heavy metals. The dry biomass and the biofuel showed moderate levels of carbon (44-62%), high levels of oxygen (30-47%), lower levels of hydrogen (3-6%), nitrogen (1-2.6%), sulfur (0.4-0.8%) and ash with a maximum of 7.8%. The activation energy was calculated using Kissinger method, involving a 3 step process: volatilization of water, biomass degradation and volatilization of the degradation products. The calorific value obtained was 19.3MJ/kg. The studies of metal biosorption based on the Langmuir model obtained the best possible data fits. The results obtained in this work indicated that the potential use of waste orange peel as a biosorbent and as a solid biofuel are feasible, this product could be used in industrial processes, favoring the world economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P < 0.05) among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive. PMID:23761788

  3. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of "Keitt" mangos.

    PubMed

    Ngamchuachit, Panita; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    The optimal 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to slow ripening of whole "Keitt" mangos, either alone or in combination with hot water treatment (HWT) (prior to or post 1-MCP) was identified. USDA-APHIS mandates that HWT can be used for control of fruit flies, but this may affect fruit response to 1-MCP. Mangos were evaluated by repeated measurement of nondestructive firmness, peel color, and ethylene production on the same mango fruits during 2 wk of ripening at 20 °C after treatment. The magnitude of ethylene production increased as a result of both 1-MCP and HWT. With softer mangos (65 N), treatment with 1-MCP alone delayed fruit softening and extended the number of days to full-ripeness (25 N) from 5 d in untreated fruit to 11 d. For these riper fruit, application of 1-MCP prior to HWT extended the days to full-ripeness to 9 d compared with 7 d when 1-MCP was applied after HWT. With firmer mangos (80 N), 1-MCP treatments alone prolonged the days to full-ripeness to 13 d as compared to 11 d for the untreated fruit. There was no significant concentration effect on firmness retention among 1-MCP treatments (0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 μL/L). HWT resulted in a faster rate of fruit softening, taking only 7 d to reach full-ripeness. Combining 1-MCP with HWT reduced the rate of softening compared to HWT alone, resulting in 9 to 11 d to full-ripeness. Application of 1-MCP before HWT showed a greater ability to reduce the rate of fruit softening compared with 1-MCP treatment after HWT. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means all...

  5. Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions and ANN modelling.

    PubMed

    Nag, Soma; Mondal, Abhijit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The use of sustainable, green and biodegradable natural wastes for Cr(VI) detoxification from the contaminated wastewater is considered as a challenging issue. The present research is aimed to assess the effectiveness of seven different natural biomaterials, such as jackfruit leaf, mango leaf, onion peel, garlic peel, bamboo leaf, acid treated rubber leaf and coconut shell powder, for Cr(VI) eradication from aqueous solution by biosorption process. Characterizations were conducted using SEM, BET and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of operating parameters, viz., pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, adsorbent dosages, contact time and temperature on metal removal efficiency, were studied. The biosorption mechanism was described by the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model. The biosorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and chemical (except garlic peel) in nature. The sequence of adsorption capacity was mango leaf > jackfruit leaf > acid treated rubber leaf > onion peel > bamboo leaf > garlic peel > coconut shell with maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 35.7 mg g -1 for mango leaf. The treated effluent can be reused. Desorption study suggested effective reuse of the adsorbents up to three cycles, and safe disposal method of the used adsorbents suggested biodegradability and sustainability of the process by reapplication of the spent adsorbent and ultimately leading towards zero wastages. The performances of the adsorbents were verified with wastewater from electroplating industry. The scale-up study reported for industrial applications. ANN modelling using multilayer perception with gradient descent (GD) and Levenberg-Marquart (LM) algorithm had been successfully used for prediction of Cr(VI) removal efficiency. The study explores the undiscovered potential of the natural waste materials for sustainable existence of small and medium sector industries, especially in the third world countries by protecting the environment by eco-innovation.

  6. Removal of total suspended solid by natural coagulant derived from cassava peel waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Othman, N.; Mohd-Zin, N. S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the performance of starch derived from cassava peel waste as primary coagulant and coagulant aid. Comparable study was also conducted using commercially used aluminium sulfate (alum) as primary coagulant. A series of Jar tests were performed using raw water from Sembrong Barat water treatment plant. It was observed that coagulation test using cassava peel starch (CPS) alone had unappreciable removing ability. However, it was found that combination of alum-CPS successfully achieve up to 90.48% of total suspended solid (TSS) removal under optimized working conditions (pH 9, 7.5mg/L : 100 mg/L of alum : CPS dosage, rapid mixing of 200 rpm for 1 minute; 100 rpm for 2 minutes, slow mixing of 25 rpm for 30 minutes and 30 minutes settling time). This remarks the reduction in alum dosage up to 50% compared to coagulation test using alum alone. Therefore this finding suggesting that CPS can be considered as potential source of sustainable and effective coagulant aid for water treatment especially in developing countries.

  7. Genetic map of mango: a tool for mango breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop, affectionately labeled the “King of Fruit”. Mango is an allotetraploid with 40 chromosomes and the size of the diploid genome is ~439 Mb. Most of the current commercial cultivars are select...

  8. Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, David N.; Bally, Ian S. E.; Dillon, Natalie L.; Innes, David; Groh, Amy M.; Rahaman, Jordon; Ophir, Ron; Cohen, Yuval; Sherman, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop. Most of the current commercial cultivars are selections rather than the products of breeding programs. To improve the efficiency of mango breeding, molecular markers have been used to create a consensus genetic map that identifies all 20 linkage groups in seven mapping populations. Polyembryony is an important mango trait, used for clonal propagation of cultivars and rootstocks. In polyembryonic mango cultivars, in addition to a zygotic embryo, several apomictic embryos develop from maternal tissue surrounding the fertilized egg cell. This trait has been associated with linkage group 8 in our consensus genetic map and has been validated in two of the seven mapping populations. In addition, we have observed a significant association between trait and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the vegetative trait of branch habit and the fruit traits of bloom, ground skin color, blush intensity, beak shape, and pulp color. PMID:28473837

  9. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  11. Anaerobic digestion of pre-fermented potato peel wastes for methane production.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic digestion (AD) of potato peel waste (PPW) and its lactic acid fermentation residue (PPW-FR) for methane (CH4) production. The experimental results showed that about 60-70% CH4 content was obtained. The digester using PPW-FR as feedstock exhibited better performance and produced a highest cumulative CH4 production of 273 L/kg VS fed, followed by 239 L/kg VS fed using PPW under the same conditions. However, with increasing solid loadings of PPW-FR feedstock from 6.4% to 9.1%, the CH4 production was inhibited. The generation, accumulation, and degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in digesters were also investigated in this research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  13. From waste to high-value product: Jackfruit peel derived pectin/apatite bionanocomposites for bone healing applications.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan; Hatamleh, Ashraf A; Munusamy, Murugan A

    2018-01-01

    Public requirements encouraged by the current asset framework drive industry to expand its general effectiveness by enhancing existing procedures or finding new uses for waste. Thus, the aim of this study was the isolation, fabrication, and characterization of pectin derived from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peels and the generation of hybrid of pectin (P)/apatite (HA) (P/HA) bionanocomposites. In this process, the natural pectin polymer derived from the peel of jackfruits was used in different concentrations for the fabrication of HA bionanocomposites. Characterization of the isolated pectin and bionanocomposites samples was performed with 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX, and HR-TEM. Cytocompatibility, ALP, fibroblast stem cells, anti-inflammatory and cell adhesion testing of the fabricated bionanocomposites was showed good biocompatibility. Our results signify that the fabricated bionanocomposites might be applicable as bone graft materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Ilakya, S; Anitha, S L; Sabarima, S Pooja; Priya, B

    2017-01-01

    Four factors three level face centered central composite response surface design was employed in this study to investigate and optimize the effect of process variables (liquid-solid (LS) ratio (10:1-20:1ml/g), pH (1-2), sonication time (15-30min) and extraction temperature (50-70°C)) on the maximum extraction yield of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) peel by ultrasound assisted extraction method. Numerical optimization method was adapted in this study and the following optimal condition was obtained as follows: Liquid-solid ratio of 15:1ml/g, pH of 1.6, sonication time of 24min and temperature of 60°C. The optimal condition was validated through experiments and the observed value was interrelated with predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of mango endogenous pectinases as a tool to engineer mango purée consistency.

    PubMed

    Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Houben, Ken; ten Geuzendam, Belinda; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using mango endogenous pectinases to change the viscosity of mango purée. Hereto, the structure of pectic polysaccharide and the presence of sufficiently active endogenous enzymes of ripe mango were determined. Pectin of mango flesh had a high molecular weight and was highly methoxylated. Pectin methylesterase showed a negligible activity which is related to the confirmed presence of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor. Pectin contained relatively high amounts of galactose and considerable β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity was observed. The possibility of stimulating β-Gal activity during processing (temperature/pressure, time) was investigated. β-Gal of mango was rather temperature labile but pressure stable relatively to the temperature and pressure levels used to inactivate destructive enzymes in industry. Creating processing conditions allowing endogenous β-Gal activity did not substantially change the consistency of mango purée. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Native yeasts for alternative utilization of overripe mango pulp for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro-Figueroa, Juan; Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C; Flores-Gallegos, Adriana C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; De la Garza-Toledo, Heliodoro; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-11-18

    Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable, causing postharvest losses and producing agroindustrial waste. In the present work, native yeasts were used to evaluate ethanol production in overripe mango pulp. The two isolated strains showed similar sequences in the 18S rDNA region corresponding to Kluyveromyces marxianus, being different to the data reported in the NCBI database. Values of up to 5% ethanol (w/v) were obtained at the end of fermentation, showing a productivity of 4g/l/day, a yield of up to 49% of ethanol and a process efficiency of 80%. These results represent a viable option for using the surplus production and all the fruits that have suffered mechanical injury that are not marketable and are considered as agroindustrial waste, thus achieving greater income and less postharvest losses. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  1. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  2. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  3. Biosorption of cationic dyes on breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis) peel and core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyantha, Namal; Lim, Linda B. L.; Tennakoon, D. T. B.; Liaw, Elaine T. Z.; Ing, Chieng Hei; Liyandeniya, Anushka B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate biosorption characteristics of two cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet 2B (MV), on breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis) peel and core. Characterization of breadfruit waste was conducted using surface titrations, thermogravimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The extent of interaction between dyes and each biosorbent was monitored by absorbance measurements, which was then used in isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetics analysis. Biosorption of MB and MV on breadfruit peel and core reaches equilibrium in 150-180 min. All four systems under investigation (MB-breadfruit peel, MB-breadfruit core, MV-breadfruit peel, and MV-breadfruit core) show similar extent of dye removal of about 80% under the conditions employed. Biosorption of both dyes on both biosorbents follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model at the ambient pH, at which the breadfruit surface bears a negative charge. Kinetics of biosorption of MB on breadfruit waste is so fast that it is not possible to determine the order of adsorption kinetics at the concentration level employed. The rate of biosorption of MV on breadfruit waste is smaller and follows pseudo second order kinetics with rate constants of 153.5 and 31.7 g mmol-1 min-1 for peel and core, respectively. Thermodynamics studies conducted for each biosorption system provide negative Δ G Θ, Δ H Θ and Δ S Θ values with the maximum biosorption for MB at the ambient temperature of 24 °C, while that for MV is obtained between 40 and 50 °C. All four biosorption systems show spontaneity and exothermic behaviour to varying degrees.

  4. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

  6. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  7. Fabrication of spherical biochar by a two-step thermal process from waste potato peel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Kwon, Eilhann E; Dou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ming; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new approach for the preparation of spherical biochar (SBC) by employing a two-step thermal technology to potato peel waste (PPW). Potato starch (PS), as a carbon-rich material with microscale spherical shape, was separated from PPW as a precursor to synthesizing SBC. The synthesis process comprised (1) pre-oxidization (preheating under air) of PS at 220 °C and (2) subsequent pyrolysis of the pretreated sample at 700 °C. Results showed that the produced SBC successfully retained the original PS morphology and that pre-oxidization was the key for its shape maintenance, as it reduced surface tension and enhanced structural stability. The SBC possessed excellent chemical inertness (high aromaticity) and uniform particle size (10-30 μm). Zero-cost waste material with a facile and easy-to-control process allows the method to be readily scalable for industrialization, while offering a new perspective on the full use of PPW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which the...

  9. Determination of 17 Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Mango by Modified QuEChERS Extraction Method Using GC-NPD/GC-MS and Hazard Index Estimation in Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M. K.; Lohani, M.; Mudiam, M. K. R.; Srivastava, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg−1) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg−1. Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg−1 and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg−1 which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%–100% and 46.66%–100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg−1 and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg−1 body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one. PMID:24809911

  10. Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.

    PubMed

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-12-28

    The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.

  11. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml).

  12. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B

    PubMed Central

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  13. Activated carbon electrode from banana-peel waste for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Taslim, R.; Aini, Z.; Hartati, S. D.; Mustika, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    Seven types of activated carbon electrode (ACM) have been produced from the banana peel waste for supercapacitor application. The difference type of the electrode was synthesized by the various conditions of carbonization and activation. The production of the ACM was begun by the milling process and molded by a solution casting technique. The next step was followed by drying, carbonization and activation process. Physical properties of the ACM were studied by the N2 gas absorption-desorption method to characterize the specific surface area of the sample. On the other side, the electrochemical properties such as specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E) and specific power (P) were resulted by calculating the current (I) and voltage (V) data from the cyclic voltammetry testing. Based on the data obtained the surface area of the ACM has a significant relationship with the electrochemical properties. The specific surface area (SBET), Csp, E and P were found the maximum value as high as 581m2 / g, 68 F/g, 0.75 Wh/kg and 31 W/kg, respectively. Further more, this paper were also analyzed the relationship between electrochemical properties of supercapacitor with the degree of crystallization of the ACM.

  14. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation - after Tazortene, hydroquinone, and salicylic acid chemical peels Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ... after treatment with hydroquinone, TCA chemical peel, and salicylic acid chemical peel. Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ...

  15. Anaerobic digestion of orange peel in a semi-continuous pilot plant: An environmentally sound way of citrus waste management in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zema, Demetrio A; Fòlino, Adele; Zappia, Giovanni; Calabrò, Paolo S; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Zimbone, Santo Marcello

    2018-07-15

    The management of residues of citrus processing involves economic and environmental problems. In particular, the uncontrolled disposal of citrus processing waste near production sites can have heavy impacts on air, soil, surface water bodies and groundwater. Anaerobic digestion has been proposed as a viable alternative for citrus waste valorisation, if some problems, linked to the biochemical processes, are overcome. Although many experimental tests have studied the inhibitory effects of the high essential oil content of orange peel on biomethanisation processes, fewer experiences have been carried out in continuous or semi-continuous pilot digesters, more similar to the full-scale biogas plants, using real orange peel. This study has evaluated the methane production through anaerobic digestion of industrial orange peel using a pilot plant (84L) with semi-continuous feeding at increasing Organic Loading Rates (OLR) and essential oil (EO) supply rates (EOsr) until the complete process inhibition. Under mesophilic conditions, the highest daily specific methane yield was achieved at OLR of 1.0g TVS L -1 d -1 and EOsr of 47.6mgL -1 d -1 . Partial inhibition of the anaerobic digestion was detected at OLR and EOsr of 1.98g TVS L -1 d -1 and 88.1mgL -1 d -1 , respectively and the process irreversibly stopped when OLR and EOsr reached 2.5g TVS L -1 d -1 and 111.2mgL -1 d -1 , respectively. Under thermophilic conditions, the cumulative methane production (0.12Lg TVS -1 ) was about 25% of that under mesophilic conditions (0.46Lg TVS -1 ). The thermophilic digestion was completely inhibited at lower OLR (1.98g TVS L -1 d -1 ) and EOsr (88.1mgL -1 d -1 ) compared to mesophilic conditions. This study confirmed the suitability of anaerobic digestion of orange peel for biomethane production (provided that the right management of the process is set), in view of an environmentally sound way of agricultural residues management in agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of alk(en)ylresorcinols in the fruits of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars during on-tree maturation and postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, Stefanie; Carle, Reinhold; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Tosta, Carola; Neidhart, Sybille

    2014-01-08

    Regarding their relevance for the fungal resistance of mangoes in long supply chains, the alk(en)ylresorcinols (AR) were quantitated in peel and mesocarp throughout storage (27 days, 14 °C, ethylene absorption). The 12 'Chok Anan' and 11 'Nam Dokmai #4' lots picked between 83 and 115 days after full bloom (DAFB) had different harvest maturity indices. The development of dry matter and fruit growth indicated physiological maturity ∼100 DAFB. During storage, all fruits ripened slowly, mostly until over-ripeness and visible decay. The total AR contents always ranged at 73 ± 4.5 and 6.4 ± 0.7 mg hg(-1) of 'Chok Anan' and 'Nam Dokmai #4' peel dry weight, respectively, but only at 6.7 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.1 mg hg(-1) for the corresponding mesocarp (P ≤ 0.05). These narrow concentration ranges were contradictory to the decreasing fungal resistance. Accordingly, the alk(en)ylresorcinols have not been a deciding factor for the fungal resistance.

  18. Green way genesis of silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peels waste and its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor cell line studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathan, Kiruthika; Thirunavukkarasu, Somanathan

    2017-04-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) opens a new path to kill and prevent various infectious diseases and also tumor. In this study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peel waste (pomegranate, orange, banana and apple (POBA)). The primarily nanoparticles formation has been confirmed by the color change. The synthesized SNP were analyzed by various physicochemical techniques such as UV- Visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of SNP was confirmed by its absorbance peak observed at 430 nm in UV-Visible spectrum. Further, the obtained SNP were identified by XRD and TEM, respectively to know the crystalline nature and size and shape of the particles. The activities of SNP were checked with human pathogens (Salmonella, E.coli and Pseudomonas), plant pathogen (Fusarium) and marine pathogen (Aeromonas hydrophila) and also studied the scavenging effect and anticancer properties against MCF-7 cell lines. This studies proves that the SNP prepared from fruit waste peel extract approach appears extremely fast, cost efficient, eco-friendly and alternative for conventional methods of SNP synthesis to promote the usage of these nanoparticles in medicinal application.

  19. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  20. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

    2015-05-01

    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-10-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed.

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    PubMed

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) with increase in ensiling duration while the Non Fibre Carbohydrate (NFC) increased with increased ensiling duration. The highest CP content (14.44%) was obtained in 25% Guinea Grass (GG)+25% cassava peel (CAP)+50% Cashew Apple Waste (CAW) which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  3. Adsorption of heavy metals from water using banana and orange peels.

    PubMed

    Annadural, G; Juang, R S; Lee, D J

    2003-01-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption removal of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ in the concentration range of 5-25 mg/L using low-cost banana and orange peel wastes was examined at 30 degrees C. Under comparable conditions, the amount of adsorption decreased in the order Pb2+ > Ni2+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ for both adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms could be better described by the Freundlich equation. The amount of adsorption increased with increasing pH and reached a plateau at pH > 7, which was confirmed by the variations of zeta potentials. The application potential of such cellulose-based wastes for metal removal (up to 7.97 mg Pb2+ per gram of banana peel at pH 5.5) at trace levels appeared to be promising.

  4. Self-peeling of impacting droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruiter, Jolet; Soto, Dan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-01-01

    Whether an impacting droplet sticks or not to a solid surface has been conventionally controlled by functionalizing the target surface or by using additives in the drop. Here we report on an unexpected self-peeling phenomenon that can happen even on smooth untreated surfaces by taking advantage of the solidification of the impacting drop and the thermal properties of the substrate. We control this phenomenon by tuning the coupling of the short-timescale fluid dynamics--leading to interfacial defects upon local freezing--and the longer-timescale thermo-mechanical stresses--leading to global deformation. We establish a regime map that predicts whether a molten metal drop impacting onto a colder substrate will bounce, stick or self-peel. In many applications, avoiding adhesion of impacting droplets around designated target surfaces can be as crucial as bonding onto them to minimize waste or cleaning. These insights have broad applicability in processes ranging from thermal spraying and additive manufacturing to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  5. Chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna

    2014-02-01

    Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of this...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of this...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of this...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of this...

  10. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  11. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  12. Peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilknur, Turna; Demirtaşoğlu, Melda; Akarsu, Sevgi; Lebe, Banu; Güneş, Ali Tahsin; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2006-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin. To date, several cases have been described with different clinical features called peeling skin syndrome. Previous reports describe two types (type A and type B) of peeling skin syndrome, both of which show generalized desquamation, sparing palms and soles. We report a 23-year old man who has been classified as neither type A nor type B, and whose history, clinical features and histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of peeling skin syndrome. In addition, the desquamation pattern in our patient was different from that of both types because our case's palms and soles were involved too.

  13. Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Azim, M Kamran; Khan, Ishtaiq A; Zhang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    We characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation DNA sequencing. The RNA-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 Gb). De novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ≥3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. Blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several Viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80% of total) and identified Citrus sinensis as closest neighbor of mango with 9,141 (37%) matched sequences. The annotation with gene ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Group terms categorized unigene sequences into 57 and 25 classes, respectively. More than 13,500 unigenes were assigned to 293 KEGG pathways. Besides major plant biology related pathways, KEGG based gene annotation pointed out active presence of an array of biochemical pathways involved in (a) biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids, flavones and flavonols, (b) biosynthesis of terpenoids and lignins and (c) plant hormone signal transduction. The mango transcriptome sequences revealed 235 proteases belonging to five catalytic classes of proteolytic enzymes. The draft genome of mango chloroplast (cp) was obtained by a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing. The draft mango cp genome size is 151,173 bp with a pair of inverted repeats of 27,093 bp separated by small and large single copy regions, respectively. Out of 139 genes in mango cp genome, 91 found to be protein coding. Sequence analysis revealed cp genome of C. sinensis as closest neighbor of mango. We found 51 short repeats in mango cp genome supposed to be associated with extensive rearrangements. This is the first report of transcriptome and chloroplast genome analysis of any Anacardiaceae family member.

  14. Biomethanization of citrus waste: Effect of waste characteristics and of storage on treatability and evaluation of limonene degradation.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes the evaluation of the suitability of mesophilic anaerobic digestion as a simple technology for the treatment of the citrus waste produced by small-medium agro-industrial enterprises involved in the transformation of Citrus fruits. Two different stocks of citrus peel waste were used (i.e., fresh and stored citrus peel waste), to evaluate the influence of waste composition (variability in the type of processed Citrus fruits) and of storage (potentially necessary to operate the anaerobic digester continuously over the whole year due to the seasonality of the production) on anaerobic degradation treatability. A thorough characterization of the two waste types has been performed, showing that the fresh one has a higher solid and organic content, and that, in spite of the similar values of oil fraction amounts, the two stocks are significantly different in the composition of essential oils (43% of limonene and 34% of linalyl acetate in the fresh citrus waste and 20% of limonene and 74% of linalyl acetate in the stored citrus waste). Contrarily to what observed in previous studies, anaerobic digestion was successful and no reactor acidification occurred. No inhibition by limonene and linalyl acetate even at the maximum applied organic load value (i.e., 2.72 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum ) was observed in the treatment of the stored waste, with limonene and linalyl acetate concentrations of 104 mg/l and 385 mg/l, respectively. On the contrary, some inhibition was detected with fresh citrus peel waste when the organic load increased from 2.21 to 2.88 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum , ascribable to limonene at initial concentration higher than 150 mg/l. A good conversion into methane was observed with fresh peel waste, up to 0.33  [Formula: see text] at the highest organic load, very close to the maximum theoretical value of 0.35 [Formula: see text] , while a lower efficiency was achieved with stored peel waste, with a reduction down to 0.24  [Formula: see

  15. Chemical Peel

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical peel: Your doctor will use a brush, cotton ball, gauze or sponge to apply a chemical ... medium chemical peel: Your doctor will use a cotton-tipped applicator or gauze to apply a chemical ...

  16. Production of prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides from alkali pretreated mahogany and mango wood sawdust by using purified xylanase of Clostridium strain BOH3.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Gobinath; Shanmugavelu, Kavitha; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are emerging prebiotics which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass including agro-residues and hardwood. In this study, we report the production of XOS from thermal-alkali pretreated hardwood such as mahogany and mango by using a purified xylanase from Clostridium strain BOH3. In the first approach, pure xylan is extracted from mahogany and mango hardwood and then the pure xylan is hydrolyzed by using the xylanase. In this case, 572 and 504mg XOS/g pure xylan were obtained from mahogany and mango woods, respectively. In the second approach, the same xylanase is employed to hydrolyze sawdust of hardwood after different types of pretreatments. After a thermal (121°C for 15min) pretreatment under a mild alkaline (0.05N NaOH) condition, the pretreated mahogany and mango sawdust can be utilized directly to produce 89.5 and 67.6mg XOS/g pretreated sawdust, respectively. XOS produced from the pretreated sawdust show strong prebiotic effects on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. This report shows the possibility of producing XOS from pretreated woody wastes without using pure xylan as a substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  18. ESR study of free radicals in mango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with γ-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

  19. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  20. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  1. Viscous peeling with capillary suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gunnar; Lister, John

    2014-11-01

    If an elastic tape is stuck to a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous fluid and then peeled off by pulling at a small angle to the horizontal, then both viscous and capillary forces affect the peeling speed (McEwan and Taylor, 1966). If there is no capillary meniscus (e.g. if the peeling is due to viscous fluid being injected under the tape), then the peeling speed is given by a Cox-Voinov-like law, and is an increasing function of the peeling angle. We show that, with a meniscus present, the effect of the capillary forces is to suck down the tape, reducing the effective peeling angle and hence the peeling speed. When surface tension dominates and the peeling speed tends to zero, the system transitions to a new state whose time-evolution can be described by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical calculations. Similar results hold for the peeling-by-bending of elastic beams, with ``angle'' replaced by ``curvature'' (i.e. bending moment).

  2. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut 'Kent' mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. Synergism of the MAP system with an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate + citric acid) was also investigated. Mango slices in tr...

  3. Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water by adsorption on peels of banana.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Jamil; Shafique, Umer; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, Muhammad; Dar, Amara; Anwar, Shafique

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) on peels of banana has been studied in batch mode using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy for metal estimation. Concerned parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, contact time and agitation speed were investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to describe adsorption equilibrium. The maximum amounts of cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorbed (qm), as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm, were 5.71 mg and 2.18 mg per gram of powder of banana peels, respectively. Study concluded that banana peels, a waste material, have good potential as an adsorbent to remove toxic metals like lead and cadmium from water. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-60 - Mangoes from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... only. (b) The mangoes must be treated by irradiation for the mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae... with irradiation outside the United States, each consignment of fruit must be inspected jointly by... fruit was treated with irradiation in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. (Approved by the Office...

  5. A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients.

  6. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system plan...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India... the mutual agreement between APHIS and the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of India and...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India... the mutual agreement between APHIS and the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of India and...

  9. Behavior of 11 Foodborne Bacteria on Whole and Cut Mangoes var. Ataulfo and Kent and Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extracts and Chemical Sanitizers Directly onto Mangoes Contaminated with Foodborne Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Luna-Rojo, Anais M; Cadena-Ramírez, Arturo; Torres-Vitela, Refugio; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Téllez-Jurado, Alejandro; Villagómez-Ibarra, José R; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2018-05-01

    The behavior of foodborne bacteria on whole and cut mangoes and the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts and chemical sanitizers against foodborne bacteria on contaminated mangoes were investigated. Mangoes var. Ataulfo and Kent were used in the study. Mangoes were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Escherichia coli strains (O157:H7, non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative). The antibacterial effect of five roselle calyx extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria were evaluated on contaminated mangoes. The dry extracts obtained with ethanol, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine solvent residues. Separately, contaminated whole mangoes were immersed in five hibiscus extracts and in sanitizers for 5 min. All foodborne bacteria attached to mangoes. After 20 days at 25 ± 2°C, all foodborne bacterial strains on whole Ataulfo mangoes had decreased by approximately 2.5 log, and on Kent mangoes by approximately 2 log; at 3 ± 2°C, they had decreased to approximately 1.9 and 1.5 log, respectively, on Ataulfo and Kent. All foodborne bacterial strains grew on cut mangoes at 25 ± 2°C; however, at 3 ± 2°C, bacterial growth was inhibited. Residual solvents were not detected in any of the dry extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance. Acetonic, ethanolic, and methanolic roselle calyx extracts caused a greater reduction in concentration (2 to 2.6 log CFU/g) of all foodborne bacteria on contaminated whole mangoes than the sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid. Dry roselle calyx extracts may be a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of mangoes.

  10. Physico-chemical evaluation of the “Casturi” Mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mangifera casturi “Casturi” mango is a tropical fruit tree about 10–30 m tall which is endemic to very small area around Banjarmasin in Southern Borneo (Indonesia). The casturi mango is believed to be first introduced to Florida by Richard Campbell in early 2000 as part of the germplasm conservat...

  11. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  12. Preparation using pectinase and characterization of nanofibers from orange peel waste in juice factories.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the preparation and characterization of nanofibers consisting mainly of cellulose microfibrils from orange peel (OP), which is a significant byproduct of orange juice production. Three treatments (boiling, alkaline, and pectinase) were investigated with and without subsequent grinding treatment. It was possible to prepare the cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using these methods, except for the boiling treatment with grinding. Interestingly, only pectinase and a mild-physical blender treatment without grinding produced nanofibers. The width of the nanofibers from OP was approximately 10 to 50 nm. The microfibril bundles of OP were considered to be thinner than those of commercial CNFs. Our data indicated that the removal of pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses covering the cellulose microfibrils was important for the preparation of nanofibers from OP. These nanofibers from OP using pectinase are proposed to be applicable as food materials, pharmaceuticals, and filters for the tractive characteristics of the sheet. This study demonstrates: (1) it was possible to prepare the nanofibers from orange peel using pectinase and (2) the width of the nanofibers from orange peel was approximately 10 to 50 nm. (3) Removal of polysaccharides such as pectin and hemicelluloses covering cellulose microfibrils was very important for preparation of nanofibers from OP. Considering the tractive characteristics of the sheets from nanofibers and the origin of orange peel, they are suitable for application of food materials, pharmaceuticals, and filters. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  14. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muoki, Penina N; Makokha, Anselimo O; Onyango, Christine A; Ojijo, Nelson K O

    2009-01-01

    The β-carotene content of fresh and dried mangoes commonly consumed in Kenya was evaluated and converted to retinol equivalent (RE). Mango fruits of varieties Ngowe, Apple, and Tommy Atkins were harvested at mature green, partially ripe, and ripe stages and their β-carotene content analyzed. The stability of β-carotene in sun dried mangoes was also studied over 6 months under usual marketing conditions used in Kenya. The effect of using simple pretreatment methods prior to drying of mango slices on retention of β-carotene was as well evaluated. In amounts acceptable to children and women, fresh and dried mangoes can supply 50% or more of the daily required retinol equivalent for children and women. Stage of ripeness, variety, postharvest holding temperature, method of drying, and storage time of dried mango slices affected β-carotene content and consequently vitamin A value of the fruits. Apple variety grown in Machakos had the highest β-carotene. It exceeded the daily RE requirements by 11.8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency.

  15. First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ethylene in pure culture of F. mangiferae obtained from mango. The study also revealed that all the isolates dissected from mango acquire morphological features of F. mangiferae showing most similarity to the features of species with accepted standard features. The isolates of F. mangiferae from mango were observed to produce ethylene in significant amounts, ranging from 9.28–13.66 n mol/g dry wt/day. The findings presented here suggest that F. mangiferae could contribute to the malformation of mango by producing ethylene and probably stimulating stress ethylene production in malformed tissue of mango. Ethylene might be produced through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase-type ethylene-forming-enzyme (EFE) pathway in Fusarium sp, which needs to be investigated. PMID:23221756

  16. First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ethylene in pure culture of F. mangiferae obtained from mango. The study also revealed that all the isolates dissected from mango acquire morphological features of F. mangiferae showing most similarity to the features of species with accepted standard features. The isolates of F. mangiferae from mango were observed to produce ethylene in significant amounts, ranging from 9.28-13.66 n mol/g dry wt/day. The findings presented here suggest that F. mangiferae could contribute to the malformation of mango by producing ethylene and probably stimulating stress ethylene production in malformed tissue of mango. Ethylene might be produced through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase-type ethylene-forming-enzyme (EFE) pathway in Fusarium sp, which needs to be investigated.

  17. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Kumar, Sunil; Oliveira, Leonardo S S; Alfenas, Acelino C; Neven, Lisa G; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  19. Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

    2004-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  1. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa'ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-10-27

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t -test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  2. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  3. Mango Supplementation Has No Effects on Inflammatory Mediators in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Shirley F; Beebe, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Janthachotikun, Sawanya; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Payton, Mark; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometric measurements, lipid parameters, and inflammatory mediators in obese individuals. A total of 20 obese (body mass index [BMI]: 30-35 kg/m2) adults (11 men and 9 women), aged 20 to 50 years, received 10 g/d of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, lipids, and inflammatory mediators were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of mango supplementation. There were no differences between baseline and final visits in inflammatory mediators, lipids, diet, physical activity, and anthropometrics. Relationships were present at baseline and final visits between adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and between leptin and fat mass. Correlations were found after 12 weeks of mango supplementation between leptin and the following variables: waist-to-height ratio, BMI, percent fat, and fat mass. Our findings demonstrate that 12-week consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals has no impact on obesity-related inflammation. PMID:28983188

  4. Exploring the mango-poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hershko, Klilah; Weinberg, Ido; Ingber, Arieh

    2005-01-01

    A relationship between sensitivity to poison oak or poison ivy and mango dermatitis has been suggested by previous publications. The observation that acute allergic contact dermatitis can arise on first exposure to mango in patients who have been sensitized beforehand by contact with other urushiol-containing plants has been documented previously. We report 17 American patients employed in mango picking at a summer camp in Israel, who developed a rash of varying severity. All patients were either in contact with poison ivy/oak in the past or lived in areas where these plants are endemic. None recalled previous contact with mango. In contrast, none of their Israeli companions who had never been exposed to poison ivy/oak developed mango dermatitis. These observations suggest that individuals with known history of poison ivy/oak allergy, or those residing in area where these plants are common, may develop allergic contact dermatitis from mango on first exposure. We hypothesize that previous oral exposure to urushiol in the local Israeli population might establish immune tolerance to these plants.

  5. [Agroindustrial wastes methanization and bacterial composition in anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, María E; Pérez-Fabiel, Sergio; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The tons of organic waste that are annually generated by agro-industry, can be used as raw material for methane production. For this reason, it is important to previously perform biodegradability tests to organic wastes for their full scale methanization. This paper addresses biodegradability, methane production and the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria during anaerobic digestion of banana, mango and papaya agroindustrial wastes. Mango and banana wastes had higher organic matter content than papaya in terms of their volatile solids and total solid rate (94 and 75% respectively). After 63 days of treatment, the highest methane production was observed in banana waste anaerobic digestion: 63.89ml CH4/per gram of chemical oxygen demand of the waste. In the PCR-DGGE molecular analysis, different genomic footprints with oligonucleotides for eubacteria and archeobacteria were found. Biochemical methane potential results proved that banana wastes have the best potential to be used as raw material for methane production. The result of a PCR- DGGE analysis using specific oligonucleotides enabled to identify the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria present during the anaerobic digestion of agroindustrial wastes throughout the process. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa’ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass. PMID:27801799

  7. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  8. Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-08

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3-21), GalOS (DP 5-12), and OGalA (DP 2-12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.

  9. Microwave-Hydrothermal Treated Grape Peel as an Efficient Biosorbent for Methylene Blue Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Jiang, Chunhai; Lin, Zhenyu; Zou, Zhimin

    2018-01-01

    Biosorption using agricultural wastes has been proven as a low cost and efficient way for wastewater treatment. Herein, grape peel treated by microwave- and conventional-hydrothermal processes was used as low cost biosorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption parameters including the initial pH value, dosage of biosorbents, contact time, and initial MB concentration were investigated to find the optimum adsorption conditions. The biosorbent obtained by microwave-hydrothermal treatment only for 3 min at 180 °C (microwave-hydrothermal treated grape peel, MGP) showed faster kinetics and higher adsorption capability than that produced by a conventional-hydrothermal process (hydrothermal treated grape peel, HGP) with a duration time of 16 h. The maximum adsorption capability of MGP under the optimum conditions (pH = 11, a dosage of 2.50 g/L) as determined with the Langmuir model reached 215.7 mg/g, which was among the best values achieved so far on biosorbents. These results demonstrated that the grape peel treated by a quick microwave-hydrothermal process can be a very promising low cost and efficient biosorbent for organic dye removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:29385041

  10. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service.... In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review of the composition...

  11. Development of a kolanut peeling device.

    PubMed

    Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

    2014-10-01

    A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm.

  12. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  13. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-06-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suitable for pectinase biosynthesis (LSSF: 400 ± 21.45 Uml -1 ; SSF: 6500 ± 1116.21 Ug -1 ). Optimization of process parameters using one-variable-at-a-time method revealed that an initial medium pH of 5.0 at 30 °C and 96 h of incubation along with mannitol, urea, ammonium persulfate and isoleucine have positive influence on pectinase production. Further, K + (1 mM), Riboflavin (10 mg 100 ml -1 ) and gibberellic acid (0.025 %, w/v) supported in enhanced pectinase production. Banana peels and AP at a ratio of 9:1, moisture content of 90 % with 2 % inoculum size were suitable combinations for production of pectinase. Similarly, 96 h of soaking time with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) is essential for pectinase recovery. Purification to electrophoretic homogeneity revealed 1.42 fold purification with 8.08 % yield and a molecular weight of 24.6 kDa. Scaling up of various fermentation parameters and supplementing BP as the substrate for pectinase production with better recovery could make it promising for different industrial exploitation.

  14. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    PubMed

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  15. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana ( Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (M v ) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and M v . Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the M v of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  16. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Lam, Su Shiung; Liew, Rock Keey; Cheng, Chin Kui; Rasit, Nazaitulshila; Ooi, Chee Kuan; Ma, Nyuk Ling; Ng, Jo-Han; Lam, Wei Haur; Chong, Cheng Tung; Chase, Howard A

    2018-05-01

    Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7-47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m 2 /g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... only and would have to be treated by irradiation to mitigate the risk of the mango seed weevil and... and to be treated by irradiation to mitigate the risk of the mango seed weevil and fruit flies. We... irradiation treatment to mitigate C. rubens. We proposed to require mangoes to be treated by irradiation for...

  19. Identification of odors from overripe mango that attract vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung; Baker, Thomas C

    2003-04-01

    Bioassays with a variety of overripe fruits, including mango, plum, pear, and grape, and their extracts showed that odors from overripe mango were most attractive to adult vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Combined gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Tenax extracts of overripe mango odors showed that several volatile compounds, including ethanol, acetic acid, amyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, and phenylethyl acetate elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of female flies. Most of the volatile compounds in the extracts were identified by mass spectral and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. In cage bioassays, lures with a blend of ethanol, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol in a ratio of 1:22:5 attracted six times more flies than any single EAG-active compound. This blend also attracted four times more flies than traps baited with overripe mango or unripe mango. However, in field trials, the blend was not as attractive as suggested by the laboratory bioassay.

  20. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. OPAC (orange peel activated carbon) derived from waste orange peel for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from water: Adsorption isotherm, kinetic modelling and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Aarthi; Kamaraj, Ramakrishnan; Vasudevan, Sudharshan; Vasudevan, Subramanyan

    2018-08-01

    This study presents the orange peel activated carbon (OPAC), derived from biowaste precursor (orange peel) by single step pyrolysis method and its application for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from the water. The OPAC exhibited the surface area of 592.471 m 2  g -1 , pore volume and pore diameter of 0.242 cc g -1 and 1.301 nm respectively. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling for all chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides were investigated. The various parametric effects such as pH and temperature were evaluated. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was well fitted for all the herbicides. The Langmuir isotherm was obeyed for all the herbicides and the maximum Langmuir capacity of 574.71 mg g -1 was achieved. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption increases with increase in temperature. The results shows that the orange peel derived carbon (OPAC) as effective and efficient adsorbent material for the removal of chlorophenoxyacid herbicides from the water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical and chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosics in pineapple (Ananus comosus) peels dried for investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukkaew, Adulsman; Boonsong, Panthip; Thongpradistha, Sriubol; Intan, Maimoon

    2017-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananus comosus) Peels, once known as waste from agricultural, can be a problem when we eliminate in agriculture and industry. The current technology can help preliminarily to solve this problem. The sustainable solution to this problem is lignocellulosics pretreatments for converted saccharide as a carbon source for ethanol production. The objective of this study is the investigation of pineapple peels pretreatment to produce fermentable sugar by drying and digesting 5% sulfuric acid (H2SO4). And study of cost economic passed selection for investment. The result found that the best investment of drying was 100 °C at 11 hours for the sulphuric acid which could be easily crushed into a fine powder. Moreover, digestion of pineapple peels gave the best total sugar 252.2 g/l by 5% H2SO4 incubated for 60 minutes at room temperature. The pineapple peels were digested by 5%H2SO4 concentration by incubating for 60 minutes at room temperature, finding to be the best condition and the lowest investment. Finally, the optimisation of investment and management for lignocellulosic pretreatment will improve efficiency of strategy for economic and energy development.

  3. PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M.; Pani, D. R.; Zaidi, N. W.; Singh, U. S.

    2011-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of genetic diversity among Fusarium isolates collected from malformed mango tissues. Two texon selective primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r, were used for quick identification of Fusarium spp. The fungal genomic DNA was extracted from using CTAB method and was utilized as template for PCR amplification. Total 224 bands were amplified by 18 RAPD primers at an average of 12.44 bands per primer. The size of the obtained amplicons ranged from 0.264 kb (minimum) to 3.624 kb (maximum). Data scored from 25 isolates of Fusarium sp. with 18 RAPD primers were used to generate similarity coefficients. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.17 to 0.945. Based on DNA fingerprints, all isolates were categorized into two major clusters. This study indicated a wide variability among different isolates of Fusarium. PMID:21350657

  4. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron

    2015-11-14

    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  5. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  6. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  7. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  8. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  9. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

  10. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.

  11. [Chemical peels and management of skin aging].

    PubMed

    Pelletier-Louis, M-L

    2017-10-01

    Chemical peels are an alternative and/or a complementary treatment to the surgical procedures for skin aging. The purpose of this article is to specify the procedures and the indications of the three principal types of chemical peels: alpha-hydroxy acids, trichloracetic acid, phenol-croton oil peel. The clinical examination will determine the depth of the lesions to treat and will take into consideration counter-indications and specific limits to each patient. Chemical peel is a four step procedure: pre-peel preparation, peeling itself, recovery phase and maintenance phase. The preparation is a very important phase which requires a thorough knowledge of cosmetics. This preparation can extend to any medical or surgical treatment for aging skin. Various techniques of peelings: superficial, medium, deep, combined and mosaïc peel will be detailed. These procedures require a rigorous training and a distinct learning curve. The follow up will be specified as well as the management of the possible complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...-0021] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Mango Promotion, Research, and..., which is authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act). The...

  13. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis.

  14. Low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in stored mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengke; Zhu, Qinggang; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; An, Feng; Li, Min; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-03-15

    In this study, mango fruit were pre-treated with low-temperature conditioning (LTC) at 12°C for 24h, followed by refrigeration at 5°C for 25days before removal to ambient temperature (25°C) to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LTC on chilling injury (CI). The results showed that LTC effectively suppressed the development of CI in mango fruit, accelerated softening, and increased the soluble solids and proline content. Furthermore, LTC reduced electrolyte leakage, and levels of malondialdehyde, O 2 - and H 2 O 2 , maintaining membrane integrity. To reveal the molecular regulation of LTC on chilling tolerance in mango fruit, a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) gene, MiCBF1, was identified and its expression in response to LTC was examined using RT-qPCR. LTC resulted in a higher MiCBF1 expression. These findings suggest that LTC enhances chilling tolerance in mango fruit by inducing a series of physiological and molecular responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sorption kinetics and isotherm studies of a cationic dye using agricultural waste: broad bean peels.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, broad bean peels (BBP), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove cationic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30 degrees C. Equilibrium sorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Analysis of the temportal change of q indicates that at the beginning of the process the overall rate of adsorption is controlled by film-diffusion, then at later stage intraparticle-diffusion controls the rate. Diffusion coefficients and times of transition from film to pore-diffusion control were estimated by piecewise linear regression. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The sorption isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 192.7 mg/g and the equilibrium adsorption constant Ka is 0.07145 l/mg at 30 degrees C. The results revealed that BBP was a promising sorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  16. Mesocarp RNASeq analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) identify quarantine post-harvest treatment effects on gene expression.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States is the world’s largest importer of mangos. Before mangos can enter the US, they must be hot water treated to eliminate the eggs of an insect pest. The National Mango Board, a USDA supported commodity group, as well as mango exporters, importers and wholesale and retail distributo...

  17. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  18. 76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... affect or preempt any other State or Federal law authorizing promotion or research relating to an... Service 7 CFR Part 1206 [Document No. AMS-FV-11-0021] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order... proposes amendment of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to increase the...

  19. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  20. Ácaros del mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  1. Regulation and physiological role of silicon in alleviating drought stress of mango.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Mohamed Naser; El-Hoseiny, Hanan; El-Sheery, Nabil Ibrahim; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-09-01

    Improvement of drought stress of mango plants requires intensive research that focuses on physiological processes. In three successive seasons (2014, 2015and 2016) field experiments with four different strains of mango were subjected to two water regimes. The growth and physiological parameters of possible relevance for drought stress tolerances in mango were investigated. Yield and its components were also evaluated. The data showed that all growth and physiological parameters were increased under K 2 SiO 3 (Si) supplement and were followed by the interaction treatment (Si treatment and its combination with drought stress) compared to that of the controlled condition. Drought stress decreased the concentration of auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA) and cytokinins (CK) in the three mango cultivars leaves, whereas, it increased the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). On the contrary, IAA, GA, and CK (promoters) endogenous levels were improved by supplementing Si, in contrary ABA was decreased. Drought stress increased the activity of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the leaves of all mango cultivars grown during three experimental seasons. However, Si supplementation reduced the levels of all these antioxidative enzymes, especially the concentration of SOD when compared to that of control leaves. Fruit quality was improved in three successive seasons when Si was applied. Our results clearly show that the increment in drought tolerance was associated with an increase in antioxidative enzyme activity, allowing mango plants to cope better with drought stress. Si possesses an efficient system for scavenging reactive oxygen species, which protects the plant against destructive oxidative reactions, thereby improving the ability of the mango trees to withstand environmental stress in arid regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Torrefaction of Durian peel and bagasse for bio-briquette as an alternative solid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Rahmatullah; Putri, R. W.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste of durian (Durio zibethinus) peel and bagasse could be used as solid fuel by a toreffaction process. Durian peel and bagasse were washed and crushed into small sizes then dryed in order to remove water content. The treated biomass was burned at varied temperature of 200 – 350 °C and a residence time of 30 min prior to producing torrified charcoal as intermediate product. Torrified charcoal was ground into a powder blended with tapioca glue followed by casting into a cylinder to form a bio-briqquette. The bio-briquette was characterized by determining its calorific value via bomb carolimeter analysis. The key parameter of bio-briquette are calorific value and combustion rate. The result that as the burning temperature was increased the calorific value of bio-briquettes also increased. The maximum calorific value was achieved at 350°C whereas the maximum calorific value of durian (6,157 cal/gr) is higher than bagasse (6,109 cal/gr). The minimum combustion rate was attained in durian peel torrefaction at 350 °C with the rate 0.0398 g/s. The result showed that bio-briquette of durian peel and bagasse have calorific values equivalent to that of subbituminus coal in the range of 4,900 - 6,800 cal/gr.

  3. Behavior of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in/on mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K

    2011-08-01

    Residue persistence of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid on mango was carried out after giving spray application of the combination formulation, beta cyfluthrin 9% + imidacloprid 21% (Solomon 300 OD) 3 times at the fruit formation stage. The treatments were, untreated control, standard dose of 75 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose of 150 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residues of beta cyfluthrin on mango fruits were 0.04 and 0.12 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 2.4 and 2.6 days and persisted for 5 days only. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits were 0.14 and 0.18 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. Imidacloprid residues degraded with the half-life of 3.06 and 4.16 days, respectively and persisted for 10 days. Mature mango fruits at harvest were free from residues of both insecticides. A safe pre-harvest interval of 8 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits after treatment of the combination formulation.

  4. Tretinoin peel: a critical view*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary. PMID:29186249

  5. Tretinoin peel: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.

  6. Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-10-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

  7. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

  8. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    PubMed

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability. Copyright

  9. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundles was observed in the UVB-treated group after the administration of mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  11. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste.

    PubMed

    Toh, Pui Yee; Leong, Fei Shan; Chang, Sui Kiat; Khoo, Hock Eng; Yim, Hip Seng

    2016-01-01

    Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18-33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel). Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA), Pisang Berangan (PB), and Pisang Mas (PM) were investigated. The best extraction parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0-100% v/v), extraction time (1-5 hr), and extraction temperature (25-60°C) for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA) of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays at optimum extraction conditions. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best extraction conditions used have given the highest TPC and AAs. By

  12. Evaluation of Chilling Injury in Mangoes Using Multispectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Norhashila; Onwude, Daniel I; Osman, Muhamad Syafiq

    2018-05-01

    Commodities originating from tropical and subtropical climes are prone to chilling injury (CI). This injury could affect the quality and marketing potential of mango after harvest. This will later affect the quality of the produce and subsequent consumer acceptance. In this study, the appearance of CI symptoms in mango was evaluated non-destructively using multispectral imaging. The fruit were stored at 4 °C to induce CI and 12 °C to preserve the quality of the control samples for 4 days before they were taken out and stored at ambient temperature for 24 hr. Measurements using multispectral imaging and standard reference methods were conducted before and after storage. The performance of multispectral imaging was compared using standard reference properties including moisture content (MC), total soluble solids (TSS) content, firmness, pH, and color. Least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were used to discriminate CI samples with those of control and before storage, respectively. The statistical results demonstrated significant changes in the reference quality properties of samples before and after storage. The results also revealed that multispectral parameters have a strong correlation with the reference parameters of L * , a * , TSS, and MC. The MC and L * were found to be the best reference parameters in identifying the severity of CI in mangoes. PCA and LS-SVM analysis indicated that the fruit were successfully classified into their categories, that is, before storage, control, and CI. This indicated that the multispectral imaging technique is feasible for detecting CI in mangoes during postharvest storage and processing. This paper demonstrates a fast, easy, and accurate method of identifying the effect of cold storage on mango, nondestructively. The method presented in this paper can be used industrially to efficiently differentiate different fruits from each other after low temperature storage. © 2018

  13. MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and

  14. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gálvez, Edgar; Guerrero, Pakita; Barradas, Carla; Crous, Pedro W; Alves, Artur

    2017-04-01

    Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α). The following Lasiodiplodia species were identified: Lasiodiplodia brasiliense, Lasiodiplodia egyptiacae (for which the new combination Lasiodiplodia laeliocattleyae is introduced), Lasiodiplodia iraniensis, Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and a Lasiodiplodia sp. Individual and combined gene genealogies suggest that this Lasiodiplodia sp. is possibly a hybrid of Lasiodiplodia citricola and Lasiodiplodia parva. Apart from Lasiodiplodia theobromae, which was the most prevalent species, all other species are newly reported from Peru. Moreover, L. iraniensis is reported for the first time on mango. Inoculation trials of mango plants confirmed Koch's postulates, and revealed differences in aggressiveness among species and isolates. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  16. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  17. Detection and Management of Mango Dieback Disease in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Esam Eldin; Sham, Arjun; A. Al Shurafa, Khawla; S. Al Naqbi, Tahra; Iratni, Rabah; El-Tarabily, Khaled; F. AbuQamar, Synan

    2017-01-01

    Mango is affected by different decline disorders causing significant losses to mango growers. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the pathogen was isolated from all tissues sampled from diseased trees affected by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Symptoms at early stages of the disease included general wilting appearance of mango trees, and dieback of twigs. In advanced stages, the disease symptoms were also characterized by the curling and drying of leaves, leading to complete defoliation of the tree and discolouration of vascular regions of the stems and branches. To substantially reduce the devastating impact of dieback disease on mango, the fungus was first identified based on its morphological and cultural characteristics. Target regions of 5.8S rRNA (ITS) and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) genes of the pathogen were amplified and sequenced. We also found that the systemic chemical fungicides, Score®, Cidely® Top, and Penthiopyrad®, significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of L. theobromae both in vitro and in the greenhouse. Cidely® Top proved to be a highly effective fungicide against L. theobromae dieback disease also under field conditions. Altogether, the morphology of the fruiting structures, molecular identification and pathogenicity tests confirm that the causal agent of the mango dieback disease in the UAE is L. theobromae. PMID:29053600

  18. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh-cut mango quality in storage.

    PubMed

    Plotto, Anne; Narciso, Jan A; Rattanapanone, Nithiya; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Edible coatings may extend fresh-cut fruit storage by preventing moisture loss and decreasing gas exchange. This study evaluated the effect of an antibrowning dip (calcium ascorbate, citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine), followed or not with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or carrageenan coatings on quality of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days. A fourth treatment, only used in one of four experiments, consisted of chitosan. Treatments were applied on 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' mangoes harvested from Homestead (FL), and on imported store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning dips maintained the best visual quality during storage for all cultivars, as indicated by higher b*, hue and L*. The CMC coating maintained similar visual quality, but carrageenan or chitosan decreased L* and b*. The antibrowning dip containing calcium ascorbate reduced firmness loss on cut pieces of 'Keitt', 'Kent' and store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning treatment maintained higher titratable acidity for 'Kent' and 'Keitt', resulting in lower sensory sweetness. This study with repeated experiments showed that calcium ascorbate with citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine maintained cut mango slices attractiveness in storage by keeping light color in both varieties. The addition of a polysaccharide coating did not consistently improve quality.

  19. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anil K; Yadav, Devendra K; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  20. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Anil K.; Yadav, Devendra K.; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity. PMID:28584761

  1. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  2. Effect of high-pressure processing on quality and stability of green mango blended mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Swati; Chauhan, O P; Anurag, Rahul K

    2017-07-01

    The present work was aimed to study and optimize the high pressure treated green mango blended mayonnaise in terms of oxidative and emulsion stability, as a function of technical parameters; pressure intensity, dwell period and level of green mango pulp. Mayonnaise samples were treated at different combinations of pressure (400-600 MPa), holding time (5-10 min) and level of green mango pulp (10-30%) following Box-Behnken design. Mayonnaise quality was evaluated in terms of oxidative stability and emulsion stability using response surface methodology to optimize the best possible combination among all. Analysis of variance showed that the second-order polynomial model fitted well with the experimental results. Pressure and time were the most important factors determining the oxidative stability (free fatty acids, peroxide value and anisidine value) whereas; the emulsion stability (creaming and thermal creaming) was most significantly affected by the level of green mango pulp. The optimized conditions for preparing green mango blended mayonnaise with high oxidative and emulsion stability were: 435 MPa pressure, 5 min of holding time with the addition of green mango pulp at the rate of 28%. The product prepared at optimum conditions showed good correlations between predicted and actual values.

  3. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium pseudocircinatum in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation disease (MMD) is one of the most important diseases affecting this crop worldwide, causing severe economic loss due to reduction of yield. Subsequent to the first report in India in 1891 (3), MMD has spread worldwide to most mango-growing regions. Several spe...

  5. Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

    2012-08-14

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.

  6. In vitro Study of Noni Juice Extract Waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and Pineapple Industrial Wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as Energy Supplement in Dairy Goat Ration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (P<0.05) by replacing 25% napier grass with noni juice extract waste (R1)or very significant increased(P<0.01) by replacing the grass with pineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.

  7. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement - a review.

    PubMed

    Jha, S N; Narsaiah, K; Sharma, A D; Singh, M; Bansal, S; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits "Mango" (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars.

  8. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. Available evidence

  9. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  10. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  11. Effect of chemical peeling on photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photo-aged skin. We assessed the photo-chemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid in distilled water at the right back of ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks for glycolic acid, salicylic acid and 10% trichloroacetic acid, and every 4 weeks for 35% trichloroacetic acid for a total of 18 weeks after the establishment of photo-aged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B range light three times a week for 14 weeks at a total dose of 6.66 J/cm(2) . Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of p53 expression and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also in the non-treated area. Peeling suppressed retention of p53-positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid could serve tumor prevention by removing photo-damaged cells. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. 77 FR 71775 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes From... regulations for the importation of mangoes from India into the continental United States. DATES: We will...: For information on the importation of mangoes from India, contact Mr. William Wesela, Regional...

  13. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes from the... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of mangoes from the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines...

  14. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  15. Biochemical characterization of sap (latex) of a few Indian mango varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K Saby; Bhat, S G; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2003-01-01

    Mango sap (latex) from four Indian varieties was studied for its composition. Sap was separated into non-aqueous and aqueous phases. Earlier, we reported that the non-aqueous phase contained mainly mono-terpenes having raw mango aroma (Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 891). In the present study biochemical composition of the aqueous phase was studied. Aqueous phase contained little amount of protein (2.0-3.5 mg/ml) but showed high polyphenol oxidase (147-214 U/mg protein) and peroxidase (401-561 U/mg protein) activities. It contained low amounts of polyphenols and protease activities. On native PAGE, all the major protein bands exhibited both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities. Both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were found to be stable in the aqueous phase of sap at 4 degrees C. Sap contained large amount of non-dialyzable and non-starchy carbohydrate (260-343 mg/ml sap) which may be responsible for maintaining a considerable pressure of fluid in the ducts. Thus, the mango sap could be a valuable by-product in the mango industry as it contains some of the valuable enzymes and aroma components.

  16. Identification of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of thermally processed agro-industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Călinoiu, Lavinia Florina; Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Ştefănescu, Bianca Eugenia; Crişan, Gianina; Socaciu, Carmen

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of the research was to identify the bioactive compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of the major Romanian agro-industrial wastes (apple peels, carrot pulp, white- and red-grape peels and red-beet peels and pulp) for the purpose of increasing the wastes' value. Each type of waste material was analyzed without (fresh) and with thermal processing (10min, 80°C). Based on the obtained results, the thermal process enhanced the total phenolic content. The highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by thermally processed red-grape waste followed by thermally processed red-beet waste. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid in all analyzed samples, but its content decreased significantly during thermal processing. The carrot extracts have no antimicrobial effects, while the thermally processed red-grape waste has the highest antimicrobial effect against the studied strains. The thermally processed red-grape sample has the highest antimutagenic activity toward S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Silva de Araújo, Hyrla Grazielle; Matos, Patrícia Nogueira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; Almeida de Castro, Alessandra

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of 20% glycolic peel, 15% lactic peel, and topical 20% vitamin C in constitutional type of periorbital melanosis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Surabhi; Sahu, Priyadarshini; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Khetri, Sneh

    2016-12-01

    Periorbital Melanosis (POM) is a very common esthetic condition, yet there is no definite treatment modality. Topical therapy is the mainstay of treatment which includes chemical peels, vitamin C, and other depigmenting agents. To compare clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 20% glycolic acid peels, 15% lactic acid peels, and topical 20% vitamin C in treatment of constitutional type of POM in Indian patients. Ninety patients of constitutional POM were enrolled for 12 weeks. The patients were distributed into three groups. One-third of patients underwent 3-weekly GA peel, another one-third underwent 3-weekly lactic peel, and rest applied vitamin C daily. Clinical improvement was assessed objectively using POM grading. Patient's and physicians global assessment along with patient's global tolerance was also evaluated. More than 50% improvement in POM was observed in 73.34% of patients on GA peel, 56.67% on lactic peel, and 26.67% on vitamin C. On comparing improvement with respect to duration of therapy, GA peel was significantly more effective than lactic peel from 12 weeks onward, while it was more effective than vitamin C from 6 weeks onward. Lactic peel was more effective than vitamin C from 6 weeks onward. Physician and patient global assessment was excellent with glycolic peel followed by lactic peel and vitamin C. The incidence of adverse effect was maximum with GA peel followed by lactic peel and vitamin C. Glycolic peel was best among the three modalities, although it was associated with increased rate of side effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Maintaining quality of fresh-cut mangoes using antibrowning agents and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    González-Aguilar, G A; Wang, C Y; Buta, J G

    2000-09-01

    Treatments to inhibit browning and decay and prolong shelf life of fresh-cut mangoes were investigated. Combinations of antibrowning agents and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) resulted in a reduction of browning and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 10 degrees C. Combinations of several browning inhibitors were more effective than those applied individually. Among these treatments, solutions containing 4-hexylresorcinol (0.001 M) (HR) plus potassium sorbate (0.05 M) (KS) and HR plus KS plus D-isoascorbic acid (0.5 M) (ER) reduced changes in color (L, a, and b) and microbial growth and did not affect sensory characteristics of fresh-cut mangoes. In general, these treatments did not affect significantly the changes in organic acids and sugar content of slices during the 14 days of storage at 10 degrees C. High humidity created in the in-package atmosphere alleviated tissue dryness and was an important factor in the ability of the antibrowning solutions to prevent browning and decay. It appears that the maintenance of quality of fresh-cut mangoes is more related to particular combinations of the antibrowning agents used rather than the modified atmosphere created inside the package. HR + ER + KS treatment in combination with MAP could be used to inhibit browning, decay, and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes.

  1. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  2. Comparison between 1% tretinoin peeling versus 70% glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of female patients with melasma.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Shahingohar, Anahita; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is an irregular brownish pigmentation observed on the faces of young to middle-aged women, especially of Asian races, which may contribute to various emotional disturbances. Although not any favorable treatment being approved yet, one appropriate approach is peeling by glycolic acid 70% (GA 70%). Considering the efficiency of Tretinoin in lower concentrations as over-the-counter lightening agents, peelings with higher strength Tretinoin may effectively relieve the pigmentation (melasma) sooner than other topical therapies. The main purpose was to compare the efficiency and complications of GA 70% with Tretinoin 1% peeling. A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial performed on 63 female patients with bilateral melasma. One facial side was treated by drug A (GA 70%) and the opposite side by agent B (Tretinoin 1%) peeling for four sessions with 2-week intervals. Descending changes in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, patients' discomfort and untoward complications following peeling all were evaluated and compared during the research period. The efficiency of Tretinoin 1% peelings in declining the MASI score (treatment of melasma) was similar to GA 70%, as well as the rare unwanted complications of them. However, the patients' discomfort following procedures as expressed by their own, was significantly lower with Tretinoin 1% compared to GA 70% peeling. The cases' satisfaction with the intervention was statistically similar to each other. Furthermore, we experienced almost the equal times of beginning the therapeutic responses in both groups.

  3. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05, chi-square test). However, the most commonly identified allergens were mostly cosmetic-unrelated allergens. The frequency of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  4. Chemical Peeling: A Useful Tool in the Office.

    PubMed

    Truchuelo, M; Cerdá, P; Fernández, L F

    2017-05-01

    Chemical peeling is a common treatment in cosmetic dermatology. A peel that has been used for many years is trichloroacetic acid. Its adverse effects have for a long time been a major limitation. We present a practical review of the characteristics, mechanisms of action, indications, and complications of superficial chemical peels and of peeling with trichloroacetic acid. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  6. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  7. Evaluation of the suitability and performance of cassava waste (peel) extracts in a microbial fuel cell for supplementary and sustainable energy production.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Ademola; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    In a number of energy-poor nations, peel from cassava processing represents one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This peel is mostly discarded indiscriminately and eventually constitutes a problem to the environment. However, energy can be extracted from this peel in a microbial fuel cell. In this study, the viability of cassava peel extract as a substrate in a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell is demonstrated, and optimum performance conditions are explored. The effects of different pretreatments on the extract are also discussed in the context of observed changes in the internal resistances, conductivity and Coulombic efficiencies. At the best conditions examined, the extract from cassava peel fermented for 168 h and adjusted to a pH of 7.63 attained a peak voltage of 687 mV ± 21 mV, a power density of 155 mW m -3 of reactor volume and a Coulombic efficiency of 11 %. Although this energy is limited to direct use, systems exist that can effectively harvest and boost the energy to levels sufficient for supplementary energy usage in cassava producing regions.

  8. Behavior of Thiophanate Methyl and Propiconazole in Grape and Mango Fruits Under the Egyptian Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amira Sh; Helmy, Rania M A; Nasr, Islam N; Abbas, Mohamed S; Mahmoud, Hend A; Jiang, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    This research aims at determining residues of thiophanate methyl and propiconazole in grape and mango fruits as an indication for their persistence in this environmental compartment. Fruit extracts were analyzed for thiophanate methyl using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and using Gas Chromatography Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD), respectively. The results indicated that propiconazole had a less environmental impact since propiconazole had shorter residue half-lives which were 1.24 and 1.19 days in grape and mango fruits, respectively, while thiophanate methyl had half-lives of 2.49 and 2.64 days in mango and grape, respectively. The degradation rates of propiconazole in grape and mango fruits did not change significantly and neither did those of thiophanate methyl. According to the maximum residue level, the pre-harvest intervals of propiconazole were set to be 3 and 7 days for grape and mango fruits, respectively, and the pre-harvest intervals for thiophanate methyl were 15 days for both grape and mango fruits. Propiconazole was generally considered to be less hazardous to humans and will leave the environment less altered because of its faster degradation than that of thiophanate methyl.

  9. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling vs no peeling for Macular Hole-induced Retinal Detachment (MHRD): a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Liu, Xinquan; Zheng, Lijun; Cui, Hongping

    2015-06-20

    we conducted our meta-analysis of published studies to assess existing evidence about the efficacy and safety of vitrectomy with ILM peeling vs. that of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling for Macular hole-induced retinal detachment. Databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI, were searched to identify studies comparing outcomes following vitrectomy with ILM peeling and that with no ILM peeling for macular hole-induced retinal detachment. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1. Six comparative studies comprising 180 eyes were identified. It was indicated that the rate of retinal reattachment (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95 % Confidence interval (CI):1.35 to 6.78; P = 0.007) and macular hole closure (OR = 6.74, 95 % CI:3.26 to 13.93; P < 0.001) after initial surgery was higher and the rate of recurrent retinal detachment (OR = 0.08, 95 % CI:0.02 to 0.30; P = 0.0002) was lower in the group of vitrectomy with ILM peeling than that in the group of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling. However, the improved BCVA (Weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.14, 95 % CI: -0.20 to 0.47; P = 0.42) and the rate of postoperative complications were similar between the two groups. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling is an efficient and safe procedure for macular hole-induced retinal detachment.

  10. The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

  11. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  13. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  15. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  17. Processing 'Ataulfo' Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Quirós-Sauceda, Ana Elena; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2017-09-29

    The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of 'Ataulfo' mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD). Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol) were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (C max ) occurred 2-4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8-24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%), mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%). Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice.

  18. [Chemical and biological evaluation of ripe banana peel].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L; Bicudo, M H

    1996-12-01

    Chemical and biological evaluation of ripe banana peel was conducted, aiming its potential use as a source of dietary fiber in human nutrition. Two types of flour were prepared from banana peel: a) untreated (UT), using washed and dried peel; b) treated (SMB), using peel treated with sodium metabisulfite and citric acid, in attempt to minimize the darkening of the flour. As expected, banana peel flour revealed to be an important source of fiber (NDF), corresponding about 32% of its dried weight. The addition of this flour to a basal casein diet lowered its protein digestibility and increased the fecal bulk of the rats, which are the known effects of dietary fiber. However, it did not alter the protein quality, since there was no difference in the PER values of the diets studied; in addition, the growth of the rats fed diets containing banana peel did not differ from those fed control diet. These results suggest the feasibility of technological studies aiming the development of food products with banana peel. Besides, biological assays should be realized in the elucidation of its effects in food intake and biochemical parameters.

  19. Effect of the concentration of essential oil on orange peel waste biomethanization: Preliminary batch results.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, P S; Pontoni, L; Porqueddu, I; Greco, R; Pirozzi, F; Malpei, F

    2016-02-01

    The cultivation of orange (Citrus×sinensis) and its transformation is a major industry in many countries in the world, it leads to the production of about 25-30Mt of orange peel waste (OPW) per year. Until now many options have been proposed for the management of OPW but although they are technically feasible, in many cases their economic/environmental sustainability is questionable. This paper analyse at lab scale the possibility of using OPW as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. Specific objectives are testing the possible codigestion with municipal biowaste, verifying the effect on methane production of increasingly high concentration of orange essential oil (EO, that is well known to have antioxidant properties that can slower or either inhibit biomass activity) and obtaining information on the behaviour of d-limonene, the main EO component, during anaerobic digestion. The results indicate that OPW can produce up to about 370LnCH4/kgVS in mesophilic conditions and up to about 300LnCH4/kgVS in thermophilic conditions. The presence of increasingly high concentrations of EO temporary inhibits methanogenesis, but according to the results of batch tests, methane production restarts while d-limonene is partially degraded through a pathway that requires its conversion into p-cymene as the main intermediate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation for... required irradiation treatment. The phytosanitary certificate must also bear two additional declarations...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation for... required irradiation treatment. The phytosanitary certificate must also bear two additional declarations...

  2. A hepatonephro-protective phenolic-rich extract from red onion (Allium cepa L.) peels.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Said, Mansour S

    2017-09-01

    Onion peel is a common bio-waste, occasionally used in traditional medicine in treatment of liver ailment and inflammation. However, a phytochemical and biological study is further required to provide the scientific evidence for this use. A phenolic-rich extract of red onion peels (coded as ACPE) was primarily prepared and then subjected to chromatographic separation. From the extract, six phenolic antioxidant compounds along with two phytosterols were isolated and identified by means of spectroscopic (NMR and MS) analyses. The in vivo protective activity of the ACPE against the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) free radicals, in liver and kidney, was assessed in rats. Relative to the CCl4-challenged animals, pre-treatment with ACPE could significantly ameliorate the hepatonephrolinked serum and tissue markers in a dose-dependent response. The flavonol- and phenolic acid-based nature of constituents, the high phenolic content (72.33±5.30 mg gallic acid equivalent per one gram) and the significant antioxidant capacity (>1/3 potency of rutin) of ACPE may be thus attributed strongly to the hepatonephro-protective and anti-inflammatory effect of ACPE. The results suggest that red onion peels can serve as a convenient and cost-effective source of high-value antioxidant nutraceuticals for protection against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  3. Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2008-04-09

    The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation.

  4. Influence of irrigation during the growth stage on yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica L).

    PubMed

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Guoyin; Liu, Debing; Chen, Yeyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65-70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency.

  5. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    PubMed

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.

  7. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  8. Responses of fresh-cut products of four mango cultivars under two different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonu; Rao, Tadapaneni Venkata Ramana

    2017-05-01

    Due to availability of minimally processed products, the consumption of fresh produce has increased over recent years. The present study has been undertaken with the objective of screening of four mango cultivars ('Kesar', 'Rajapuri', 'Totapuri' and 'Ladvo') for evaluating the consequences of minimal processing on their quality attributes under storage at two different temperatures (5 ± 1 °C, 95% RH and 10 ± 1 °C, 87% RH) up to 12 days. The result of the study revealed significant impacts of low temperature storage on the quality parameters of fresh-cut mango cultivars. The evaluated bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, vitamin C and carotenoids were better retained in the samples stored at 5 °C as compared with that of 10 °C. Moreover, the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 5 °C showed lower water loss and microbial contamination. Sensory analyses revealed that the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 10 °C influenced overall acceptability due to changes in their visual perception, though taste, odor and firmness were less affected. This study revealed a significant variation in the storability of fresh-cut mango cultivars with respect to the storage temperature. Among currently studied four cultivars of mango, slices of 'Totapuri' showed comparatively the least change in color, firmness and sensory properties during storage at 5 and 10 °C and it can be a potential cultivar for fresh-cut processing.

  9. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  10. Food peeling: conventional and new approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling is an important unit operation in food processing that prepares fruits and vegetables for subsequent processes through removal of inedible or undesirable rind or skin. This chapter covers an exhaustive discussion on advancement in peeling technologies of fruits and vegetables from different ...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation by... the NPPO of India certifying that the fruit received the required irradiation treatment. The...

  12. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  13. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC)more » developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.« less

  14. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-01

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m2/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  15. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  16. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango under common retail display conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. The synergism between the MAP system and an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate and citric acid) was also investigated. Mango sl...

  17. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and characterization of NBS–LRR resistance gene analogues from mango

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xintao; Yao, Quansheng; Xu, Xuerong; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)–leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family is a class of R genes in plants. NBS genes play a very important role in disease defence. To further study the variation and homology of mango NBS–LRR genes, 16 resistance gene analogues (RGAs) (GenBank accession number HM446507-22) were isolated from the polymerase chain reaction fragments and sequenced by using two degenerate primer sets. The total nucleotide diversity index Pi was 0.362, and 236 variation sites were found among 16 RGAs. The degree of homology between the RGAs varied from 44.4% to 98.5%. Sixteen RGAs could be translated into amino sequences. The high level of this homology in the protein sequences of the P-loop and kinase-2 of the NBS domain between the RGAs isolated in this study and previously characterized R genes indicated that these cloned sequences belonged to the NBS–LRR gene family. Moreover, these 16 RGAs could be classified into the non-TIR–NBS–LRR gene family because only tryptophan (W) could be claimed as the final residual of the kinase-2 domain of all RGAs isolated here. From our results, we concluded that our mango NBS–LRR genes possessed a high level of variation from the mango genome, which may allow mango to recognize many different pathogenic virulence factors. PMID:26740762

  19. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  20. Histological case-control study of peeling-induced skin changes by different peeling agents in surgically subcutaneous undermined skin flaps in facelift patients.

    PubMed

    Gonser, P; Kaestner, S; Jaminet, P; Kaye, K

    2017-11-01

    A histological evaluation of peeling-induced skin changes in subcutaneous undermined preauricular facial skin flaps of nine patients was performed. There were three treatment groups: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 25%, TCA 40% and phenol/croton oil; one group served as control. Two independent evaluators determined the epidermal and dermal thickness and the depth of necrosis (micrometre). The percentual tissue damage due to the peeling was calculated, and a one-sample t-test for statistical significance was performed. On the basis of the histomorphological changes, peeling depth was classified as superficial, superficial-partial, deep-partial and full thickness chemical burn. The histological results revealed a progression of wound depth for different peeling agents without full thickness necrosis. TCA peels of up to 40% can be safely applied on subcutaneous undermined facial skin flaps without impairing the vascular patency, producing a predictable chemical burn, whereas deep peels such as phenol/croton oil peels should not be applied on subcutaneous undermined skin so as to not produce skin slough or necrosis by impairing vascular patency. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  2. Processing ‘Ataulfo’ Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Sauceda, Ana Elena; Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2017-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD). Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol) were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred 2–4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8–24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%), mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%). Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice. PMID:28961171

  3. FT-IR and DFT study of lemon peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, K. V.; Likhter, A. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Experimental FT-IR spectra of lemon peel are registered in the 650 - 3800 cm-1 range. The influence of peel artificial and natural dehydration on its vibrational spectrum is studied. The colored outer surface of lemon peel is proved not to have a significant impact on FT-IR spectrum. It is determined that only dehydration processes affect the FT-IR vibrational spectrum of the peel when a lemon is stored for 28 days under natural laboratory conditions. Polymer molecule models for dietary fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, as well as hesperidin - flavonoid glycoside, and free moisture cluster are developed within the framework of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical method. By implementing supramolecular approach, modeling of the vibrational FT-IR spectrum of lemon peel is carried out and its detailed theoretical interpretation is presented.

  4. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of mango fruit from binary image using randomized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizon, Mohamed; Najihah Yusri, Nurul Ain; Abdul Kadir, Mohd Fadzil; bin Mamat, Abd. Rasid; Abd Aziz, Azim Zaliha; Nanaa, Kutiba

    2015-12-01

    A method of detecting mango fruit from RGB input image is proposed in this research. From the input image, the image is processed to obtain the binary image using the texture analysis and morphological operations (dilation and erosion). Later, the Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) method is used to find the best ellipse fits to each binary region. By using the texture analysis, the system can detect the mango fruit that is partially overlapped with each other and mango fruit that is partially occluded by the leaves. The combination of texture analysis and morphological operator can isolate the partially overlapped fruit and fruit that are partially occluded by leaves. The parameters derived from RHT method was used to calculate the center of the ellipse. The center of the ellipse acts as the gripping point for the fruit picking robot. As the results, the rate of detection was up to 95% for fruit that is partially overlapped and partially covered by leaves.

  6. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Influence of irrigation during the growth stage on yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica L)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Guoyin; Liu, Debing; Chen, Yeyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65–70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency. PMID:28384647

  8. Cost-effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ternent, Laura; Vale, Luke; Boachie, Charles; Burr, Jennifer M; Lois, Noemi

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is cost-effective compared with no peeling for patients with an idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness macular hole. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed alongside a randomised controlled trial. 141 participants were randomly allocated to receive macular-hole surgery, with either ILM peeling or no peeling. Health-service resource use, costs and quality of life were calculated for each participant. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was calculated at 6 months. At 6 months, the total costs were on average higher (£424, 95% CI -182 to 1045) in the No Peel arm, primarily owing to the higher reoperation rate in the No Peel arm. The mean additional QALYs from ILM peel at 6 months were 0.002 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.013), adjusting for baseline EQ-5D and other minimisation factors. A mean incremental cost per QALY was not computed, as Peeling was on average less costly and slightly more effective. A stochastic analysis suggested that there was more than a 90% probability that Peeling would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Although there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in either costs or QALYs between macular hole surgery with or without ILM peeling, the balance of probabilities is that ILM Peeling is likely to be a cost-effective option for the treatment of macular holes. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Inertial and stick-slip regimes of unstable adhesive tape peeling.

    PubMed

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Villey, Richard; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2016-05-18

    We present an experimental characterization of the detachment front unstable dynamics observed during the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives. We use an experimental set-up specifically designed to control the peeling angle θ and the peeled tape length L, while peeling an adhesive tape from a flat substrate at a constant driving velocity V. High-speed imaging allows us to report the evolution of the period and amplitude of the front oscillations, as well as the relative durations of their fast and slow phases, as a function of the control parameters V, L and θ. Our study shows that, as the driving velocity or the peeling angle increases, the oscillations of the peeling front progressively evolve from genuine "stick-slip" oscillations, made of alternating long stick phases and very brief slip phases, to sinusoidal oscillations of amplitude twice the peeling velocity. We propose a model which, taking into account the peeling angle-dependent kinetic energy cost to accelerate and decelerate the peeled tape, explains the transition from the "stick-slip" to the "inertial" regime of the dynamical instability. Using independent direct measurements of the effective fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint, we show that our model quantitatively accounts for the two regimes of the unstable dynamics.

  10. Maturity assessment of harumanis mango using thermal camera sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'ad, F. S. A.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md.; Zakaria, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Ibrahim, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    The perceived quality of fruits, such as mangoes, is greatly dependent on many parameters such as ripeness, shape, size, and is influenced by other factors such as harvesting time. Unfortunately, a manual fruit grading has several drawbacks such as subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency. By automating the procedure, as well as developing new classification technique, it may solve these problems. This paper presents the novel work on the using Infrared as a Tool in Quality Monitoring of Harumanis Mangoes. The histogram of infrared image was used to distinguish and classify the level of ripeness of the fruits based on the colour spectrum by week. The approach proposed thermal data was able to achieve 90.5% correct classification.

  11. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  12. Combination Superficial Peels With Salicylic Acid and Post-Peel Retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kligman, Douglas E; Draelos, Zoe D

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and retinoids, tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA]), and retinol (all-trans retinol) are widely used as topical agents for the improvement of photodamage and acne vulgaris. They can be used in daily take-home products or as part of an in-office procedure, combining the benefits of a keratolytic (SA) and a retinoid. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy for ameliorating photodamage of topical tretinoin (0.25%) and retinol (0.25%) to baseline and with each other when applied after a 30% salicylic acid peel on human facial skin. Twenty female subjects received a full face 30% SA peel followed by the overnight application of tretinoin to a 1 randomized half-face and retinol to the opposite side (split-face study). The identical procedure was repeated at week 2. Double-blinded subject and investigator assessments of the results were captured at weeks 2 and 4. By investigator evaluation, both peeling regimens were effective in improving photodamage parameters compared to baseline. (ATRA P-values at week 4 were: P=.00008 texture, P=.00013 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00098 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.00008 overall appearance. Retinol P-values at week 4 were: P=.00019 texture, P=.00053 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00147 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.0043 overall appearance.) By subject self-assessment compared with baseline, both tretinoin and retinol were effective in improving overall appearance (ATRA P=.0229 and retinol P=.0190). By investigator evaluation comparing tretinoin with retinol, tretinoin was slightly better than retinol at week 4 in improving texture P=.00506, roughness P=.01171, and overall appearance P=.00506. By subject self-assessment comparing tretinoin with retinol, there was no difference in overall appearance (ATRA P=.2367 and retinol P=.3613). Either topical tretinoin (0.25%) or retinol (0.25%) can be used safely and effectively when applied in office immediately after SA peeling to

  13. Ultrastructural observations of chemical peeling for skin rejuvenation (ultrastructural changes of the skin due to chemical peeling).

    PubMed

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Numano, Kayoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Chemical peeling of the skin is commonly used as a means to treat photoaging, but the mechanism underlying its efficacy has not yet been fully clarified. We recently conducted chemical peeling of the skin with glycolic acid and lactic acid and observed it at the ultrastructural level. No changes in the horny layer or the upper epidermal layer were observed but there was dissociation and vacuolation between the basal cells and increases in vimentin filaments within fibroblasts and endothelial cells were seen. These findings suggest that chemical peeling of the skin with this type of agent directly induces collagen formation within the dermis and thus directly stimulates remodeling of the dermis.

  14. Ultrasound treated potato peel and sweet lime pomace based biopolymer film development.

    PubMed

    Borah, Purba Prasad; Das, Pulak; Badwaik, Laxmikant S

    2017-05-01

    Treatment and management of food processing waste is a major challenge for food industry. Potato processing industry generates tremendous amount of peel and consider it as zero valued waste. Again, pomace generated after juice extraction from sweet lime pulp is considered as waste and not properly utilized. Whereas these waste could be utilized for the development of biodegradable packaging film to overcome environmental issues. Composite films were prepared with varying proportion of potato peel powder (PP) and sweet lime pomace (SLP) in the ratio of 0:1(A), 0.5:1(B), 1:1(C), 1:0.5(D), 1:0(E) with an ultrasound treatment of 45min, and 0:1(F), 0.5:1(G), 1:1(H), 1:0.5(I), 1:0(J) with an ultrasound treatment of 60min. Ultrasound was applied for 45 and 60min to film forming solutions to break down biopolymer particles small enough to form a film. All the films were analyzed for their barrier and mechanical properties. It was observed that increasing ultrasound treatment times gives better result in film properties and less PP content also gives better film properties, from these observations film G prepared with 0.5:1 (PP:SLP) showed better characteristics among all other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of G film were reported as 7.25×10 -9 g/Pahm, 12.88±0.348%, 38.92±0.702%, 242.01±3.074g and 7.61±0.824mm respectively. However, thermal decomposition for film G took place above 200°C. The film forming solution of selected G film, added with clove essential oil (1.5%) as an antimicrobial agent was wrapped on bread and stored it for 5days. The film was successful in lowering the weight loss, reducing the hardness and inhibition of surface microbial load from bread sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Saeed, Qamar; Ghouri, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pollination has a great effect on the yield of fruit trees. Blow flies are considered as an effective pollinator compared to hand pollination in fruit orchards. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different pollination methods in mango orchards. Methodology: The impact of pollination on quantity and quality of mango yield by blow flies was estimated by using three treatments, i.e., open pollinated trees, trees were covered by a net in the presence of blow flies for pollination, and trees were covered with a net but without insects. Results: The maximum number of flowers was recorded in irregular types of inflorescence, i.e., 434.80 flowers/inflorescence. Fruit setting (bud) was higher in open pollinated mango trees (i.e. 37.00/inflorescence) than enclosed pollination by blow flies (i.e. 22.34/inflorescence). The size of the mango fruit was the highest (5.06 mm) in open pollinated tree than those pollinated by blow flies (3.93 mm) and followed by without any pollinator (3.18 mm) at marble stage. We found that the maximum weight of mango fruit (201.19 g) was in open pollinated trees. Discussion: The results demonstrated that blow flies can be used as effective mango pollinators along with other flies and bees. The blow flies have shown a positive impact on the quality and quantity of mango. This study will be helpful in future and also applicable at farm level to use blow flies as pollinators that are cheap and easy to rear. PMID:27441107

  16. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  17. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  18. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    PubMed

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  20. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report.

    PubMed

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-03-19

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  2. Complications of Macular Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Duran, Mónica; Manzano-Muñoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-García, José Luis; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  3. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of chemical peeling on the skin in relation to UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Funasaka, Yoko; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Kawana, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-07-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to

  6. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rolim, P M; Fidelis, G P; Padilha, C E A; Santos, E S; Rocha, H A O; Macedo, G R

    2018-03-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.

  8. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, P.M.; Fidelis, G.P.; Padilha, C.E.A.; Santos, E.S.; Rocha, H.A.O.; Macedo, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20–85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells. PMID:29513789

  9. Randomized trial comparing a chemical peel containing a lipophilic hydroxy acid derivative of salicylic acid with a salicylic acid peel in subjects with comedonal acne.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Annie; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Bissonnette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Lipohydroxyacid is a lipophilic derivative of salicylic acid with comedolytic properties. To compare lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels in subjects with comedonal acne. In this split face, randomized study, 20 subjects with comedonal acne received lipohydroxyacid peels on one side of the face, while the other side was treated with salicylic acid peels. A total of six peels at 2-week intervals were performed. Efficacy was evaluated by counting noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions and by performing a global change in acne assessment. Safety was assessed by evaluating adverse events, global tolerance, and the presence of erythema, scaling, and dryness. There was a statistically significant decrease of 55.6% and 48.5% from baseline to Day 98 in the mean number of noninflammatory lesions for the sides treated with lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the degree of reduction in noninflammatory lesions between the two peels. There was no significant reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions. Both peels were generally very well tolerated. This study suggests that lipohydroxyacid peels can be beneficial to subjects with comedonal acne. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Three-dimensional hierarchical and interconnected honeycomb-like porous carbon derived from pomelo peel for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Hongpeng; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Qi; Li, Rumin; Li, Bin; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The urgent need for sustainable development of human society has forced material scientists to explore novel materials starting from cheap natural precursors for next-generation energy storage devices by using environmentally friendly strategies. In this work, heteroatom-functionalized porous carbonaceous materials with 3D hierarchical and interconnected honeycomb-like structure have been successfully synthesized by using waste biomass pomelo peel as raw material through the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and followed KOH activation procedure. Benefiting from the unique honeycomb-like structure and high specific surface area, the as-obtained carbon material exhibits satisfactory capacitive behavior: 374 F/g at 0.1 A/g; excellent cycling stability of 92.5% capacitance retention over continuous 5000 cycles. More importantly, the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitors based on as-prepared electrode material can deliver high gravimetric and volumetric energy density of 20 W h/kg and 18.7 W h/L in 6 M KOH, respectively, as well as outstanding cycling stability. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility for taking full advantage of sustainable and large scale advanced carbon materials by choosing waste biomass, particularly the pomelo peel as a raw material.

  11. Production of single cell protein from agro-waste using Rhodococcus opacus.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Kristina M; Le, Rosemary K; Wells, Tyrone; Anderson, Seth; Yuan, Joshua S; Stoklosa, Ryan J; Bhalla, Aditya; Hodge, David B; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2018-06-18

    Livestock and fish farming are rapidly growing industries facing the simultaneous pressure of increasing production demands and limited protein required to produce feed. Bacteria that can convert low-value non-food waste streams into singe cell protein (SCP) present an intriguing route for rapid protein production. The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus serves as a model organism for understanding microbial lipid production. SCP production has not been explored using an organism from this genus. In the present research, R. opacus strains DSM 1069 and PD630 were fed three agro-waste streams: (1) orange pulp, juice, and peel; (2) lemon pulp, juice, and peel; and (3) corn stover effluent, to determine if these low-cost substrates would be suitable for producing a value-added product, SCP for aquafarming or livestock feed. Both strains used agro-waste carbon sources as a growth substrate to produce protein-rich cell biomass suggesting that that R. opacus can be used to produce SCP using agro-wastes as low-cost substrates.

  12. Whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Il-hwan

    2006-03-01

    Patients with skin of color demand treatment modality suitable for their skin. Salicylic acid peel has effectiveness for both of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that are common in patients with skin of color. To assess the whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients with acne objectively by the colorimetric method. Twenty-four healthy adult patients with acne participated voluntarily in the study. Any other systemic and topical acne treatments were prohibited. They had undergone full-face peels with 30% salicylic acid in absolute ethanol bi-weekly for 3 months. Colorimetric changes of the face were recorded with reflectance spectrophotometer. Paired comparisons with pretreatment CIE L*a*b* showed abrupt descent of L* value after first peel (p=.0286). Then there was continued increase of mean L* value, even though the final L* value did not reach a statistically significant level. The mean a* value decreased continually, and the a* values recorded after the second, third, fourth, fifth, and final peel showed significantly lowered levels (p=.0027, .0005, <.0001, <.0001, <.0001). Salicylic acid peels are beneficial in whitening the face of Asian patients with acne. The whitening effect would be an important factor in choosing the superficial peeling agent for them.

  13. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IN MACULAR HOLE SURGERY; WHY, WHEN, AND HOW?

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis G; Steel, David H W

    2018-05-01

    To review the current rationale for internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole (MH) surgery and to discuss the evidence base behind why, when, and how surgeons peel the ILM. Review of the current literature. Pars plana vitrectomy is an effective treatment for idiopathic MH, and peeling of the ILM has been shown to improve closure rates and to prevent postoperative reopening. However, some authors argue against ILM peeling because it results in a number of changes in retinal structure and function and may not be necessary in all cases. Furthermore, the extent of ILM peeling optimally performed and the most favorable techniques to remove the ILM are uncertain. Several technique variations including ILM flaps, ILM scraping, and foveal sparing ILM peeling have been described as alternatives to conventional peeling in specific clinical scenarios. Internal limiting membrane peeling improves MH closure rates but can have several consequences on retinal structure and function. Adjuvants to aid peeling, instrumentation, technique, and experience may all alter the outcome. Hole size and other variables are important in assessing the requirement for peeling and potentially its extent. A variety of evolving alternatives to conventional peeling may improve outcomes and need further study.

  14. Mangos of Puerto Rico, country contribution: Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Puerto Rico; geographical distribution; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests...

  15. Recovery of Ga(III) by Raw and Alkali Treated Citrus limetta Peels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alkali treated Citrus limetta peels were used for recovery of Ga(III) from its aqueous solution. The raw and alkali treated peels were characterized for functional groups. The efficiency of adsorption increased from 47.62 mg/g for raw peels to 83.33 mg/g for alkali treated peels. Between pH 1 and 3, the adsorption increased and thereafter decreased drastically. The adsorption followed pseudosecond order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data. Desorption studies showed 95.28% desorption after 3 cycles for raw peels while it was 89.51% for alkali treated peels. Simulated Bayer liquor showed 39.57% adsorption for gallium ions on raw peels which was enhanced to 41.13% for alkali treated peels. PMID:27382624

  16. Comparison of waste pumpkin material and its potential use in extruded snack foods.

    PubMed

    Norfezah, M N; Hardacre, A; Brennan, C S

    2011-08-01

    Material was produced from Crown pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) processed from fractions of the fruit which are regarded as waste stream products (peel, flesh and seed). The flour from the three different fractions (peel, flesh and seed) of Crown pumpkin flour was incorporated into an extruded snack product formulation at levels 10%, 30% and 50% (w/w with corn grit) and processed in a twin-screw extruder to make 10 expanded snack products. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutritional value of the raw pumpkin and pumpkin flour. A physical analysis of the product was used to determine its color, the expansion ratio, bulk density and texture. Inclusion of waste stream material (peel and seed) at 10%, yielded extruded products with similar expansion and density characteristics to the control sample; however, an inclusion of greater than 10% yielded significant challenges to product quality (hardness of the product).

  17. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families. PMID:22429841

  18. Fovea sparing internal limiting membrane peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels for myopic foveoschisis: technique and outcome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiying; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-10-18

    To introduce a modified surgical technique, the "parafoveal multiple curvelinear internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling", to preserve epi-foveal ILM in myopic foveoschisis surgery. Consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis were enrolled in the present prospective interventional case series. The surgeries were performed using transconjunctival 23-gauge system. The macular area was divided into quadrants. ILM was peeled off in a curvilinear manner centered around the site that was away from the central fovea in each quadrant. Shearing forces were used to control the direction to keep the peeling away from central fovea. ILM at central fovea of about 500 to 1000 μm was preserved by this technique. This technique was performed in 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients. Epi-foveal ILM was successfully preserved in all cases using the technique. Patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.67 ± 0.65 preoperatively to 1.15 ± 0.49 (P = 0.015; paired t-test). Postoperative OCT examinations showed that full-thickness macular holes (MHs) did not developed in any case. Central fovea thickness decreased from 910 ± 261 μm preoperatively to 125 ± 85 postoperatively (P = 0.001; paired t-test). Fovea sparing ILM peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels prevents the development of postoperative full-thickness MHs in eyes with myopic foveoschisis.

  19. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. PMID:26347269

  20. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  1. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?

    PubMed

    Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

    2009-03-01

    Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (P<0.01) and CYP3A4 2.3-fold (P<0.05). Of the tested constituents, only 10 microM bergamottin and 200 microM naringenin induced MDR1 mRNA levels 2.9- and 4.0-fold, respectively (P<0.01 for both), and CYP3A4 mRNA levels 3.2- and 15.6-fold (P<0.01 for both), respectively. Western blot analysis and rhodamine 123 uptake experiments partly confirmed these findings on the protein and the functional level. In summary, GFJ containing no peel extract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein.

  2. Low-dose irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging for mango against the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...

  3. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin

    2013-06-05

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes.  To determine whether ILM peeling improves anatomical and functional outcomes of macular hole surgery compared with the no-peeling technique and to investigate the impact of different parameters such as presenting vision, stage/size of the hole and duration of symptoms in the success of the surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to February 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 February 2013.We searched reference lists of the studies included in the review for information about other studies on ILM peeling in macular hole surgery. We searched Proceedings for the following conferences up to February 2013: American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina Specialists

  4. Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Understanding Surface Adhesion in Nature: A Peeling Model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Siheng; Zhang, Feilong; Wang, Shutao

    2016-07-01

    Nature often exhibits various interesting and unique adhesive surfaces. The attempt to understand the natural adhesion phenomena can continuously guide the design of artificial adhesive surfaces by proposing simplified models of surface adhesion. Among those models, a peeling model can often effectively reflect the adhesive property between two surfaces during their attachment and detachment processes. In the context, this review summarizes the recent advances about the peeling model in understanding unique adhesive properties on natural and artificial surfaces. It mainly includes four parts: a brief introduction to natural surface adhesion, the theoretical basis and progress of the peeling model, application of the peeling model, and finally, conclusions. It is believed that this review is helpful to various fields, such as surface engineering, biomedicine, microelectronics, and so on.

  6. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    PubMed

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (<1.64%). Similarly, the colour alterations were low during the entire storage time (ΔE<5). Considering the model predictions, 1.0%wt L/H90/10 with addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) could represent the optimal coating formulation for the mango bars. The release of eight volatile compounds from the uncoated and coated mango bars with the selected formulation was analysed by Headspace - Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography during 9 days of refrigerated storage. This work showed that the coating can improve mango bars sensory characteristics (appearance and firmness) and stability in terms of syneresis, colour and volatiles content during storage increasing the commercial value of the final product. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Testicular histology and blood testosterone levels of male rabbit after given concentrated diets containing calliandra leaf meal and pineapple peels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, I.; Ermayanti, N. G. A. M.; Suarni, N. M. R.; Narayani, I.; Suaskara, I. B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn is one of a highly protein source of forage, however, it is not widely used for non ruminant feed because it contains antinutritional substances in the form of condensed tannin. Tannin can bind proteins, this tannin-protein complexes are difficult to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, then will be defecated outside the body. To optimize the utilization of calliandra in the diet, pineapple peels were added as a source of protease (bromelain). Beside of waste utilization, it is expected that bromelain can degrade the tannin-protein complexes thereby reducing the negative effects of tannins. This research is a feeding experiment on male rabbit (Lepus sp), five weeks old. The diet formulation is prepared according to the standardized diet of the local rabbit. This experiment used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments i.e. control group which were only given commercial feed (R0), commercial feed contained 15% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R1), commercial feed contained 30% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R2), and commercial feed contained 45% of Calliandra and 30% of pineapple peel (R3). The treatment was done for three months. The results of this study on the reproduction of male rabbits showed that the increase of calliandra leaf meal level in a diet containing 30% of pineapple peels affected the testicular histology, and also decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubule and blood testosterone levels of male rabbits.

  8. Biohydrogen Production from Pineapple Waste: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Acid Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyari, K.; Putri, A. M.; Oktaviani, E. D.; Hidayat, M. A.; Norajsha, J. D.

    2018-05-01

    Biohydrogen is the ultimate choice of energy carrier in future due to its superior qualities such as fewer greenhouse gases emission, high energy density (142 kJ/gram), and high energy conversion using a fuel cell. Production of biohydrogen from organic waste e.g. pineapple waste offers a simultaneous solution for renewable energy production and waste management. It is estimated that pineapple cultivation in Indonesia generated more than 1 million ton/year comprising of rotten pineapple fruit, leaves, and stems. Majority of this waste is dumped into landfill area without any treatments which lead to many environmental problems. This research was meant to investigate the utilization of pineapple waste i.e. peel and the core of pineapple fruit and leaves to produce biohydrogen through mesophilic dark fermentation (30°C, 1 atm, pH 5.0). Effect of dilute acid treatment and substrate concentration was particularly investigated in these experiments. Peel and core of pineapple waste were subjected to fermentation at 3 various substrate concentration i.e. 8.8, 17.6 and 26.4-gram VS/liter. Meanwhile, pineapple leaves were pretreated using dilute acid (H2SO4) at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 N and followed by dark fermentation. Results show that the highest yield of biohydrogen was obtained at a substrate concentration of 26.4-gram VS/liter both for peel and core of the waste. Pretreatment using dilute acid (H2SO4) 0.3 N might improve fermentation process with a higher yield at 0.8 ml/gram VS. Hydrogen percentage in biogas produced during fermentation process was in the range between 5 – 32% of volume ratio. In summary, it is possible to utilize pineapple waste for production of biohydrogen at an optimum substrate concentration of 26.4-gram VS/liter and acid pretreatment (H2SO4) of 0.3 N.

  9. Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities’ Assessment of Popular Bangladeshi Mango Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Rahman, Shafkat S.; Hossain, Mahboob; Choudhury, Naiyyum

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Mango juice has always been considered as a delicious, nutritious popular drink, but processed juice may not always be safe due to chemical and microbial risks. Determination of physicochemical and microbiological qualities of some packed mango juices of Bangladesh will help consumers to know the present scenario. Material and Methods: Six commercially available different juice samples were collected from the market. Carbohydrate profiles were determined using HPLC, crude protein content was calculated using the Kjeldahl method and other parameters were determined by standard AOAC methods. Standard culture techniques were followed to assess the total viable count (TVC), E. coli and other fecal coliforms. Results: The highest quantity of monosaccharide (58.88%) was recorded in the AC1ME5 brand, while the lowest in Homemade (5.648%) and MN1GL2 (9.867%). The maximum content of acidity recorded was 0.24% and minimum 0.21%. The TSS content of all samples varied from 19% to 12%. The highest quantity 6.87% and the lowest 3.62% of reducing sugar were recorded. Most of the mango juices were low in protein and very low/negligible in fat content. Total viable count of different types of fruit juices varied from 1×103 - 3×103 CFU/ml. No significant amount of E. coli and fecal coliform was detected. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the locally available mango juices contain a safe level of nutritional and microbial elements for human consumption, but not highly satisfactory. PMID:29785220

  10. Molecular diversity of Pakistani mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Nazish, T; Shabbir, G; Ali, A; Sami-Ul-Allah, S; Naeem, M; Javed, M; Batool, S; Arshad, H; Hussain, S B; Aslam, K; Seher, R; Tahir, M; Baber, M

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.

  11. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Biological screening of Bangladeshi mango mistletoe bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Islam, R; Khurshid Alam, A H M; Hossain, M A; Mosaddik, M A; Sadik, G

    2004-06-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the Bangladeshi mango mistletoe (Loranthus globosus) bark was found to be most effective against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria and it also showed good cytotoxicity with a LC50 10.83 microg/ml. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  14. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  15. Cassava starch coating and citric acid to preserve quality parameters of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mango.

    PubMed

    Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pereira, Leila M; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-06-01

    Combination of citric acid dipping (5 g/L) and cassava starch coating (10 g/L), with and without glycerol (10 g/L), was studied to verify the effectiveness of these treatments to inhibit enzymatic browning, to reduce respiration rate, and to preserve quality parameters of "Tommy Atkins" fresh-cut mangoes during storage at 5 degrees C. Color characteristics (L and C), mechanical properties (stress at failure), weight loss, beta-carotene content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated during 15 d. The respiration rate of fruit subjected to the treatments was also analyzed. Nontreated fresh-cut mango was used as a control sample. Cassava starch edible coatings and citric acid dipping promoted a decrease in respiration rate of mango slices, with values up to 41% lower than the control fruit. This treatment also promoted better preservation of texture and color characteristics of mangoes and delayed carotenoid formation and browning reactions during storage. Moreover, the treated fruit showed great sensory acceptance by consumers throughout the whole storage period. However, the use of glycerol in the coating formulation was not efficient in the maintenance of quality parameters of fresh-cut mangoes, promoting a higher weight loss of samples, impairing fruit texture characteristics, increasing carotenogenesis, and favoring microbial growth during storage.

  16. Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic-mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sinha, Surabhi; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. Salicylic-mandelic acid combination peels (SMPs) are a newer modality, and there have been no well-controlled studies comparing them with other conventional agents. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of 35% GA peels and 20% salicylic-10% mandelic acid peels in active acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation. Forty-four patients with facial acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation were divided into two groups, with one receiving GA peels and the other SMPs at fortnightly intervals for six sessions. The treating physician performed objective evaluation of treatment outcomes. The patients, the treating physician, and an independent observer made subjective assessments. Side effects of both agents were also noted. Both the agents were effective, but SMPs had a higher efficacy for most active acne lesions (p<.001) and hyperpigmentation (p<.001). Side effects were also lesser with SMPs. Both the agents were effective and safe in Indian patients, with SMPs being better for active acne and post-acne hyperpigmentation.

  17. Detection of artificially ripened mango using spectrometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithun, B. S.; Mondal, Milton; Vishwakarma, Harsh; Shinde, Sujit; Kimbahune, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral sensing has been proven to be useful to determine the quality of food in general. It has also been used to distinguish naturally and artificially ripened mangoes by analyzing the spectral signature. However the focus has been on improving the accuracy of classification after performing dimensionality reduction, optimum feature selection and using suitable learning algorithm on the complete visible and NIR spectrum range data, namely 350nm to 1050nm. In this paper we focus on, (i) the use of low wavelength resolution and low cost multispectral sensor to reliably identify artificially ripened mango by selectively using the spectral information so that classification accuracy is not hampered at the cost of low resolution spectral data and (ii) use of visible spectrum i.e. 390nm to 700 nm data to accurately discriminate artificially ripened mangoes. Our results show that on a low resolution spectral data, the use of logistic regression produces an accuracy of 98.83% and outperforms other methods like classification tree, random forest significantly. And this is achieved by analyzing only 36 spectral reflectance data points instead of the complete 216 data points available in visual and NIR range. Another interesting experimental observation is that we are able to achieve more than 98% classification accuracy by selecting only 15 irradiance values in the visible spectrum. Even the number of data needs to be collected using hyper-spectral or multi-spectral sensor can be reduced by a factor of 24 for classification with high degree of confidence

  18. Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (F.) in Philippine mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.) is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response stud...

  19. Understanding Surface Adhesion in Nature: A Peeling Model

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Siheng; Zhang, Feilong

    2016-01-01

    Nature often exhibits various interesting and unique adhesive surfaces. The attempt to understand the natural adhesion phenomena can continuously guide the design of artificial adhesive surfaces by proposing simplified models of surface adhesion. Among those models, a peeling model can often effectively reflect the adhesive property between two surfaces during their attachment and detachment processes. In the context, this review summarizes the recent advances about the peeling model in understanding unique adhesive properties on natural and artificial surfaces. It mainly includes four parts: a brief introduction to natural surface adhesion, the theoretical basis and progress of the peeling model, application of the peeling model, and finally, conclusions. It is believed that this review is helpful to various fields, such as surface engineering, biomedicine, microelectronics, and so on. PMID:27812476

  20. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  1. Cross-Validation of Survival Bump Hunting by Recursive Peeling Methods.

    PubMed

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J Sunil

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a survival/risk bump hunting framework to build a bump hunting model with a possibly censored time-to-event type of response and to validate model estimates. First, we describe the use of adequate survival peeling criteria to build a survival/risk bump hunting model based on recursive peeling methods. Our method called "Patient Recursive Survival Peeling" is a rule-induction method that makes use of specific peeling criteria such as hazard ratio or log-rank statistics. Second, to validate our model estimates and improve survival prediction accuracy, we describe a resampling-based validation technique specifically designed for the joint task of decision rule making by recursive peeling (i.e. decision-box) and survival estimation. This alternative technique, called "combined" cross-validation is done by combining test samples over the cross-validation loops, a design allowing for bump hunting by recursive peeling in a survival setting. We provide empirical results showing the importance of cross-validation and replication.

  2. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  3. Peeling the Onion: Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    March–April 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 24 Feature Peeling the Onion Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works Lt Col Alan Docauer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peeling the Onion : Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works 5a...Air & Space Power Journal | 25 Docauer Peeling the Onion Feature What Is Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution? Emerging in the aftermath of

  4. Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Annadurai, Gurusamy; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2002-06-10

    Low-cost banana and orange peels were prepared as adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Dye concentration and pH were varied. The adsorption capacities for both peels decreased in the order methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). The isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations in the concentration range of 10-120 mg/l. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of dyes. Based on the adsorption capacity, it was shown that banana peel was more effective than orange peel. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Langergren rate constant and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant were determined. For the present adsorption process intraparticle diffusion of dyes within the particle was identified to be rate limiting. Both peel wastes were shown to be promising materials for adsorption removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

  5. Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.

    PubMed

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-12-29

    Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.

  6. Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels

    PubMed Central

    Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening. PMID:23378707

  7. Microcontact Peeling as a New Method for Cell Micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Deguchi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning. PMID:25062030

  8. Ammonia-nitrogen sorptional properties of banana peels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunnen; Ding, Lichao; Fan, Jingbiao

    2011-04-01

    Using modified banana peel as a biosorbent to treat water containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was studied. Related parameters in the sorptional process, such as chemical modification, pH, and contact time were investigated. The experimental results showed that banana peel modified by 30% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and mesothermal microwaves (NMBPs) can greatly improve the sorption removal for NH4(+)-N. The kinetics study revealed that the sorption behavior better fit the pseudo-second-order equation than the Lagergren first-order equation. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum analysis of banana peels and NMBPs before and after NH4(+)-N sorption revealed that the activity of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the banana peels was strengthened after modification, and nitrogenous groups appeared after biosorpting the NH4(+)-N. In the end, metallurgical wastewater containing a low concentration of NH4(+)-N was treated by NMBPs. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration of 138 mg/L was reduced to 13 mg/L in 25 minutes by 4 g/L NMBPs at pH 10.

  9. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  10. ILM peeling in nontractional diabetic macular edema: review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, M; dell'Omo, R; Morescalchi, F; Semeraro, F; Gambicorti, E; Cacciatore, F; Chiosi, F; Costagliola, C

    2017-10-31

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for nontractional diabetic macular edema. PUBMED, MEDLINE and CENTRAL were reviewed using the following terms (or combination of terms): diabetic macular edema, nontractional diabetic macular edema, internal limiting membrane peeling, vitrectomy, Müller cells. Randomized and nonrandomized studies were included. The eligible studies compared anatomical and functional outcomes of vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling for tractional and nontractional diabetic macular edema. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were considered, respectively, the primary and secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis on mean differences between vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling was performed using inverse variance method in random effects. Four studies with 672 patients were eligible for analysis. No significant difference was found between postoperative best-corrected visual acuity or best-corrected visual acuity change of ILM peeling group compared with nonpeeling group. There was no significant difference in postoperative central macular thickness and central macular thickness reduction between the two groups. The visual acuity outcomes in patients affected by nontractional diabetic macular edema using pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling versus no ILM peeling were not significantly different. A larger prospective and randomized study would be necessary.

  11. Facile and scalable synthesis of magnetite/carbon adsorbents by recycling discarded fruit peels and their potential usage in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Shuangshuang; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, apple, banana and orange peels were used as precursor compounds for the mass production of magnetite/carbon adsorbents. A so-called "soak-calcination" procedure was employed by firstly soaking these waste fruit peels in FeCl 3 aqueous solutions and secondly calcining these precursors in the nitrogen atmosphere to yield final magnetite/carbon composites. This approach is quite simple and effective to synthesize carbon-based adsorbents on an industrial scale. The as-produced adsorbents feature the merits of appropriate ferromagnetism (>4emug -1 ), high adsorption capacity (several hundreds of milligrams per gram for adsorption of methyl blue, Congo red, rhodamine B and Cr 6+ ions), and good regenerability (>85%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80 ± 2.35 dB with peeling versus 13.19 ± 2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3 ± 6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10 dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9 ± 4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum.

  13. HEMI-TEMPORAL INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IS AS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE AS CONVENTIONAL FULL PEELING FOR MACULAR HOLE SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Akira; Kogo, Jiro; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yomoda, Ryo; Jujo, Tatsuya; Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the efficacy of hemi-temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic macular hole. The medical records of patients with macular holes who had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling were studied. Forty-two eyes with macular hole were divided into 2 groups based on surgical procedure (hemi-temporal ILM peeling [hemi group]: 15 eyes; 360° ILM peeling [360° group]: 27 eyes). The closure rates and distances between the optic disc and the intersection of two retinal vessels most closely located nasally or temporally to the macular hole were compared. The primary closure rates were not significantly different between the two groups (hemi group: 93.3%; 360° group: 92.5%, P = 0.92). The temporal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced 120.5 ± 102.0 µm toward the optic disc at 1 week postoperatively, which did not differ significantly from the 360° group (136.1 ± 106.1 µm) (P = 0.107). However, the nasal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced by 42.4 ± 42.9 µm at 1 week postoperatively, which was significantly less than the 90.1 ± 77.3 µm displacement seen in the 360° group (P = 0.040). Hemi-temporal ILM peeling may be preferable to 360° ILM peeling because of less displacement of the retina and greater safety.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  14. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Identification of anti-cancer targets of eco-friendly waste Punica granatum peel by dual reverse virtual screening and binding analysis.

    PubMed

    Usha, Talambedu; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lubna, Syed; Prashanth, Hp; Mohan, T Madhan; Pande, Veena; Middha, Sushil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Punica granatum (family: Lythraceae) is mainly found in Iran, which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Studies on pomegranate peel have revealed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- angiogenesis activities, with prevention of premature aging and reducing inflammation. In addition to this it is also useful in treating various diseases like diabetes, maintaining blood pressure and treatment of neoplasms such as prostate and breast cancer. In this study we identified anti-cancer targets of active compounds like corilagin (tannins), quercetin (flavonoids) and pseudopelletierine (alkaloids) present in pomegranate peel by employing dual reverse screening and binding analysis. The potent targets of the pomegranate peel were annotated by the PharmMapper and ReverseScreen 3D, then compared with targets identified from different Bioassay databases (NPACT and HIT's). Docking was then further employed using AutoDock pyrx and validated through discovery studio for studying molecular interactions. A number of potent anti-cancerous targets were attained from the PharmMapper server according to their fit score and from ReverseScreen 3D server according to decreasing 3D scores. The identified targets now need to be further validated through in vitro and in vivo studies.

  16. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  17. Peeling skin syndrome associated with novel variant in FLG2 gene.

    PubMed

    Alfares, Ahmed; Al-Khenaizan, Sultan; Al Mutairi, Fuad

    2017-12-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by variably pruritic superficial generalized peeling of the skin with several genes involved until now little is known about the association between FLG2 and peeling skin syndrome. We describe multiple family members from a consanguineous Saudi family with peeling skin syndrome. Next Generation Sequencing identifies a cosegregating novel variant in FLG2 c.632C>G (p.Ser211*) as a likely etiology in this family. Here, we reported on the clinical manifestation of homozygous loss of function variant in FLG2 as a disease-causing gene for peeling skin syndrome and expand the dermatology findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Novel strategies for capturing health-protective mango phytochemicals in shelf stable food matrices.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Ivette; Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Cost-effective methods for concentration and stabilization of otherwise perishable mango fruit phytoactives into shelf stable high protein ingredients were developed to combat stunting (malnutrition) in rural Africa. Mango juices complexed with sunflower oil and protein-rich legume flours yielded carotenoid-enriched oils and pelleted polyphenol-enriched flour matrices. Carotenoids from juices were concentrated 9-10 times in the fortified sunflower oil. Protein-rich soy and peanut flours captured 2.2-3.2 mg/g polyphenols from the juices. Alternatively, mango juice was sorbed and co-dried with flours, which stably bound the polyphenols, carotenoids, and natural sugars in soy or peanut protein-rich matrices. The concentration of provitamin A carotenoids was almost doubled and total polyphenols were enriched 4-5 times higher in the matrices compared to fresh pureed juice. Both strategies require minimal instrumentation, are compatible with rural village dietary practices; and capture the benefits of otherwise perishable seasonal resources by complexing healthful proteins together with phytoactive compounds.

  19. A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

  20. Characteristic of Fermented Drink from Whey Cheese with Addition of Mango (Mangifera x odorata) Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnilasari, D.; Kumalasari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Whey cheese could be utilized become product such as fermented drink which is added by mango kweni juice to improve their acceptance. The aim of this research was to characterized physicochemical, sensory, and microbiology of fermented drink based on whey cheese with addition different concentration mango kweni juice of (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) by Lactobacillus casei. Color scale, viscosity, pH, total soluble solid, total free acid, fat, protein, total L. casei and sensory evaluation from panelist were examined after 24 hour of fermentation. Result showed that addition mango juice significantly affects the color scale, viscosity, pH, protein and number of L. casei of the product. The color of the product becomes more dark, red, and yellow. The product becomes more viscous. pH of the product become more acid and reduces protein content. Respectively total number of L. casei of the product increased 1 log. But addition of mango juice significantly did not affect sensory acceptance, total soluble solid, total free acid, and fat of the product. Sensory acceptance of the product range in dislike slightly and slightly like score that means formulation of the product need to be improved again.

  1. Tolerance of mango cv. ´Ataulfo' to irradiation with Co-60 vs. hydrothermal phytosanitary treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Simuta, Y.; Hernández, Emilio; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Liedo, Pablo; Escobar-López, Arseny; Montoya, Pablo; Bravo, Bigail; Hallman, Guy J.; Bustos, M. Emilia; Toledo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The use of ionizing irradiation or the use of hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated as a successful commercial phytosanitary treatment during the past two decades. Several countries currently use this technology for commercial treatments to meet plant quarantine requirements. However, hydrothermal treatment has been found to significantly affect the firmness of ;Ataulfo; mango fruit, the susceptibility to damage by cold and it also accelerates their maturation. In this study, we focused on the effect of irradiation doses on the sensorial quality and the physiochemical properties of mango cv ;Ataulfo; compared with the traditional hot water treatment. We found that doses of 150 Gy and 300 Gy of gamma radiation can be applied successfully as well as the hot water treatment. There was no significant difference in between irradiation treatments in terms of weight loss, external and internal color, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and firmness, and consumer's acceptance. There was no adverse effect of color appearance, odor and flavor, indicating that consumers will have the willingness to buy and consume irradiated mangoes. Irradiation of mangoes can be a successful post-harvest treatment as an alternative to the hot water treatment.

  2. Optimization of soymilk, mango nectar and sucrose solution mixes for better quality of soymilk based beverage.

    PubMed

    Getu, Rahel; Tola, Yetenayet B; Neela, Satheesh

    2017-01-01

    Soy milk-based beverages play an important role as a healthy food alternative for human consumption. However, the ‘beany’ flavor and chalky mouth feel of soy milk often makes it unpalatable to consumers. The objective of the present study is to optimize a blend of soy milk, mango nectar and sucrose solution for the best quality soy milk-based beverage. This study was designed to develop a soy milk blended beverage, with mango nectar and sucrose solutions, with the best physicochemical and sensory properties. Fourteen combinations of formulations were determined by D-optimal mixture simplex lattice design, by using Design expert. The blended beverages were prepared by mixing the three basic ingredients with the range of 60−100% soy milk, 0–25% mango nectar and 0–15% sucrose solution. The prepared blended beverage was analyzed for selected physicochemical and sensory properties. The statistical significance of the terms in the regression equations were examined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each response and the significance test level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). The results showed that, as the proportion of mango nectar and sucrose solution increased, total color change, total soluble solid, gross energy, titratable acidity, and beta-carotene contents increased but with a decrease in moisture , ash, protein, ether extract, minerals and phytic acid contents was observed. Fi- nally, numerical optimization determined that 81% soy milk, 16% Mango nectar and 3% sugar solution will give by a soy milk blended beverage with the best physicochemical and sensory properties, with a desirability of 0.564. Blending soy milk with fruit juice such as mango is beneficial, as it improves sensory as well as selected nutritional parameters.

  3. Production and characterization of films based on blends of chitosan from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and pectin from Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ricardo Duran; Pérez, Latife Lúquez; Salcedo, Jesús Mejía; Córdoba, Luis Pérez; Sobral, Paulo José do Amaral

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize films based on blends of chitosan and pectin, produced in laboratory scale, from industrial wastes. The chitosan was obtained by termoalcaline deacetylation of chitin, extracted from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and characterized according to degree of deacetylation (DD) and viscosimetric molecular weight (Mw); and pectin was extracted by conventional heating, from orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel and characterized according to degree of esterification (DE) and molecular weight (Mw). The Ch:P based films were prepared by the casting method in different Ch:P ratios [0: 100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0], and compared to two controls [0:100 and 100:0], of commercial pectin and chitosan. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer at concentrations of 0.2g/g macromolecules. The addition of high concentrations of pectin in the formulations resulted in films with high solubility and an increase in moisture. No significant difference (P>0.05) in the degree of swelling (DS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films was observed. Ch:P blend films were less stiff and therefore more elastic and flexible than films based on only one biopolymer. The control films presented better results in terms of color, being brighter and less opaque than other film formulations. These data suggest that chitosan or pectin obtained from agro-industrial waste is a potential matrix to produce biodegradable films for future food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste for Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, T.; Subekti, W. Y.; Nur'Adya, S. S.; Ilmiah, K.; Ulfa, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The DSSC prototype using activated carbon (AC) and natural dye from Robusta coffee bean peels have been investigated. The natural dye obtained from the extraction of Robusta coffee bean peels is identified as anthocyanin by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at maximum wavelength 219.5 nm and 720.0 nm in methanol. From the FT-IR analysis, the vibration of O-H observed at 3385 cm-1, C=O at 1618 cm-1, and C-O-C at 1065 cm-1. The counter electrode prepared by calcined the peels at 300°C. Surface analyser of AC showed the larger surface area compared prior activation. The DSSC prototype was prepared using FTO glass (2x2 cm) coated with carbon paste in various thickness. The working electrode is coated with the TiO2 paste. The optimum voltage measured was 395mV (300 μL of CA), 334 mV (200 μL AC), and 254 mV (100 μL AC). From this result, we understand that the thickness of counter electrode influent the voltage of the DSSC.

  5. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit.

  6. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

  7. Conversion of food processing wastes to biofuel using clostridia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the recycling of food processing wastes as a low cost-effective substrate for acetone - butanol - ethanol (ABE) production. Potato peels and cheese whey were utilized during fermentation with eight local Clostridium strains in addition to the commercial strain, C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for ABE and organic acids production. From potato peels, Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 produced the highest ABE production (17.91 g/l) representing 61.3% butanol (10.98 g/l), 33.6% acetone (6.02 g/l) and 5.1% ethanol (0.91 g/l). While, C. chauvoei ASU12 showed the highest acid production (8.15 g/l) including 5.50 and 2.61 g/l acetic and butyric acids, respectively. Use of cheese whey as fermentable substrate exhibited a substantial increase in ethanol ratio and decrease in butanol ratio compared to those produced from potato peels. Clostridium beijerinckii ASU5 produced the highest ABE concentration (7.13 g/l) representing 50.91% butanol (3.63 g/l), 35.34% acetone (2.52 g/l) and 13.74% ethanol (0.98 g/l). The highest acid production (8.00 g/l) was obtained by C. beijerinckii ASU5 representing 4.89 and 3.11 g/l for acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Supplementation of potato peels with an organic nitrogen source showed NH 4 NO 3 promoted ABE production more than yeast extract. In conclusion, this study introduced an ecofriendly and economical practice for utilization of food processing wastes (renewable substrates as potato peels and cheese whey) for biofuel production using various Clostridium strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaf Transcriptome Sequencing for Identifying Genic-SSR Markers and SNP Heterozygosity in Crossbred Mango Variety 'Amrapali' (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Akshay; Srivastav, Manish; Jaiprakash; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is called "king of fruits" due to its sweetness, richness of taste, diversity, large production volume and a variety of end usage. Despite its huge economic importance genomic resources in mango are scarce and genetics of useful horticultural traits are poorly understood. Here we generated deep coverage leaf RNA sequence data for mango parental varieties 'Neelam', 'Dashehari' and their hybrid 'Amrapali' using next generation sequencing technologies. De-novo sequence assembly generated 27,528, 20,771 and 35,182 transcripts for the three genotypes, respectively. The transcripts were further assembled into a non-redundant set of 70,057 unigenes that were used for SSR and SNP identification and annotation. Total 5,465 SSR loci were identified in 4,912 unigenes with 288 type I SSR (n ≥ 20 bp). One hundred type I SSR markers were randomly selected of which 43 yielded PCR amplicons of expected size in the first round of validation and were designated as validated genic-SSR markers. Further, 22,306 SNPs were identified by aligning high quality sequence reads of the three mango varieties to the reference unigene set, revealing significantly enhanced SNP heterozygosity in the hybrid Amrapali. The present study on leaf RNA sequencing of mango varieties and their hybrid provides useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of mango.

  9. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... irradiation to mitigate the risk of insect pests. The mangoes would also have to be accompanied by a... and adults of the order Lepidoptera, with irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305, which..., which lists minimum absorbed irradiation doses for plant pests and classes of plant pests, includes a...

  10. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    PubMed

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT S+ assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2013-06-01

    Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women.

  13. Biological Control of Mango Dieback Disease Caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Using Streptomycete and Non-streptomycete Actinobacteria in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Kamil, Fatima H.; Saeed, Esam E.; El-Tarabily, Khaled A.; AbuQamar, Synan F.

    2018-01-01

    Dieback caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important disease on mango plantations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 53 actinobacterial isolates were obtained from mango rhizosphere soil in the UAE, of which 35 (66%) were classified as streptomycetes (SA) and 18 (34%) as non-streptomycetes (NSA). Among these isolates, 19 (12 SA and 7 NSA) showed antagonistic activities against L. theobromae associated with either the production of diffusible antifungal metabolites, extracellular cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), or both. Using a “novel” mango fruit bioassay, all isolates were screened in vivo for their abilities to reduce lesion severity on fruits inoculated with L. theobromae. Three isolates, two belonging to Streptomyces and one to Micromonospora spp., showed the strongest inhibitory effect against this pathogen in vitro and were therefore selected for tests on mango seedlings. Our results revealed that the antifungal action of S. samsunensis UAE1 was related to antibiosis, and the production of CWDEs (i.e., chitinase) and siderophores; whilst S. cavourensis UAE1 and M. tulbaghiae UAE1 were considered to be associated with antibiotic- and CWDE-production, respectively. Pre-inoculation in greenhouse experiments with the most promising actinobacterial isolates resulted in very high levels of disease protection in mango seedlings subsequently inoculated with the pathogen. This was evident by the dramatic reduction in the estimated disease severity indices of the mango dieback of individual biocontrol agent (BCA) applications compared with the pathogen alone, confirming their potential in the management of mango dieback disease. L. theobromae-infected mango seedlings treated with S. samsunensis showed significantly reduced number of defoliated leaves and conidia counts of L. theobromae by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, in comparison to the other two BCA applications. This indicates that the synergistic antifungal effects of S

  14. Peeling without precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, John; Skinner, Dominic; Large, Tim

    2017-11-01

    The peeling by fluid injection of an elastic sheet away from a substrate is often regularised by invoking a thin prewetting film or a low-viscosity phase in the tip. Here we analyse fluid-driven peeling without such precursors, and consider an elastic sheet either bonded to, or simply laid on, an elastic substrate. To resolve the `elastic contact-line problem' that arises from viscous flow and beam theory, we determine the near-tip behaviour from lubrication theory coupled to the full equations of elasticity and fracture. The result is a law for the tip propagation speed in terms of the remote loading and the toughness of the sheet-substrate bonding (which might be zero). There are distinct modes of failure, according to whether there is slip ahead of the fluid front. The propagation-speed law gives rise to new similarity solutions for the spread of a fluid-filled blister in different regimes.

  15. Acral peeling skin syndrome: a case of two brothers.

    PubMed

    Wakade, Oojwala; Adams, Beth; Shwayder, Tor

    2009-01-01

    We report two brothers of Middle Eastern descent with consanguineous parents who present with numerous fragile, flaccid blisters on the hands and feet. In addition to spontaneous peeling, they can manually peel skin from acral areas without pain. The symptoms worsen with warm temperatures, excessive water exposure, and perspiration. Two biopsies from flaccid blisters on the feet were taken from the older brother, which revealed cleavage at the level of the stratum corneum. A diagnosis of acral peeling skin syndrome was made.

  16. Production of copolymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) by Halomonas campisalis MCM B-1027 using agro-wastes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S O; Kanekar, P P; Jog, J P; Sarnaik, S S; Nilegaonkar, S S

    2015-01-01

    For cost effective production of PHA, agro-wastes like fruit peels, bagasse and deoiled cakes were screened as a sole source of carbon. Halomonas campisalis MCM B-1027, which was isolated from one of the extreme environment, i.e. Lonar Lake, India, was explored for the production of PHA using fruit peels and bagasse having fermentable sugars. Among the agro-wastes tested, 1% (v/v) aqueous extract of bagasse was found to be the optimum carbon source with 47% PHA production on dry cell weight basis. Significant amount of total sugars are utilized and converted into cell mass and PHA, e.g. 62% sugar utilized from bagasse extract, 84% from orange peel extract and 71% from banana peel extract as compared to 51% in case of maltose. Hence the cost of production would be positively reduced. The detailed characterization of PHA formed by H. campisalis using bagasse extract as sole carbon source revealed that the organism produces a copolymer of PHB-co-PHV (94.4:5.6) having molecular weight M(w) 1.394 × 10(6) and melting temperature 168.9 °C. Production of PHA by H. campisalis using aqueous extract of fruit peels and a copolymer PHB-co-PHV using aqueous extract of bagasse is presumably the first report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-02-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60-120°C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE production. The production of ABE was further accomplished via acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation process. Maximum total sugar release obtained by using acid hydrolysis was 97g/L with 95-97% and 10-50% removal of phenolics and acetic acid, respectively during detoxification process. The maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.23g/L with 55.6% substrate consumption when samples dried at 120°C were used as a substrate (after detoxification). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Addition of dried 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch-molded mango snacks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...

  19. Demonstration tests of infrared peeling system with electrical emitters for tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling is an emerging technology that could avoid the drawbacks of steam and lye peeling of tomatoes. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the performance of an IR peeling system at two tomato processing plants located in California and to compare product quality, peela...

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of O-Methyltransferase from Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso).

    PubMed

    Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Deshpande, Ashish B; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-05-01

    Flavour of ripe Alphonso mango is invariably dominated by the de novo appearance of lactones and furanones during ripening. Of these, furanones comprising furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone) are of particular importance due to their sweet, fruity caramel-like flavour characters and low odour detection thresholds. We isolated a 1056 bp complete open reading frame of a cDNA encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase from Alphonso mango. The recombinantly expressed enzyme, MiOMTS showed substrate specificity towards furaneol and protocatechuic aldehyde synthesizing mesifuran and vanillin, respectively, in an in vitro assay reaction. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed fruit-specific expression of MiOMTS transcripts. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed ripening-related expression pattern of MiOMTS in both pulp and skin of Alphonso mango. Also, early and significantly enhanced accumulation of its transcripts was detected in pulp and skin of ethylene-treated fruits. Ripening-related and fruit-specific expression profile of MiOMTS and substrate specificity towards furaneol is a suggestive of its involvement in the synthesis of mesifuran in Alphonso mango. Moreover, a significant trigger in the expression of MiOMTS transcripts in ethylene-treated fruits point towards the transcriptional regulation of mesifuran biosynthesis by ethylene.

  1. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  2. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., handles only products that are eligible to be labeled as 100 percent organic under the NOP, and is not a.... (e) An importer who imports only products that are eligible to be labeled as 100 percent organic... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206...

  3. Plastic fats from sal, mango and palm oil by lipase catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Shankar Shetty, Umesha; Sunki Reddy, Yella Reddy; Khatoon, Sakina

    2014-02-01

    Speciality plastic fats with no trans fatty acids suitable for use in bakery and as vanaspati substitute were prepared by interesterification of blends of palm stearin (PSt) with sal and mango fats using Lipozyme TLIM lipase as catalyst. The blends containing PSt/sal or PSt/mango showed short melting range and hence are not suitable as bakery shortenings. Lipase catalysed interesterification extended the plasticity or melting range of all the blends. The blends containing higher proportion of PSt with sal fat (50/50) were harder having high solids at and above body temperature and hence cannot be used as bakery shortenings. The blends with PSt/sal (30-40/60-70) after interesterification showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated bakery fats. Similarly, the blends containing PSt/mango (30-40/60-70) after interesterification also showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated shortenings. The slip melting point and solidification characteristics also confirm the plastic nature of these samples. The improvement in plasticity after interesterification is due to formation of higher melting as well as lower melting triglycerides during lipase catalysed interesterification.

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  5. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  6. [Optical coherence tomography and microperimetry after internal limiting membrane peeling for epiretinal membrane].

    PubMed

    Grimbert, P; Lebreton, O; Weber, M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the anatomical and functional consequences of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. Retrospective single-center study including consecutive patients operated on for idiopathic ERM. The integrity of the ILM was assessed by ILM Blue® staining after removal of the ERM: either the peeling was spontaneous (group 1) or a complementary peeling was required (group 2). Pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months), all patients were analyzed using visual acuity, SD-OCT (Spectralis HRA OCT, Heidelberg, Germany) and microperimetry (OPKO/OTI, Miami, USA). Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients were included: 12 "active ILM peelings" and 9 "spontaneous peelings". In both groups, visual acuity increased significantly after surgery. Microperimetry revealed more microscotomata at 1 and 6 months for active peeling (P<0.05). Their location corresponded more often to the site where the ERM or ILM was grasped, based on surgical videos (P<0.05), and with the appearance of inner retinal defects using en face OCT. ILM peeling is frequently performed to reduce ERM recurrence. Despite lack of effect on visual acuity, active ILM peeling increases the incidence of microscotomas related to the site where the ERM or ILM is grasped. Active ILM peeling may be responsible for postoperative visual discomfort related to microscopic trauma during peeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-Validation of Survival Bump Hunting by Recursive Peeling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a survival/risk bump hunting framework to build a bump hunting model with a possibly censored time-to-event type of response and to validate model estimates. First, we describe the use of adequate survival peeling criteria to build a survival/risk bump hunting model based on recursive peeling methods. Our method called “Patient Recursive Survival Peeling” is a rule-induction method that makes use of specific peeling criteria such as hazard ratio or log-rank statistics. Second, to validate our model estimates and improve survival prediction accuracy, we describe a resampling-based validation technique specifically designed for the joint task of decision rule making by recursive peeling (i.e. decision-box) and survival estimation. This alternative technique, called “combined” cross-validation is done by combining test samples over the cross-validation loops, a design allowing for bump hunting by recursive peeling in a survival setting. We provide empirical results showing the importance of cross-validation and replication. PMID:26997922

  8. Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Mou, Z. Z.

    2013-06-15

    The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs), arising from perpendicular neutral beam injection, on the stable low-n peeling modes in tokamak plasmas is investigated, through numerical solution of the mode's dispersion relation derived from an energy principle. A resistive-wall peeling mode with m/n=6/1, with m and n being the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively, is destabilized by trapped EPs as the EPs' pressure exceeds a critical value β{sub c}{sup *}, which is sensitive to the pitch angle of trapped EPs. The dependence of β{sub c}{sup *} on the particle pitch angle is eventually determined by the bounce averagemore » of the mode eigenfunction. Peeling modes with higher m and n numbers can also be destabilized by trapped EPs. Depending on the wall distance, either a resistive-wall peeling mode or an ideal-kink peeling mode can be destabilized by EPs.« less

  9. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nazimul; Mitra, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye. He was diagnosed as having epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole. He underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant blue assisted ILM peeling and fluid gas exchange. Intraoperatively, ILM was found to be adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina. One month after cataract surgery, he underwent YAG capsulotomy in the right eye. He complained of visual distortion. His fundus evaluation in the right eye showed multiple (eight) extrafoveal retinal holes temporal to the macula clustered together. This case demonstrated that peeling of ILM, especially when it is adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina, may cause unwanted mechanical trauma to the inner retina. Glial apoptosis and neuronal degeneration may presumably play a role in delayed appearance of multiple (eight) extrafoveal macular holes, which has not been reported earlier.

  11. Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Mitra, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Objective Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. Case presentation A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye. He was diagnosed as having epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole. He underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant blue assisted ILM peeling and fluid gas exchange. Intraoperatively, ILM was found to be adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina. One month after cataract surgery, he underwent YAG capsulotomy in the right eye. He complained of visual distortion. His fundus evaluation in the right eye showed multiple (eight) extrafoveal retinal holes temporal to the macula clustered together. Conclusion This case demonstrated that peeling of ILM, especially when it is adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina, may cause unwanted mechanical trauma to the inner retina. Glial apoptosis and neuronal degeneration may presumably play a role in delayed appearance of multiple (eight) extrafoveal macular holes, which has not been reported earlier. PMID:29760571

  12. MiSNPDb: a web-based genomic resources of tropical ecology fruit mango (Mangifera indica L.) for phylogeography and varietal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Iquebal, M A; Jaiswal, Sarika; Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Jayaswal, Pawan K; Angadi, U B; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Anand K; Srivastav, Manish; Prakash, Jai; Singh, S K; Khan, Kasim; Mishra, Rupesh K; Rajan, Shailendra; Bajpai, Anju; Sandhya, B S; Nischita, Puttaraju; Ravishankar, K V; Dinesh, M R; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R; Singh, Nagendra K

    2017-11-02

    Mango is one of the most important fruits of tropical ecological region of the world, well known for its nutritive value, aroma and taste. Its world production is >45MT worth >200 billion US dollars. Genomic resources are required for improvement in productivity and management of mango germplasm. There is no web-based genomic resources available for mango. Hence rapid and cost-effective high throughput putative marker discovery is required to develop such resources. RAD-based marker discovery can cater this urgent need till whole genome sequence of mango becomes available. Using a panel of 84 mango varieties, a total of 28.6 Gb data was generated by ddRAD-Seq approach on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1.25 million SNPs were discovered. Phylogenetic tree using 749 common SNPs across these varieties revealed three major lineages which was compared with geographical locations. A web genomic resources MiSNPDb, available at http://webtom.cabgrid.res.in/mangosnps/ is based on 3-tier architecture, developed using PHP, MySQL and Javascript. This web genomic resources can be of immense use in the development of high density linkage map, QTL discovery, varietal differentiation, traceability, genome finishing and SNP chip development for future GWAS in genomic selection program. We report here world's first web-based genomic resources for genetic improvement and germplasm management of mango.

  13. Leaf Transcriptome Sequencing for Identifying Genic-SSR Markers and SNP Heterozygosity in Crossbred Mango Variety ‘Amrapali’ (Mangifera indica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Akshay; Srivastav, Manish; Jaiprakash; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is called “king of fruits” due to its sweetness, richness of taste, diversity, large production volume and a variety of end usage. Despite its huge economic importance genomic resources in mango are scarce and genetics of useful horticultural traits are poorly understood. Here we generated deep coverage leaf RNA sequence data for mango parental varieties ‘Neelam’, ‘Dashehari’ and their hybrid ‘Amrapali’ using next generation sequencing technologies. De-novo sequence assembly generated 27,528, 20,771 and 35,182 transcripts for the three genotypes, respectively. The transcripts were further assembled into a non-redundant set of 70,057 unigenes that were used for SSR and SNP identification and annotation. Total 5,465 SSR loci were identified in 4,912 unigenes with 288 type I SSR (n ≥ 20 bp). One hundred type I SSR markers were randomly selected of which 43 yielded PCR amplicons of expected size in the first round of validation and were designated as validated genic-SSR markers. Further, 22,306 SNPs were identified by aligning high quality sequence reads of the three mango varieties to the reference unigene set, revealing significantly enhanced SNP heterozygosity in the hybrid Amrapali. The present study on leaf RNA sequencing of mango varieties and their hybrid provides useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of mango. PMID:27736892

  14. INCOMPLETE REPAIR OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-08-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling. Ultrastructural study showed that the ILM peeled area was still clearly recognized after 3 years. The Müller cell processes covered most of the retina; however, the nerve fiber layer was partly uncovered and exposed to the vitreous space. The arcuate linear nerve fiber bundles were observed as comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance. Small round retinal surface defects were also observed around macula, resembling the dimple sign. Forceps-related retinal thinning was also found on the edge of ILM peeling, where we started peeling with fine forceps. The ultrastructural studies showed that most of ILM peeling area was covered with glial cells during wound healing processes. Retinal changes were found comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance or dimple sign, which were clinically observed with optical coherence tomography.

  15. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Polyphenols Ameliorate Functional Constipation Symptoms in Humans Beyond Equivalent Amount of Fiber.

    PubMed

    P Venancio, Vinicius; Kim, Hyemee; A Sirven, Maritza; D Tekwe, Carmen; Honvoh, Gilson; T Talcott, Stephen; U Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2018-05-07

    Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal condition associated with intestinal inflammation and considerably impaired quality of life, affecting about 20% of Americans. Dietary fiber and laxatives aid in its treatment but do not fully address all symptoms, such as intestinal inflammation. Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fiber- and polyphenol-rich fruit may provide anti-inflammatory effects in constipation. The 4-week consumption of mango fruit (300 g) or the equivalent amount of fiber was investigated in otherwise healthy human volunteers with chronic constipation that were randomly assigned to either group. Blood and fecal samples and digestive wellness questionnaires were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results show that mango consumption significantly improved constipation status (stool frequency, consistency, and shape) and increased gastrin levels and fecal concentrations of short chain fatty acid (valeric acid) while lowering endotoxin and interleukin 6 concentrations in plasma. In this pilot study, the consumption of mango improves symptoms and associated biomarkers of constipation beyond an equivalent amount of fiber. Larger follow-up studies would need to investigate biomarkers for intestinal inflammation in more detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  17. Allelic database and accession divergence of a Brazilian mango collection based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Ribeiro, I C N; Lima Neto, F P; Santos, C A F

    2012-12-19

    Allelic patterns and genetic distances were examined in a collection of 103 foreign and Brazilian mango (Mangifera indica) accessions in order to develop a reference database to support cultivar protection and breeding programs. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated using Jaccard's coefficients from a distance matrix based on 50 alleles of 12 microsatellite loci. The base pair number was estimated by the method of inverse mobility. The cophenetic correlation was 0.8. The accessions had a coefficient of similarity from 30 to 100%, which reflects high genetic variability. Three groups were observed in the UPGMA dendrogram; the first group was formed predominantly by foreign accessions, the second group was formed by Brazilian accessions, and the Dashehari accession was isolated from the others. The 50 microsatellite alleles did not separate all 103 accessions, indicating that there are duplicates in this mango collection. These 12 microsatellites need to be validated in order to establish a reliable set to identify mango cultivars.

  18. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.

    PubMed

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

    2013-02-01

    We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

  20. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  1. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  3. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  4. Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K E; Rydland, K M

    2000-11-01

    A series of polymethoxylated flavonoids has been isolated from orange peel, and their inhibitory activity toward soybean 15-lipoxygenase was determined. The strongest inhibition was shown by 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (IC(50) = 49 +/- 5 microM). Sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, tetramethylscutellarein, and 3,5, 6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone were somewhat less active, with IC(50) values of 70-86 microM, comparable to the positive control quercetin (IC(50) = 68 +/- 5 microM). Demethylation apparently results in less active compounds, with 5-O-demethylsinensetin having an IC(50) value of 144 +/- 10 microM. Some other orange peel constituents were isolated and tested as well, hesperidin (IC(50) = 180 +/- 10 microM) and ferulic acid (111 +/- 2 microM), showing moderate activity. The polymethoxylated flavonoids were virtually inactive as scavengers of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. Hesperidin was only slightly active (24.2 +/- 0.7% scavenged at a concentration of 2 mM), and ferulic acid showed good activity (IC(50) = 86.4 +/- 0.7 microM). From this, it appears that orange peel constituents may counteract enzymatic lipid peroxidation processes catalyzed by 15-lipoxygenase in vitro. The radical scavenging activity of orange peel extracts is only modest.

  5. Mango Polyphenolics Reduce Inflammation in Intestinal Colitis—Involvement of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Axis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemee; Banerjee, Nivedita; Barnes, Ryan C.; Pfent, Catherine M.; Talcott, Stephen T.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) polyphenolics containing gallic acid and gallotanins, and the role of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenolics extracted from mango (var. Keitt) were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated CCD-18Co cells. Rats received either a beverage with mango polyphenolics or a control beverage, and were exposed to three cycles of 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) followed by a 2-wk recovery period. The mango extract (10 mg GAE/L) suppressed the protein expression of NF-κB, p-NF-κB, PI3K (p85β), HIF-1α, p70S6K1, and RPS6 in LPS-treated CCD-18Co cells. LPS reduced miR-126 expression, whereas, the mango extract induced miR-126 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The relationship between miR-126 and its target, PI3K (p85β), was confirmed by treating cells with miR-126 antagomiR where mango polyphenols reversed the effects of the antagomiR. In vivo, mango beverage protected against DSS-induced colonic inflammation (47%, P = 0.05) and decreased the Ki-67 labeling index in the central and basal regions compared to the control. Mango beverage significantly attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, the expression of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR was reduced, whereas, miR-126 was upregulated by the mango treatment. These results suggest that mango polyphenols attenuated inflammatory response by modulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway at least in part through upregulation of miRNA-126 expression both in vitro and in vivo; thus, mango polyphenolics might be relevant as preventive agents in ulcerative colitis. PMID:27061150

  6. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the mango (Mangiferaindica) transcriptome for mapping and estimation of genetic diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of resources for genomic studies in Mangifera indica (mango) will allow marker-assisted selection and identification of genetically diverse germplasm, greatly aiding mango breeding programs. We report here a first step in developing such resources, our identification of thousands una...

  7. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  8. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  < .05) higher crude fiber (2.58%), fat (9.74%), ash (2.49%), and carbohydrate (71.57%) compared with Citrus maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p  < .05) higher in the peel extract. The mineral composition revealed the order Ca > Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  9. The essential oil from Citrus limetta Risso peels alleviates skin inflammation: In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Shilpa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Bawankule, Dnyaneshawar Umrao

    2018-02-15

    Citrus fruit peels are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin disorders but it lacks proper pharmacological intervention. Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae) is an important commercial fruit crops used by juice processing industries in all continents. Ethnopharmacological validation of an essential oil isolated from its peels may play a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. To evaluate the chemical and pharmacological (in-vitro and in-vivo) profile of essential oil isolated from Citrus limetta peels (Clp-EO) against skin inflammation for its ethnopharmacological validation. Hydro-distilled essential oil extracted from Citrus limetta peels (Clp-EO) was subjected to gas chromatography (GC) analysis for identification of essential oil constituents and its anti-inflammatory evaluation through in vitro and in vivo models. Chemical fingerprint of Clp-EO revealed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbon and limonene is the major component. Pre-treatment of Clp-EO to the macrophages was able to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in LPS-induced inflammation as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. In in-vivo study, topical application of Clp-EO was also able to reduce the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear thickness, ear weight, lipid peroxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokines production and ameliorate the histological damage in the ear tissue. In-vitro and in-vivo toxicity study indicate that it is safe for topical application on skin. These findings suggested the preventive potential of Clp-EO for the treatment of inflammation linked skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  11. Anticholinesterase and antioxidative properties of water-extractable phytochemicals from some citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Ademosun, Ayokunle Olubode; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-05-01

    Aqueous extracts from citrus peels are used in many rural communities in Nigeria in treating various degenerative conditions, although the scientific basis for its use has not been well established. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from some citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii), and shaddock (Citrus maxima)]. The effects of the extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, as well as Fe2+-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in vitro, were investigated. The total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities as typified by 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging abilities were also investigated. The results revealed that orange peels had the highest total phenol content followed by grapefruit peels, whereas shaddock peels had the least. The extracts inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner, although there is no significant difference (p>0.05) in their inhibitory abilities of the peels. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by their radical (DPPH· and OH·) scavenging abilities as well as the inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain in vitro. The anticholinesterase activity and inhibition of MDA production by the aqueous extracts of the peels, as well as other antioxidant activities, could make the peels a good dietary means for the management of oxidative-mediated neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  13. Quantitative analysis of peel-off degree for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Janghoon; Lee, Jongsu; Sung, Ki-Hak; Shin, Kee-Hyun; Kang, Hyunkyoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a facile methodology of peel-off degree evaluation by image processing on printed electronics. The quantification of peeled and printed areas was performed using open source programs. To verify the accuracy of methods, we manually removed areas from the printed circuit that was measured, resulting in 96.3% accuracy. The sintered patterns showed a decreasing tendency in accordance with the increase in the energy density of an infrared lamp, and the peel-off degree increased. Thus, the comparison between both results was presented. Finally, the correlation between performance characteristics was determined by quantitative analysis.

  14. Biotechnological Potential of Agro-Industrial Wastes as a Carbon Source to Thermostable Polygalacturonase Production in Aspergillus niveus.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Héctor Francisco; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes are mainly composed of complex polysaccharides that might serve as nutrients for microbial growth and production of enzymes. The aim of this work was to study polygalacturonase (PG) production by Aspergillus niveus cultured on liquid or solid media supplemented with agro-industrial wastes. Submerged fermentation (SbmF) was tested using Czapeck media supplemented with 28 different carbon sources. Among these, orange peel was the best PG inducer. On the other hand, for solid state fermentation (SSF), lemon peel was the best inducer. By comparing SbmF with SSF, both supplemented with lemon peel, it was observed that PG levels were 4.4-fold higher under SSF. Maximum PG activity was observed at 55°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was stable at 60°C for 90 min and at pH 3.0-5.0. The properties of this enzyme, produced on inexpensive fermentation substrates, were interesting and suggested several biotechnological applications.

  15. Effect of Fruits Waste in Biopore Infiltration Hole Toward The Effectiveness of Water Infiltration Rate on Baraya Campus Land of Hasanuddin University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosa, Slamet

    2018-03-01

    The infiltration of water into the soil decreases due to the transfer of soill function or the lack of soil biopores. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of fruits waste toward the water infiltration rate. Observation of the water level decrease is done every 5 minutes interval. Observation of biopore water infiltration rate was done after fruits waste decomposed for 15 and 30 days. Result of standard water infiltration rate at the first of 5 minutes is 2.18 mm/min, then decreases at interval of 5 minutes on next time as the soil begins to saturate the water. Baraya campus soil observed in soil depths of 100cm has a dusty texture character, grayish brown color and clumping structure. Soil character indicates low porosity. While biopore water infiltration rate at the first of 5 minute interval is 6.61and 6.95 mm/min on banana waste; 5.55 and 6.61mm/min on papaya waste and 4.26 and 5.39 mm/min on mango waste. The effectiveness of water infiltration rate is 44.45% and 41.93% on banana; 44.61% and 30.09% on papaya and 15.79% and 28.36% on mango. Study concluded that banana waste causes the water infiltration rate most effective in biopore infiltration hole.

  16. Cyanogenic potential of cassava peels and their detoxification for utilization as livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Katongole, Ignatious

    2002-12-01

    This study determined the cyanogenic potential of the cassava peels and assess the effectiveness of sun drying, heap fermentation and wet fermentation (soaking) in reducing the cyanide potential of the peels. Fresh cassava peels from major fresh food markets in Kampala and cassava grown in various parts of Uganda from Namolonge Agricultural and Animal Research Institute were used. The fresh peels from the market were subjected to the different detoxification methods foe 5 d; the cyanide potential was determined by enzymatic assay. The mean potential of the cassava peels from the food markets Kampala was 856 mg cyanide equivalen/kg of dry matter. The potential of the peels of the 14 cultivars fell between 253 and 1081 mg cyanide eQuivalent/kg of dry matter. High cyanogenic potential cultivars dominate on the market and pose danger of poisoning to livestock fed on fresh cassava peels. Treatment of the peels by sun-drying, heap fermentation on soaking reduced the cyanide potential to below 100 mg cyanide equivalent/kg of dry matter at 48, 72 and 96 h respectively. Sun-dying caused an early sharp fall in the cyanide potential, but heap fermentation or soaking gave the lowest residual cyanide after 120 h. Cassava peels could be safely used as livestock feed if they are treated to reduce the cyanogenic potential.

  17. The X-point effects on the peeling-ballooning stability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Linjin

    2017-10-01

    Due to the X-point singularity the safety factor tends to infinity as the last closed flux surface is approached. The usual numerical treatment of X-point singularity is to cut off a small fraction of edge region for system stability evaluation or simply use an up-down symmetric equilibrium without X-point included. This type of treatments have been used to make the peeling-ballooning stability diagram. We found that the mode types, peel or ballooning, can vary depending on how much the edge portion is cut off. When the cutting-off leads the edge safety factor (qa) to become close to a mode rational number, the peeling modes dominate; otherwise the ballooning type of modes prevail. The stability condition for peeling modes with qa being close to a rational number is much stringent than that for ballooning type of modes. Because qa tends to infinite near the separatrix, the mode rational surfaces are concentrated in the plasma region and thus the peeling modes are basically excluded. This extrapolation indicates that the stability boundary for high edge current, which is related to the peeling modes, need to be reexamined to take into account the X-point effects. Supported by U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Science: Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    PubMed

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  19. [Mass Transfer Kinetics Model of Ultrasonic Extraction of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-yi; Zhang, Li-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Yuan-hu; Ma, Li; Zheng, Dan-dan

    2015-05-01

    The dynamic mathematical model of ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel was constructed with the Fick's second law as the theoretical basis. The spherical model was selected, with mass concentrations of pomegranate peel polyphenols as the index, 50% ethanol as the extraction solvent and ultrasonic extraction as the extraction method. In different test conditions including the liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time, a series of kinetic parameters were solved, such as the extraction process (k), relative raffinate rate, surface diffusion coefficient(D(S)), half life (t½) and the apparent activation energy (E(a)). With the extraction temperature increasing, k and D(S) were gradually increased with t½ decreasing,which indicated that the elevated temperature was favorable to the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols. The exponential equation of relative raffinate rate showed that the established numerical dynamics model fitted the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols, and the relationship between the reaction conditions and pomegranate peel polyphenols concentration was well reflected by the model. Based on the experimental results, a feasible and reliable kinetic model for ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel is established, which can be used for the optimization control of engineering magnifying production.

  20. Water-Based Peeling of Thin Hydrophobic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Sepideh; Boulogne, François; Poulard, Christophe; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-10-01

    Inks of permanent markers and waterproof cosmetics create elastic thin films upon application on a surface. Such adhesive materials are deliberately designed to exhibit water-repellent behavior. Therefore, patterns made up of these inks become resistant to moisture and cannot be cleaned by water after drying. However, we show that sufficiently slow dipping of such elastic films, which are adhered to a substrate, into a bath of pure water allows for complete removal of the hydrophobic coatings. Upon dipping, the air-water interface in the bath forms a contact line on the substrate, which exerts a capillary-induced peeling force at the edge of the hydrophobic thin film. We highlight that this capillary peeling process is more effective at lower velocities of the air-liquid interface and lower viscosities. Capillary peeling not only removes such thin films from the substrate but also transfers them flawlessly onto the air-water interface.

  1. Clinical tolerance and efficacy of capryloyl salicylic acid peel compared to a glycolic acid peel in subjects with fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Hansenne, Isabelle

    2008-12-01

    Several chemical agents are currently used to perform superficial peels of the face to reduce facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles. Some of the most commonly used agents are alpha hydroxyl acids, such as glycolic acid (GA), or beta hydroxy acid, such as salicylic acid. This study aims to compare the efficacy of GA to that of a novel derivative of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid (LHA). In a split-face study, 50 female volunteers between the ages of 35 and 60 years with mild to moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles were randomized and LHA or GA peel was applied to one side of the face. Increasing peel concentrations were applied (5-10% LHA or 20-50% GA) based on the tolerance level of the subjects and clinical observations of an expert dermatologist for 12 weeks at biweekly intervals. Of the 44 volunteers who completed the study, at 12 weeks 41% of LHA-treated and 30% of GA-treated subjects demonstrated significant reduction of fine lines/wrinkles compared to baseline. Forty-six percent of LHA-treated subjects and 34% of GA-treated subjects showed significant reduction of hyperpigmentation compared to baseline. LHA treatment was better than GA peels, although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Five percent to 10% of LHA peel is generally safe and as effective as 20-50% GA peel in reducing facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles.

  2. Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P < 0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces.

  3. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  4. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review of the composition of the Board must be...

  5. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  7. Biotechnological advances in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their future implication in crop improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Hare; Singh, S K

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology can complement conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programmes. Studies involving in vitro culture and selection, micropropagation, embryo rescue, genetic transformation, marker-assisted characterization and DNA fingerprinting, etc. are underway at different centers worldwide. In vitro culture and somatic embryogenesis of several different genotypes have been achieved. The nucellus excised from immature fruitlets is the appropriate explant for induction of embryogenic cultures. High frequency somatic embryogenesis has been achieved in some genotypes; however, some abnormalities can occur during somatic embryo germination. Embryo rescue from young and dropped fruitlets can improve the hybridization success in a limited flowering season. Protocols for protoplast culture and regeneration have also been developed. In vitro selections for antibiotic tolerance and fungal toxin resistance have been very promising for germplasm screening. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been reported. Genes that are involved with fruit ripening have been cloned and there have been attempts to deliver these genes into plants. DNA fingerprinting and studies on genetic diversity of mango cultivars and Mangifera species are also being conducted at several research stations. The purpose of this review is to focus upon contemporary information on biotechnological advances made in mango. It also describes some ways of overcoming the problems encountered during in vitro propagation of mango.

  8. A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Sandro; Aquino, Adriano; Bezerra, Débora Santos Silva

    2010-10-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid-phase (silica-gel, neutral alumina, and Florisil), the amount of solid-phase, and eluent [dichloromethane, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (4:1, 1:4, 1:1, 2:3, v/v)]. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of mango or papaya, 3.0 g of silica as dispersant sorbent, and ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated using mango and papaya samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (4 replicates) ranged from 80% to 146%, with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 28%. Detection and quantification limits for mango and papaya ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in commercial fruit samples from a local market (Aracaju/SE, Brazil), and residues of the pesticides were not detected on the samples.

  9. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chanakya, H.N.; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their compositionmore » was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.« less

  10. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T V

    2009-04-01

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  11. Alpha-hydroxyacid chemical peeling agents: case studies and rationale for safe and effective use.

    PubMed

    Briden, M Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.

  12. Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Prevent Post-vitrectomy Epiretinal Membrane Development in Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kunihiko; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Noda, Toru

    2016-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) regarding post-vitrectomy epiretinal membrane (ERM) development and visual outcomes. Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. Setting: Institutional. One hundred and two consecutive eyes with RRD treated with vitrectomy and followed for at least 6 months. ILM was peeled without using dye such as indocyanine green (ICG). Observational Procedures: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative ERM development: Group 1, 81 eyes without ERM formation; Group 2, 21 eyes with ERM development. Patients also were divided into 2 subgroups: those with and without ILM peeling (58 and 44 eyes, respectively). Statistical analyses were performed between the 2 groups with/without ERM formation and between the 2 subgroups with/without ILM peeling for 5 preoperative factors including foveal involvement of the RRD, 4 intraoperative factors including ILM peeling, baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and final BCVA. An association of ILM peeling with ERM prevention and the influence of ILM peeling on visual outcomes. ILM peeling was significantly (P < .001) associated with ERM prevention. There was no significant difference in the final BCVA between subgroups with and without ILM peeling. ILM peeling without ICG staining during the initial vitrectomy for RRDs may prevent postoperative ERM formation with favorable visual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of xylanase and protease by Penicillium janthinellum CRC 87M-115 from different agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana A; Porto, Ana L F; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2006-04-01

    Five agricultural wastes were evaluated in submerged fermentation for xylanolytic enzymes production by Penicillium janthinellum. The wastes were hydrolyzed in acid medium and the liquid fraction was used for cultivation. Corn cob (55.3 U/mL) and oat husk (54.8 U/mL) were the best inducers of xylanase. Sugar cane bagasse (23.0 U/mL) and corn husk (23.8 U/mL) were moderately good, while cassava peel was negligible. Protease production was very low in all agro-industrial residues. The maximum biomass yields were 1.30 and 1.17 g/L for cassava peel and corn husk after 180 h, respectively. Xylanolytic activity showed a cell growth associated profile.

  14. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  15. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan... risks associated with the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan into the continental United... commercial consignment. APHIS received a request from the Government of Pakistan to allow the importation of...

  16. Quality of mango nectar processed by high-pressure homogenization with optimized heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Franchi, Mark Alexandrow; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) with heat shock on Aspergillus niger, vitamin C, and color of mango nectar. The nectar was processed at 200 MPa followed by heat shock, which was optimized by response surface methodology by using mango nectar ratio (45 to 70), heat time (10 to 20), and temperature (60 to 85 °C) as variables. The color of mango nectar and vitamin C retention were evaluated at the optimized treatments, that is, 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min or 73.5 °C/10 min. The mathematical model indicates that heat shock time and temperature showed a positive effect in the mould inactivation, whereas increasing ratio resulted in a protective effect on A. niger. The optimized treatments did not increase the retention of vitamin C, but had positive effect for the nectar color, in particular for samples treated at 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min. The results obtained in this study show that the conidia can be inactivated by applying HPH with heat shock, particularly to apply HPH as an option to pasteurize fruit nectar for industries.

  17. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Clinical outcomes of double staining and additional ILM peeling during ERM surgery.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yun, Il Han

    2013-08-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients after vitrectomy and ERM removal with or without additional indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 43 patients with an idiopathic ERM that underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal between July 2007 and April 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: triamcinolone-assisted simple ERM peeling only (group A, n = 23) and triamcinolone-assisted ERM peeling followed by ICG staining and peeling of the remaining internal ILM (group B, n = 20). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, macular thickness, P1 amplitude or implicit time on multifocal-electroretinogram (mfERG) at six and 12 months postoperatively. In group B, ICG staining after ERM peeling demonstrated that the ILM had been removed together with the ERM in 12 eyes (60%), and all 12 eyes showed punctate retinal hemorrhages during ERM peeling. There was no recurrence of an ERM in either group. Additional procedures involving ICG staining and ILM peeling during ERM surgery do not appear to have an additive effect on the clinical outcomes in terms of visual acuity, retinal function based on mfERG, or recurrence rate.

  19. MANGO Imager Network Observations of Geomagnetic Storm Impact on Midlatitude 630 nm Airglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Midlatitude Allsky-imaging Network for GeoSpace Observations (MANGO) is a network of imagers filtered at 630 nm spread across the continental United States. MANGO is used to image large-scale airglow and aurora features and observes the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network consists of seven all-sky imagers providing continuous coverage over the United States and extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of medium and large scale wave activity due to both neutral and geomagnetic storm forcing. The geomagnetic storm observations largely fall into two categories: Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs and Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs). In addition, less-often observed effects include anomalous airglow brightening, bright swirls, and frozen-in traveling structures. We will present an analysis of multiple events observed over four years of MANGO network operation. We will provide both statistics on the cumulative observations and a case study of the "Memorial Day Storm" on May 27, 2017.

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Unique Fusarium sp. nov. ex Mangifera indica L. Causing Mango Malformation Disease in México

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we characterized fusaria that were associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. From 2002 to 2009, 141 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically diverse states. Initially, isolates ...

  1. Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871

  2. Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-12-01

    Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.

  3. Quality index, consumer acceptability, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut "ataulfo" mangoes (mangifera indica L.) as affected by low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Robles-Sánchez, R M; Islas-Osuna, M A; Astiazarán-García, H; Vázquez-Ortiz, F A; Martín-Belloso, O; Gorinstein, S; González-Aguilar, G A

    2009-04-01

    To measure bioactive compound losses due to minimal processing, mature green fresh-cut mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) cv. "Ataulfo" were subjected to an antioxidant treatment and stored at 5 degrees C during 15 d. Quality index, total phenols, flavonoids, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and antioxidant activity were measured during the storage period of fruits. Antioxidant capacity was estimated using ORAC(FL), TEAC, and DPPH assays. The dipping treatments with ascorbic acid (AA) + citric acid (CA) + CaCl2 affected positively quality delaying deterioration of fresh-cut mango as compared with whole fruit. However, dipping treatment affected the consumer preferences of fresh-cut mangoes. The highest vitamin C, beta-carotene, and vitamin E losses were observed after 10 d, being similar in whole and fresh-cut mangoes. The antioxidant activity was not significantly affected by storage time. We conclude that fresh-cut mangoes retained their bioactive compound content during storage and their antioxidant and nutritional properties make them a good source of these compounds.

  4. Recovery of steroidal alkaloids from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-05-13

    A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid-liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  5. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m-2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ⩽ 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

  6. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value < 0.05). The group receiving the glycolic acid peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  7. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  8. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and HS-SPME-GCMS quantification of key aroma volatiles for fruit and sap of Australian mango cultivars.

    PubMed

    San, Anh T; Joyce, Daryl C; Hofman, Peter J; Macnish, Andrew J; Webb, Richard I; Matovic, Nicolas J; Williams, Craig M; De Voss, James J; Wong, Siew H; Smyth, Heather E

    2017-04-15

    Reported herein is a high throughput method to quantify in a single analysis the key volatiles that contribute to the aroma of commercially significant mango cultivars grown in Australia. The method constitutes stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) in conjunction with headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Deuterium labelled analogues of the target analytes were either purchased commercially or synthesised for use as internal standards. Seven volatiles, hexanal, 3-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, α-terpinolene and ethyl octanoate, were targeted. The resulting calibration functions had determination coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.93775 to 0.99741. High recovery efficiencies for spiked mango samples were also achieved. The method was applied to identify the key aroma volatile compounds produced by 'Kensington Pride' and 'B74' mango fruit and by 'Honey Gold' mango sap. This method represents a marked improvement over current methods for detecting and measuring concentrations of mango fruit and sap volatiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical changes in mango after infection with Rhizoctonia bataticola.

    PubMed

    Vyas, H G; Chhatpar, H S

    1980-04-15

    Rhizoctonia bataticola is responsible for the spoilage of mango fruits (Mangifera india) during post-harvest preservation and storage. Culture of R. bataticola exhibited significant pectinase and cellulase activity. In Rhizoctonia-infected fruits an increase of protease and cellulase activity, and a decrease in certain enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, were observed in comparison to healthy fruits.

  10. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Michael H.; Winterhagen, Patrick; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N.

    2015-01-01

    Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 and 7200 ppm) during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at 1 day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at 1, 2, and 3 days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day 2 and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days 2 and 3 were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at 2 days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets. PMID:26442021

  11. Evaluation of lactoperoxidase system treatment to reduce anthracnose, stem-end rot, and bacterial black spot development during storage of mangoes.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Doan Duy; Ducamp, Marie-Noelle; Dornier, Manuel; Montet, Didier; Reynes, Max; Loiseau, Gérard

    2005-08-01

    The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was evaluated for the prevention of postharvest diseases caused by Xanthomonas campestris, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'Keitt' and 'Kent' mangoes. The LPS treatment significantly reduced the disease development on both cultivars after storage at 12 degrees C for 2 weeks, which was followed by a ripening at 25 degrees C. The LPS treatment did not alter the sensory quality of mango fruits (color, firmness, titrable acidity, and total soluble solids) when compared to untreated fruits. The LPS thus presents good potential alternative to the chemical fungicides traditionally used to improve the shelf life of mangoes.

  12. Profiling of volatile fragrant components in a mini-core collection of mango germplasms from seven countries

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ru-Lin; Wu, Hong-Xia; Yao, Quan-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Tian; Luo, Chun; Zhou, Yi-Gang; Liang, Qing-Zhi; Wang, Song-Biao

    2017-01-01

    Aroma is important in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and their processed products, and could provide good indicators for the development of local cultivars in the mango industry. In this study, the volatile diversity of 25 mango cultivars from China, America, Thailand, India, Cuba, Indonesia, and the Philippines was investigated. The volatile compositions, their relative contents, and the intervarietal differences were detected with headspace solid phase microextraction tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. The similarities were also evaluated with a cluster analysis and correlation analysis of the volatiles. The differences in mango volatiles in different districts are also discussed. Our results show significant differences in the volatile compositions and their relative contents among the individual cultivars and regions. In total, 127 volatiles were found in all the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. The highest and lowest qualitative abundances of volatiles were detected in ‘Zihua’ and ‘Mallika’ cultivars, respectively. Based on the cumulative occurrence of members of the classes of volatiles, the cultivars were grouped into monoterpenes (16 cultivars), proportion and balanced (eight cultivars), and nonterpene groups (one cultivars). Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles in these cultivars, with terpinolene, 3-carene, caryophyllene and α-Pinene the dominant components depending on the cultivars. Monoterpenes, some of the primary volatile components, were the most abundant aroma compounds, whereas aldehydes were the least abundant in the mango pulp. β-Myrcene, a major terpene, accounted for 58.93% of the total flavor volatile compounds in ‘Xiaofei’ (Philippens). γ-Octanoic lactone was the only ester in the total flavor volatile compounds, with its highest concentration in ‘Guiya’ (China). Hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane was the most abundant volatile compound in ‘Magovar’ (India), accounting for 46

  13. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    PubMed Central

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. Abbreviations AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na2SO3 - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon. PMID:21423885

  14. Separation and characterization of polyphenolics from underutilized byproducts of fruit production (Choerospondias axillaris peels): inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins against glycolysis enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Zhai, Yuxin; McClements, David Julian; Liu, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins were isolated from the peel of Choerospondias axillaris fruit, which is a waste product of the food processing industry. Compositional analysis indicated that the proanthocyanidins had extension units mainly consisting of epicatechin gallate or epicatechin, and terminal units mainly consisting of catechin. Numerous polymeric forms of the molecules were detected, including monomers, dimers, and trimers. Certain fractions exhibited strong α-amylase or α-glucosidase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, their inhibitory activities depended on their degree of polymerization and galloylation. For example, the most bioactive fraction had α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values) of 541 and 3.1 μg mL(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates that proanthocyanidins from C. axillaris peels can inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro and may therefore serve as antidiabetic ingredients in functional or medical foods.

  15. Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangbin; Lei, Huanhuan; Ma, Xiuyan; Lai, Tongfei; Song, Hongmiao; Shi, Xuequn; Li, Jiangkuo

    2017-01-16

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. In this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-MCP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of C. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. 1-MCP also decreased the decay incidence and lesion expansion of mango fruit caused by C. gloeosporioides. For the first time this study demonstrated that 1-MCP suppressed anthracnose of postharvest mango fruit by directly inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, thus providing a promising strategy for disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Biomethanation Process from market waste to generate bio energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, S.; Parthiban, A.; Vinod kumar, T.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this study was to incur that the biogas production from traditional market wastes which were represented by cabbage stem and carrot peeling, white mustard were under taken in a laboratory experiment. To produce biogas, the raw material such as cabbage stem and carrot peeling, white mustard and carrot peeling were mixed until C/N ratio close 30:1. Inoculums starter cow dung is put into digester then water is added until 500 liters. The initial pH is measured at throughout the experiments. The anaerobic digestion process is conducted at temperature of 30ºC and the volumes, pH of the biogas yield were observed daily. Biogas yield and cumulative biogas, total solids were analyzed 35 days. The cumulative biogas yield at the 32th day of digestion for cabbage stem and carrot peeling (exp1), white mustard and carrot peeling (exp2) were 2140 liters and 2421 liters respectively. The highest daily biogas yield is achieved on the 22st day of digestion which is found 123 liters and 141 liters respectively. In the first 10 days, the pH level is observed decrease and increase after the day of 21. Although at the end of digestion period the pH will fall down.

  17. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution by local agricultural wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreen, I.; Lija, Y.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Excess ammonia nitrogen in the waterways causes serious distortion to environment such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution was investigated by using 40 local agricultural wastes as potential low cost adsorbent. Some of the adsorbent were able to remove ammonia nitrogen with adsorption capacity ranging from 0.58 mg/g to 3.58 mg/g. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded by Langsat peels with 3.58 mg/g followed by Jackfruit seeds and Moringa peels with 3.37 mg/g and 2.64 mg/g respectively. This experimental results show that the agricultural wastes can be utilized as biosorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal. The effect of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH and stirring rate on the adsorption process were studied in batch experiment. The adsorption capacity reached maximum value at pH 7 with initial concentration of 500 mg/L and the removal rate decreased as stirring rate was applied.

  18. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  19. Control of browning of minimally processed mangoes subjected to ultraviolet radiation pulses.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Aline Ellen Duarte; Fonseca, Kelem Silva; da Silva Gomes, Wilny Karen; Monteiro da Silva, Ana Priscila; de Oliveira Silva, Ebenézer; Puschmann, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The pulsed ultraviolet radiation (UV P ) has been used as an alternative strategy for the control of microorganisms in food. However, its application causes the browning of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. In order to control the browning of the 'Tommy Atkins' minimally processed mango and treated with UV P (5.7 J cm -2 ) it was used 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.5 μL L -1 ), an ethylene action blocker in separate stages, comprising five treatments: control, UV P (U), 1-MCP + UV P (M + U), UV P  + 1-MCP (U + M) e 1-MCP + UV P  + 1-MCP (M + U + M). At the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage at 12 °C, we evaluated the color (L* and b*), electrolyte leakage, polyphenol oxidase, total extractable polyphenols, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity. The 1-MCP, when applied before UV P , prevented the loss of vitamin C and when applied in a double dose, retained the yellow color (b*) of the cubes. However, the 1-MCP reduced lightness (L*) of independent mango cubes whatever applied before and/or after the UV P . Thus, the application of 1-MCP did not control, but intensified the browning of minimally processed mangoes irradiated with UV P .

  20. Consumption of a Mango Fruit Powder Protects Mice from High-Fat Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Fat Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Agustín G; Ribot, Joan; Priego, Teresa; Vazquez, Itxaso; Frank, Sonja; Palou, Andreu; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the beneficial effects of mango fruit powder on the early metabolic adverse effects of a high-fat diet. The progressive dose-response effects of mango fruit powder on body composition, circulating parameters, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity in key tissues were studied in mice fed a moderate (45%) high-fat diet. Findings suggest that mango fruit powder exerts physiological protective effects in the initial steps of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Moreover, AMPK and SIRT1 appear as key regulators of the observed improvement in fatty acid oxidation capacity, as well as of the improved insulin sensitivity and the increased glucose uptake and metabolism through the glycolytic pathway capacity in liver and skeletal muscle. In summary, this study provides evidence that the functional food ingredient (CarelessTM) from mango fruit prevents early metabolic alterations caused by a high-fat diet in the initial stages of the metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Retinal thickness after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole and epiretinal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika; Furukawa, Mariko; Hangai, Masanori; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Nishigaki, Shirou; Larson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the retinal thickness (RT), after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, for an idiopathic macular hole (MH) or an epiretinal membrane (ERM). Also, to investigate the effect of a dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) appearance on RT. Methods A non-randomized, retrospective chart review was performed for 159 patients who had successful closure of a MH, with (n = 148), or without (n = 11), ILM peeling. Also studied were 117 patients who had successful removal of an ERM, with (n = 104), or without (n = 13), ILM peeling. The RT of the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study areas was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In the MH-with-ILM peeling and ERM-with-ILM peeling groups, the RT of the operated eyes was compared to the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. The inner temporal/inner nasal ratio (TNR) was used to assess the effect of ILM peeling on RT. The effects of DONFL appearance on RT were evaluated in only the MH-with-ILM peeling group. Results In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the central, inner nasal, and outer nasal areas of the retina of operated eyes were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. In addition, the inner temporal, outer temporal, and inner superior retina was significantly thinner than in the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. Similar findings were observed regardless of the presence of a DONFL appearance. In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the retina of operated eyes was significantly thicker in all areas, except the inner and outer temporal areas. In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.86 in operated eyes, and 0.96 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.84 in operated eyes, and 0.95 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). TNR in operated eyes of the MH-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of the MH-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0

  2. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Treesearch

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  3. Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (p<0.05). The flavonol-rich fractions inhibited fish oil oxidation by 40-62% at a total phenolic concentration of 200 μg/ml. The fractionated polyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparative study of chemical composition of pomegranate peel pomegranates inside and pomegranate seeds].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Dai, Yan-Peng; Wang, Liang; Su, Ben-Zheng

    2013-07-01

    An HPLC fingerprint of pomegranate peel was established. Using chromatographic conditions, we compared the chemical composition of pomegranate peel, inside and seeds, and simultaneously determined the contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid. By comparison, we found that there were no significant differences between pomegranate peel and inside, but there was a big difference between pomegranate seeds and another two. The contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid of pomegranate peel respectively were 0.33%, 0.59%, while in pomegranate inside the result respectively were 0.52%, 0.38%. Content of ellagic acid from pomegranate seeds was only 0.01%. By study, we thought that when pomegranate peel was processed, pomegranate seeds should be removed, while pomegranate inside could be retained on the premise of full drying.

  5. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  6. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  7. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    PubMed

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  8. Preventive effect of chemical peeling on ultraviolet induced skin tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. We assessed the photochemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in distilled water at the right back of UV-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks in case of glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and 10% TCA and every 4 weeks in case of 35% TCA for totally 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with UVA+B range light three times a week for 10 weeks at a total dose of 420 J/cm(2) at UVA and 9.6 J/cm(2) at UVB. Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of P53 expression, and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also non-treated area. Peeling suppressed clonal retention of p53 positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of COX-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and TCA could serve tumor prevention by removing photodamaged cells. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Image Based Mango Fruit Detection, Localisation and Yield Estimation Using Multiple View Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Madeleine; Bargoti, Suchet; Underwood, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-sensor framework to efficiently identify, track, localise and map every piece of fruit in a commercial mango orchard. A multiple viewpoint approach is used to solve the problem of occlusion, thus avoiding the need for labour-intensive field calibration to estimate actual yield. Fruit are detected in images using a state-of-the-art faster R-CNN detector, and pair-wise correspondences are established between images using trajectory data provided by a navigation system. A novel LiDAR component automatically generates image masks for each canopy, allowing each fruit to be associated with the corresponding tree. The tracked fruit are triangulated to locate them in 3D, enabling a number of spatial statistics per tree, row or orchard block. A total of 522 trees and 71,609 mangoes were scanned on a Calypso mango orchard near Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, with 16 trees counted by hand for validation, both on the tree and after harvest. The results show that single, dual and multi-view methods can all provide precise yield estimates, but only the proposed multi-view approach can do so without calibration, with an error rate of only 1.36% for individual trees. PMID:27854271

  10. An HPLC-MS analysis of phenolic antioxidants in banana peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Banana peels are rich in many nutrients which allow for their use as food ingredients and biofertilizers in tropical agriculture. The phenomenon of rapid peel browning is a common occurrence, and is attributable to the peel’s high polyphenol oxidase activity and high concentrations of polyphenols. ...

  11. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  12. Resistance in mango against infection by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Leonardo; Bispo, Wilka Messner Silva; Cacique, Isaías Severino; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize and describe host cell responses of stem tissue to mango wilt disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata in Brazil. Disease progress was followed, through time, in inoculated stems for two cultivars, 'Ubá' (field resistant) and 'Haden' (field susceptible). Stem sections from inoculated areas were examined using fluorescence light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Tissues from Ubá colonized by C. fimbriata had stronger autofluorescence than those from Haden. The X-ray microanalysis revealed that the tissues of Ubá had higher levels of insoluble sulfur and calcium than those of Haden. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae, chlamydospores (aleurioconidia), and perithecia-like structures of C. fimbriata were more abundant in Haden relative to Ubá. At the ultrastructural level, pathogen hyphae had grown into the degraded walls of parenchyma, fiber cells, and xylem vessels in the tissue of Haden. However, in Ubá, plant cell walls were rarely degraded and hyphae were often surrounded by dense, amorphous granular materials and hyphae appeared to have died. Taken together, the results of this study characterize the susceptible and resistant basal cell responses of mango stem tissue to infection by C. fimbriata.

  13. MANGO: a new approach to multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task for biological sequence analysis. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state of the art multiple sequence alignment programs suffer from the 'once a gap, always a gap' phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? This paper introduces a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds are provably significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, Prob-ConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0 and Kalign 2.0.

  14. Effect of bending stiffness on the peeling behavior of an elastic thin film on a rigid substrate.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhilong; Chen, Shaohua

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the experimental observation that the maximum peeling force of elastic films on rigid substrates does not always emerge at the steady-state peeling stage, but sometimes at the initial one, a theoretical model is established in this paper, in which not only the effect of the film's bending stiffness on the peeling force is considered, but also the whole peeling process, from the initiation of debonding to the steady-state stage, is characterized. Typical peeling force-displacement curves and deformed profiles of the film reappear for the whole peeling process. For the case of a film with relatively large bending stiffness, the maximum peeling force is found arising at the initial peeling stage and the larger the stiffness of the film, the larger the maximum peeling force is. With the peeling distance increasing, the peeling force is reduced from the maximum to a constant at the steady-state stage. For the case of a film with relatively small stiffness, the peeling force increases monotonically at the initial stage and then achieves a constant as the maximum at the steady-state stage. Furthermore, the peeling forces in the steady-state stage are compared with those of the classical Kendall model. All the theoretical predictions agree well with the existing experimental and numerical observations, from which the maximum peeling force can be predicted precisely no matter what the stiffness of the film is. The results in this paper should be very helpful in the design and assessment of the film-substrate interface.

  15. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out onmore » the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.« less

  16. Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2003-12-01

    Salicylic acid peels have been introduced as a useful modality in acne treatment. Few studies have examined its efficacy and safety, especially in darker skin. To assess the efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peels as a treatment for acne vulgaris in Asian patients. Thirty-five Korean patients with facial acne were treated with 30% salicylic acid peels biweekly for 12 weeks. Lesion counts and Dr. Cunliffe's score were assessed by a blinded evaluator. Safety assessments and patient's evaluations were also recorded. Both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts were decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Dr. Cunliffe's acne grade was statistically significantly decreased after treatment. The side effects were tolerable in most cases, and all patients were pleased with their peel results. Stratum corneum hydration, skin surface lipid, skin pH, and transepidermal water loss were unchanged from baseline levels. Salicylic acid peels are an effective and safe therapy for acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Bond Strength Under Peeling Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Jawad, Oussama Cherkaoui

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require understanding of the stress distribution along the bond-line and the stresses that are responsible for the joint failure. To properly evaluate factors affecting peel strength, effects of defects such as voids on the stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. In this work, the peel stress distribution in a single lap joint is derived using a strength of materials approach. The bonded joint is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, bonded together with an adhesive. which is modeled as an elastic foundation which can resist both peel and shear stresses. It is found that for certain adhesive and adherend geometries and properties, a central void with the size up to 50 percent of the overlap length has negligible effect on the peak peel and shear stresses. To verify the solutions obtained from the model, the problem is solved again by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic materials. It is found that the model used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for the peel stress distribution but also gives rather surprisingly close results to that of the finite element analysis. It is also found that both shear and peel stresses can be responsible for the joint performance and when a void is introduced, both of these stresses can contribute to the joint failure as the void size increases. Acoustic emission (AE) activities of aluminum-adhesive-aluminum specimens with different void sizes were monitored. The AE ringdown counts and energy were very sensitive and decreased significantly with the void size. It was observed that the AE events were shifting towards the edge of the overlap where the maximum peeling and shearing stresses were occurring as the void size increased.

  18. Rate-dependent elastic hysteresis during the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    Villey, Richard; Creton, Costantino; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Jet, Thomas; Saintyves, Baudouin; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Yarusso, David J; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2015-05-07

    The modelling of the adherence energy during peeling of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) has received much attention since the 1950's, uncovering several factors that aim at explaining their high adherence on most substrates, such as the softness and strong viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesive, the low thickness of the adhesive layer and its confinement by a rigid backing. The more recent investigation of adhesives by probe-tack methods also revealed the importance of cavitation and stringing mechanisms during debonding, underlining the influence of large deformations and of the related non-linear response of the material, which also intervenes during peeling. Although a global modelling of the complex coupling of all these ingredients remains a formidable issue, we report here some key experiments and modelling arguments that should constitute an important step forward. We first measure a non-trivial dependence of the adherence energy on the loading geometry, namely through the influence of the peeling angle, which is found to be separable from the peeling velocity dependence. This is the first time to our knowledge that such adherence energy dependence on the peeling angle is systematically investigated and unambiguously demonstrated. Secondly, we reveal an independent strong influence of the large strain rheology of the adhesives on the adherence energy. We complete both measurements with a microscopic investigation of the debonding region. We discuss existing modellings in light of these measurements and of recent soft material mechanics arguments, to show that the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should not be associated to the propagation of an interfacial stress singularity. The relevant deformation mechanisms are actually located over the whole adhesive thickness, and the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should rather be associated to the energy loss by viscous friction and by rate-dependent elastic hysteresis.

  19. Efficacy of peeling during different periods of the menstrual cycle on acne.

    PubMed

    Bulbul Baskan, Emel; Tilki Günay, Işıl; Saricaoglu, Hayriye

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 50% glycolic acid peeling performed at different phases of menstruation on acne. This study included 30 patients with mild-to-moderate acne. Those with regular menstrual cycles and no history or laboratory evidence of hormonal pathology, hirsutism were selected. Thirty patients were divided in three groups. The first group received peeling applications in the first 7 days of menstruation; the second group received the peel between 10 and 14 days; and the third group received the peel during the last 10 days of menstruation. The 30 female patients included in study. All patients' menstrual cycles were regular. All groups were homogenous in terms of initial acne severity scores. Acne severity scores decreased in all groups after 3 months of therapy; statistically significant differences were achieved only in the second group. The results of our study suggest that chemical peeling administered during ovulation provides the most significant benefit for acne lesions. Ovulation is the period when estrogen reaches its highest level. Estrogen decreases sebum production through different mechanisms. The beneficial effects of estrogen on acne and healing in combination with those of chemical peeling may cause synergistic therapeutic effects with pronounced results.

  20. Can using a peel-away sheath in shunt implantation prevent ventricular catheter obstruction?

    PubMed

    Camlar, Mahmut; Ersahin, Yusuf; Ozer, Fusun Demirçivi; Sen, Fatih; Orman, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    Shunt obstruction is the most common shunt complication. In 2003, Kehler et al. used peel-away sheath while implanting the ventricular catheter in 20 patients. They found less revision rate in the peel-away sheath group. We aimed to test the efficacy of this technique in cadavers. We used 100 fresh brains obtained from medicolegal autopsies. Posterior parietal and frontal approaches were used to puncture the lateral ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere. The ventricle is punctured with a peel-away sheath system. After the ventricle is reached, the mandarin is retracted and the ventricular catheter is introduced through the opening. The ventricular catheter was removed from the ventricle, the opening at the tip of the ventricular catheter was checked out for obstruction, and the number of patent and plugged openings was recorded. This procedure was repeated four times for each location with and without using peel-away sheath. The control group consisted of the procedures done without using peel-away sheath. The number of the plugged openings in the peel-away sheath group was significantly smaller than the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender and left and right cerebral hemispheres. The obstruction rate was significantly lower in the posterior parietal approach. Pearson's correlation showed that increasing age was associated with less obstruction rate. Peel-away sheath decreases the number of plugged openings of the ventricular catheter. A clinical cooperative study is needed to prove that a peel-away sheath should be included in the ventricular shunt systems in the market.

  1. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  2. The efficacy of various degreasing agents used in trichloroacetic acid peels.

    PubMed

    Peikert, J M; Krywonis, N A; Rest, E B; Zachary, C B

    1994-11-01

    Adequate preparation of the skin is necessary for a successful chemical peel. Little detailed attention has been given to the effect of degreasing on the efficacy of the peel. To assess the influence of degreasers on the peel, compare their flammabilities, and discuss alternatives. Six patients with androgenetic alopecia and widespread actinic keratoses of the scalp were treated with 35% trichloroacetic acid. Scalps were divided into sections and degreased with acetone, rubbing alcohol, Freon Skin Degreaser, or Hibiclens. The influence of these degreasers on trichloroacetic acid peels was assessed by clinical and histologic examination. Acetone was not found to be superior to the other agents. Furthermore, the flashpoint of acetone is markedly lower than the others, making it more flammable and hazardous in the workplace. The use of alternative degreasers may lessen or eliminate this hazard.

  3. ESolvent-free, enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from mango, neem, and shea oils via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nde, Divine Bup; Astete, Carlos; Boldor, Dorin

    2015-12-01

    Mango, neem and shea kernels produce non-conventional oils whose potentials are not fully exploited. To give an added value to these oils, they were transesterified into biodiesel in a solvent-free system using immobilized enzyme lipozyme from Mucor miehei. The Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the methyl ester (ME) yields as influenced by enzyme concentration-EC, temperature-T, added water content-AWC, and reaction time-RT. Biodiesel yields were quantified by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and subsequently modeled by a second order polynomial equation with interactions. Lipozyme enzymes were more tolerant to high temperatures in neem and shea oils reaction media compared to that of mango oil. The optimum reaction conditions EC, T, AWC, and RT assuring near complete conversion were as follows: mango oil 7.25 %, 36.6 °C, 10.9 %, 36.4 h; neem oil EC = 7.19 %, T = 45.7 °C, AWC = 8.43 %, RT = 25.08 h; and shea oil EC = 4.43 %, T = 45.65 °C, AWC = 6.21 % and RT = 25.08 h. Validation experiments of these optimum conditions gave ME yields of 98.1 ± 1.0, 98.5 ± 1.6 and 99.3 ± 0.4 % for mango, neem and shea oils, respectively, which all met ASTM biodiesel standards.

  4. Development of eco-friendly process for the production of bioethanol from banana peel using inhouse developed cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable depolymerizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Heena; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; General, Thiyam; Sharma, A K

    2018-07-01

    Conversion of agro-industrial wastes to energy is an innovative approach for waste valorization and management which also mitigates environmental pollution. In this view, present study investigated the feasibility of producing bioethanol from banana peels using cocktail of depolymerizing enzyme/s. We isolated Geobacillus stearothermophilus HPA19 from natural resource which produces cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzyme/s using wheat bran within 24 h. The optimal temperature and pH for xylanase, filter paper cellulase and pectinase were 80, 70 and 80 °C, and 9.0, 8.0 and 9.0, respectively. Cocktail enzymes showed stability at high temperature (80 °C) and pH (10.0). Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ promoted the relative activity of xylanase and FPase, whereas Na + , Ca 2+ and K + promoted pectinase activity. Cocktail was assessed in saccharification of banana peel. Reducing sugar obtained (37.06 mg ml -1 ) after one variable at a time (OVAT) method is greatly influenced by enzyme dose. Further, response surface methodology was used to optimize saccharification leading to twofold increase in reducing sugar. Maximum ethanol production (21.1 gl -1 ) was achieved through fermentation giving the efficiency of 76.5% within 30 h. Hence utilization of waste biomass for production of value-added products through biotechnological intervention not only helps to combat environmental pollution but also contributes significantly to the economy.

  5. Salicylic acid peeling combined with vitamin C mesotherapy versus salicylic acid peeling alone in the treatment of mixed type melasma: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Balevi, Ali; Ustuner, Pelin; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Melasma is a distressing condition for both dermatologists and patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA) peel and vitamin C mesotherapy in the treatment of melasma. Fifty female patients were divided into two groups. All patients were treated with 30% SA peel every two weeks for two months. In addition, after SA peeling Group A was intradermally administered 10 vitamin C on the melasma lesion at 1-cm intervals. All patients were followed up for 6 months, during which the recurrence rates were evaluated. Digital photographs of the melasma site were taken and patients' Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores were assessed. After the treatment, the patients were asked to complete the melasma quality of life questionnaire (MelasQoL) to evaluate their satisfaction with the treatment. All the adverse effects were noted. The MelasQoL and MASI scores of patients in both groups significantly decreased after the treatment. Apart from a burning sensation, no adverse event was observed and all patients tolerated the treatment well. SA peel combined with vitamin C mesotherapy is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of melasma with no significant side effects and minimal downtime.

  6. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  7. A study of the effects of physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling in porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Jeong, Ki Heon; Park, Jong Min; Suh, Dong Hye; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Min Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Many comparative studies of chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been reported. However, rare basic scientific data about the immediate effects after combined treatment with chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been confirmed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the application of physical abrasion in combination with chemical peels. Three pigs were treated with physical abrasion using a water jet device in combination with an α-hydroxy acid solution, and the skin samples of the control received chemical peeling solution alone. The levels of growth factors and neuropeptides were measured with a multiplex immunoassay. Skin treated with physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling showed prominent detachment and swelling of the stratum corneum (SC), and fluid collection in the hair follicles. The mean cell count of CD34 positive fibroblasts and mast cells, levels of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and neurotensin, were significantly increased in the tissue treated with physical abrasion combined with a chemical peeling agent, compared to the skin in the control. We concluded that physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling can be more effective than chemical peeling alone, for the approach through transfollicular routes.

  8. Numerical implementation of multiple peeling theory and its application to spider web anchorages.

    PubMed

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-02-06

    Adhesion of spider web anchorages has been studied in recent years, including the specific functionalities achieved through different architectures. To better understand the delamination mechanisms of these and other biological or artificial fibrillar adhesives, and how their adhesion can be optimized, we develop a novel numerical model to simulate the multiple peeling of structures with arbitrary branching and adhesion angles, including complex architectures. The numerical model is based on a recently developed multiple peeling theory, which extends the energy-based single peeling theory of Kendall, and can be applied to arbitrarily complex structures. In particular, we numerically show that a multiple peeling problem can be treated as the superposition of single peeling configurations even for complex structures. Finally, we apply the developed numerical approach to study spider web anchorages, showing how their function is achieved through optimal geometrical configurations.

  9. Numerical implementation of multiple peeling theory and its application to spider web anchorages

    PubMed Central

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of spider web anchorages has been studied in recent years, including the specific functionalities achieved through different architectures. To better understand the delamination mechanisms of these and other biological or artificial fibrillar adhesives, and how their adhesion can be optimized, we develop a novel numerical model to simulate the multiple peeling of structures with arbitrary branching and adhesion angles, including complex architectures. The numerical model is based on a recently developed multiple peeling theory, which extends the energy-based single peeling theory of Kendall, and can be applied to arbitrarily complex structures. In particular, we numerically show that a multiple peeling problem can be treated as the superposition of single peeling configurations even for complex structures. Finally, we apply the developed numerical approach to study spider web anchorages, showing how their function is achieved through optimal geometrical configurations. PMID:25657835

  10. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    PubMed Central

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like “cell wall,” “carbohydrate catabolic process” and “starch and sucrose metabolic process” among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  11. Survival analysis applied to the sensory shelf-life dating of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado and mango pulps.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Ramos-Parra, P A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pasteurized and refrigerated avocado and mango pulps contain lower microbial counts and thus are safer and acceptable for human consumption for a longer period of time, when compared to fresh unprocessed pulps. However, during their commercial shelf life, changes in their sensory characteristics take place and eventually produce the rejection of these products by consumers. Therefore, in the present study, the use of sensory evaluation was proposed for the shelf-life determinations of HHP-processed avocado and mango pulps. The study focused on evaluating the feasibility of applying survival analysis methodology to the data generated by consumers in order to determine the sensory shelf lives of both HHP-treated pulps of avocado and mango. Survival analysis proved to be an effective methodology for the estimation of the sensory shelf life of avocado and mango pulps processed with HHP, with potential application for other pressurized products. Practical Application: At present, HHP processing is one of the most effective alternatives for the commercial nonthermal pasteurization of fresh tropical fruits. HHP processing improves the microbial stability of the fruit pulps significantly; however, the products continue to deteriorate during their refrigerated storage mainly due to the action of residual detrimental enzymes. This article proposes the application of survival analysis methodology for the determination of the sensory shelf life of HHP-treated avocado and mango pulps. Results demonstrated that the procedure appears to be simple and practical for the sensory shelf-life determination of HHP-treated foods when their main mode of failure is not caused by increases in microbiological counts that can affect human health.

  12. Visible spectroscopy calibration transfer model in determining pH of Sala mangoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, O. K. M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Aziz, A. A.; Omar, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of calibration transfer procedures between three spectrometers involving two Ocean Optics Inc. spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and Jaz, and also, ASD FieldSpec 3 in measuring the pH of Sala mango by visible reflectance spectroscopy. This study evaluates the ability of these spectrometers in measuring the pH of Sala mango by applying similar calibration algorithms through direct calibration transfer. This visible reflectance spectroscopy technique defines a spectrometer as a master instrument and another spectrometer as a slave. The multiple linear regression (MLR) of calibration model generated using the QE65000 spectrometer is transferred to the Jaz spectrometer and vice versa for Set 1. The same technique is applied for Set 2 with QE65000 spectrometer is transferred to the FieldSpec3 spectrometer and vice versa. For Set 1, the result showed that the QE65000 spectrometer established a calibration model with higher accuracy than that of the Jaz spectrometer. In addition, the calibration model developed on Jaz spectrometer successfully predicted the pH of Sala mango, which was measured using QE65000 spectrometer, with a root means square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.092 pH and coefficients of determination R2 = 0.892. Moreover, the best prediction result is obtained for Set 2 when the calibration model developed on QE65000 spectrometer is successfully transferred to FieldSpec 3 with R2 = 0.839 and RMSEP = 0.16 pH.

  13. Vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Chin; Lee, Cho-Hao; Sung, Tzu-Ling; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Jorn-Hon

    2017-01-01

    Studies on vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) have yielded uncertain results regarding clinical outcomes and recurrence rates. To compare the clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for idiopathic ERM. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI databases, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials.gov, published until July 2016, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with ERM and ILM peeling and with only ERM peeling, for treating idiopathic ERM. Studies with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and ERM recurrence rate. Eleven retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 756 eyes were identified. This demonstrated that the postoperative BCVA within 12 months was significantly better in the non-ILM peeling group (MD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.0460), but that the patients in the ILM peeling group had significantly better postoperative BCVA after 18 months (MD = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.0049) than did those in the non-ILM peeling group. The non-ILM peeling group exhibited a higher reduction in postoperative CRT (MD = 51.55, 95% CI:-84.23 to -18.88; P = 0.0020) and a higher recurrence rate of ERM (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.16 to 0.72; P = 0.0048) than did the ILM peeling group. However, the improvement rates of BCVA (RR = 1.03, 95% CI:0.72 to 1.47; P = 0.8802) and postoperative CRTs (MD = 18.15, 95% CI:-2.29 to 38.60; P = 0.0818) were similar between the two groups. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling results in better visual improvement in long-term follow-ups and lower ERM recurrence rates, and vitrectomy with

  14. Vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin; Lee, Cho-Hao; Sung, Tzu-Ling; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) have yielded uncertain results regarding clinical outcomes and recurrence rates. Objective To compare the clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for idiopathic ERM. Methods Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI databases, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials.gov, published until July 2016, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with ERM and ILM peeling and with only ERM peeling, for treating idiopathic ERM. Studies with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and ERM recurrence rate. Results Eleven retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 756 eyes were identified. This demonstrated that the postoperative BCVA within 12 months was significantly better in the non-ILM peeling group (MD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.0460), but that the patients in the ILM peeling group had significantly better postoperative BCVA after 18 months (MD = −0.13, 95% CI: −0.23 to −0.04; P = 0.0049) than did those in the non-ILM peeling group. The non-ILM peeling group exhibited a higher reduction in postoperative CRT (MD = 51.55, 95% CI:−84.23 to −18.88; P = 0.0020) and a higher recurrence rate of ERM (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.16 to 0.72; P = 0.0048) than did the ILM peeling group. However, the improvement rates of BCVA (RR = 1.03, 95% CI:0.72 to 1.47; P = 0.8802) and postoperative CRTs (MD = 18.15, 95% CI:−2.29 to 38.60; P = 0.0818) were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Vitrectomy with ILM peeling results in better visual improvement in long

  15. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Bouche, R El; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H; Wichers, H J; Dubois, A E J; de Jong, N W

    2017-01-01

    Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment (IDEAL trial number NTR3572) study showed that cashew nut sensitised children were co-sensitised to pistachio nut in 98% of cases and to mango in 21% of cases. The aim of this follow-up study to IDEAL is to assess the clinical relevance of co-sensitisation to pistachio nut and mango in cashew nut sensitised children. Children were recruited from the study: 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment (IDEAL trial number NTR3572). Inclusion criterion for the IDEAL study was sensitization to cashew nut as demonstrated by either SPT or sIgE, and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or no previous (known) exposure. Sensitized children who were tolerant to cashew nuts were excluded. Inclusion criterion for this IDEAL follow-up study was co-sensitization to pistachio nut, regardless the result of the DBPCFC with cashew nut. In this follow-up study a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge with pistachio nut and an open food challenge with mango were performed. Twenty-nine children (mean age of 11.6 years, 62% male) were included. Pistachio nut sensitisation was clinically relevant in only 34% of cashew-sensitised children and only 31% of cashew challenge positive children. None of the children was challenge positive to mango. Although co-sensitisation between cashew nut and pistachio nut was observed in 98%, pistachio nut sensitisation was only clinically relevant in 34% of the children. Therefore, a challenge test with pistachio nut is recommended in children with cashew nut and pistachio nut sensitisation. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch trial register (registration number 3572) on 10 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  16. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from culinary banana peel using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Khawas, Prerna; Deka, Sankar C

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, culinary banana peel was explored as a source of raw material for production of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). For isolation of CNFs, first the peel flour was subjected to different chemical treatments to eliminate non-cellulosic compounds. The obtained chemically treated cellulose fibers were then mechanically tailored and separated into nanofibers using high-intensity ultrasonication at different output power ranging from 0 to 1000 W. The presences of nanofibers in all samples were confirmed by TEM. Increasing output power of ultrasonication reduced size of CNFs and generated more thinner and needle-like structure. SEM, FT-IR and XRD results indicated chemical treatment employed was effective in removing compounds other than cellulose fibers. Thermal analyses evinced the developed CNFs enhanced thermal properties which serve the purpose as an effective reinforcing material to be used as bionanocomposites. Hence, the production of CNFs from this underutilized agro-waste has potential application in commercial field that can add high value to culinary banana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of small and medium business (SMES) of mango dodol processing to increase the added value (a case study in Ujungjaya Village, Indramayu District, West Java)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyowati, L.; Pardian, P.; Syamsyiah, N.; Deliana, Y.

    2018-03-01

    In the national economic development in Indonesia, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) become a priority to be developed, because SMEs can be the backbone of the populist economic system to reduce the problem of poverty. In addition, the development of SMEs is able to expand the economic base and can contribute to the increase of added value, in addition it would also serve to open employment opportunities in rural areas. Indramayu is one of the three mango production centers in West Java that face the problem that there are about 20% of the mangoes that is not worth selling. This opportunity is utilized by women who are members of KUB (Joint Business Group) to be processed into mango dodol at household scale. But this effort has not been widespread, only pioneered by a small portion of women. This study aims toobserve the driving force of women to participate in the processing of mango dodol, and whether the mango processing business to become mango dodol is profitable, also how much added value obtained. This study uses case study method with interview for data collection, participant observation and documentation study. While the data analysis technique using Hayami Value-added Method and descriptive analysis. The results revealed that the factors that affect the women’s participation in the processing of dodol is to increase family income, take advantage of spare time and take advantage of rejected mangoes. The added value obtained in mango dodol processing is Rp.50.600,00 per kilogram of input, with a value-added ratio of 52.8%. For the development of SMEs mangoes Training and socialization are needed for the good dodol processing and hygienic according to SOP (Standard Operational Procedure) from the relevant institutions, innovation in packaging, pioneering business partnerships with stores in the city of Indramayu and surrounding areas, and support financing from banks with an affordable interest rate.

  18. Carbon-Based Fe₃O₄ Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-05-06

    Carbon-based Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites (C/Fe₃O₄ NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe₃O₄ NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity ( R ² > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1⁻100, 0.12⁻0.55, and 0.39⁻1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe₃O₄ NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits.

  19. Effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment and glassy state storage on the quality attributes of frozen mangoes under long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Yang; Nie, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Zhen; Tang, Xuan-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the quality of frozen mango cuboids were investigated during long-term glassy state storage with and without osmotic dehydration pretreatment. The mango cuboids were dehydrated in mixed solutions (sucrose: glucose: fructose in a ratio of 3.6:1:3) of different concentrations (30, 40, and 50% (wt/wt)) prior to freezing and then stored at -55 °C (in the glassy state) for 6 months. The results revealed that compared with the untreated samples, osmotic pretreatment decreased total color difference (reduced by 15.6-62.3%), drip loss (reduced by 8.2-29.5%) and titration acidity (reduced by 1.3-9.4%), while increasing hardness (increased by 48.8-82.3%), vitamin C content (increased by 72.5-120.6%) and total soluble solids (increased by 21.8-53.7%) of frozen mangoes after 6 months. Dehydration with a sugar concentration of 40% was considered as the optimal pretreatment condition. In addition, a storage temperature of -55 °C provided better retention of quality than rubbery state storage at -18 °C. With prolonged storage time, the quality of frozen mangoes continued to change, even in the glassy state. However, the changes in quality of the osmotic-dehydrated samples were less than those of the untreated samples. The current work indicates that osmotic pretreatment and glassy state storage significantly improved the quality of frozen mangoes during long-term storage.

  20. Hydrochar production from watermelon peel by hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuejiao; Lin, Qimei; He, Ruidong; Zhao, Xiaorong; Li, Guitong

    2017-10-01

    Watermelon peel waste was hydrothermally carbonized under 190°C and 260°C for 1h, 6h, and 12h, respectively. The hydrochar and spent liquor were collected and assayed for their properties. The results indicated that hydrochar yield was 2-5% and 46-95% on fresh and dry matter, respectively. Low temperature (190°C) was conducive to high conversion efficiency. The hydrochar had higher C/N ratio (22.19-26.86), more alkyl C, aryl C, and carbonyl C, but lower H/C (0.98-1.22) and O/C ratios (0.13-0.38), and less O-alky C, carboxylic C, compared with feedstock. So the aliphaticity decreased, whereas aromaticity increased significantly, especially under severe conditions. It should be watchful for that the toxic compounds in hydrochar may induce environmental risk while it is amended into soil. The spent liquor with abundant nutrients could be used as a fertilizer. Further work is required for testing the application in soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.