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Sample records for manifestations ultrastructural findings

  1. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  2. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  3. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings in a mature retroperitoneal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Warson, F; Smets, G; Gepts, W; Velkeniers, B; Vanhaelst, L; Sacre, R; Peters, O

    1987-12-01

    Report is made of a mature retroperitoneal teratoma in a 32-year-old man. Investigation of the tumor revealed cells immunoreactive for ACTH, Met-enkephalin, beta-LPH, serotonin, FSH, BPP, S100, Neuron-specific-enolase. These cells were mainly present in the glandular epithelium, lining the cysts of the tumor. Ultrastructurally, neuro-secretory granules were demonstrated in the cytoplasm of the tumoral endocrine cells. At no time did the patient display endocrine symptoms.

  4. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. PMID:25597047

  5. Clinical manifestations and oral findings in Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Lima, Luciana Monti; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first known case report of Fraser syndrome in the dental literature. Its purpose was to present the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental treatment of a 14-year, 10-month-old female patient. Fraser syndrome is a rare recessive autosomal genetic disorder characterized by multisystemic malformation, usually comprising cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and renal defects. The child presented with: (1) hydrocephaly; (2) face asymmetry; (3) low-inserted ears; (4) flat nose bridge; (5) cryptophthalmos; (6) bilateral absence of eyeballs; (7) hypertelorism; (8) syndactyly on the left fingers and toes; (9) skeletal defects; and (10) lower limb asymmetry. The intraoral examination revealed: (1) complete primary denture; (2) malocclusion; (3) tooth crowding; (4) ogival palate; (5) normal labial frena; (6) absence of lingual frenum (not compromising the tongue movements); (7) parched lips; (8) supragingival calculus adhered to all tooth surfaces; and (9) moderate gingivitis. The dental treatment consisted of periodic monitoring of the patient's oral health status and supragingival scaling associated with topical applications of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel at 2-week intervals to reduce gingivitis.

  6. [The different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis: multidetector computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Koren Fernández, L; Alonso Charterina, S; Alcalá-Galiano Rubio, A; Sánchez Nistal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a fungal infection usually caused by inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus spores. However, when we talk about aspergillosis, we normally refer to the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings that depend directly on the patient's immune status, on the prior existence of lung disease, and on the virulence of the infective organism. There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis), and each type has its own distinct radiologic findings. We review the signs of pulmonary aspergillosis on multidetector computed tomography and we correlate them with patients' symptoms and immune responses. Likewise, we discuss the differential diagnoses.

  7. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and nephrocalcinosis: Incidental finding or an infrequent manifestation?

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Tirthankar; Das, Anupam; Roy, Sudipta; Biswas, Shamick; Shome, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Satyendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited disorder characterized by generalized fragmentation and progressive calcification of elastic tissue. We report two sporadic cases of PXE, both of whom presented with asymptomatic yellowish papules over the flexural sites for cosmetic reasons. Histopathological findings on hematoxylin and eosin and Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG) staining were classical of PXE. In addition to this, renal calcification was documented on plain radiography of kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) in both the cases. Paucity of literature describing the association of nephrocalcinosis with PXE prompted the present report. PMID:24860756

  8. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  9. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin revealing novel insights into genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Sobey, G J; Wagner, B E; Peres, L C; Bowen, J; Bexon, J; Javaid, M K; Arundel, P; Bishop, N J

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. Over 90% of patients with OI have a mutation in COL1A1/COL1A2, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In-depth phenotyping and in particular, studies involving manifestations in the skin connective tissue have not previously been undertaken in OI. The aims of the study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in a cohort of patients with OI; to identify common and distinguishing features in order to inform genotype-phenotype correlation; and to identify common and distinguishing features between the different subtypes of OI. As part of the RUDY (Rare Diseases in Bone, Joints and/or Blood Vessels) study, in collaboration with the NIHR Rare Diseases Translational Research Collaboration, we undertook a national study of skin biopsies in patients with OI. We studied the manifestations in the skin connective tissue and undertook in-depth clinical and molecular phenotyping of 16 patients with OI. We recruited 16 patients: analyses have shown that in type 1 collagen mutation positive patients (COL1A1/ COL1A2) (n-4/16) consistent findings included: variable collagen fibril diameter (CFD) and presence of collagen flowers. Histological examination in these patients showed an increase in elastic fibers that are frequently fragmented and clumped. These observations provide evidence that collagen flowers and CFD variability are consistent features in OI due to type 1 collagen defects and reinforce the need for accurate phenotyping in conjunction with genomic analyses. PMID:26863094

  10. New findings on sperm ultrastructure of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J; Lupetti, P; Afzelius, B A

    2003-02-01

    The systematic position of insect order Strepsiptera is still under debate. It was, therefore, thought of interest to examine the ultrastructure of a strepsipteran in a search for synapomorphies shared with Coleoptera, Diptera, or any other insect order. The fine structure of spermatozoa and the spermatid from Xenos vesparum (Rossi) was re-examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and a fixation technique that permits the visualization of the macromolecular organization of the organelles. The spermatozoon was shown to possess several traits that are characteristics of insects in general, such as a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives containing a crystalline material and two 'zipper lines' present along the sperm tail. Seventeen protofilaments occurred along most of the accessory tubules, which reduced to 16 posteriorly. An acrosome is absent. The neck region contains a prominent centriolar adjunct, which gives rise to two accessory bodies which adhere to the mitochondrial derivatives, and to slender strands of the so-called intertubular material found between the accessory tubules. Of interest is the finding that the glycocalyx consists of prominent filamentous strands, similar to those found in siphonapterans, mecopterans and basal dipterans. PMID:12589726

  11. Blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumors: correlation of scintigraphic and ultrastructural finding: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kohn, S.; Nir, I.

    1984-04-01

    Through the first 2 hr, uptake of (Tc-99m)pertechnetate and of Co-57 bleomycin were assessed in 29 brain tumors and were correlated with the ultrastructure of the tumor's capillary endothelium. No difference in uptake was found between the two tracers. Permeability of brain tumors to these agents was found to be governed by the same ultrastructural features that determine permeability in experimental brain tumors: the type of junction between contiguous endothelial cells in the capillaries. That uptake of (Tc-99m)pertechnetate and of Co-57 bleomycin depends on tumor capillary ultrastructure (which determines the permeability) suggests the possibility of the use of radiopharmaceuticals as in vivo indicators of tumor permeability. Brain scintigraphy may help to assess brain-tumor availability to non-lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic drugs.

  12. Cutaneous manifestations in neuro-oncology: clinically relevant tumor and treatment associated dermatologic findings.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Strowd, Lindsay C; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings are a rare but important aspect of the evaluation and management of patients with tumors of the nervous system. Skin findings have the highest prevalence in genetic tumor syndromes termed neuro-genodermatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and tuberous sclerosis. Skin changes are observed in patients with non-syndromic nervous system malignancy, often as a result of pharmacotherapy. The skin may also manifest findings in paraneoplastic conditions that affect the nervous system, providing an early indication of underlying neoplasm, including dermatomyosistis, neuropathic itch, and brachioradial pruritus. In this article, we review the major cutaneous findings in patients with tumors of the brain, spine, and peripheral nervous system focusing on (1) cutaneous manifestations of genetic and sporadic primary nervous system tumor syndromes, and (2) paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with prominent cutaneous features. PMID:27178695

  13. CT findings of thoracic manifestations of primary Sjögren syndrome: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Ryoko; Kondo, Tetsuya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Yakushiji, Mai; Yamasaki, Fumio; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome is an immune-mediated exocrinopathy characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Various systemic extraglandular disorders are associated with primary Sjögren syndrome, and the thorax is commonly affected. The pulmonary manifestations of primary Sjögren syndrome may be categorized as airway abnormalities, interstitial pneumonias, and lymphoproliferative disorders; in each category, bronchiectasis or centrilobular nodules, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia are common. These manifestations do not usually occur in isolation; they are concomitantly seen with other types of lesions. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and amyloidosis are key components of lymphoproliferative disorders, and MALT lymphoma should always be considered because its morphologic characteristics are similar to those of benign lymphoproliferative disorders. Amyloidosis is rare but important because it carries a risk for underlying MALT lymphoma or plasmacytoma, and it may lead to hemoptysis during biopsy. In addition, thin-walled air cysts are characteristic of primary Sjögren syndrome, irrespective of the main pulmonary manifestations. Lymphadenopathy and multilocular thymic cysts may be seen in the mediastinum. During the follow-up period, there is a risk for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and development of malignant lymphoma. Often, primary Sjögren syndrome is subclinical, but there are various underlying risks. Thus, imaging findings are important. In addition to the various types of interstitial pneumonia and airway abnormalities, air cysts and mediastinal manifestations may help diagnose primary Sjögren syndrome.

  14. Collagenous gastritis and collagenous colitis: a report with sequential histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Pulimood, A B; Ramakrishna, B S; Mathan, M M

    1999-06-01

    The case is reported of a young adult man with collagenous gastritis, an extremely rare disorder with only three case reports in the English literature, who subsequently presented with collagenous colitis. Sequential gastric biopsies showed a notable increase in thickness of the subepithelial collagen band. Ultrastructural study of gastric and rectal mucosa showed the characteristic subepithelial band composed of haphazardly arranged collagen fibres, prominent degranulating eosinophils, and activated pericryptal fibroblasts. PMID:10323893

  15. Primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitis: clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, neuroimaging, and treatment analysis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sepúlveda-Delgado, Jesús; Cruz-Domínguez, María del Pilar; Medina, Gabriela; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Molina-Carrión, Luis E; Pineda-Galindo, Luis F; Olvera-Acevedo, Arturo; Hernández-Gonzalez, Claudia; Jara, Luis J

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the initial clinical, laboratory, and imaging features in primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) vs secondary central nervous system vasculitis (SCNSV) and follow up after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide (IV-CYC) plus glucocorticosteroids (GCS): methylprednisolone (MP). Neurological, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were analyzed in PCNSV and SCNSV patients. Cerebral biopsy (CB) was performed in nine patients. Both groups received at onset MP plus IV-CYC for 6 months, followed by bimonthly IV-CYC plus prednisone (PND) for 12 months. All patients were followed during 36 months. Thirty patients were included (12 PCNSV and 18 SCNSV). Focal and non-focal neurological manifestations were similar in both groups, headache being the most frequent manifestation in both groups. Fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, neuropathy, low leukocytes and platelets, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), low complement, and rheumatoid factor were more frequent in SCNSV (p < 0.05). In cerebrospinal fluid, pleocytosis and proteins were higher in PCNSV (p < 0.05). Periventricular and subcortical hyperintense lesions were observed in cranial magnetic resonance imaging in both vasculitides. Cerebral angiography and angioresonance showed narrowing of vasculature in all patients in both groups. CB showed gliosis and lymphocytic infiltration within and around the walls in four patients and granulomatous infiltration in the other patients. After treatment, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a higher relapse-free survival in PCNSV (p < 0.05). Neurological manifestations and neuroimaging findings were similar in both groups of vasculitides, but general symptoms, joint, musculoskeletal, and peripheral neuropathy were preponderant in SCNSV. After treatment with IV-CYC and GCS, patients with PCNSV

  16. Intestinal manifestations of experimental SIV-infection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, E M; Mätz-Rensing, K; Stahl-Hennig, C; Makoschey, B; Hunsmann, G; Kaup, F J

    1997-10-01

    Intestinal lesions were studied in 32 rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with different strains of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac (251/32H, 251/32H-SPL and 251/MPBL) by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A spectrum of primary and secondary manifestations of SIV-infection were detected. Primary changes included 'SIV-enteropathy' in 12 monkeys and virus-induced syncytial giant cell formation (GCF) of the intestine in two animals. A primary virus-induced enteropathy occurred both as only histologically visible 'SIV-enteropathy' and as 'AIDS-enteropathy' accompanied by clinical signs of enteritis. Secondary opportunistic infections (Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium, Trichuris, Trichomonas, Spironucleus, Mycobacteria and Cytomegalovirus) were identified in 27 animals and three monkeys developed malignant lymphomas involving the intestinal tract. Compared to intestinal lesions in HIV-infected patients, differences were found concerning the incidence of GCF and the range of opportunistic infections, with cryptosporidium, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria occurring in both SIV-infected macaques and AIDS patients. The present observations revealed that SIV-infected rhesus monkeys provide an excellent model both for studies on the pathogenesis of HIV-enteropathy and opportunistic infections and for the development of therapies against cryptosporidial, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria infection. Comparison of three SIV-strains revealed differences in primary and secondary lesions observed: SIVmac251/MPBL was correlated with severe primary SIV-induced pathologic changes and SIVmac251-SPL-infected animals showed a higher incidence of malignant lymphomas. PMID:9394615

  17. Two cases of myotonic dystrophy manifesting various ophthalmic findings with genetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Ji; Yim, Hye Bin; Hwang, Hyung Bin

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of myotonic dystrophy in one family; both diagnosed from genetic analysis following ophthalmic indications, but before the manifestation of systemic symptoms. A 39-year-old female visited our clinic for routine examination. Mild ptosis, sluggish pupillary response, and bilateral snowflake cataracts were found. Fundus examination revealed an increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) in both eyes and a defect in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the right eye. Intraocular pressure was low, but within the normal range in both eyes. Because cataracts are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy, we suggested that her 14-year-old daughter, who did not have any systemic complaints, undergo ophthalmic examination. She also had mild ptosis and snowflake cataracts. Both patients underwent genetic evaluation and were diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy caused by unstable expansion of cytosine-thymine-guanine trinucleotide repeats in the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Ophthalmologists can diagnose myotonic dystrophy based on clinical and genetic findings, before the manifestation of systemic abnormalities. PMID:27609169

  18. Two cases of myotonic dystrophy manifesting various ophthalmic findings with genetic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Ji; Yim, Hye Bin; Hwang, Hyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of myotonic dystrophy in one family; both diagnosed from genetic analysis following ophthalmic indications, but before the manifestation of systemic symptoms. A 39-year-old female visited our clinic for routine examination. Mild ptosis, sluggish pupillary response, and bilateral snowflake cataracts were found. Fundus examination revealed an increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) in both eyes and a defect in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the right eye. Intraocular pressure was low, but within the normal range in both eyes. Because cataracts are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy, we suggested that her 14-year-old daughter, who did not have any systemic complaints, undergo ophthalmic examination. She also had mild ptosis and snowflake cataracts. Both patients underwent genetic evaluation and were diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy caused by unstable expansion of cytosine-thymine-guanine trinucleotide repeats in the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Ophthalmologists can diagnose myotonic dystrophy based on clinical and genetic findings, before the manifestation of systemic abnormalities. PMID:27609169

  19. Imaging Findings of Plasmacytoma of Both Breasts as a Preceding Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Breast plasmacytoma is an extremely rare tumor. It can occur as a primary isolated tumor or as an extramedullary manifestation in multiple myeloma. This report describes the unusual case of a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma that progressed to multiple myeloma within 15 months in a 35-year-old woman. The patient had been initially diagnosed with a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the epidural soft tissue at the cervical 6-thoracic 1 spine level and the stomach. The patient had received chemotherapy and the disease had been in remission. One year later, the disease recurred, affecting both breasts, right clavicle, and orbit. Three months later, the disease had progressed to multiple myeloma. I report this case, focusing on the findings of mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography of bilateral breast plasmacytoma, and provide a review of the literature. PMID:26925106

  20. Study on Neurological Manifestations of Eclampsia & Findings of CT scan of Brain.

    PubMed

    Begum, F; Nahar, K; Ahmed, M U; Ferdousi, R A; Akter, F A; Rahman, M M

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of January 2011 to December 2012 to evaluate neurological manifestations in eclampsia by CT scan of brain. A total 35 patients with eclampsia were studied, who underwent CT scan of brain in Radiology & Imaging Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The study patients were divided into two groups, those who had changes in brain on CT scan (Group A) & those who had no changes in brain on CT scan (Group B). Finally the study variables were compared between these two groups. Each selected patient fulfilling the criteria was sent to the department of Radiology & Imaging for CT scanning of brain. In antepartum cases of eclampsia CT scan of brain were done after delivery/ termination of pregnancy. In all cases, CT scan of brain was done within 72 hours of admission. Out of 35 patients total 85.72% had changes in brain on CT scan & 14.28% had no changes in brain on CT scan. Among them 45.72% patients had cerebral oedema, 37.14% had cerebral infarct & 2.86% patients had intracerebral haemorrhage. Comparison of neurological parameters were done & showed that there were statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding headache, visual disturbance, hypereflexia & depression of consciousness. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aphasia & hemiplegia between the two groups. So the CT scan of brain has been useful in demonstrating the lesion of brain in patients with eclampsia & also helpful to evaluate the neurological manifestations in eclampsia.

  1. [Manifestations of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and correlation with computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Cortés Campos, A; Martínez Rodríguez, M

    2014-01-01

    Atelectasis is an important indicator of potentially severe underlying disease that must be diagnosed as early as possible. One of the most common mechanisms is the reabsorption of air distal to respiratory tract obstruction. The chest x-ray is an excellent tool to diagnose atelectasis, and it is especially useful for ruling out central bronchial obstructions (e.g., from endobronchial tumors). If the signs of volume loss are not recognized correctly, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. This article describes the main findings of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and their correlations with CT findings, including the classic signs described in the literature and other, less known and sometimes subtle signs. PMID:24252304

  2. [Manifestations of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and correlation with computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Cortés Campos, A; Martínez Rodríguez, M

    2014-01-01

    Atelectasis is an important indicator of potentially severe underlying disease that must be diagnosed as early as possible. One of the most common mechanisms is the reabsorption of air distal to respiratory tract obstruction. The chest x-ray is an excellent tool to diagnose atelectasis, and it is especially useful for ruling out central bronchial obstructions (e.g., from endobronchial tumors). If the signs of volume loss are not recognized correctly, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. This article describes the main findings of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and their correlations with CT findings, including the classic signs described in the literature and other, less known and sometimes subtle signs.

  3. Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome). Temporal bone findings and otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tokita, N; Sekhar, H K; Sachs, M; Daly, J F

    1978-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia, or Riley-Day syndrome, is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and occurs almost exclusively in Jewish families. This disorder is characterized by a smooth tongue devoid of fungiform papillae and of taste buds, and is clinically associated with poor taste discrimination. An unsteady gait and dizziness on change in position are also common presenting symptoms. This study reports the histopathological findings of eight temporal bones from four patients with documented familial dysautonomia. For the control series, 13 normal temporal bones were also studied. The most striking finding in the dysautonomic patients was an extreme paucity of geniculate ganglion cells (P less than 0.001). A statistically significant reduction in the number of neurons was also found both in the superior and in the inferior divisions of the vestibular nerve (P less than 0.001). The paucity of the geniculate ganglion cells correlates well with the impairment of the taste in dysautonomic individuals, since the afferent fibers leaving taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue run via the chorda tympani and have their cell bodies in the geniculate ganglion. Furthermore, the reduction in the number of Scarpa's ganglion cells observed in the dysautonomic patients studied here could account for a poor response to caloric test, positional vertigo and an unsteady gait in this condition.

  4. [The ultrastructural manifestations of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the rats subjected to stress].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhailik, L V

    2015-01-01

    The experiments on the outbred female rats using the electron microscopic technique have demonstrated that the application of ultrahigh frequency low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) with a flux density below 1 mCW/Cm2 and a frequency of approximately 1,000 MHz in the regime of primary prophylaxis and therapeutic-preventive action suppressed the development of the post-stress pathological ultrastructural changes and increased the activity of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells. It was shown that the developing adaptive and compensatory changes in the Sertoli cells most frequently involve the energy-producing structures (mitochondria) that undergo the enlargement of their average and total dimensions. Simultaneously, the amount of granular endoplasmic reticulum and the number of ribosomes increased while the intracellular links between the organelles strengthened and the reserve potential of the cells improved. It is concluded that the observed effects may be due to the action of both local and systemic regulation mechanisms.

  5. Ultrastructural observations on vasomotor rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Elwany, S; Bumsted, R

    1987-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the respiratory nasal mucosa of patients suffering from vasomotor rhinitis was studied and compared with the reported ultrastructural findings in cases of chronic perennial allergic rhinitis. The principal ultrastructural differences were the absence of interendothelial gap junctions, the scarcity of eosinophils and plasma cells, and the absence of immunologically stimulated or degranulated mast cells in vasomotor rhinitis. These differences were discussed in the light of the known pathophysiologic facts.

  6. Pulmonary blastoma: an ultrastructural study emphasizing intestinal differentiation in lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Marcus, P B; Dieb, T M; Martin, J H

    1982-05-01

    Features of intestinal differentiation, including the presence of brush borders, have been described previously in a pulmonary blastoma following xenotransplantation in athymic nude mice. This paper reports similar findings in a pulmonary blastoma subjected directly to electron microscopic study. Ultrastructural manifestations of intestinal differentiation in other types of primary lung tumors are also discussed.

  7. A Translational Murine Model of Sub-Lethal Intoxication with Shiga Toxin 2 Reveals Novel Ultrastructural Findings in the Brain Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Pinto, Alipio; Loidl, C. Fabian; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute renal failure, and also central nervous system complications in around 30% of the children affected. Besides, neurological deficits are one of the most unrepairable and untreatable outcomes of HUS. Study of the striatum is relevant because basal ganglia are one of the brain areas most commonly affected in patients that have suffered from HUS and since the deleterious effects of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin have never been studied in the striatum, the purpose of this study was to attempt to simulate an infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in a murine model. To this end, intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 (0.5 ηg per mouse) was used and the correlation between neurological manifestations and ultrastructural changes in striatal brain cells was studied in detail. Neurological manifestations included significant motor behavior abnormalities in spontaneous motor activity, gait, pelvic elevation and hind limb activity eight days after administration of the toxin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin caused early perivascular edema two days after administration, as well as significant damage in astrocytes four days after administration and significant damage in neurons and oligodendrocytes eight days after administration. Interrupted synapses and mast cell extravasation were also found eight days after administration of the toxin. We thus conclude that the chronological order of events observed in the striatum could explain the neurological disorders found eight days after administration of the toxin. PMID:23383285

  8. Primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland, associated with abundant intracytoplasmic lumens containing some eosinophilic hyaline globules: cytological, histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Park, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Wook Youn; Kim, Wan-Seop; Lim, So Dug; Han, Hye Seung; Hwang, Tae Sook

    2014-10-01

    A primary ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) of the lacrimal gland is a rare distinct subtype of an epithelial tumor arising in the lacrimal gland. PDA is the counterpart of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) resembling an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In our case, PDA revealed histopathological and immunohistochemical results corresponding to SDC. Interestingly, the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing dense eosinophilic hyaline globules at light microscopy. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells exhibited microvilli-lined intracytoplasmic lumen containing homogenous electron-dense secretory products. A previous study demonstrated that numerous intracytoplasmic lumens of tumor cells are favored breast malignant tumor, similar to the histopathology of PDA, rather than benign lesion. This characteristic finding may be meaningful to diagnose high grade epithelial tumors including PDA.

  9. Salivary gland manifestations of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: fine-needle aspiration cytology findings. A case report.

    PubMed

    Panikar, Nirupma; Agarwal, Sarla

    2005-09-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML or Rosai-Dorfman disease) is a nonneoplastic, usually self-limiting disease. Alhough it affects all age groups, it is more commonly seen in young males in their first or second decades. The disease primarily manifests as painless lymphadenopathy of cervical region, but other nodal groups and extranodal sites may also be affected. Seldom SHML may involve the salivary glands. We present the cytologic features and differential diagnoses of one such case.A 45-yr-old woman presented with an enlarged submandibular gland on the left side with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy that had been persisting for 1 mo. The gland and the two enlarged nodes measured 2.5 x 2.5 cm(2) each and were firm in consistency. Clinically, tumor of the salivary glands was suspected. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed moderate cellularity, with large histiocytes dispersed in the background of intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. These histiocytes showed lymphophagocytosis. Isolated stromal fragments consisting of fibrocytes were seen separate from salivary acinar clusters on repeat aspirations. The diagnosis of SHML involving left submandibular gland and ipsilateral lymph nodes was returned. When analyzed in the context of clinical findings (laboratory data), the cytologic features of SHML involving salivary gland could be differentiated from those of malignancies and other benign lesions, especially Kuttner's tumor of the submandibular gland, which mimics neoplasm clinically.

  10. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings of a Fatal Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the United Arab Emirates, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Ng, Dianna L; Al Hosani, Farida; Keating, M Kelly; Gerber, Susan I; Jones, Tara L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Tong, Suxiang; Tao, Ying; Alami, Negar N; Haynes, Lia M; Mutei, Mowafaq Ali; Abdel-Wareth, Laila; Uyeki, Timothy M; Swerdlow, David L; Barakat, Maha; Zaki, Sherif R

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes an acute respiratory illness and is associated with a high case fatality rate; however, the pathogenesis of severe and fatal MERS-CoV infection is unknown. We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from the first autopsy performed on a fatal case of MERS-CoV in the world, which was related to a hospital outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in April 2014. The main histopathologic finding in the lungs was diffuse alveolar damage. Evidence of chronic disease, including severe peripheral vascular disease, patchy cardiac fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis, was noted in the other organs. Double staining immunoassays that used anti-MERS-CoV antibodies paired with immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and surfactant identified pneumocytes and epithelial syncytial cells as important targets of MERS-CoV antigen; double immunostaining with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 showed colocalization in scattered pneumocytes and syncytial cells. No evidence of extrapulmonary MERS-CoV antigens were detected, including the kidney. These results provide critical insights into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans.

  11. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings of a Fatal Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the United Arab Emirates, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Ng, Dianna L; Al Hosani, Farida; Keating, M Kelly; Gerber, Susan I; Jones, Tara L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Tong, Suxiang; Tao, Ying; Alami, Negar N; Haynes, Lia M; Mutei, Mowafaq Ali; Abdel-Wareth, Laila; Uyeki, Timothy M; Swerdlow, David L; Barakat, Maha; Zaki, Sherif R

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes an acute respiratory illness and is associated with a high case fatality rate; however, the pathogenesis of severe and fatal MERS-CoV infection is unknown. We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from the first autopsy performed on a fatal case of MERS-CoV in the world, which was related to a hospital outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in April 2014. The main histopathologic finding in the lungs was diffuse alveolar damage. Evidence of chronic disease, including severe peripheral vascular disease, patchy cardiac fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis, was noted in the other organs. Double staining immunoassays that used anti-MERS-CoV antibodies paired with immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and surfactant identified pneumocytes and epithelial syncytial cells as important targets of MERS-CoV antigen; double immunostaining with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 showed colocalization in scattered pneumocytes and syncytial cells. No evidence of extrapulmonary MERS-CoV antigens were detected, including the kidney. These results provide critical insights into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. PMID:26857507

  12. Histomorphologic and ultrastructural findings of shockwave-induced lesions in the isolated perfused kidney of the pig.

    PubMed

    Back, W; Köhrmann, K U; Bensemann, J; Rassweiler, J; Alken, P

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was the development of an easily reproducible model with which to evaluate shockwave-induced renal tissue damage using light and electron microscopy. Kidneys (n = 45) from freshly slaughtered pigs were perfused under physiologic conditions and treated with shockwaves at different doses (2-250 shockwaves; 12-20 kV) on the Modulith SL 20 lithotripter. The dose-dependent alterations in tissue structure were characterized by disintegration of tubular cells leading to circumscribed gap-like defects resulting from reticular fiber disruptions. Even after low shockwave doses, cellular and subcellular alterations could be observed. Our findings in this ex vivo model verify the development of considerable strictly localized, dose-dependent shockwave-induced damage of the renal parenchyma. On morphologic grounds, we cannot confirm a primary lesion or rupture of blood vessel walls as the cause of the shockwave lesions. The destruction of tubular cells in combination with disruption of peritubular and pericapillary reticular fiber coats results in capillarotubular leaks, which can explain even severe transitory macrohematuria after clinical shockwave lithotripsy without renal hematoma formation.

  13. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth. PMID:19022689

  14. Gynecological Manifestations, Histopathological Findings, and Schistosoma-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Results Among Women With Schistosoma haematobium Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methods. Women aged 15–35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Results. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. Conclusions. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. PMID:25725656

  15. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  16. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy E; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  17. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  18. [Ultrastructure of cervical mucus].

    PubMed

    Chretien, F C

    1973-09-01

    This discussion covers the chemical structure of cervical mucus, accepted thoeries of its ultrastructure, and the author's data from the scanning electron microscope. A theory of the ultrastructure of cervical mucus must explain how it can be viscous and hostile to sperm for most of the cycle, but elastic and arranged parallel to their upward migration at ovulation. Cervical mucus is a hydrogel with 2%-12% solid phase composed of glucoproteins, probably meshed noncovalently into protein chains, with oligosaccharide side chains ending in sialic acid. A popular thoery generated by nuclear magnetic resonnance studies suggests that there may be sheaves of fibers arranged into micelles, with transverse fibers forming a netwrok that enlarges at ovulation. The light microscope is useless for studying mucus structure, but transmission electron microscopes have tentatively verified this hypothesis. The author's work with the scanning electron microscope showed a tangled web of filaments approximately 500-750 Angstroms, 1000-1500 or 300-6000 Angstroms thick. Usually the margin of the specimen appeared thin, like a spider web, but the center appeared thick with open channels, like the skeleton of a sponge, with a secondary network at the level of the oblique and transverse fibers.

  19. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MYCOPLASMA SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Domermuth, C. H.; Nielsen, M. H.; Freundt, E. A.; Birch-Andersen, A.

    1964-01-01

    Domermuth, C. H. (Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark), M. H. Nielsen, E. A. Freundt, and A. Birch-Andersen. Ultrastructure of Mycoplasma species. J. Bacteriol. 88:727–744. 1964.—The ultrastructure of 19 strains (15 species) of Mycoplasmatales grown on solid medium was studied with the aid of an electron microscope. The cells possessed a triple-layered limiting membrane 75 to 100 A thick. This membrane appeared to be symmetrical in some strains and asymmetrical in others. An electron-dense material found in close contact with the cell surface was tentatively interpreted to be a capsular substance. Ribosomes and strands of nuclear material were observed in the cytoplasm of cells of all strains. Ribosomes observed in the JA strain of M. gallisepticum were frequently arranged in a regular geometric pattern of characteristic appearance. Dense inclusions sometimes limited by triple-layered membranes (possibly developing elementary bodies), as well as membrane-surrounded vesicles, were observed in the cytoplasm of cells of some strains. Images PMID:14208513

  20. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Grover, Madhusudan; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Bernard, Cheryl E; Lurken, Matthew S; Smyrk, Thomas C; Parkman, Henry P; Abell, Thomas L; Snape, William J; Hasler, William L; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Koch, Kenneth L; Calles, Jorges; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders. As part of the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, full thickness gastric body biopsies from 20 diabetic and 20 idiopathic gastroparetics were studied by light microscopy. Abnormalities were found in many (83%) but not all patients. Among the common defects were loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neural abnormalities. No distinguishing features were seen between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Our aim was to provide a detailed description of the ultrastructural abnormalities, compare findings between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and determine if patients with apparently normal immunohistological features have ultrastructural abnormalities. Tissues from 40 gastroparetic patients and 24 age- and sex-matched controls were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial cells of Cajal showing changes suggestive of injury, large and empty nerve endings, presence of lipofuscin and lamellar bodies in the smooth muscle cells were found in all patients. However, the ultrastructural changes in ICC and nerves differed between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and were more severe in idiopathic gastroparesis. A thickened basal lamina around smooth muscle cells and nerves was characteristic of diabetic gastroparesis whereas idiopathic gastroparetics had fibrosis, especially around the nerves. In conclusion, in all the patients TEM showed abnormalities in ICC, nerves and smooth muscle consistent with the delay in gastric emptying. The significant differences found between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis offers insight into pathophysiology as well as into potential targeted therapies. PMID:21914127

  1. Rheumatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sweiss, Nadera J; Patterson, Karen; Sawaqed, Ray; Jabbar, Umair; Korsten, Peter; Hogarth, Kyle; Wollman, Robert; Garcia, Joe G N; Niewold, Timothy B; Baughman, Robert P

    2010-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic, clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by the development of granulomas. Any organ system can be involved, and patients may present with any number of rheumatologic symptoms. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Diagnosing sarcoidosis becomes challenging, particularly when its complications cause patients' symptoms to mimic other conditions, including polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, or vasculitis. This review presents an overview of the etiology of and biomarkers associated with sarcoidosis. We then provide a detailed description of the rheumatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis and present a treatment algorithm based on current clinical evidence for patients with sarcoid arthritis. The discussion will focus on characteristic findings in patients with sarcoid arthritis, osseous involvement in sarcoidosis, and sarcoid myopathy. Arthritic conditions that sometimes coexist with sarcoidosis are described as well. We present two cases of sarcoidosis with rheumatologic manifestations. Our intent is to encourage a multidisciplinary, translational approach to meet the challenges and difficulties in understanding and treating sarcoidosis.

  2. Rheumatologic Manifestations of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Nadera J.; Patterson, Karen; Sawaqed, Ray; Jabbar, Umair; Korsten, Peter; Hogarth, Kyle; Wollman, Robert; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Baughman, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic, clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by the development of granulomas. Any organ system can be involved, and patients may present with any number of rheumatologic symptoms. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved therapies for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Diagnosing sarcoidosis becomes challenging, particularly when its complications cause patients’ symptoms to mimic other conditions, including polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, or vasculitis. This review presents an overview of the etiology of and biomarkers associated with sarcoidosis. We then provide a detailed description of the rheumatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis and present a treatment algorithm based on current clinical evidence for patients with sarcoid arthritis. The discussion will focus on characteristic findings in patients with sarcoid arthritis, osseous involvement in sarcoidosis, and sarcoid myopathy. Arthritic conditions that sometimes coexist with sarcoidosis are described as well. We present two cases of sarcoidosis with rheumatologic manifestations. Our intent is to encourage a multidisciplinary, translational approach to meet the challenges and difficulties in understanding and treating sarcoidosis. PMID:20665396

  3. Acute kidney injury by arsine poisoning: the ultrastructural pathology of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Young; Eom, Minseob; Yang, Jae Won; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Kim, Jae Seok

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a terribly poisonous material. There have been many reports of arsine poisoning in workers, and a few have discussed acute kidney injury by arsine. But literatures which investigated the pathologic findings are uncommon, and especially, the ones describing ultrastructural findings are rare. Here, we report an incident of acute arsine poisoning complicated by acute kidney injury and suggest the characteristics of the renal pathology in arsine-induced renal injury, especially the ultrastructural findings.

  4. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  5. Tracheomalacia in a neonate with kniest dysplasia: histopathologic and ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Hicks, J; De Jong, A; Barrish, J; Zhu, S H; Popek, E

    2001-01-01

    Kniest dysplasia is an autosomal-dominant chondrodysplastic condition characterized by disproportionate dwarfism, short trunk, small pelvis, kyphoscoliosis, short limbs, prominent joints, premature osteoarthritis, and craniofacial manifestations. The craniofacial abnormalities include tracheomalacia, midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, early onset myopia, retinal detachment, prominent eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss. Radiologic features include dumbbell-shaped femora, platyspondylia with anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, coronal clefts of thoracolumbar vertebral bodies, low broad ilia, and short tubular bones with broad metaphyses and deformed large epiphyses. This form of chondrodysplasia is associated with mutations in type II collagen splicing sequences. Mutations have been identified in the COL2A1 (type II collagen) gene between exons 12 and 24. Type II collagen is the predominant structural protein in cartilage, and mutations in this collagen account for the Kniest dysplasia phenotype. Histopathologic and ultrastructural features of epiphyseal plate cartilage have been described, but tracheal cartilage in an affected neonate has not been examined. The authors report the histopathologic and ultrastructural findings of anterior tracheal cartilage from a 35-day-old female with suspected chondrodysplasia who had tracheomalacia with airway obstruction. The tracheal cartilage was moderately cellular, but lacked cystic and myxoid changes in its matrix. The chondrocytes had abundant cytoplasmic PAS-positive inclusions. Some of these inclusions were diastase-resistant and were also highlighted on Alcian blue staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed chondrocytes with greatly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing granular proteinaceous material. There were also frequent aggregates of typical glycogen. The defect in the COL2A1 gene is secondary to mutations, especially at splice junctions, and this markedly disrupts triple helix formation. The

  6. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic lesions in 49 patients was evaluated to find significant differences between benign and malignant cells. The patients studied included 9 with benign epithelial (racial) melanosis, 2 with pigmented squamous cell papillomas, 16 with conjunctival nevi, 18 with primary acquired melanosis, and 11 with invasive nodules of malignant melanoma. In benign epithelial melanosis, dendritic melanocytes were situated along the basement membrane region of the conjunctival epithelium, with one basilar dendritic melanocyte lodged among every five or six basilar keratinocytes. The dendritic melanocytes extended arborizing cellular processes between the basilar and among the suprabasilar keratinocytes, which manifested considerable uptake of melanin granules into their cytoplasm. The benign dendritic melanocytes possessed nuclei with clumped heterochromatin at the nuclear membrane, small, tightly wound nucleoli, and large, elongated, fully melaninized melanin granules. In two patients with benign hyperplasia of the dendritic melanocytes, occasional dendritic melanocytes were located in a suprabasilar position, but were always separated from each other by keratinocytes or their processes. In the two black patients with benign pigmented squamous papillomas, the benign dendritic melanocytes were located hapharzardly at all levels of the acanthotic epithelium and not just along the basement membrane region. Melanin uptake by the proliferating keratinocytes was minimal. In benign melanocytic nevi of the conjunctiva, nevus cells within the intraepithelial junctional nests displayed a more rounded cellular configuration; short villi and broader cellular processes suggestive of abortive dendrites were found. The nuclear chromatin pattern was clumped at the nuclear membrane, but the nucleoli were somewhat larger than those of benign dendritic melanocytes in epithelial melanosis. The melanosomes were smaller and rounder than those in dendritic

  7. Comparative sperm ultrastructure in Nemertea.

    PubMed

    von Döhren, J; Beckers, P; Vogeler, R; Bartolomaeus, T

    2010-07-01

    Although the monophyly of Nemertea is strongly supported by unique morphological characters and results of molecular phylogenetic studies, their ingroup relationships are largely unresolved. To contribute solving this problem we studied sperm ultrastructure of 12 nemertean species that belong to different subtaxa representing the commonly recognized major monophyletic groups. The study yielded a set of 26 characters with an unexpected variation among species of the same genus (Tubulanus and Procephalothrix species), whereas other species varied in metric values or only one character state (Ramphogordius). In some species, the sperm nucleus has grooves (Zygonemertes virescens, Amphiporus imparispinosus) that may be twisted and give a spiral shape to the sperm head (Paranemertes peregrina, Emplectonema gracile). To make the characters from sperm ultrastructure accessible for further phylogenetic analyses, they were coded in a character matrix. Published data for eight species turned out to be sufficiently detailed to be included. Comparative evaluation of available information on the sperm ultrastructure suggests that subtaxa of Heteronemertea and Hoplonemertea are supported as monophyletic by sperm morphology. However, the data do not provide information on the existing contradictions regarding the internal relationships of "Palaeonemertea." Nevertheless, our study provides evidence that sperm ultrastructure yields numerous potentially informative characters that will be included in upcoming phylogenetic analyses.

  8. Rheumatic manifestations of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Claudia; Possemato, Niccolò; Pipitone, Nicolò; Manger, Bernhard; Salvarani, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the rheumatological manifestations of scurvy, based on articles published in English from 1965 until October 2014, with a particular focus on rheumatological manifestations. Scurvy is a rare, uncommon disease in developed countries. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, the disease can easily mimic rheumatologic conditions leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25854491

  9. Rheumatic manifestations of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Claudia; Possemato, Niccolò; Pipitone, Nicolò; Manger, Bernhard; Salvarani, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the rheumatological manifestations of scurvy, based on articles published in English from 1965 until October 2014, with a particular focus on rheumatological manifestations. Scurvy is a rare, uncommon disease in developed countries. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, the disease can easily mimic rheumatologic conditions leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells.

  11. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  12. 40 CFR 262.21 - Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... printing, and obtaining manifests. 262.21 Section 262.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Manifest § 262.21 Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A registrant may not print, or have printed, the manifest for use of distribution unless it has...

  13. Ultrastructural study of neoplastic cells in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland).

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Katarzyna; Renault, Tristan; Wołowicz, Maciej

    2006-06-01

    In the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk, neoplasia is considered as a serious epizootic linked to bad environmental conditions and high levels of pollutants. Previous research was focused on the diagnosis, prevalence, seasonality and histopathological characteristic of the cancer. This study is focused on electron microscopy analyses describing cell ultrastructure abnormalities related to neoplasia. Examinations using the electron microscopy highlighted changes confined to anatomic ultrastructures, shapes and functions of neoplastic cells. The lobulated appearance of the nucleus, changes in cellular matrix and the occurrence of large granular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, atypical Golgi structures and deterioration of rough endoplasmic reticulum manifested the disease. The presence of atypical mitochondria, free ribosomes and hypertrophic nuclei suggests the adaptation of neoplastic cells to increased mitotic activity, while the observed modification of cellular membranes may reflect functional changes connected to increased pinocytotic activity or intercellular transport. The cancer cells were found to appear in two types, abnormal round-shaped cells and spindle-shaped cells, both with increased frequencies of cell division. Round-shaped cells typical for disseminated neoplasia were observed in all affected bivalves, in a few cases co-occurring with abnormal spherical cells. Spindle-shaped cells containing some intracytoplasmic filaments, and with a tendency of the nuclei to be orientated as in a palisade were interpreted as myofibroblasts-like cells and were observed in five out of eleven clams diagnosed as neoplastic. This finding represents the first demonstration of phenotypic differences in the cell types co-occurring in animals diagnosed as neoplastic and by that suggests coexistence of two types of bivalve cancer, disseminated neoplasia and probable fibrosarcoma.

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Taeniidae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The present study establishes the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is essential for future research on the location of specific proteins involved in the sperm development in this species and also in Echinococcus granulosus. Thus, the ultrastructural characteristics of the sperm cell are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon of E. multilocularis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, crested bodies, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other characteristics observed in the male gamete are the presence of a >900-nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of E. multilocularis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. The most interesting finding concerns the presence of two helical crested bodies in E. multilocularis while in the studied species of Taenia, there is only one crested body. Future ultrastructural studies of other species of the genus Echinococcus would be of particular interest in order to confirm whether or not the presence of two crested bodies is a characteristic of this genus. PMID:26960958

  15. Ultrastructure of a magnetotactic spirillum.

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, D L; Maratea, D; Blakemore, R P

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of a magnetotactic bacterium (strain MS-1) was examined by transmission, scanning, and scanning-transmission electron microscopy. The organism resembled other spirilla in general cell morphology, although some differences were detected at the ultrastructural level. Electron-dense particles within magnetotactic cells were shown by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to be localizations containing iron. A non-magnetotactic variant of strain MS-1 lacked these novel bacterial inclusion bodies. A chain of these particles traversed each magnetotactic cell in a specific arrangement that was consistent from cell to cell, seemingly associated with the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. Each particle was surrounded by an electron-dense layer separated from the particle surface by an electron-transparent region. The term "magnetosome" is proposed for the electron-dense particles with their enveloping layer(s) as found in this and other magnetotactic bacteria. Images PMID:6245069

  16. Lipoid proteinosis: clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Muda, A O; Paradisi, M; Angelo, C; Mostaccioli, S; Atzori, F; Puddu, P; Faraggiana, T

    1995-10-01

    The case of a 12-year-old boy with lipoid proteinosis is reported. Physical examination revealed long-standing varicella-like scars and areas of hyperpigmentation on the face and upper limbs with no evidence of photosensitivity, hoarseness, small papules along the free margins of eyelids, tongue firmness with short frenulum, and widespread papular lesions of the oral cavity. Histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed the characteristic skin changes: pink, hyaline-like, strongly periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the dermis, surrounding blood vessels, and sweat glands; thin (30 to 35 nm) collagen fibrils interspersed in abundant amorphous material; blood vessels surrounded by thickened, multilayered basement membranes, in which layers of typical, homogeneous basement membrane material were alternating with electronlucent areas filled by various amounts of thin, cross-striated fibrils, arranged perpendicularly. These findings are of great interest since they show a complex relationship between type IV and type III-like collagen components.

  17. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  18. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent

  19. [Unusual Migraine Manifestations].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies.

  20. [Unusual Migraine Manifestations].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies. PMID:27269777

  1. Thermodynamics in 'Manifest Reality'

    SciTech Connect

    Hankey, Alex

    2010-12-22

    D'Espagnat's proof that the universe is not a 'strongly objective reality' demands that all physical processes are reconsidered in that light. D'Espagnat suggests a 'Veiled Reality' as a suitable alternative. The most economical way to achieve that is to demand that 'information production' at a quantum level creates the basis for self-consistent perception of a world of macroscopic, 'manifest' entities, as opposed to self-existent objects. Such a 'manifest reality' fulfils both Wheeler's attempt at an 'IT-from-BIT' programme, and Zeilinger's suggestion that 'information is primary'.

  2. Musculoskeletal manifestations of endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Stephanie B; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Masih, Sulabha; Matcuk, George R

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can lead to disturbances in numerous systems within the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Radiological evaluation of these conditions can demonstrate typical appearances of the bones and soft tissues. Knowledge of these patterns can allow the radiologist to suggest a diagnosis that may not be clinically apparent. This review will highlight the typical musculoskeletal findings of acromegaly, hypercortisolism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pseudo- and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. The radiological manifestations of each of these endocrine disorders, along with a brief discussion of the pathophysiology and clinical implications, will be discussed. PMID:24642251

  3. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27178684

  4. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:27034812

  5. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact.

  6. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  7. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  8. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  9. Immunologic manifestations of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Deretic, Vojo; Kimura, Tomonori; Timmins, Graham; Moseley, Pope; Chauhan, Santosh; Mandell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The broad immunologic roles of autophagy span innate and adaptive immunity and are often manifested in inflammatory diseases. The immune effects of autophagy partially overlap with its roles in metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control but typically expand further afield to encompass unique immunologic adaptations. One of the best-appreciated manifestations of autophagy is protection against microbial invasion, but this is by no means limited to direct elimination of intracellular pathogens and includes a stratified array of nearly all principal immunologic processes. This Review summarizes the broad immunologic roles of autophagy. Furthermore, it uses the autophagic control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a paradigm to illustrate the breadth and complexity of the immune effects of autophagy. PMID:25654553

  10. [Respiratory manifestations in aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Regimbaud, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of cosmopolitan fungi with a selective pulmonary tropism. Their pathogenic role is due either to spreading in pre-existing pulmonary cavities, or to their allergizing capacity. Cavitary sequellae of tuberculosis and suppuration, particularly frequent and important in tropical environment, are elective localization for Aspergillus colonization. Surgical treatment is nowadays the only efficient one. Allergic manifestations are a more complex problem of therapy, exclusion of allergen being difficult to get in tropical environment. PMID:3773680

  11. Neurological manifestations of malaria.

    PubMed

    Román, G C; Senanayake, N

    1992-03-01

    The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is reviewed in this paper. Cerebral malaria, the acute encephalopathy which complicates exclusively the infection by Plasmodium falciparum commonly affects children and adolescents in hyperendemic areas. Plugging of cerebral capillaries and venules by clumped, parasitized red cells causing sludging in the capillary circulation is one hypothesis to explain its pathogenesis. The other is a humoral hypothesis which proposes nonspecific, immune-mediated, inflammatory responses with release of vasoactive substances capable of producing endothelial damage and alterations of permeability. Cerebral malaria has a mortality rate up to 50%, and also a considerable longterm morbidity, particularly in children. Hypoglycemia, largely in patients treated with quinine, may complicate the cerebral symptomatology. Other central nervous manifestations of malaria include intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral arterial occlusion, and transient extrapyramidal and neuropsychiatric manifestations. A self-limiting, isolated cerebellar ataxia, presumably caused by immunological mechanisms, in patients recovering from falciparum malaria has been recognized in Sri Lanka. Malaria is a common cause of febrile seizures in the tropics, and it also contributes to the development of epilepsy in later life. Several reports of spinal cord and peripheral nerve involvement are also available. A transient muscle paralysis resembling periodic paralysis during febrile episodes of malaria has been described in some patients. The pathogenesis of these neurological manifestations remains unexplored, but offers excellent perspectives for research at a clinical as well as experimental level. PMID:1307475

  12. Ultrastructural studies of unstable angina in living man

    SciTech Connect

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Freeman, M.R.; Salerno, T.A.; Lichtenstein, S.V.; Armstrong, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen patients with refractory unstable angina who were undergoing aortocoronary bypass were studied to assess the extent of platelet aggregation present in the microvasculature. Ultrastructural findings on the morphology of cardiac muscle and microvasculature were correlated with the findings on coronary angiograms and thallium scans. There were no significant correlations. The presence of platelet aggregates was identified in four biopsies, two of which had thrombus by angiographic criteria. Biopsy in areas with thallium defects revealed an increased prevalence of white blood cells without acute myocardial infarction. This study confirms the presence of platelet aggregates in patients with unstable angina, albeit at a reduced frequency when compared with autopsy studies.

  13. Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. PMID:25155519

  14. Articular and abarticular manifestations in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Akasbi, Nessrine; Houssaini, Ghita Sqalli; Bazouti, Sabah; Bensbaa, Salma; Hachimi, Hicham; Ajdi, Farida; Harzy, Taoufik

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM), a worldwide high-prevalence disease, is associated with a large variety of rheumatic manifestations. It affects the connective tissues in many ways and causes alterations in the periarticular and the musculoskeletal systems. In most cases, these manifestations are associated with functional disability and pain, affecting the quality of life of the diabetic patient. The aim of our study is to review the different articular and abarticular manifestations in diabetic patients and the associated factors of these rheumatic manifestations. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study that includes all patients suffering from type 2 DM who present with articular or abarticular manifestations. Results We included 116 diabetic patients presenting with articular or abarticular manifestations. Our study showed four important findings. First, a large variety of articular and abarticular manifestations were present in patients with type 2 DM. Second, osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee was the most frequent articular manifestations. It was seen in 49% of our patients. Third, the most common manifestations in diabetic Moroccan patients were carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, and diabetic cheiroarthropathy (29%, 23%, and 16%, respectively). Fourth, there was a significant association between vascular complications and the development of articular and abarticular manifestations. Conclusion This study shows that the articular and abarticular manifestations in diabetic Moroccan patients are dominated by CTS, adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, and diabetic cheiroarthropathy, with a significant association between vascular complications and the development of some of these manifestations. PMID:27708897

  15. Ophthalmologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos; Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Schor, Paulo; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Ophthalmic manifestations are within the extra-intestinal manifestations, and can be divided into those of autoimmune disorders or those due to absorptive disabilities. This article reviewed the ophthalmologic manifestation of celiac disease. Ophthalmic symptoms are rare, but should be investigated in patients with celiac disease and taken into consideration as the first systemic manifestation. PMID:26949627

  16. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  17. [Parathyroid dysfunction and rheumatic manifestations].

    PubMed

    Frey, D P

    2011-11-01

    Parathyroid dysfunction, leading to severe clinical symptoms and radiographic changes, has decreased over the last years due to routine laboratory checks including serum calcium levels. Thus, abnormal calcium levels are detected early in the course of the disease and the underlying cause treated accordingly. Hyperparathyroidism often leads to osteoporosis and low-trauma fractures. When evaluating secondary osteoporosis analysis of calcium, phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone levels are mandatory. Osteitis fibrosa cystica and brown tumors are less frequent findings of hyperparathyroidism. However, in patients with arthritis or bone symptoms, hyperparathyroidism has to be evaluated as a possible reason. Other manifestations of hyperparathyroidism include myopathy, tendon ruptures and unspecific symptoms of the muscles and skeleton. Gout as well as pseudogout may be associated with hyperparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism may cause musculoskeletal diseases mimicking ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Myopathies are sometimes induced by hypoparathyroidism. An association between systemic lupus erythematosus and hypoparathyroidism seems to exist.

  18. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans.

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A; Bâ, Cheikh T; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+"1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa. PMID:27688980

  19. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+“1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa. PMID:27688980

  20. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+“1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa.

  1. Eosinophilic granuloma: MRI manifestations.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Aparisi, F; Bonmati, L M; Rosenberg, Z S; Present, D; Steiner, G C

    1993-01-01

    The appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cases of pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with the radiographic appearance of the lesion. The most common MR appearance (ten cases) was a focal lesion, surrounded by an extensive, ill-defined bone marrow and soft tissue reaction with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, considered to represent bone marrow and soft tissue edema (the flare phenomenon). The MRI manifestations of eosinophilic granuloma, especially during the early stages, are nonspecific, and may stimulate an aggressive lesion such as osteomyelitis or Ewings sarcoma, or other benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma or chondroblastoma. PMID:8480200

  2. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  3. Gravity receptors - An ultrastructural basis for peripheral sensory processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Donovan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present ultrastructural study of serial sections has shown that type II hair cells of the anterior part of the utricular macula are integrated into the afferent neural circuitry of type I cells, which are arranged in clusters. Additionally, there exists a complex system of intramacularly originating efferent-type nerve fibers and terminals. The findings, taken together, suggest that on morphological grounds, complex processing of sensory information occurs in gravity receptors. Asymmetry of such a complex system may contribute to motion and space-motion sickness.

  4. Cogan's microcystic dystrophy of the cornea: ultrastructure and photomicroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Dark, A J

    1978-01-01

    Corneal biopsy specimens from 3 patients with Cogan's microcystic corneal dystrophy were examined by light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from corneas showing microcysts, geographic or map-like areas, and refractile striae. In all samples there is a bilaminate subepithelial layer of fibrogranular material, the friability of which is probably the basis for recurrent erosions in this disorder. Histochemical and ultrastructural findings provide further evidence that Cogan's dystrophy, the finger print/bleb dystrophy, and Meesmann's dystrophy should be regarded as separate entities. Images PMID:310689

  5. Assessment of murine bone ultrastructure using synchrotron light: towards nano-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Voide, Romain; Stauber, Martin; Stampanoni, Marco; Donahue, Leah Rae; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Müller, Ralph

    2006-08-01

    To describe the different aspects of bone quality, we follow a hierarchical approach and assess bone tissue properties in different regimes of spatial resolution, beginning at the organ level and going down to cellular dimensions. For these purposes we developed different synchrotron radiation (SR) based computed-tomography (CT) methods to assess murine bone ultrastructure. In a first step, a tubular system and the osteocyte lacunar system within murine cortical bone have been established as novel ultrastructural quantitative traits. Results in two mouse strains showed that morphometry of these quantitative traits was dependent on strain and partially on gender, and that their scaling behavior with bone size was fundamentally different. In a second step, we explored bone competence on an ultrastructural level and related our findings to the two ultrastructural quantitative traits introduced before. We showed that SR CT imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the initiation and propagation of microcracks, which may alter bone quality and may lead to increased fracture risk by means of microdamage accumulation. In summary, investigation of ultrastructural bone tissue properties will eventually lead to a better understanding of bone quality and its relative contribution to bone competence.

  6. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  7. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies.

  8. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: cutaneous manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Polizel, Juliana Ocanha; Munhoz, Tânia; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is the current name for clinical manifestations of diseases previously known as “infantile systemic hyalinosis” and “juvenile hyaline fibromatosis”. The authors report representative clinical cases of each one of the above subtypes with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and difficulties for early diagnosis in this syndrome, essentially of multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27192526

  9. Ultrastructural features of eosinophilic oesophagitis: impact of treatment on desmosomes

    PubMed Central

    Capocelli, Kelley E; Fernando, Shahan D; Menard-Katcher, Calies; Furuta, Glenn T; Masterson, Joanne C; Wartchow, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Aims A growing body of evidence suggests a role for altered epithelial barrier function in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), but few have described the epithelial structure during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to define ultrastructural features of active, inactive EoE and control subject’s oesophageal epithelia. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of EoE. Mucosal pinch biopsies were obtained from the distal oesophagus and processed for routine histology and electron microscopic assessment. Clinical features of enrolled subjects were analysed and subjects were divided into four groups: normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inactive EoE and active EoE. Representative photomicrographs of the basal and superficial epithelia were reviewed for abnormalities. Desmosomes were quantified on the surface of epithelia three to four prickle-cell layers above the basal layer. Results Twenty-nine paediatric cases (ages 2–18 years) were enrolled in the study. We observed a significant decrease in the number of desmosomes per cell (DPC) of subjects with active EoE compared with inactive EoE, GERD and normal epithelia. With respect to DPC, no significant differences were found between inactive EoE compared with GERD or normal subjects. Additional ultrastructural features observed included epithelial microplicae and evidence of eosinophil transmigration, degranulation, and sombrero formation. Conclusions Consistent with clinical and molecular findings, our ultrastructural data provide support for an altered oesophageal barrier in paediatric cases with active EoE, which may improve following treatment. PMID:25359789

  10. A comparative study of mitochondrial ultrastructure in melanocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and perilesional halo nevi skin.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gao-Zhong; Zhao, Wen-E; Li, Xue; Gong, Qing-Li; Lu, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Vitiligo and halo nevi are both pigmentary disorders of the skin characterized by the acquired loss of functional epidermal melanocytes manifesting as white macules and patches. The cellular mechanism(s) and biochemical changes that result in the appearance of these two types of achromic lesions are still uncertain; and the relationship between vitiligo and halo nevi has been in dispute. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructure of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology through a stereological study. As previously reported, we found that melanocytes from perilesional active vitiligo skin were loosely connected with their surroundings by their retracted dendrites. The surface density and the volume density of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin are increased significantly compared with the controls, especially in active vitiligo. In contrast, there are no significant differences in mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional halo nevi skin compared with the controls. In summary, the tendency of different morphologic alterations in mitochondria from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin reflect heterogeneous backgrounds between the two diseases, revealing that vitiligo and halo nevi may have separate pathogenic mechanisms. These findings may help elucidate the relationship of these two diseases and their underlying mechanisms.

  11. Clinical Manifestations of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ye; Jung, Joonho; Park, Seong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported clinical studies. The goals of this study were to investigate the clinical manifestations and the natural course of SPM, as well as examine the current available treatment options for SPM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients diagnosed with SPM between January 2008 and June 2015. Results The mean age of the patients was 22.7±13.2 years, and 67 (73.6%) were male. Chest pain (58, 37.2%) was the predominant symptom. The most frequent precipitating factor before developing SPM was a cough (15.4%), but the majority of patients (51, 56.0%) had no precipitating factors. Chest X-ray was diagnostic in 44 patients (48.4%), and chest computed tomography (CT) showed mediastinal air in all cases. Esophagography (10, 11.0%), esophagoduodenoscopy (1, 1.1%), and bronchoscopy (5, 5.5%) were performed selectively due to clinical suspicion, but no abnormal findings that implicated organ injury were documented. Twelve patients (13.2%) were discharged after a visit to the emergency room, and the others were admitted and received conservative treatment. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.0±1.6 days. There were no complications related to SPM except for recurrence in 2 patients (2.2%). Conclusion SPM responds well to conservative treatment and follows a benign natural course. Hospitalization and aggressive treatment can be performed in selective cases. PMID:27525238

  12. Ocular manifestations of frontonasal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Roarty, J D; Pron, G E; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Posnick, J C; Buncic, J R

    1994-01-01

    The ophthalmologic findings associated with frontonasal dysplasia have not been defined previously in a large series of untreated children. We reviewed the ophthalmic manifestations of a series of patients with frontonasal dysplasia who were seen as part of their craniofacial evaluation. All had undergone a complete ophthalmologic examination before any manipulation of either the orbits or the soft tissues of the orbital contents. From 1986 to 1991, 23 patients with frontonasal dysplasia were seen; ophthalmologic abnormalities were found in 20 (87 percent). Abnormalities included significant refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, and eyelid ptosis. Three patients had amblyopia, a treatable cause of visual loss, from strabismus or anisometropia. Ten eyes in seven patients (30 percent) had severe structural anomalies, such as optic nerve hypoplasia, optic nerve colobomas, microphthalmia, cataract, corneal dermoid, or inflammatory retinopathy, that resulted in an acuity of 20/100 or worse. The high incidence of ocular abnormalities indicates that early assessment by an ophthalmologist should be part of the initial evaluation of patients with frontonasal dysplasia to detect treatable visual or ocular problems. PMID:8278482

  13. Analysis of Gene Expression and Ultrastructure of Stifle Menisci from Juvenile and Adult Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Fickert, Stefan; Brade, Joachim; Wennemuth, Gunther; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus L

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the age-associated degenerative processes in meniscal tissue is poorly understood and may be related to an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare medial menisci isolated from juvenile pigs and degenerated medial menisci from adult pigs in terms of gene expression profile and ultrastructure. Medial menisci were isolated from the knee joints of juvenile and adult pigs (n = 8 for each group). Degeneration was determined histologically according to a scoring system. In addition, the gene expression profiles of 14 genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and mediators of inflammation were analyzed. Changes in the ultrastructure of the collagen network of the meniscal tissue were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy. The histologic analysis of menisci showed significantly higher grade of degeneration in tissue isolated from adult porcine knee joints compared with menisci isolated from juvenile knee joints. In particular, destruction of the collagen network was greater in adult menisci than in juvenile menisci. Degenerated menisci showed significantly decreased gene expression of COL1A1 and increased expression of MMP2, MMP13, and IL8. The menisci from adult porcine knee joints can serve as a model for meniscal degeneration. Degenerative changes were manifested as differences in histopathology, gene expression and ultrastructure of collagen network. PMID:26884408

  14. Nutcracker syndrome in a child with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) disease: renal ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ayhan; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Sakallioglu, Onur; Oztas, Emin

    2009-12-01

    Renal nutcracker syndrome is an uncommon clinical condition caused by compression of the left renal vein. It is usually accompanied by hematuria and/or orthostatic proteinuria. To date, the pathogenic mechanism of proteinuria and its ultrastructural features have not been clearly identified. Here, we present the glomerular ultrastructural features of nutcracker syndrome and our attempt to analyze the relationship between proteinuria and ultrastructural features. Two months prior to admission, a 11-year-old girl with familial Mediterranean fever who was treated with colchicine was found to have proteinuria. Accompanying hematuria was not identified, and laboratory findings were otherwise normal. Doppler ultrasonography and computerized tomography angiography revealed an entrapment of the left renal vein. A kidney biopsy was performed due to the persistent proteinuria. Light microscopy revealed segmental, minimal increases in the mesangial cells and matrix. No amyloid deposition was present. Neither immunofluorescence nor electron microscopy showed immunoglobulin deposition. Increased thickness of the glomerular basement membrane due to the unequivocal radiolucent widening of the lamina rara interna was the most striking ultrastructural finding. At high magnification, there were no amyloidal fibrils. It has been proposed that hemodynamic alterations and structural changes in glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans may play a role in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. Radiolucent expansion of the lamina rara interna of the glomerular basement membrane in the presenting case would seem to support these data.

  15. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  16. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural detection of intestinal spirochetes in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Ohya, Tatsuo; Taharaguchi, Sadao; Yamamoto, Shinji; Umemura, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yoshiharu; Kadota, Koichi

    2005-03-01

    Studies of equine intestinal spirochetes have long focused on intestinal contents alone, but intestinal spirochetosis has been reported recently in a 21-month-old Thoroughbred colt in Japan. To define the clinical and pathological significances of intestinal spirochetosis in several horses, an epizootiologic survey with histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods was conducted for Brachyspira antigen-containing intestinal spirochetes in 12 diseased or injured Thoroughbred horses, aged from 35 days to 17 years. Brachyspira antigen-containing spirochetes were found in 7 of 12 horses (58.3%) and were more frequent in the cecum than in other parts of the bowel. It was not clear whether the infection was clinically related to diarrhea or dysentery, but histopathology revealed a close association between the bacterial infection and epithelial hyperplasia. Crypt epithelium consisted mainly of goblet cells and showed frequent mitosis throughout its length. Inflammatory cells and congestion were also present. There were numerous spirochetes in the crypts, and some invaded the cecal and colonic epithelia and underlying lamina propria. Ultrastructurally, the spirochetes were divided into 4 types. Three types were identified in degenerative epithelial cells or intracellularly. Brachyspira antigen-containing intestinal spirochetes invading the mucosa were capable of causing epithelial hyperplasia in the cecum and colon in the horses. The findings in this study will increase awareness of the importance of intestinal spirochetosis and may also be helpful for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:15825495

  17. Quantum manifestations of Nekhoroshev stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanari, Daniele; Fassò, Francesco; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2016-09-01

    We uncover quantum manifestations of classical Nekhoroshev theory of resonant dynamics using a simple quantum system of two coupled angular momenta with conserved equal magnitudes which corresponds to a perturbed classical integrable anisochronous Hamiltonian system.

  18. Retinal manifestations of ophthalmic artery hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Terrence J; Paine, Mark; O'Day, Justin

    2002-08-01

    Ophthalmic artery hypoperfusion is a relatively uncommon clinical entity. This study illustrates the posterior segment findings of ophthalmic artery hypoperfusion in a series of nine patients. Colour photographs and relevant fluorescein angiograms highlighting the findings are shown. The retinal manifestations of ophthalmic artery hypoperfusion in this series of patients include midperipheral haemorrhages, dilated retinal veins, optic disk collaterals, optic disk neo-vascularization, cotton wool spots, grey intraretinal lesions, fundus pallor, optic disk swelling and choroidal infarcts. Recognition of the ophthalmic changes in this condition may lead to detection of carotid artery disease, the surgical and medical treatment of which has important bearing on patient management.

  19. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  20. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  1. Neurological manifestations of filarial infections.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of Onchocerca and Loa loa are seen in cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these infections is complex; however, pathogenic reactions may be caused by mechanical disruption, e.g., degeneration often followed by granulomas, causing fibrosis or mass effects on other tissues, vascular lesions, e.g., vascular block of cerebral vessels, or disordered inflammatory responses resulting in meningitis, encephalitis or localized inflammatory responses. The chances of having neurological manifestations may also depend upon the frequency and"heaviness"of infection over a lifetime. Hence, this type of infection should no longer be considered a disease of the commonly affected areas but one that may produce systemic effects or other manifestations, and these should be considered in populations where they are endemic. PMID:23829914

  2. Ulnar ray deficiency: its various manifestations.

    PubMed

    Swanson, A B; Tada, K; Yonenobu, K

    1984-09-01

    Eighty-eight upper extremities of 65 patients with ulnar ray deficiency were reviewed with regard to clinical manifestations. Based on the findings, a subclassification into four types was established: type I, hypoplasia or partial defect of the ulna; type II, total defect of the ulna; type III, total or partial defect of the ulna with humeroradial synostosis; and type IV, ulnar defect with congenital amputation at the wrist. Various manifestations of deficiency were evident not only within the ulnar ray but also in other rays. Hypoplasia of the shoulder and/or proximal part of the humerus was present in some cases of types III and IV. Elbow involvement varied from functioning (type I) to acute flexion contracture (type II) to fusion (type III). In 57 hands the digits and carpal bones in the radial ray showed hypoplasia and/or defect. Central digits and carpal bones were also influenced by ulnar ray deficiency, presenting carpal bone fusion, syndactyly, and delta phalanx.

  3. Familial polyposis coli and its extracolonic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B

    1982-06-01

    A detailed clinical study of 30 families with familial polyposis coli is presented. Seven 'isolated' cases are also described. It was found that some families did not exhibit any extracolonic manifestations, but the majority of families showed various numbers of members who had these manifestations of differing types and degrees. In view of the great variability within the members of a family, polyposis coli and the Gardner syndrome are probably both produced by one pleiotropic gene. The occurrence of other neoplastic phenomena in association with polyposis coli has been considered. Many types of malignancy can occur in these patients and their families and the majority are probably fortuitous. The consistent finding of an association with medulloblastoma is such as to make this association of significance, but no reason is known for this. It is suggested that the term 'Turcot syndrome' should be used in a more restrictive manner than at present. PMID:7108915

  4. [Senescence and apoptosis of protoplasts from flax fibers: an ultrastructural analysis].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, M V; Chernova, T E; Gorshkova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Plant fibers represent specialized cells that perform a mechanical function. Their development includes the following phases, typical for the most plant cells: anlage, extension growth, specialization, senescence, and apoptosis. Ultrastructural analysis of these cells has been carried out at the late phases of their development (senescence and apoptosis) using flax phloem fibers, a classical object for the analysis of sclerenchyma fiber formation. The results of the performed analysis show that flax fiber protoplasts remain viable until the end ofa vegetation season. The ultrastructural analysis of flax phloem fibers has not revealed any typical apoptosis manifestations. Gradual degradation of the cytoplasm starts during the active thickening of a secondary cell wall and manifests via the intensification of autolytic processes, causing a partial loss of cell content. The final stage represents the breaking of tonoplast integrity. The obtained data allow us to suppose that the apoptosis of flax fibers occurs during their senescence, and its program is similar to the cell death program realized in the xylem fibers of woody plants.

  5. Comparison of the Ultrastructures of Primed and Naïve Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dongmei; Bu, Shixia

    2016-02-01

    Culture conditions have been established to maintain the pluripotency of mouse naïve and primed embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) as the feeder layer. In this study, the ultrastructures of mouse primed ESCs grown on hAECs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with mouse naïve ESCs, the undifferentiated mouse primed ESC line ESD-EpiSC [ESC-derived epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs)] revealed typical characteristics, including large nuclei, reticulated nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, and low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios. Cells had prominent Golgi apparatus and well-developed endoplasmic reticulum. Adjacent cells were tightly in contact with dense junction desmosomes. However, in EpiSC colonies, cell contact was no longer close like naïve ESCs, and differentiated cells existed. The differentiated cells had small nucleoli with large cytoplasm, which represented primitive mesenchyme. Phagosomes or apoptotic cells were also common in the cytoplasm of differentiated cells, which suggests a differentiation potential. When exposed to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ESD-EpiSCs could convert to naïve-like cells. We further analyzed the ultrastructure of converted EpiSCs (cESCs). As compared to ESD-EpiSCs, cESCs showed similar ultrastructural characteristics as naïve ESCs. These findings suggest that ultrastructure could be used to evaluate the pluripotency of ESCs. PMID:26757253

  6. Morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Oyhenart, E; Ferese, C; Pucciarelli, H; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2001-01-01

    Undernutrition elicited by a low-protein diet determines a marked reduction of hypophyseal activity and affects the function of the respective target organs. The objective of the present investigation was to study the ultrastructural and quantitative immunohistochemical changes of the different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys that had been previously shown to have significant changes in craniofacial growth. Twenty Saimiri sciureus boliviensis monkeys of both sexes were used. The animals were born in captivity and were separated into two groups at one year of age, i.e., control and undernourished animals. The monkeys were fed ad libitum a 20% (control group) and a 10% (experimental group) protein diet for two years. Pituitaries were processed for light and electron microscopy. The former was immunolabeled with anti-GH, -PRL, -LH, -FSH, -ACTH, and -TSH sera. Volume density and cell density were measured using an image analyzer. Quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in these parameters with regard to somatotrophs, lactotrophs, gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs from undernourished animals compared to control ones. In these populations, the ultrastructural study showed changes suggesting compensatory hyperfunction. On the contrary, no significant changes were found in the morphometric parameters or the ultrastructure of the corticotroph population. We conclude that in undernourished monkeys the somatotroph, lactotroph, gonadotroph, and thyrotroph cell populations showed quantitative immunohistochemical changes that can be correlated with ultrastructural findings.

  7. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  8. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    PubMed

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found.

  9. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  10. Effect of Cadmium on Cellular Ultrastructure in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xuejuan; Wang, Yanwu; Fan, Rong; Qiu, Chao; Zhong, Shan; Wei, Lei; Luo, Daji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the cytotoxicity and pathological effects of cadmium on the ovary. Our studies revealed that cadmium was deposited in the mouse ovary after 8 d cadmium injection in vivo. Also, the increase in the rate of body weight was slowed, while the gonadosomatic index was reduced in the CdCl2 group, compared with the control group. Meanwhile, cadmium affected the maturation of follicles, the degradation of corpus luteum, the arrangement of follicles and corpus luteum, and increased the number of atresia follicles. Besides, under the electron microscope, chromatin margination, karopyknosis, swelling of mature cisternae of Golgi apparatus, mitochondrial cristae disappearance, and swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum can be observed in the CdCl2 group mice. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism that the exposure of cadmium changed the ultrastructure of cells in ovary tissues.

  11. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel, Maurice A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  12. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2015-09-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  13. The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome: oral manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Chetty, M; Stephen, L; Fieggen, K; Beighton, P

    2014-05-01

    Tricho-rhino-phalangeal Syndrome (TRPS) is a rare inherited dysplasia affecting hair, nasal structure and fingers. A literature review indicated that since first described, three types of manifestations have been identified. A Table summarising the oral manifestations demonstrates the variety of presentations. A South African male child presented with the syndrome and was found to show premature eruption of permanent teeth, a finding that has not been previously reported. His oro-facial manifestations also included malaligned and unerupted crowded teeth, bulbosity of the nasal tip and an elongated philtrum and evidence of mild intellectual impairment. A protocol has been developed to guide the future management of these cases.

  14. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  15. Psychiatric manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraidakis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare and severe, but treatable, inborn disorder of bile acid biosynthesis and sterol storage with autosomal recessive inheritance and variable clinical presentation. CTX treatment consists of chenodeoxycholic acid and must be started as early as possible to prevent permanent disability. Psychiatric manifestations are rare and non-specific, and often lead to significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Therefore, better recognition of the gamut of psychiatric manifestations in CTX can diminish the risk of misdiagnosis and irreversible neurological deterioration. We hereby describe the psychiatric features in CTX. A complete review of all published cases of CTX in the medical literature was undertaken and the case reports with psychiatric presentation were collected and analyzed. We also describe the psychiatric features in relation to the neurological semeiology in six patients with CTX diagnosed at the La Salpêtrière Hospital. We conclude that psychiatric manifestations in CTX follow a bimodal/bitemporal pattern, appearing early in the disease course in the form of a behavioral/personality disorder associated with learning difficulties or mental retardation, or manifesting in advanced disease in the setting of dementia as rich neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as frontal, orbitofrontal or frontotemporal syndromes of cortico-subcortical dementia encompassing behavioral/personality disturbance, affective/mood disorders or psychotic disorders. Behavioral/personality disturbance in childhood or adolescence, especially when accompanied by learning difficulties, should therefore lead to further investigation to exclude CTX, as early diagnosis and treatment is critical for prognosis. PMID:24002088

  16. [Acromegaly and its orthopedic manifestations].

    PubMed

    Helal, B

    1983-08-01

    A review of the orthopaedic manifestations of acromegaly has been carried out from a study of literature. A further special study of 83 acromegalic patients reveals that about one third consulted the specialist for surgical intervention. In 14 of 28 patients a surgical intervention became necessary. The most frequent cases in question were nerve decompression. Recovery and success rate were always satisfactory. PMID:6415942

  17. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  18. 40 CFR 262.21 - Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... instructions in the appendix to 40 CFR part 262 must appear legibly on the back of the copies of the manifest... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The...): “Designated facility to destination State (if required)”. (ii) Page 2: “Designated facility to generator...

  19. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: clinical manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Jain, Y; Singhal, T; Ratageri, V H

    1999-01-01

    Dengue virus infection may remain asymptomatic or manifest as nonspecific viral infection to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Patients with DHF/DSS have fever, hemorrhagic manifestations along with thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration. Thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration are distinguishing features between DHF/DSS and dengue fever (DF). Some patients with dengue fever may have significant bleed and mild thrombocytopenia but no hemoconcentration. These patients are labelled to have dengue fever with unusual bleeds. Laboratory findings in DHF/DSS include rising hematocrit, thrombocytopenia and transformed lymphocytes on peripheral smear. There may be increased transaminases, hyponatremia, transient increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. In severe disease there may be lab evidence of dissemination intravascular coagulation. X-ray film of the chest may show pleural-effusion. Ultrasonogram of abdomen may detect thickened gall bladder wall with hepatomegaly and ascitis. In some patients there may be abnormality in electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. The diagnosis of DHF/DSS is based on typical clinical findings. For confirmation of dengue virus infection viral culture can be done on blood obtained from patients during early phase of illness. In later part of illness antibodies against dengue virus can be demonstrated by various techniques. The treatment of DF is symptomatic. For control of fever nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. DHF/DSS are managed by intravenous fluid infusion with repeated monitoring of vital parameters and packed cell volume (PCV).

  20. Choanocyte ultrastructure in Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae, Halisarcida).

    PubMed

    Gonobobleva, Elisaveta; Maldonado, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Understanding poriferan choanocyte ultrastructure is crucial if we are to unravel the steps of a putative evolutionary transition between choanoflagellate protists and early metazoans. Surprisingly, some aspects of choanocyte cytology still remain little investigated. This study of choanocyte ultrastructure in the halisarcid demosponge Halisarca dujardini revealed a combination of minor and major distinctive traits, some of them unknown in Porifera so far. Most significant features were 1) an asymmetrical periflagellar sleeve, 2) a battery of specialized intercellular junctions at the lateral cell surface complemented with an array of lateral interdigitations between adjacent choanocytes that provides a particular sealing system of the choanoderm, and 3) a unique, unexpectedly complex, basal apparatus. The basal apparatus consists of a basal body provided with a small basal foot and an intricate transverse skeleton of microtubules. An accessory centriole, which is not perpendicular to the basal body, is about 45 degrees . In addition, a system of short striated rootlets (periodicity = 50-60 nm) arises from the proximal edge of the basal body and runs longitudinally to contact the nuclear apex. This is the first flagellar rootlet system ever found in a choanocyte. The accessory centriole, the rootlet system, and the nuclear apex are all encircled by a large Golgi apparatus, adding another distinctive feature to the choanocyte cytology. The set of distinct features discovered in the choanocyte of H. dujardini indicates that the ultrastructure of the poriferan choanocyte may vary substantially between sponge groups. It is necessary to improve understanding of such variation, as the cytological features of choanocytes are often coded as characters both for formulation of hypotheses on the origin of animals and inference of phylogenetic relationships at the base of the metazoan tree.

  1. Porphyria and its neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are rare disorders resulting from a defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can produce significant disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, in addition to other organ systems, with acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria as the subtypes associated with neurologic manifestations. The presence of a motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy (axonal predominant), accompanied by gastrointestinal distress and neuropsychiatric manifestations, should be a strong clue to the diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical confirmation can be made through evaluation of urine porphyrins during an exacerbation of disease. While hematin is helpful for acute treatment, long-term effective management requires avoidance of overstimulation of the cytochrome P450 pathway, as well as other risk factor control.

  2. [Ophthalmological manifestations of cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Culleré, J; Herrera, M; Navarro, Mc

    2008-01-01

    Transient or persistent loss of vision in one eye is a common and distinctive manifestation of occlusive vascular disease. Occasionally, both eyes are involved together or sequentially, with temporary or even permanent blindness. The internal carotid arteries supply blood to the organ of vision; therefore pathologies of those arteries caused by arteriosclerosis may have a direct influence on its functioning. The most common syndromes are temporary (amaurosis fugax) or constant reduction of visual acuity. In fundus examination central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are the most common diagnosis, while retinal vein occlusion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, ocular ischemic syndrome are less common. There are many clinical ophtlamological manifestations due to vascular brain damage. Proper recognition and diagnosis of the disease may protect the patient against serious life-threatening complications such as stroke. PMID:19169299

  3. Orofacial manifestations of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Veale, B J; Jablonski, R Y; Frech, T M; Pauling, J D

    2016-09-23

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of unknown aetiology characterised by microangiopathy, dysregulated immune function and tissue remodelling, which commonly involves the oral cavity. Orofacial manifestations of SSc contribute greatly to overall disease burden and yet are regularly overlooked and under-treated. This may reflect a pre-occupation amongst rheumatology clinicians on potentially life-threatening internal organ involvement, but is also a consequence of insufficient engagement between rheumatologists and dental professionals. A high proportion of SSc patients report difficulty accessing a dentist with knowledge of the disease and there is recognition amongst dentists that this could impact negatively on patient care. This review shall describe the clinical features and burden of orofacial manifestations of SSc and the management of such problems. The case is made for greater collaborative working between rheumatologists and dental professionals with an interest in SSc in both the research and clinical setting. PMID:27659631

  4. Clinical Manifestations of Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busafi, Said A.; McNabb-Baltar, Julia; Farag, Amanda; Hilzenrat, Nir

    2012-01-01

    The portal hypertension is responsible for many of the manifestations of liver cirrhosis. Some of these complications are the direct consequences of portal hypertension, such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ruptured gastroesophageal varices and from portal hypertensive gastropathy and colopathy, ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, and hypersplenism. In other complications, portal hypertension plays a key role, although it is not the only pathophysiological factor in their development. These include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:23024865

  5. Systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (FeLV); feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. Recognition of these cutaneous signs may help alert the clinician to the possibility of an internal disorder so that the appropriate diagnostic tests can be considered. PMID:8525575

  6. Rheumatic manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lebiedz-Odrobina, Dorota; Kay, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    DM is associated with various musculoskeletal manifestations. The strength of this relationship varies among the various musculoskeletal disorders; the associations are based mostly on epidemiologic data. For most of these conditions, definitive pathophysiologic correlates are lacking.Hand and shoulder disorders occur more frequently than other musculoskeletal manifestations of DM. Recognition of the association between DM and shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, and stenosing flexor tenosynovitis facilitates their correct diagnosis in the setting of DM and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, which may include optimizing glycemic control. Conversely, awareness and identification of the characteristic musculoskeletal manifestations of DM may facilitate earlier diagnosis of DM and initiation of glucose-lowering therapy to retard the development of diabetic complications.Much less has been published about the musculoskeletal complications of DM than about its micro- and macrovascular complications. Prospective case-control cohort studies are needed to establish the true prevalence of musculoskeletal complications of DM and the metabolic syndrome, especially in this era of tighter glycemic control.The potential relationship between DM and the development of OA needs to be clarified in large, prospective, case-control cohort studies. The effect on musculoskeletal manifestations of various therapeutic regimens to manage DM should be studied prospectively. Treatment regimens for some musculoskeletal conditions associated with DM, such as DISH, should be studied in larger prospective, randomized,controlled clinical trials.At the molecular level, further studies are warranted to clarify the potential contribution of AGEs and adipokines to the development of OA and diabetic musculoskeletal syndromes, such as shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, and LJM. Identification of such molecular targets for therapy would promote the development of

  7. Hepatic Manifestations in Hematological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Liver involvement is often observed in several hematological disorders, resulting in abnormal liver function tests, abnormalities in liver imaging studies, or clinical symptoms presenting with hepatic manifestations. In hemolytic anemia, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly are often seen mimicking liver diseases. In hematologic malignancies, malignant cells often infiltrate the liver and may demonstrate abnormal liver function test results accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly or formation of multiple nodules in the liver and/or spleen. These cases may further evolve into fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:23606974

  8. Imaging Manifestations of Thoracic Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Katre, Rashmi; Mumbower, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Despite significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis achieved during the last 3 decades, tuberculosis still remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases worldwide. Tuberculosis is still present in all regions of the world, with a more significant impact in developing countries. This article reviews the most common imaging manifestations of primary and postprimary tuberculosis, their complications, and the critical role of imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of affected patients.

  9. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Pawaria, Arti; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica; Meena, Jagdish

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed case records of 40 in-patients (22 boys) with serologically confirmed dengue fever between 1st October and 30th November, 2013. Severe dengue was seen in 30, out of which 12 (30%) had compensated shock. Splenomegaly (6,15%) and encephalopathy (4,10%) were the commonest atypical features. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever were more common than that reported in the past.

  10. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  11. Ultrastructural Analysis of Spermiogenesis in Segregation Distorter Males of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: The Homozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Kettaneh, Nizam P.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    1980-01-01

    We have studied spermiogenesis at the ultrastructural level in males of genotype SD(NH)-2/SD-72, which are nearly sterile owing to the dysfunction of virtually all of their sperm. Ultrastructural aspects of spermiogenesis in these homozygous SD males are qualitatively similar to those found among dysfunctional sperm produced by heterozygous SD males. In particular, chromatin condensation and/or compaction has been found to be abnormal. However, major quantitative differences have been noted. Most of the dysfunctional sperm in SD(NH)-2/SD-72 males are individualized and coiled. Then, the sperm evidently undergo degeneration, as few mature sperm can be found in the seminal vesicle. The relevance of these findings to the mechanism leading to near sterility in homozygous SD males is discussed. PMID:6790334

  12. Ultrastructure of the ankylotic area in the osteopetrotic op/op mouse.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Sato, Y; Sakae, T; Yamamoto, H

    1996-07-01

    The op/op mouse, which carries an osteopetrotic mutation, suffers from complete failure of tooth eruption. Commonly the teeth are ankylosed to the bone. Previous reports of ankylosis in the op/op mouse have been based on light microscopy. The aim of this study was to clarify the ultrastructural features of the ankylotic area using the oolong tea extract (OTE) staining technique. The ultrastructural features of ankylosis did not parallel the findings of light microscopy. OTE staining clearly stained the collagen fibers of bone and tooth, and the space dividing the tooth and bone was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. In comparison, light microscopy failed to reveal this space and the ankylosis was unclear. The true ankylotic area was smooth and the tooth was tightly ankylosed to the bone. PMID:8854598

  13. Aging Drosophila melanogaster display altered pre- and postsynaptic ultrastructure at adult neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole; Laugks, Ulrike; Heckmann, Manfred; Asan, Esther; Neuser, Kirsa

    2015-11-01

    Although age-related changes in synaptic plasticity are an important focus within neuroscience, little is known about ultrastructural changes of synaptic morphology during aging. Here we report how aging affects synaptic ultrastructure by using fluorescence and electron microscopy at the adult Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of ventral abdominal muscles. Mainly four striking morphological changes of aging NMJs were revealed. 1) Bouton size increases with proportionally rising number of active zones (AZs). 2) Synaptic vesicle density at AZs is increased in old flies. 3) Late endosomes, cisternae, and multivesicular bodies accumulate in the presynaptic terminal, and vesicles accumulate between membranes of the terminal bouton and the subsynaptic reticulum. 4) The electron-dense pre- and postsynaptic apposition is expanded in aging NMJs, which is accompanied by an expansion of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. These findings suggest that aging is possibly accompanied by impaired synaptic vesicle release and recycling and a potentially compensatory expansion of AZs and postsynaptic densities. PMID:25940748

  14. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    PubMed

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  15. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    PubMed

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  16. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the wing scales in Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): what silvery/brownish surfaces can tell us about the development of color patterning?

    PubMed

    Aymone, A C B; Valente, V L S; de Araújo, A M

    2013-09-01

    Usually the literature on Heliconius show three types of scales, classified based on the correlation between color and ultrastructure: type I - white and yellow, type II - black, and type III - orange and red. The ultrastructure of the scales located at the silvery/brownish surfaces of males/females is for the first time described in this paper. Besides, we describe the ontogeny of pigmentation, the scale morphogenesis and the maturation timing of scales fated to different colors in Heliconius erato phyllis. The silvery/brownish surfaces showed ultrastructurally similar scales to the type I, II and III. The ontogeny of pigmentation follows the sequence red, black, silvery/brownish and yellow. The maturation of yellow-fated scales, however, occurred simultaneously with the red-fated scales, before the pigmentation becomes visible. In spite of the scales at the silvery/brownish surfaces being ultrastructurally similar to the yellow, red and black scales, they mature after them; this suggests that the maturation timing does not show a relationship with the scale ultrastructure, with the deposition timing of the yellow pigment. The analysis of H. erato phyllis scale morphogenesis, as well as the scales ultrastructure and maturation timing, provided new findings into the developmental architecture of color pattern in Heliconius.

  17. Influence of basic fibroblast growth factor and astroglial cells on the ultrastructure of developing rat brain neuronal precursors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miehe, M; Leterrier, J F; Deloulme, J C; Gensburger, C; Knoetgen, M F; Sensenbrenner, M

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ultrastructural aspect of neuronal precursors derived from 14-day-old rat embryos during their development under various culture conditions. Cells maintained in serum-free medium which have developed for 1 week in vitro present ultrastructural features of young neurons. They contain many free ribosomes and microtubules, but few other organelles and incompletely developed Golgi apparatus. In the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), besides cells remaining in aggregates and displaying morphological features of undifferentiated cells, dispersed neuroblasts underwent accelerated ultrastructural maturation. They present well-developed Golgi apparatus, axodendritic synapses and dense-core vesicles already after 3 days in culture. By contrast, in the presence of astroglial-conditioned medium a more homogeneous population developed showing ultrastructural features of relatively mature neurons. However, the neuronal precursors acquired the most mature ultrastructural aspect when they were cocultured with astroglial cells. The neuronal cell bodies contain highly developed Golgi complexes, well-differentiated ergastoplasm and Niss1 body formations, while in the complex neurite network much more numerous mature synapses with clear and dense-core vesicles are visible. These observations indicate that a combination of soluble factors and membrane-bound factors is essential for extensive ultrastructural development of neuronal precursors in vitro. Another finding was that in these cultured neurons neurofilaments (NF) were never seen, while NF protein subunits were found. These data suggest that the polymerization of the three NF subunits into intermediate filaments might need particular cellular factors which probably do not exist under our in vitro conditions.

  18. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  19. How methylglyoxal kills bacteria: An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Erika; Serem, June Cheptoo; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Gaspar, Anabella Regina Marques; Bester, Megan Jean

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of honey is due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), H2O2, bee defensin as well as polyphenols. High MGO levels in manuka honey are the main source of antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to reduce the swarming and swimming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to de-flagellation. Due to the complexity of honey it is unknown if this effect is directly due to MGO. In this ultrastructural investigation the effects of MGO on the morphology of bacteria and specifically the structure of fimbriae and flagella were investigated. MGO effectively inhibited Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis; MIC 0.8 mM and Staphylococcus aureus; MIC 1.2 mM) and Gram negative (P. aeruginosa; MIC 1.0 mM and Escherichia coli; MIC 1.2 mM) bacteria growth. The ultrastructural effects of 0.5, 1.0 and 2 mM MGO on B. substilis and E. coli morphology was then evaluated. At 0.5 mM MGO, bacteria structure was unaltered. For both bacteria at 1 mM MGO fewer fimbriae were present and the flagella were less or absent. Identified structures appeared stunted and fragile. At 2 mM MGO fimbriae and flagella were absent while the bacteria were rounded with shrinkage and loss of membrane integrity. Antibacterial MGO causes alterations in the structure of bacterial fimbriae and flagella which would limit bacteria adherence and motility. PMID:26986806

  20. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda. PMID:21708758

  1. Ultrastructure of human malignant diffuse mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Y.; Kannerstein, M.

    1976-01-01

    Eleven cases of malignant diffuse mesotheliomas, histologically classified into two groups, epithelial (5 pleural and 3 peritoneal) and biphasic or mixed (2 pleural and 1 peritoneal) forms, were stuied by electron microscopy to elucidate their ultrastructural characteristics. The neoplastic cells of the epithelial forms were varied in ultrastructure, from well differentiated (marked by polarity, micovilli, glycogen granules, junctional structures, tonofilaments, intracellular vacuoles, and a basement membrane) to poorly differentiated (which lacked some of these epithelial characteristics). In four of eight instances in epithelial type tumors, nonepithelial or mesenchymal neoplastic cells were recognized. The biphasic or mixed cases included three major cell types: epithelial, atypical epithelial, and mesenchymal. It appeared that there were transitional forms among the three cell types. The observations support the concept that the neoplastic cell of malignant mesothelioma can differentiate into a number of cell lines. Images Figures 20 and 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figures 24 and 25 Figure 26 Figure 27A Figure 27B and C Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figures 32 and 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figures 1-4 Figures 5 and 6 Figure 37 Figures 7-10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figures 17 and 18 Figure 19 PMID:998721

  2. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  3. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  4. Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease

  5. Clinical manifestations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tamara T; Pesek, Robbie D

    2013-06-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy.

  6. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of

  7. Unusual manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chai-Yih

    2007-02-01

    The authors have identified six unusual manifestations of premenstrual syndrome: (i) typical premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms during ovulation; (ii) upper airway infection in the premenstrual phase that remits after onset of menstruation; (iii) recurrent perimenstrual erythematous and edematous skin plaques; (iv) hypomanic or manic state 2-3 days before onset of menstruation; (v) auditory hallucinations and delusion of reference, present only premenstrually; and (vi) remitted bipolar disorder presenting with premenstrual psychotic features. Psychiatrists should be aware of menstrual cycle-related changes in mental illness, physical illness, or both in women of reproductive age, if cyclic trends are suspected.

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  9. Rheumatic manifestations in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Serban, AL; Udrea, GF

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a worldwide high prevalence disease, is associated with a large variety of rheumatic manifestations. For most of these affections, pathophysiologic correlations are not well established. Some of them, such as diabetic cheiroarthropathy, neuropathic arthritis, diabetic amyotrophy, diabetic muscle infraction, are considered intrinsic complications of DM. For others, like diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis or reflex sympathetic dystrophy, DM is considered a predisposing condition. In most cases, these affections cause pain and disability, affecting the quality of life of diabetic patients, but once correctly diagnosed, they often respond to the treatment, that generally requires a multidisciplinary team. This article reviews some epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these conditions. PMID:23049626

  10. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease.

  11. Cutaneous and ocular manifestations of neurocutaneous syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Karen A; Schaffer, Julie V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are a heterogeneous group of congenital and hereditary disorders with manifestations in the skin and the nervous system, usually together with ocular features that represent diagnostic clues and potential sources of morbidity. Dermatologists and ophthalmologists often need to work together in identifying and managing patients with these conditions; herein, we focus on classic and under-recognized neurocutaneous syndromes. We begin with autosomal dominant genodermatoses characterized by hamartomas and tumors in the skin, eyes, and central nervous system: neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, and PTEN hamartoma-tumor syndrome. This is followed by a discussion of two mosaic disorders, Sturge-Weber syndrome and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. In addition to providing an update on clinical presentations and evaluation of patients with these conditions, we review recent insights into their pathogenesis, drawing attention to relationships among the diseases on a molecular level and implications regarding treatment. We also highlight the major features of other neurocutaneous syndromes that have ocular findings plus pigmentary, vascular, hyperkeratotic, adnexal, connective tissue, photosensitive, and inflammatory manifestations in the skin. PMID:26903185

  12. Coronal manifestations of preflare activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Webb, D. F.; Woodgate, B.; Waggett, P.; Bentley, R.; Hurford, G.; Schadee, A.; Schrijver, J.; Harrison, R.; Martens, P.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of coronal manifestations of precursors or preheating for flares are discussed. Researchers found that almost everyone with a telescope sees something before flares. Whether an all-encompassing scenario will ever be developed is not at all clear at present. The clearest example of preflare activity appears to be activated filaments and their manifestations, which presumably are signatures of a changing magnetic field. But researchers have seen two similar eruptions, one without any evidence of emerging flux (Kundu et al., 1985) and the other with colliding poles (Simon et al., 1984). While the reconnection of flux is generally agreed to be required to energize a flare, the emergence of flux from below (at least on short timescales and in compact regions) does not appear to be a necessary condition. In some cases the cancelling of magnetic flux (Martin, 1984) by horizontal motions instead may provide the trigger (Priest, 1985) Researchers found similarities and some differences between these and previous observations. The similarities, besides the frequent involvement of filaments, include compact, multiple precursors which can occur both at and near (not at) the flare site, and the association between coronal sources and activity lower in the atmosphere (i.e., transition zone and chromosphere).

  13. Acute leukemia of adults. Ultrastructural, cytochemical and histologic observations in 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Glick, A D; Paniker, K; Flexner, J M; Graber, S E; Collins, R D

    1980-04-01

    In order to establish guidelines for categorization of acute leukemia, marrow histology, special stains, and electron microscopy were performed in 100 adult leukemia cases. Differential counts for each stain were performed, and the results were combined with those obtained by electron microscopy for final classification. Myeloid (non-lymphoid) leukemia was most common (83 cases), and there were 13 lymphoid cases, two cases of erythroleukemia, and two undifferentiated leukemias. Histologic studies of marrow particles revealed significant admixtures of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and abnormal erythroid elements, particularly in acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Interpretations of cytochemical results were confirmed by ultrastructural studies in 90% of the cases. Clinically significant discrepancies between cytochemical and ultrastructural interpretations were rarely found. Only two myeloid and five lymphoid cases did not mark typically with any cytochemical stain. The single most reliable special stain was the periodic acid-Schiff stain, whereas the stain most difficult to interpret was the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase stain. Sudan black stain was particularly helpful in demonstrating Auer rods. Five of six cases unclassified by cytochemistry were categorized by electron microscopy. Although patterns of cytochemical staining were delineated for each type of leukemia, significant intragroup variation in cytochemical reactions was recognized. This study indicates that ultrastructural examination should be routinely used for categorization of cases with equivocal cytochemical findings and for analysis of unclassified cases.

  14. Ultrastructural demonstration of chemical modification of melanogenesis in hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Gellin, G.A.; Hoshino, S.; Epstein, J.H.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-02-01

    We investigated chemical and physical modifications of the genetically determined ultrastructure of melanosomes. The flank skin of hairless mice was treated with ultraviolet energy (UV) shorter than 320 nm or with a combination of a photosensitizer and UV (PUVA treatment). All melanosomes in the induced melanocytes and those in resident melanocytes in the ear skin showed eumelanogenesis, although the degree of melanin deposition differed considerably according to the induction process. Eumelanogenesis was most advanced in the resident melanocytes while PUVA-induced melanocytes showed more immature premelanosomes. We then topically applied 4-tertiary butyl catechol on the skin. The depigmenting agent caused an appearance of pheomelanosomes. The alteration in melanogenesis was seen most distinctly in premelanosomes of the PUVA-induced cells. Altered ultrastructure was also observed in matured melanosomes; this change was most apparent in the resident melanocytes. These findings indicate that cells with eumelanogenesis may undergo pheomelanogenesis. The present study demonstrated effects of chemicals on genetically determined function of melanocytes by quantitative analysis of melanosome ultrastructure.

  15. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  16. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  17. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  18. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  19. Clinical Features of Childhood Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia by Genotype and Ultrastructural Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ferkol, Thomas W.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Lee, Hye-Seung; Dell, Sharon D.; Sagel, Scott D.; Milla, Carlos; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Pittman, Jessica E.; Shapiro, Adam J.; Carson, Johnny L.; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Hazucha, Milan J.; Cooper, Matthew L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The relationship between clinical phenotype of childhood primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and ultrastructural defects and genotype is poorly defined. Objectives: To delineate clinical features of childhood PCD and their associations with ultrastructural defects and genotype. Methods: A total of 118 participants younger than 19 years old with PCD were evaluated prospectively at six centers in North America using standardized procedures for diagnostic testing, spirometry, chest computed tomography, respiratory cultures, and clinical phenotyping. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical features included neonatal respiratory distress (82%), chronic cough (99%), and chronic nasal congestion (97%). There were no differences in clinical features or respiratory pathogens in subjects with outer dynein arm (ODA) defects (ODA alone; n = 54) and ODA plus inner dynein arm (IDA) defects (ODA + IDA; n = 18) versus subjects with IDA and central apparatus defects with microtubular disorganization (IDA/CA/MTD; n = 40). Median FEV1 was worse in the IDA/CA/MTD group (72% predicted) versus the combined ODA groups (92% predicted; P = 0.003). Median body mass index was lower in the IDA/CA/MTD group (46th percentile) versus the ODA groups (70th percentile; P = 0.003). For all 118 subjects, median number of lobes with bronchiectasis was three and alveolar consolidation was two. However, the 5- to 11-year-old IDA/CA/MTD group had more lobes of bronchiectasis (median, 5; P = 0.0008) and consolidation (median, 3; P = 0.0001) compared with the ODA groups (median, 3 and 2, respectively). Similar findings were observed when limited to participants with biallelic mutations. Conclusions: Lung disease was heterogeneous across all ultrastructural and genotype groups, but worse in those with IDA/CA/MTD ultrastructural defects, most of whom had biallelic mutations in CCDC39 or CCDC40. PMID:25493340

  20. Electrode and device problems: manifestation and management.

    PubMed

    Twomey, T; Archbold, S

    1997-11-01

    A total of 119 children were implanted with the Nucleus 22 implant on the Nottingham program by March 1996. Twenty-five (i.e. 21%) of these had an electrophysiologically confirmed fault on at least 1 channel and 6 (i.e. 5%) had experienced total device failure. How these problems were first manifested and what the subsequent effects were on the child and family were determined by means of questionnaires and detailed examination of clinical notes. Our findings indicated that 76% of all internal device faults were initially detected in tuning or electrophysiological measurement. All parents expressed deep anxiety about the threat of device failure; cases of total failure occurring over a long period of time resulted in the greatest distress and effect on the family. Recommendations are made for companies to assist clinics in minimizing such effects.

  1. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  2. Coronary artery manifestations of fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Olin, Jeffrey W; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d'Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-09-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic "string of beads" that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  3. Cerebellar Stroke-manifesting as Mania

    PubMed Central

    Jagadesan, Venkatesan; Thiruvengadam, Kannapiran R.; Muralidharan, Rengarajalu

    2014-01-01

    Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an hour only to find that he could not walk. He became quarrelsome. His Psycho motor activities and speech were increased. He was euphoric and was expressing grandiose ideas. Bender Gestalt Test showed signs of organicity. Score in Young mania relating scale was 32; productivity was low in Rorschach. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar signs like ataxia and slurring of speech. Computed tomography of brain showed left cerebellar infarct. Relationship between Psychiatric manifestations and cerebellar lesion are discussed. PMID:25035567

  4. Cerebellar Stroke-manifesting as Mania.

    PubMed

    Jagadesan, Venkatesan; Thiruvengadam, Kannapiran R; Muralidharan, Rengarajalu

    2014-07-01

    Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an hour only to find that he could not walk. He became quarrelsome. His Psycho motor activities and speech were increased. He was euphoric and was expressing grandiose ideas. Bender Gestalt Test showed signs of organicity. Score in Young mania relating scale was 32; productivity was low in Rorschach. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar signs like ataxia and slurring of speech. Computed tomography of brain showed left cerebellar infarct. Relationship between Psychiatric manifestations and cerebellar lesion are discussed. PMID:25035567

  5. Influence of kavain on hepatic ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shuang; Korkmaz, Emine; Braet, Filip; Ngo, Quan; Ramzan, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the major kavalactone kavain imposes adverse effects on the liver ultrastructure and function by affecting vascular and microvascular architecture and altering hepatocellular morphology. METHODS: Kavain solution (10 μg/mL or 43.5 μmol/L) was perfused for 2 h in isolated rat livers. After standard fixation and tissue preparation, the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and light microscopy (LM). RESULTS: LM, SEM, and TEM examinations indicated kavain-treated rat livers (n = 4) displayed severe vascular and endothelial damage compared to control livers (n = 4). CONCLUSION: The data so far support the hypothesis that kavain induces adverse effects on liver; additional investigations with other kavalactones and their effects on liver are urgently needed. PMID:18203285

  6. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David

    2013-01-01

    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae). PMID:23549851

  7. Effects of ultrasound upon endothelial cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    A number of new brain applications for therapeutic ultrasound are emerging including drug delivery through BBB opening, enhancement of angiogenesis, sonothrombolysis and neuromodulation. Safety remains important as alterations in the cytoskeleton and tight junctions of endothelial cells have been described. In this study we characterize the in vitro effects of ultrasound on cell morphology using a new human brain cell line (hCMEC/D3). Changes in ultrastructure were analyzed with antibodies against tubulin, actin and catenin. Transport was analyzed by measuring transferrin uptake. No significant changes were seen after continuous wave ultrasound treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells grown in Opticell{trade mark, serif} chambers. We could not observe disassembled actin stress fibers or variations in the microtubule network. However, severe damage occurred in cells cultured in petri dishes.

  8. The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

  9. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  10. Hematologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Litzow, Mark R.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common systemic disorder that can have multiple hematologic manifestations. Patients with celiac disease may present to hematologists for evaluation of various hematologic problems prior to receiving a diagnosis of celiac disease. Anemia secondary to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, and/or vitamin B12 is a common complication of celiac disease and many patients have anemia at the time of diagnosis. Celiac disease may also be associated with thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, venous thromboembolism, hyposplenism, and IgA deficiency. Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk of being diagnosed with lymphoma, especially of the T-cell type. The risk is highest for enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) and B-cell lymphoma of the gut, but extraintestinal lymphomas can also be seen. ETL is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, but strict adherence to a gluten-free diet may prevent its occurrence. PMID:16973955

  11. Neurologic manifestations of lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2011-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection, the tick-borne spirochetosis known as Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, involves the nervous system (neuroborreliosis) in 10% to 15% of patients. Common manifestations include lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, mononeuropathy multiplex, and painful radiculoneuritis. Rare patients develop inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Regardless of the form of involvement, neuroborreliosis can be microbiologically cured in virtually all patients using standard 2- to 4-week antimicrobial regimens. Oral regimens appear to be as effective as parenteral ones in most instances. Although patients ill with Lyme disease may have concomitant cognitive or memory difficulty, these symptoms are not specific to neuroborreliosis and, when present in isolation, should not be viewed as suggestive of this diagnosis. When present as part of Lyme disease, they do not require additional or different treatment.

  12. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease. PMID:26708562

  13. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  15. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  16. Caudal Cingulate Infarction Manifesting Astasia

    PubMed Central

    Satow, Takeshi; Komuro, Taro; Kobayashi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Astasia is a rare presenting symptom of stroke, usually known as ‘thalamic astasia’, induced by a lesion in the ventrolateral thalamus. We report a case of caudal cingulate infarction manifesting astasia. Case Presentation A 58-year-old male presented with inability to sit, stand and walk (astasia). No apparent motor weakness was noticed in the extremities. MRI revealed cerebral infarction in the caudal cingulate gyrus, which was located between the vertical commissure anterior (VCA) line and vertical commissure posterior (VPC) line. His symptoms persisted for 1 year to a lesser degree. Conclusion Lesions in the caudal cingulate gyrus can present with astasia. The responsible lesion is located in the cingulate gyrus between the VCA and VPC line, which might correspond to the caudal cingulate zone in humans. We should keep in mind that astasia can be a presenting symptom of stroke. PMID:24575027

  17. Psoriasis: pathophysiology and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Kaminski, M J; Pulitzer, D R; Hu, J; Thomas, H F

    1996-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, remitting and relapsing inflammatory skin disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. Psoriasis affects 1-3% of the world's population in their early lives representing a disabling condition with significant social and economic impact. Despite a great deal of research on the etiology and tissue destruction mechanisms, the disease is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to provide current information from the literature with a special focus on oral manifestations. The major signs and symptoms presented in the oral environment of a psoriasis patient may include geographic tongue, fissure tongue, gingival and/or mucosal lesions. Inflammatory temporomandibular joint lesions have been reported in less than 5% of psoriasis patients. Multiple treatment strategies, be they topical or systemic, have been applied to these patients for symptom relief but not for cure.

  18. The chorion ultrastructure of ova of Lophius spp.

    PubMed

    Colmenero, A I; Tuset, V M; Fortuño, J-M; Sánchez, P

    2015-06-01

    The chorion surface ultrastructure of unfertilized eggs of black anglerfish Lophius budegassa and white anglerfish Lophius piscatorius was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Species-specific differences were observed. PMID:25943723

  19. A Model of the Ultrastructure of a Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushell, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents a project for modeling cellular ultrastructure for 14-17 year old students that helps to develop concepts of measurement and scaling in addition to supporting student understanding of cell biology. (Author/YDS)

  20. 78 FR 11877 - Announcement of Requirements Gathering Meetings for the Electronic Manifest (e-Manifest) System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... agency begins the planning stage of the e-Manifest system development process. EPA envisions that e... electronically completing and transmitting manifests through a national, centralized e-Manifest system (71 FR... planning phase to begin the development and ultimately the deployment of the e-Manifest system by 2015....

  1. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  2. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment.

  3. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11-33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1-4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  4. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  5. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kiran; Shilpasree, A S; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-05-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  6. Rare dental manifestation in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Pallavi; Preston, Sally; Brada, Brian; Borris, Thomas; Potter, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked recessive overgrowth disorder with prominent craniofacial manifestations. Macrodontia is also an uncommon dental anomaly that can be an isolated finding and has been associated with numerous systemic conditions and syndromes. This case report describes this previously unreported dental anomaly, macrodontia, in a patient with SGBS, which may broaden the phenotype of this syndrome. A brief review of the literature on orofacial findings associated with SGBS is also presented.

  7. Arrhythmia as a cardiac manifestation in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tamara; Craigen, William J; Moore, Ryan; Czosek, Richard; Jefferies, John L

    2015-09-01

    A 44-year-old female with a diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome had progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on echocardiogram. A Holter monitor demonstrated episodes of non-sustained atrial tachycardia, a finding not been previously described in this population. This unique case of MELAS syndrome demonstrates the known associated cardiac manifestation of LVH and the new finding of atrial tachycardia which may represent the potential for subclinical arrhythmia in this population.

  8. Ultrastructure of immature and mature human oocytes after cryotop vitrification

    PubMed Central

    PALMERINI, Maria Grazia; ANTINORI, Monica; MAIONE, Marta; CERUSICO, Fabrizio; VERSACI, Caterina; NOTTOLA, Stefania Annarita; MACCHIARELLI, Guido; KHALILI, Mohammad Ali; ANTINORI, Severino

    2014-01-01

    In vitro maturation of vitrified immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes is a promising fertility preservation option. We analyzed the ultrastructure of human GV oocytes after Cryotop vitrification (GVv) and compared it with fresh GV (GVc), fresh mature metaphase II (MIIc) and Cryotop-vitrified mature (MIIv) oocytes. By phase contrast microscopy and light microscopy, the oolemmal and cytoplasmic organization of fresh and vitrified oocytes did not show significant changes. GVv oocytes showed significant ultrastructural alterations of the microvilli in 40% of the samples; small vacuoles and occasional large/isolated vacuoles were abnormally present in the ooplasm periphery of 50% of samples. The ultrastructure of nuclei and mitochondria-vesicle (MV) complexes, as well as the distribution and characteristics of cortical granules (CGs), were comparable with those of GVc oocytes. MIIv oocytes showed an abnormal ultrastructure of microvilli in 30% of the samples and isolated large vacuoles in 70% of the samples. MV complexes were normal, but mitochondria-smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates appeared to be of reduced size. CGs were normally located under the oolemma but presented abnormalities in distribution and matrix electron density. In conclusion, Cryotop vitrification preserved main oocyte characteristics in the GV and MII stages, even if peculiar ultrastructural alterations appeared in both stages. This study also showed that the GV stage appears more suitable for vitrification than the MII stage, as indicated by the good ultrastructural preservation of important structures that are present only in immature oocytes, like the nucleus and migrating CGs. PMID:25168087

  9. Ultrastructural changes during asexual multiple reproduction in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Yusof, A; Kumar, S

    2012-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. Its mode of reproduction has always been reported to be binary fission. The high parasite numbers seen in a relatively short period in in vitro cultures led us to believe that there must be other modes of reproduction. The present study for the first time provides transformational evidence at the ultrastructural level seen in tropohozoites of T. vaginalis undergoing a multiple asexual mode of reproduction. The findings show that the single cell with a nucleus is capable of dividing to as many as eight nuclei within the cytoplasmic body. Before the commencement of division, the nucleus remained round or ovoid in shape with condensed chromatin masses and only a few endoplasmic reticula surrounding the nucleus. During the division, the nucleus started to elongate and become irregular in shape with visible chromatin masses condensing with the accumulation of numerous endoplasmic reticula. Nuclear division gave rise to as many as eight nuclei within a cell, which could be seen to be connected by numerous endoplasmic reticula. In addition, a high number of hydrogenosomes and vacuoles can be seen in multinucleated T. vaginalis compared with single nucleated T. vaginalis. This study confirms that multiple modes of nuclear division do exist in T. vaginalis and are a precursor to progeny formation.

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of genitourinary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary cancers are associated with a range of cutaneous syndromes, which can reflect direct metastatic spread, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy or the consequences of treatment. More than 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer occur each year in the United States, and thus the associations with cutaneous involvement are quite well documented-rare metastatic spread, vasculitic and hemorrhagic syndromes. Cancers of the bladder and kidney may be associated with direct cutaneous metastases, vasculitic syndromes, hereditary leiomyomatosis, and other familial syndromes. Testicular cancer occasionally metastasizes to the skin but more commonly is associated with the dysplastic nevus (multiple atypical nevus) syndrome. A structured approach to history-taking, examination, and investigation is essential for optimal management, especially when these syndromes precede the diagnosis of a known malignancy. A brief review of the more common iatrogenic cutaneous complications is provided, and includes Raynaud's phenomenon, purpura, rash, hand-foot syndrome, the consequences of marrow failure, and bleomycin-induced pigmentation. PMID:27178687

  11. Esophageal manifestations of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, A J

    2011-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) may often be associated with various motor disorders affecting the different segments of the digestive tract, including the esophagus. Although it has not been universally reported, some available evidences indicate that pediatric and adult celiac patients could manifest a higher frequency of esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease-related symptoms compared to nonceliac patients. In addition, several published studies have consistently shown the efficacy of a gluten-free diet in rapidly controlling esophageal symptoms and in preventing their recurrence. Since the participation of gluten in the esophageal symptoms of CD seems clear, its intimate mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, and several hypothesis have been proposed, including the specific immune alterations characterizing CD, the reduction in nutrient absorption determining the arrival of intact gluten to distal gastrointestinal segments, and various dysregulations in the function of gastrointestinal hormones and peptides. Recent studies have suggested the existence of a possible relationship between CD and eosinophilic esophagitis, which should be more deeply investigated.

  12. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  13. Skeletal manifestations of infantile scurvy.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Megan; Ives, Rachel

    2006-02-01

    Recent investigations of human skeletal material from the historic St. Martin's cemetery, England, found a range of abnormal lesions in six infants that are almost certainly related to scurvy. Porous and proliferative bone lesions affecting the cranial bones and scapulae were found, and this paper presents images obtained using both macroscopic and scanning electron microscope examination of the lesions. Previous work on infantile scurvy (Ortner et al., 1997-2001) relied heavily on changes at the sphenoid, which is often missing in archaeological bone, so the identification of changes attributable to scurvy on other cranial bones and the scapulae is encouraging. The ability to recognize changes related to scurvy on a range of bones will ensure an enhanced potential for recognition of this disease in future research involving archaeological bone. Research on historical documents from Birmingham dating to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, combined with the probable cases of scurvy identified, supports the view that the paucity of cases of infantile scurvy from the archaeological record reflects a lack of understanding and recognition of bone manifestations, rather than a lack of occurrence in this period. Changes linked to scurvy were only found in infants from the poorer sections of the community from St. Martin's, and this is almost certainly linked to patterns of food consumption and may be related to shortages of potatoes, due to blight, experienced during this period.

  14. Oral Manifestation in Mentally Challenged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, V K; Mathew, Cinil; Jose, Sunil; Thomas, George; Noushad, M C; Feroz, T P Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, mentally challenged children have higher rates poor oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis than the general population. An investigation was undertaken to assess the oral manifestations of mentally challenged children in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 150 children (70 Down syndrome patients and 80 cerebral palsy patients). Of which, 93 patients were males and 57 were females. Results: Speech difficulty hindered the communication between the patient and the dentist. Mastication and swallowing difficulties were also present in few children. Profuse salivation was a cause for drooling of saliva down the cheeks, which was a constant finding in cerebral palsy children. The oral hygiene statuses of the patient were significantly poor. The prevalence of periodontitis was 35.7% in Down syndrome and 55.0% in cerebral palsy patients. Whereas, the prevalence of gingivitis was found to be 92.9% and 61.3% respectively. The prevalence of fractured maxillary anterior teeth was found to be more evident in cerebral palsy patients (62.9%) when compared to Down syndrome patients (0.0%). An increase in age shows an increase in the decayed-missing-filled teeth which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prominent findings like flat nasal bridge (94.3%), hypertelorism (92.9%), high arched palate (78.6%) and fissured tongue (78.6%) in our study, suggest that they could be used as a reliable clinical markers to diagnose Down syndrome condition. PMID:25859105

  15. [Tumorous extragenital manifestation of lymphogranuloma venereum].

    PubMed

    Trebing, Dietrich; Brunner, Martina; Kröning, Yvonne; Seele, Peggy

    2005-06-01

    A 36-year-old homosexual man presented with a 3-week history of pin-head-sized vesicles on the lower lip followed by a tumorous infiltrate, cervical lymphadenopathy and episodic fevers. Laboratory findings included striking leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Serologically,anti-chlamydial antibodies (IgG, IgA,IgM) were present. The histological findings were compatible with a chlamydial infection; PCR examination of the tumor and lymph nodes was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. Treatment with doxycycline (2x 100 mg/daily p.o. for 3 weeks) led to rapid improvement. Lymphogranuloma venereum is a relatively rare, worldwide illness, more common in tropical and sub-tropical zones. In Germany, there are 10-50 cases reported annually but many cases go unreported. The causative organism is Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes L1-3. The transfer occurs through skin or mucous membrane contact with an infected partner. In the advanced stage, the infection can lead to marked internal organ involvement. The special features of our case include the extragenital manifestation and the tumorous appearance of the illness which is very rarely diagnosed in Germany. PMID:15892848

  16. Ultrastructural observations in a case of BK virus nephropathy with viruses in glomerular subepithelial humps.

    PubMed

    Brealey, John K

    2007-01-01

    BK virus nephropathy is a known cause of renal transplant dysfunction and failure. The disease is identified by examination of kidney biopsy tissue utilizing histopathological techniques. Ultrastructural examination of two glomeruli revealed pathology within one glomerulus. Glomerular basement membranes contained subepithelial humps of deposit-like material and BK viruses were identified within this material. Viruses were identified within intertubular capillaries. There was evidence of cytoplasmic clearance of viruses from the glomerular basement membrane by podocytes. The findings may be relevant to the investigation of hump formation and antigen clearance in BK virus nephropathy and postinfectious glomerulonephritis.

  17. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations.

  18. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27005692

  19. Space Launch System Co-Manifested Payload Options for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) has a co-manifested payload capability that will grow over time as the launch vehicle matures and planned upgrades are implemented. The final configuration is planned to be capable of inserting a payload greater than 10 metric tons (mt) into a trans-lunar injection trajectory along with the crew in the Orion capsule and its service module. The co-manifested payload is located below the Orion and its service module in a 10 m high fairing similar to the way the Saturn launch vehicle carried the lunar lander below the Apollo command and service modules. Various approaches that utilize this comanifested payload capability to build up infrastructure in deep space have been explored in support of future asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission scenarios. This paper reports on the findings of the Advanced Concepts Office study team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) working with the Advanced Exploration Systems Program on the Exploration Augmentation Module Project. It includes some of the possible options for habitation in the co-manifested payload volume of the SLS. Findings include a set of module designs that can be developed in 10 mt increments to support these co-manifested payload missions along with a comparison of this approach to a large-module payload flight configuration for the SLS.

  20. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  1. Ultrastructure of mitochondrial nucleoid and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Prachař, Jarmil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter. They are mainly located in the matrix between cristae inside the mitochondrial tube but they are also frequently found close to the inner mitochondrial surface. In tightly packed form, their interior exhibits sophisticated nucleoprotein regularity. The core surroundings form an electron-lucent thick layer which is probably partitioned into separate chambers. We suggest that the morphology of nucleoids mirrors the mode of energy production, glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation. The new high resolution transmission electron microscopy method enabled us to obtain morphological characteristics on yet unpublished level. PMID:27174900

  2. Functional ultrastructure of the plant nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    Nucleoli are nuclear domains present in almost all eukaryotic cells. They not only specialize in the production of ribosomal subunits but also play roles in many fundamental cellular activities. Concerning ribosome biosynthesis, particular stages of this process, i.e., ribosomal DNA transcription, primary RNA transcript processing, and ribosome assembly proceed in precisely defined nucleolar subdomains. Although eukaryotic nucleoli are conservative in respect of their main function, clear morphological differences between these structures can be noticed between individual kingdoms. In most cases, a plant nucleolus shows well-ordered structure in which four main ultrastructural components can be distinguished: fibrillar centers, dense fibrillar component, granular component, and nucleolar vacuoles. Nucleolar chromatin is an additional crucial structural component of this organelle. Nucleolonema, although it is not always an unequivocally distinguished nucleolar domain, has often been described as a well-grounded morphological element, especially of plant nucleoli. The ratios and morphology of particular subcompartments of a nucleolus can change depending on its metabolic activity which in turn is correlated with the physiological state of a cell, cell type, cell cycle phase, as well as with environmental influence. Precise attribution of functions to particular nucleolar subregions in the process of ribosome biosynthesis is now possible using various approaches. The presented description of plant nucleolar morphology summarizes previous knowledge regarding the function of nucleoli as well as of their particular subdomains not only in the course of ribosome biosynthesis.

  3. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  4. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CAT MYOCARDIUM

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Don W.; McNutt, N. Scott

    1969-01-01

    The ultrastructure of cat papillary muscle was studied with respect to the organization of the contractile material, the structure of the organelles, and the cell junctions. The morphological changes during prolonged work in vitro and some effects of fixation were assessed. The myofilaments are associated in a single coherent bundle extending throughout the fiber cross-section. The absence of discrete "myofibrils" in well preserved cardiac muscle is emphasized. The abundant mitochondria confined in clefts among the myofilaments often have slender prolongations, possibly related to changes in their number or their distribution as energy sources within the contractile mass. The large T tubules that penetrate ventricular cardiac muscle fibers at successive I bands are arranged in rows and are lined with a layer of protein-polysaccharide. Longitudinal connections between T tubules are common. The simple plexiform sarcoplasmic reticulum is continuous across the Z lines, and no circumferential "Z tubules" were identified. Specialized contacts between the reticulum and the sarcolemma are established on the T tubules and the cell periphery via subsarcolemmal saccules or cisterns. At cell junctions, a 20 A gap can be demonstrated between the apposed membranes in those areas commonly interpreted as sites of membrane fusion. In papillary muscles worked in vitro without added substrate, there is a marked depletion of both glycogen and lipid. No morphological evidence for preferential use of glycogen was found. PMID:4891913

  5. Respiratory scleroma: a clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sedano, H O; Carlos, R; Koutlas, I G

    1996-06-01

    Respiratory scleroma (rhinoscleroma) is a chronic granulomatous infection produced by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus. This disease is endemic to Africa, Central and South America, South Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and China. Sporadic cases have been reported in the United States, especially in persons who migrated from the aforementioned areas. The majority of cases affect the nose, but extension to the soft and hard palate, upper lip, and maxillary sinuses also is frequent. This study comprises 11 patients (6 females and 5 males) with respiratory scleroma identified over a 6-year period in Guatemala. Their ages ranged from 16 to 60 years. Light microscopy showed a dense plasmacytic infiltrate, Mikulicz histiocytes, and Russell bodies within the plasma cells. Ultrastructural study revealed Mikulicz histiocytes, cytoplasmic vacuoles containing bacilli, and so-called A and B granules. We favor the term respiratory scleroma for this lesion because it affects not only the nose but also the upper and lower respiratory tracts as well as the mouth. PMID:8784898

  6. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    all stages of HIV infection. Fifty-six percent of the cases of ocular toxoplasmosis had simultaneous toxoplasmic cerebritis. Ocular toxoplasmosis responded to standard anti-microbial therapy. Varicella zoster virus retinitis, when manifested by the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome, responded to intravenous acyclovir therapy. Conversely, in a limited number of patients with the progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome, the disease responded poorly to intravenous acyclovir therapy, but appeared to respond to combination foscarnet and acyclovir therapy. Neuro-ophthalmic lesions were present in 6% of the patients with AIDS. The most common cause of a neuro-ophthalmic lesion was cryptococcal meningitis, and 25% of the patients with cryptococcal meningitis developed a neuro-ophthalmic complication. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular manifestations are common in patients with AIDS. CMV retinitis represented a major vision-threatening problem in these patients. While available therapy was successful in initially controlling the retinitis, the phenomenon of relapse resulted in some degree of long-term visual loss. Preservation of the patient's visual acuity in at least one eye was generally successful. Other opportunistic ocular infections were substantially less common than CMV retinitis but require aggressive therapy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719695

  7. [Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Clinical manifestations. Treatment].

    PubMed

    Exeni, Ramón A

    2006-01-01

    Clinical manifestation are described in children with epidemic HUS. The intestinal involvement in the prodromic period, is outlined and the most common disturbances such acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, leucocitosis hypertension, neurological, pancreatic and cardiac manifestations are described. We discuss the acid-base and electrolyte disturbances, metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia. The etiopathogenic treatment and the control of renal sequelae are also discussed.

  8. Teaching about Manifest Destiny: Clarifying the Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiodo, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Manifest Destiny and the expansionist ideals of the United States, especially during the 19th century. Offers a lesson plan that will help students understand the concept of Manifest Destiny, including an assessment activity, how to expand the lesson, an appendix, and references. (CMK)

  9. Unusual clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    George, R; Liam, C K; Chua, C T; Lam, S K; Pang, T; Geethan, R; Foo, L S

    1988-12-01

    Four recent cases of dengue fever with severe, unusual clinical manifestations are described. Two of these cases had features of fulminant hepatitis and encephalopathy; one of these cases was fatal. The two remaining cases showed hepatitis with renal impairment. The significance and importance of these unusual manifestations of dengue disease are discussed.

  10. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  11. Lectin histochemistry and ultrastructure of feline kidneys from six different storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Castagnaro, M; Alroy, J; Ucci, A A; Glew, R H

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the pattern of lectin staining with the ultrastructural features of kidneys from normal cats and 19 cats with 6 different lysosomal storage diseases. The diseases studied include GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)-I and MPS-VI, sphingomyelin-lipidosis (i.e., Niemann-Pick disease) and mannosidosis. Ten different biotinylated lectins were used as histochemical probes for carbohydrate residues and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex as visualant. Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin (Con A) stained mesangial cells in all storage diseases but GM1, epithelial cells in sphingomyelin-lipidosis and mannosidosis, endothelial cells in GM1 and mannosidosis and Bowman's capsule cells in all but GM2. Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I (GS-I) stained the glomerular endothelium in all six diseases, but not in control kidneys. Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) stained the glomerular epithelium only in GM1 and MPS-I. Succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (SWGA) stained the glomerular endothelium and epithelium in mannosidosis, and the glomerular epithelium and Bowman's capsule in MPS-I. Ultrastructure studies demonstrated an accumulation of oligosaccharides in cases of mannosidosis and GM1 gangliosidosis, a mixture of oligosaccharides and lipids in MPS-I, MPS-VI and GM2 gangliosidosis and only lipid storage in sphingomyelin lipidosis. These studies show that morphologic and histochemical changes are manifested in some kidney cell types in lysosomal storage diseases, even though the enzyme deficiency occurs in all cell types. Furthermore, we show that the nature of the undegraded stored material is complex and that other factors, such as rate of membrane turn over, membrane composition, and cell function may influence the amount and nature of the "stored" material. PMID:2892300

  12. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27041545

  14. Monogenic Autoinflammatory Diseases: Concept And Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Adriana Almeida; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to describe the clinical manifestations of the growing spectrum of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases including recently described syndromes. The autoinflammatory diseases can be grouped based on clinical findings: 1. the three classic hereditary “periodic fever syndromes”, familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF); TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS); and mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS); 2. the cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), comprising familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) or CINCA, and; 3. pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA); 4. disorders presenting with skin pustules, including deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA); Majeed syndrome; pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome; deficiency of interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (DITRA); CARD14 mediated psoriasis (CAMPS), and early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (EO-IBD); 5. inflammatory disorders caused by mutations in proteasome components, the proteasome associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) 6. very rare conditions presenting with autoinflammation and immunodeficiency. PMID:23711932

  15. Ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in Porcellio scaber under stress.

    PubMed

    Znidaršič, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-04-01

    Cellular ultrastructure varies in accordance with physiological processes, also reflecting responses to environmental stress factors. Ultrastructural changes of the hepatopancreatic cells in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc or cadmium in their food were identified by transmission electron microscopy. The exclusive structural characteristic of the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to metal-dosed food was grain-like electrondense deposits (EDD) observed in the intercellular spaces and in vesicles of B cells. In addition, hepatopancreatic cells of metal-exposed animals displayed non-specific, stress-indicating alterations such as cellular disintegration, the reduction of energetic reserves (lipid droplets, glycogen), electron dense cytoplasm, ultrastructural alterations of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex and mitochondria.

  16. Ocular manifestations of monoclonal copper-binding immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sejal; Espana, Edgar M; Margo, Curtis E

    2014-01-01

    The dense accumulation of copper in Descemet membrane and lens capsule is the characteristic manifestation of a circulating monoclonal antibody with strong affinity for copper. The overproduction of this monoclonal immunoglobulin may be associated with either multiple myeloma or a benign monoclonal gammopathy. Despite prolonged exposure to elevated serum copper, no other tissues in the body are adversely affected by this redox metal. We describe the clinical and pathological findings in a 46-year-old woman with this disorder.

  17. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  18. Cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1993-10-01

    The smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. The present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ECG) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda. The heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ECG components and pattern are non-distinctive for this species. Ultrastructurally, the sarcomeres, tubular and sarcotubular systems and Purkinje cells resemble closely those observed in larger, less active mammals. Several distinctive features resembling those seen in some other shrews or hummingbirds exist, including reduced quantities of myocyte glycogen, irregularly shaped and tightly packed mitochondria, increased neural and vascular elements in the myocardium, and small size and unusual dispersion of atrial specific granules. These morphologic findings suggest that the remarkable physiologic performance of the heart of Blarina brevicauda is supported by a combination of macroscopic, histologic and cellular adaptations. PMID:8269404

  19. Ultrastructural characterization of the rabbit mandibular condyle following experimental induction of anterior disk displacement.

    PubMed

    Sharawy, M; Ali, A M; Choi, W S; Larke, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that surgical induction of anterior disk displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ) leads to cellular and extracellular alterations consistent with osteoarthritis. Similar findings were also reported in human ADD as well as osteoarthritis of other joints. The purpose of this study was to further characterize these histopathological findings at the ultrastructural level. The right joint of 15 rabbits was exposed surgically and all discal attachments were severed except for the posterior attachment. The disk was then repositioned anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint served as a sham-operated control. Ten additional joints were used as nonoperated controls. Mandibular condyles were excised 2 weeks following surgery and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Experimental condyles showed neovascularization, fibrillation and vacuolation of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells compared to controls. In addition, chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage showed an increase in the amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex suggesting an increase in protein synthesis. The presence of thick collagen fibers in osteoarthritic cartilage supports our previous immunohistochemical results of the presence of type I collagen instead of normally existing type II collagen. It was concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to ultrastructural changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage consistent with degenerative alterations known to occur in osteoarthritis. PMID:10899715

  20. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Postal, Mariana; Costallat, Lilian T L; Appenzeller, Simone

    2011-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a relapsing-remitting autoimmune disease with CNS involvement occurring in up to 75% of patients. However, the frequency of neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE studies varies widely, depending on the type of manifestations included and the method used for evaluation. CNS involvement may be considered primary if directly related to SLE activity in the CNS or secondary when related to treatment, infections, metabolic abnormalities or other systemic manifestations such as uraemia and hypertension. The pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE is as yet unknown, though numerous autoantibodies and cytokines have been suggested as possible mediators. However, independent of the aetiology of the insult, the final common pathway in neuropsychiatric SLE is the involvement of the cerebral microvasculature. The diagnosis of primary CNS involvement by SLE is often difficult, as both focal and diffuse manifestations may occur and there is no gold standard for diagnosis. A high index of clinical suspicion, in addition to laboratory and neuroimaging findings may support the diagnosis. Treatment is mostly empirical, although one randomized controlled trial has shown that cyclophosphamide in addition to methylprednisolone is superior to methylprednisolone alone in severe neuropsychiatric SLE.

  1. Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Ribeiro, A A C M; Loesch, A

    2004-04-01

    The present study investigated the ultrastructural features of the basilar artery of the largest rodent species, the capybara. The study suggests that the general ultrastructural morphological organization of the basilar artery of the capybara is similar to that of small rodents. However, there are some exceptions. The basilar artery of the capybara contains a subpopulation of 'granular' vascular smooth muscle cells resembling monocytes and/or macrophages. The possibility cannot be excluded that the presence of these cells reflects the remodelling processes of the artery due to animal maturation and the regression of the internal carotid artery. To clarify this issue, more systemic studies are required involving capybaras of various ages.

  2. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group. PMID:18817455

  3. [Odontogenic induction and ameloblastoma. Histoenzymological and ultrastructural studies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Vaillant, J M

    1981-01-01

    The ameloblastoma is usually thought to be devoid of any odontogenic capacity. However, the histological, ultrastructural and histoenzymological study of 5 cases demonstrates the fairly high level of differentiation of some ameloblastic cells in such neoplasms. Furthermore, it suggests very early stage of epithelio-conjunctive interaction. The tumours consist, in addition to stellate, squamous, clear and dark epithelial cells, of densely packed peripheral columnar cells similar to the differentiated ameloblasts of the inner epithelium of enamel organ (median nucleus, well-developed rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and lysosomal-vacuolar system located in the distal end of the cells). Besides, the cytoplasmic membrane shows some pocket-like apical invaginations similar to early Tomes processes. On the other hand, similarly to physiological odontogenesis, an abundant amount of granulo-filamentous material is found along the lateral cellular membranes, and the basement membrane. This substance, sometimes, is intermingled with vertical collagenous fibers. In some areas, it is disrupted and cytoplasmic invaginations of epithelial cells, passing through these gaps, are connected with neighbouring mesenchymatous cells. In other respects, despite the lack of any odontoblastic differentiation, the high level of alkaline phosphatase activity found in these cells by means of histo and cytoenzymological technics, looks like that of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. These findings seem to demonstrate the histogenetic unicity of odontogenic tumours. These neoplasms, like the embryonary dental organ, are provided with two types of cells (epithelial and stromal cells). Thus, they are able to induce odontogenesis. But, in ameloblastoma, this power of induction is restricted to a very early stage of odontogenesis.

  4. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings.

  5. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings. PMID:27348896

  6. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  7. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was −0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  8. Paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations: concepts and updates*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josenilson Antônio; Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Lucas, Isabella Cristina Rodrigues Naves; Freitas, Aline Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Campbell, Iphis Tenfuss

    2013-01-01

    The skin often signals systemic changes. Some neoplastic diseases that affect internal organs may trigger several cutaneous manifestations. Although these dermatoses are relatively unusual, the recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may lead to the early diagnosis of a neoplasm and determine a better prognosis. In this review article, we discuss the paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations strongly associated with neoplasms, which include acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, Leser-Trélat sign and paraneoplastic pemphigus. We also review the clinical manifestations of each condition and include updated knowledge on disease pathogenesis. PMID:23538999

  9. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-11-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome.

  10. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  12. Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Trost, L; McDonnell, J

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has many extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. Anyone presenting with IBD should be examined for cutaneous manifestations. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a severe painful ulcerating disease that requires moist wound management and, in the absence of secondary infection, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or both. Infliximab may also be used. Erythema nodosum is a common cause of tender red nodules of the shins. Management includes leg elevation, NSAIDs, and potassium iodide. Oral manifestations of IBD include aphthous stomatitis, mucosal nodularity (cobblestoning), and pyostomatitis vegetans. Treatment should be directed both at the cutaneous lesions and at the underlying systemic condition. PMID:16143688

  13. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, M H A; Khamashta, M A; Merashli, M; Sabbouh, T; Hughes, G R V; Uthman, I

    2016-04-01

    The scope of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has increased dramatically since its discovery in 1983, where any organ system can be involved. Musculoskeletal complications are consistently reported in APS patients, not only causing morbidity and mortality, but also affecting their quality of life. We reviewed all English papers on APS involvement in the musculoskeletal system using Google Scholar and Pubmed; all reports are summarized in a table in this review. The spectrum of manifestations includes arthralgia/arthritis, avascular necrosis of bone, bone marrow necrosis, complex regional pain syndrome type-1, muscle infarction, non-traumatic fractures, and osteoporosis. Some of these manifestations were reported in good quality studies, some of which showed an association between aPL-positivity and the occurrence of these manifestations, while others were merely described in case reports. PMID:26923284

  14. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  15. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  16. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with overlapping Perlman syndrome manifestation.

    PubMed

    Ferianec, Vladimír; Bartova, Michaela

    2014-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome known as exomphalos-macroglossia - gigantism syndrome. Prognosis is good, prenatal diagnosis is important for pregnancy management but might be difficult due to clinical overlap with other syndromes. Perlman syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with high perinatal mortality, most frequent antenatal findings include polyhydramnios, macrosomia, visceromegaly, nephromegaly and foetal ascites. Authors present a case of prenatally diagnosed BWS with severe ascites as first antenatal finding and lethal course, signs more typical of Perlman syndrome. This combination of clinical signs has not been published yet and may contribute to specification of possible prenatal manifestation of BWS. PMID:24215131

  17. Current oral manifestations of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M

    2001-02-01

    The oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection have changed drastically since the introduction of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. Recent studies have documented significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates among HIV-infected patients on HAART. This article focuses on the latest information about the oral manifestations of HIV infection and will discuss the impact of HAART.

  18. Morphological, anatomical, and ultrastructural changes (visualized through scanning electron microscopy) induced in Triticum aestivum by Pb²⁺ treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Lead (Pb) causes severe damage to crops, ecosystems, and humans, and alters the physiology and biochemistry of various plant species. It is hypothesized that Pb-induced metabolic alterations could manifest as structural variations in the roots of plants. In light of this, the morphological, anatomical, and ultrastructural variations (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) were studied in 4-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum grown under Pb stress (0, 8, 16, 40, and 80 mg Pb(2+) l(-1); mild to highly toxic). The toxic effect was more pronounced in radicle growth than on the plumule growth. The SEM of the root of T. aestivum depicted morphological alterations and surface ultrastructural changes. Compared to intact and uniform surface cells in the control roots, cells were irregular and desiccated in Pb(2+)-treated roots. In Pb(2+)-treated roots, the number of root hairs increased manifold, showing dense growth, and these were apparently longer. Apart from the deformity in surface morphology and anatomy of the roots in response to Pb(2+) toxicity, considerable anatomical alterations were also observed. Pb(2+)-treated root exhibited signs of injury in the form of cell distortion, particularly in the cortical cells. The endodermis and pericycle region showed loss of uniformity post Pb(2+) exposure (at 80 mg l(-1) Pb(2+)). The cells appeared to be squeezed with greater depositions observed all over the tissue. The study concludes that Pb(2+) treatment caused structural anomalies and induced anatomical and surface ultrastructural changes in T. aestivum.

  19. Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Li-Xia; Lu, De-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a systemic illness that may affect up to half of all patients. Among the extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, those involving the lungs are relatively rare and often overlooked. However, there is a wide array of such manifestations, spanning from airway disease to lung parenchymal disease, thromboembolic disease, pleural disease, enteric-pulmonary fistulas, pulmonary function test abnormalities, and adverse drug reactions. The spectrum of IBD manifestations in the chest is broad, and the manifestations may mimic other diseases. Although infrequent, physicians dealing with IBD must be aware of these conditions, which are sometimes life-threatening, to avoid further health impairment of the patients and to alleviate their symptoms by prompt recognition and treatment. Knowledge of these manifestations in conjunction with pertinent clinical data is essential for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment. The treatment of IBD-related respiratory disorders depends on the specific pattern of involvement, and in most patients, steroids are required in the initial management. Corticosteroids, both systemic and aerosolized, are the mainstay therapeutic approach, while antibiotics must also be administered in the case of infectious and suppurative processes, whose sequelae sometimes require surgical intervention. PMID:25309080

  20. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela; Leisch, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  1. Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in Euglena cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, S.; Bonaly, J.; Bariaud, A.; Vannereau, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    The ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis grown in the presence of Cd showed only numerous myelin-like structures in mitochondria, chloroplasts altered in shape, and thylakoid arrangement and increase of osmiophilic plastoglobuli. These alterations indicate that respiratory processes are the initial target of Cd toxicity.

  2. Hypertextual Ultrastructures: Movement and Containment in Texts and Hypertexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Rosemarie L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface-level experience of hypertextuality as formless and unbounded, blurring boundaries among texts and between readers and writers, is created by a deep structure which is not normally presented to readers and which, like the ultrastructure of living cells, defines and controls texts' nature and functions. Most readers, restricted to…

  3. Ultrastructural study of Helicobacter pylori adherence properties in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Rudmann, D G; Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S

    1992-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglets identified four general adherence patterns comparable to those observed in human patients. Intimate associations between the bacterial and mucosal cell membranes, including cuplike invaginations and adherence pedestals, were present and were accompanied by alterations to microvilli and cell membrane morphology. Images PMID:1563801

  4. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  5. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  6. Studies on Ultrastructure and Purification of Isolated Plant Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James E.; Elfvin, Lars-G.; Biale, Jacob B.; Honda, S. I.

    1968-01-01

    Sweetpotato mitochondria, that showed respiratory control, were studied with respect to ultrastructure. If fixed in media containing sucrose at 0.4 M, the cristae were dilated and the matrix was highly condensed. A more orthodox ultrastructural form was observed when the mitochondria were fixed in a medium containing sucrose at 0.25 M, i.e., the matrix was more expanded, the cristae were less dilated, and peripherally, the inner membrane element lay adjacent to the outer membrane element. These results are discussed in terms of a sucrose-accessible space (space between outer and inner membrane elements including intracristal space), and a space relatively inaccessible to sucrose (matrix). Ultrastructural shifts were not observed with change in metabolic steady state of the mitochondria. High resolution electron micrographs showed that the ultrastructure of sweetpotato mitochondria is very similar to that of animal mitochondria. Purity and homogeneity of mitochondrial fractions were followed both by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Preparations from sweetpotato, using older methods, were relatively homogeneous with respect to particle type and size, whereas avocado preparations contained a high proportion of chloroplasts and cellular debris. A method of purification involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation was developed. Purified mitochondria exhibited respiratory control and appeared similar to unpurified mitochondria under the electron microscope. Images PMID:16657002

  7. What type of different clinical manifestations can cardiac sarcoidosis present?

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Ayşegül; Maraş, Yüksel; Argüder, Emine; Karalezli, Ayşegül; Hasanoğlu, H Canan; Öğüt, Tuba; Baştuğ, Serdal; Karabekir, Ercan

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is an infiltrative, granulomatous inflammatory disease of the myocardium. Generally, it can be difficult to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis clinically because of the non-specific nature of its clinical manifestations. This property can be based on the presence of any clinical evidence of sarcoidosis in the other organs. We present two cases of cardiac sarcoidosis so as to demonstrate its different clinical manifestations. The first patient displayed no cardiac symptoms; the electrocardiogram showed an incidental right bundle branch block. Her cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed late-phase opaque material enhancement involving the inferior and inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle. The second patient was severely symptomatic in terms of cardiac involvement, and a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed global hypokinesia and septal brightness; his ejection fraction decreased to 45%. These cases highlighted the challenges encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis. CMRI should be considered in all patients who have suspected findings for cardiac involvement.

  8. Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Infection: Navigating CHASM

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Amy C.; Sherman, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This article describes the importance of extra-hepatic systemic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recent findings While most HCV literature focuses on liver injury and fibrosis progression, a spectrum of systemic disease processes, collectively called CHASM (C Hepatitis Associated Systemic Manifestations) are present in a high proportion of infected persons. These include thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves disease, thyroid cancer), cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease), renal disease (MPGN, glomerulosclerosis), eye disease (Mooren’s ulcers, sicca syndrome), skin disease (PCT, vasculitis, lichen planus), and lymphomas (NHL, splenic T-cell), and diabetes. Summary Mechanistic understanding of how HCV leads to CHASM processes could lead to development of new interventions. The role of early HCV treatment and cure may result in preventive strategies for a variety of complex disease states. PMID:26208812

  9. [A child with ictal fear as the primary epileptic manifestation].

    PubMed

    Inutsuka, Miki; Ogino, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Oka, Eiji

    2003-07-01

    We report a 4-year-old boy with ictal fear as his primary epileptic manifestation. Following an arrest of motion, the boy started to scream and struggle with an expression of horror on his face. Oral automatisms appeared around the end of the seizure. Complex visual and gustatory hallucinations and pain in the left leg were also observed. Ictal and interictal scalp EEGs revealed epileptic discharges in bilateral frontal regions. Ictal SPECT (99 mTc-HMPAO) showed hyperperfusion in right medial temporal area. These findings suggest that ictal fear associated with other ictal manifestations such as various hallucinations and oral automatisms resulted from rapid spread of epileptic discharges from frontal lobes to the right anterior temporal region.

  10. Ultrastructure of the Subcutaneous Primo-Vascular System in Rat Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified the primo-vascular system (PVS), a novel vascular network, in rat subcutaneous tissues. Little is known about the subcutaneous PVS (sc-PVS). Here, we examined the ultrastructure of the sc-PVS in the hypodermis at the rat abdominal midline by electron microscopy. On the surface of sc-PVS, we observed three types of cells: microcells (5-6 μm), large elliptical cells (>20 μm), and erythrocyte (3-4 μm). The inside of the sc-PVS was filled with numerous cells, which can be classified into three major groups: leucocytes, mast cells, and erythrocytes. The dense leucocytes and mast cells were easily noticed. The extracellular matrix of the sc-PVS was mainly composed of extensive fibers (79 ± 6.5 nm) tightly covered by micro- (0.5-1 μm) and nanoparticles (10-100 nm). In conclusion, the ultrastructural features, such as the resident cells on and in the sc-PVS and fiber meshwork covered by particles, indicate that sc-PVS might act as a circulatory channel for the flow and delivery of numerous cells and particles. Our findings will help understand the nature of various sc-PVS beneath-the-skin layers and how they relate to acupuncture meridians. PMID:27526159

  11. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  12. Ultrastructural investigation of coelomocytes in representatives of Naidinae and Rhyacodrilinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Envall, Ida; Erséus, Christer; Gustavsson, Lena M

    2008-09-01

    Various types of free-floating cells are found in the coelomic fluid of representatives of several annelid groups. The ultrastructure of these "coelomocytes," however, has been studied to a limited degree. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope to investigate the coelomocytes in specimens of five species of Naidinae and three species of Rhyacodrilinae (all oligochaetous clitellates within the family Tubificidae). These were compared with each other and with previously described coelomocytes of representatives of other oligochaete taxa. Only one distinguishable coelomocyte type was found in the studied specimens: a round to oblong cell without pseudopodia or other appendages, primarily containing membrane-bound granules of varying electron density, a prominent network of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. This type differs to a great extent from most of the previously described coelomocytes, but shows similarities to certain types found in members of Enchytraeidae and Megascolecidae. Although we noticed some variation, we did not find any ultrastructural characters in these cells obviously useful for phylogenetic studies within Tubificidae.

  13. Developmental and Ultrastructural Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp. of Brazilian Leptodactilydae Frogs.

    PubMed

    Attias, Márcia; Sato, Lyslaine H; Ferreira, Robson C; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; de Souza, Wanderley

    2016-09-01

    We described the phylogenetic affiliation, development in cultures and ultrastructural features of a trypanosome of Leptodacylus chaquensis from the Pantanal biome of Brazil. In the inferred phylogeny, this trypanosome nested into the Anura clade of the basal Aquatic clade of Trypanosoma, but was separate from all known species within this clade. This finding enabled us to describe it as Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp., which also infects other Leptodacylus species from the Pantanal and Caatinga biomes. Trypanosoma herthameyeri multiplies as small rounded forms clumped together and evolving into multiple-fission forms and rosettes of epimastigotes released as long forms with long flagella; scarce trypomastigotes and glove-like forms are common in stationary-phase cultures. For the first time, a trypanosome from an amphibian was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a cytostome opening, well-developed flagellar lamella, and many grooves in pumpkin-like forms. Transmission electron microscopy showed highly developed Golgi complexes, relaxed catenation of KDNA, and a rich set of spongiome tubules in a regular parallel arrangement to the flagellar pocket as confirmed by electron tomography. Considering the basal position in the phylogenetic tree, developmental and ultrastructural data of T. herthameyeri are valuable for evolutionary studies of trypanosome architecture and cell biology. PMID:26932133

  14. What's in a name?-"Lipolysosome": ultrastructural features of a lipid-containing organelle.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Theodore C; Manov, Irena; Shaoul, Ron; Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of fatty liver is rising not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. The authors describe the ultrastructure of 12 biopsies from 10 males and 2 females aged 7-18 years. All subjects had fatty liver by ultrasonography and were overweight or obese according to BMI classification. They all had elevated aminotransferases and/or lipid/cholesterol levels, ultimately confirmed by biopsy. Steatosis was mild in 2, moderate in 3, and severe in 7 cases. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 7 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in 5 patients. Lipolysosomes, identified in all 12 biopsies, were defined as fat droplets surrounded by a trilaminar membrane and lipofuscin-like deposits within or adjacent to the enveloping membrane. The lysosome marker CD68 revealed lysosomal activity in all lipolysosomes identified by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural features, here illustrated in diverse human biopsies, enabled lipolysosome classification in 3 types: monolocular (type I), multilocular (type II), and giant multilocular (type III). Type II, previously described in some conditions with abnormal lipid metabolism, was found in all biopsies, though with variable frequency. Type III was observed only in severe steatosis and associated with prominent connective tissue and conspicuous lipofuscin deposits. These new findings demonstrate the presence of lipolysosomes in a variety of fatty livers, in conditions hitherto unknown, in relation to the severity of steatosis, fibrogenic process, autophagy, lipolysis, and lipofuscin formation. PMID:24047346

  15. An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study on the delta antigen associated with the hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Canese, M G; Rizzetto, M; Arico, S; Crivelli, O; Zanetti, A R; Macchiorlatti, E; Ponzetto, A; Leone, L; Mollo, F; Verme, G

    1979-08-01

    Thirteen liver biopsies in which the delta antigen was detected by immunofluorescence were studied by electron microscopy and immune electron microscopy with peroxidase labelled IgG and F(ab1)2 fraction obtained from a human antiserum containing high-titre anti-delta antibodies. The findings were compared with those obtained in 11 HBcAg positive and in two HBsAg negative controls. Neither unique particulate morphology nor any HB virus ultrastructural component were visualised in the delta positive specimens; 20-23 nm naked core particles were observed in 10 of 11 biopsies displaying the HBcAg in immunofluorescence. Delta positive nuclei frequently contained dense round structures of diameter varying between 20 and 30 nm with a soft indistinct edge. These granules did not exhibit characteristic ultrastructural features which enabled them to be distinguished from other granular material observed occasionally in nuclei of normal and diseased livers. However, their association with the delta antigen has been proved by the deposition on identical structures of peroxidase labelled anti-delta antibody. These results suggest that the delta antigen is unrelated to the Dane particle, the putative HB virus. The granules observed in the delta positive nuclei are composed of an amorphous matrix, possibly insoluble aggregates of the delta antigen.

  16. Ultrastructural mitochondria changes in perihematomal brain and neuroprotective effects of Huperzine A after acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiying; Jiang, Mei; Lu, Lei; Zheng, Guo; Dong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to observe the ultrastructural changes of neuronal mitochondria in perihematomal brain tissue and assess the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A (HA, a mitochondrial protector) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Brain hemorrhage was induced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by injecting autologous blood into the striatum and then removing the brains 3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 hours later to analyze mitochondrial ultrastructure in a blinded manner. Parallel groups of ICH rats were treated with HA or saline immediately after ICH. Perihematomal apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation were tracked by immunoblots, and neurobehavioral test results were compared between the groups. Results Mitochondria in perihematomal neurons demonstrated dramatic changes including mitochondrial swelling, intracristal dilation, and decreased matrix density. HA treatment decreased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis, inhibited caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation, and improved behavioral recovery. Conclusion These data show that ICH induces dramatic mitochondrial damage, and HA exhibits protective effects possibly through ameliorating mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest a new direction for novel therapeutics. PMID:26508860

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic wave exposure induces ultrastructural damage and upregulated expression of heat shock protein 70 in the rat adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Ren, Dong-Qing; Yi, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Yong-Bin; Li, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Gui-Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural damage and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the rat adenohypophysis following pulsed electromagnetic wave (PEMW) exposure. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(4) pulses of PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure. Whole body radiation of 1 x 10(4) pulses, 1 x 10(5) pulses and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW were delivered with a field strength of 100 kV/m. The rats in each group (n=6 in each) were sacrificed 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after PEMW exposure. Transmission electron microscopy was then used to detect the ultrastructural changes and immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of HSP70. Cellular damage, including mitochondrial vacuolation occurred as early as 12 h after PEMW exposure.More severe cellular damages, including cell degeneration and necrosis, occurred 24 and 48 h after PEMW exposure. The PEMW-induced cellular damage increased as the number of PEMW pulses increased. In addition, the expression of HSP70 significantly increased following PEMW exposure and peaked after 12 h. These findings suggested that PEMW induced ultrastructural damages in the rat adenohypophysis and that HSP70 may have contributed to the PEMW-induced adenohypophyseal damage.

  19. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  20. Ultrastructure of poison glands of South American frogs: a comparison between Physalaemus albonotatus and Leptodactylus chaquensis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz; Delfino, Giovanni; Nosi, Daniele; Terreni, Alessandro

    2005-02-01

    Serous (poison) cutaneous glands of the leptodactylid species Physalaemus albonotatus and Leptodactylus chaquensis were compared using light and transmission electron microscopy. Glands in the two species share structural traits common in anurans, including the peripheral contractile sheath (myoepithelium) and the syncytial secretory unit that produces, stores, and modifies the poison. At the ultrastructural level, early steps of poison production are also similar and fit the usual path of proteosynthesis, involving rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi stacks (dictyosomes) in the peripheral syncytial cytoplasm. However, several differences are obvious during the maturational processes that lead post-Golgian products to their ultimate ultrastructural traits. In P. albonotatus, the dense product released from the dictyosomes acquires a thick repeating substructure, which, however, becomes looser in the inner portion of the syncytium. In L. chaquensis, serous maturation involves gradual condensation, and opaque, somewhat "vacuolized" granules are formed. These different maturational paths expressed during poison manufacturing in the two species agree with the polyphyletic origin of the family Leptodactylidae. On the other hand, data collected for P. albonotatus fit previous findings from P. biligonigerus and stress the view that poisons produced by congeneric species share similar (or identical) ultrastructural features. PMID:15614827

  1. Effect of rapid freezing-thawing techniques on the sperm parameters and ultrastructure of Chinese Taihang black goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liguang; Ren, Youshe; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Xun, Wenjuan; Yue, Wenbin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Rujie

    2014-02-01

    Supercooling sperm in liquid nitrogen vapour is a feasible and economic technique for the practical production. The study aimed to reveal the negative effects of this rapid freezing and thawing processes on Taihang black goat spermatozoa and to find out the changing of spermatozoa motility and ultrastructure by using CASA and TEM. Qualified semen samples, which collected from twenty Chinese Taihang black goats using artificial vagina were pooled and investigated the kinematics parameters and ultrastructural morphology. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused a significant reduction in the spermatozoon total motility (P<0.001), in rapid and medium cell numbers (P<0.001) and motility parameters (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and BCF) (P<0.01). Immotile spermatozoa number was increased significantly after freezing-thawing (P<0.001). In the ultrastructural analysis, the shape with a sperm nucleus characterized by ruptures, bend and deformity was observed. The plasma membranes were broken, and nucleoplasm erupted. The mitochondria in the middle piece were disturbed by partial absence or additional accumulations. Swelling, coiling, vacuolization and structural disorganization of mitochondria were also observed. In conclusion, Freezing-thawing procedure has a detrimental effect on motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria of goat spermatozoa. Transmission electron microscopy provides an intuitive observation to investigate deformity spermatozoa.

  2. Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172

  3. Cutaneous manifestations of marantic endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Kimyai-Asadi, A; Usman, A; Milani, F

    2000-04-01

    cerebral infarctions in three distinct areas of the brain. These included the left occipitotemporal area, the right parieto-occipital area, and the right posterior frontal region. The regions affected were in the distribution of both the anterior and posterior circulation. No evidence of hemorrhage was noted. The patient subsequently complained of abdominal discomfort. A computerized tomogram of the abdomen with oral and intravenous contrast revealed a 4-cm x 3-cm irregular mass in the tail of the pancreas with several low-attenuation lesions throughout the liver which were consistent with infarctions or metastases. Several splenic infarctions were also present. A biopsy of the tumor revealed pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The patient's carcinoembryonic antigen level was 18. 4 ng/mL (0-3) and the CA 19-9 antigen level was 207,000 U/mL (0-36). The alpha-fetoprotein level was normal. Other significant laboratory findings included a prothrombin time of 16.7 (international normalized ratio, 1.4), an activated partial thromboplastin time of 32 (ratio, 1.3), and a platelet count of 85,000/mm3. The Russell viper venom time, sedimentation rate, and C3 levels were normal, and the patient was negative for antinuclear antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies, and antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. Of note, the patient was not receiving any anticoagulation. Blood cultures for mycobacteria and fungi, human immunodeficiency virus serology, and urinalysis and culture were negative. The patient subsequently developed an inferior wall myocardial infarction and was transferred to the coronary care unit. In line with the family's request, aggressive care was ceased and the patient expired. The patient's family refused an autopsy.

  4. Pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The case of neurological sarcocystosis in a nine months old bull calf that died in 1982 was restudied. The bull was suspected to have rabies. Therefore, only brain was examined histologically. Thirty four years later, we restudied sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of brain. Numerous schizonts a...

  5. Q-switched ruby laser irradiation of normal human skin. Histologic and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Hruza, G J; Dover, J S; Flotte, T J; Goetschkes, M; Watanabe, S; Anderson, R R

    1991-12-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser is used for treatment of tatoos. The effects of Q-switched ruby laser pulses on sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, as well as senile lentigines, were investigated with clinical observation, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A pinpricklike sensation occurred at radiant exposures as low as 0.2 J/cm2. Immediate erythema, delayed edema, and immediate whitening occurred with increasing radiant exposure. The threshold for immediate whitening varied inversely with skin pigmentation, ranging from a mean of 1.4 J/cm2 in lentigines to 3.1 J/cm2 in sun-protected skin. Transmission electron microscopy showed immediate alteration of mature melanosomes and nuclei within keratinocytes and melanocytes, but stage I and II melanosomes were unaffected. Histologically, immediate injury was confined to the epidermis. There was minimal inflammatory response 1 day after exposure. After 1 week, subthreshold exposures induced hyperpigmentation, with epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin staining noted histologically. At higher radiant exposures, hypopigmentation occurred with desquamation of a pigmented scale/crust. All sites returned to normal skin color and texture without scarring within 3 to 6 months. These observations suggest that the human skin response to selective photothermolysis of pigmented cells is similar to that reported in animal models, including low radiant exposure stimulation of melanogenesis and high radiant exposure lethal injury to pigmented epidermal cells. PMID:1845279

  6. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats.

  7. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... affected entities Electric Power Distribution.... 221122 Generators of PCB waste. Transportation and... requirements, which uses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest... manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to the manifesting requirements for hazardous waste under...

  8. 14 CFR 121.693 - Load manifest: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Load manifest: All certificate holders. 121... manifest: All certificate holders. The load manifest must contain the following information concerning the... certificate holder....

  9. Nocturnal manifestations of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Colosimo, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although nocturnal disturbances are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the continuum of daytime manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still little evidence in the medical literature to support the occurrence of these complex phenomena in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). Based on the anatomical substrates in APDs, which are considered to be more extensive outside the basal ganglia than in PD, we might expect that patients with APDs encounter the whole range of nocturnal disturbances, including motor, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and neuropsychiatric manifestations at a similar, or even greater, frequency than in PD. This article is a review of the current literature on the problems at nighttime of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. MEDLINE, life science journals and online books were searched by querying appropriate key words. Reports were included if the studies were related to nocturnal manifestations in APDs. Forty articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Differences between these symptoms in APDs and PD are highlighted, given the evidence available about each manifestation. This analysis of nocturnal manifestations of APDs suggests the need for future studies to address these issues to improve the quality of life not only of patients with APDs but the caregivers who encounter the challenges of supporting these patients on a daily basis.

  10. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  11. Freeze-induced membrane ultrastructural alterations in rye (Secale cereale) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.S.; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Freezing injury in protoplasts isolated from leaves of nonacclimated rye (Secale cereale cv Puma) is associated with the formation of the inverted hexagonal (H[sub II]) phase. However, in protoplasts from cold-acclimated rye, injury is associated with the occurrence of localized deviations in the fracture plane, a lesion referred to as the [open quotes]fracture-jump lesion.[close quotes] To establish that these ultrastructural consequences of freezing are not unique to protoplasts, the authors have examined the manifestations of freezing injury in leaves of nonacclimated and cold-acclimated rye by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. At [minus]10[degrees]C, injury in nonacclimated leaves was manifested by the appearance of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and by the frequent occurrence of the H[sub II] phase. The H[sub II] phase was not observed in leaves of cold-acclimated rye frozen to [minus]35[degrees]C. Rather, injury was associated with the occurrence of the fracture-jump lesion between the plasma membrane and closely appressed cytoplasmic membranes. Studies of the time dependence of H[sub II] phase formation in nonacclimated leaves indicated that freeze-induced dehydration requires longer times in leaves than in isolated protoplasts. These results demonstrate that the freeze-induced formation of the H[sub II] phase in nonacclimated rye and the fracture-jump lesion in cold-acclimated rye are not unique to protoplasts but also occur in the leaves from which the protoplasts are isolated. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Christopher M; Morrison, Annie O; Candelario, Nicole M; Khalafbeigi, Sheva; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-10-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Diagnosis is dependent on histologic identification of fibrosis with atypical elastic fibers, necessitating an invasive peripheral lung wedge biopsy.A 68-year-old male with a history of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presented with an asymptomatic, telangiectatic erythematous eruption on bilateral lower extremities. Biopsies demonstrated a subtle perivascular infiltrate with marked increase in atypical elastic fibers, similar to the elastosis in the patient's lungs.This is the first documented case of cutaneous manifestations in PPFE. Clinicians need to be aware that cutaneous eruptions clinically simulating telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans but lacking a mast cell infiltrate histologically, may have increased abnormal elastic fibers. Thus, early recognition of these lesions in patients with an undefined restrictive lung disorder, may facilitate the diagnosis of PPFE in some patients.

  13. Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Christopher M; Morrison, Annie O; Candelario, Nicole M; Khalafbeigi, Sheva; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-10-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Diagnosis is dependent on histologic identification of fibrosis with atypical elastic fibers, necessitating an invasive peripheral lung wedge biopsy.A 68-year-old male with a history of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presented with an asymptomatic, telangiectatic erythematous eruption on bilateral lower extremities. Biopsies demonstrated a subtle perivascular infiltrate with marked increase in atypical elastic fibers, similar to the elastosis in the patient's lungs.This is the first documented case of cutaneous manifestations in PPFE. Clinicians need to be aware that cutaneous eruptions clinically simulating telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans but lacking a mast cell infiltrate histologically, may have increased abnormal elastic fibers. Thus, early recognition of these lesions in patients with an undefined restrictive lung disorder, may facilitate the diagnosis of PPFE in some patients. PMID:27643829

  14. [Neurological manifestations of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Grachev, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The article describes clinical, including neurological manifestations, of giant cell arteritis (GCA) - granulomatous vasculitis of large and medium-sized vessels, predominantly craniofacial, including precerebral and cerebral, arteries. Histopathological features of GCA are illustrated by the schemes of panarteritis and «postarteritis» (proliferative and fibrotic changes in the intima, underlying the development of cerebrovascular disorders). The main clinical manifestations of GCA are described as 3 groups of symptoms: general constitutional symptoms; manifestations of vasculitis of craniofacial, precerebral and cerebral arteries; polymyalgia rheumaticа. The authors present their own version of the taxonomy of visual disturbances in patients with GCA. Diagnostic steps in patients with suggestive signs of GCA are described. Therapeutic regimens of use of glucocorticoids for suggestion/diagnosis of GCA are presented.

  15. Esophageal and small intestinal manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis. A clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Hendel, L

    1994-09-01

    preserved even in spite of demonstrable small intestinal PSS involvement and that exocrine pancreatic function is frequently reduced, but rarely to a degree of clinical significance. Small intestinal enterocyte function is evaluated according to the ability to hydrolyse folatepolyglutamates and to absorb D-penicillamine, and is in both respects found less than normal. In an ultrastructural evaluation (paper II) the enterocytes presented signs of defective fat transport. PSS manifestations of the gastrointestinal tract are frequent and burdensome to the patient. Omeprazole and new prokinetic drugs have rendered new therapeutic potentialities, which, however, more than ever demand constant surveillance and individualized regulation of treatment.

  16. Oral manifestations of Noonan syndrome: review of the literature and a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar; Yung Yiu, Cynthia Kar; King, Nigel Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) was described by Noonan and Ehmke as a multi-system disorder, which is typically evident at birth. The incidence of this syndrome is estimated to be one per 2500 to one per 1000 and affects both genders. While the clinical manifestations of NS have been well documented, the oral manifestations have not been extensively discussed. The purpose of the present article is to (a) review the oral manifestations of NS reported in the literature, and (b) describe four cases (three females and one male) of NS, who presented with short stature, cardiac problems and various oral findings. Based on these cases, we conclude that many oral anomalies may have possible relationships with NS, which require multidisciplinary treatment planning and timely management. The importance of oral findings in NS has largely gone unnoticed and it is essential to consider oral manifestations as scoring criteria in the diagnosis of NS. PMID:25611289

  17. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576

  18. Lupus as a paraneoplastic manifestation of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    González Amores, Yolanda; Hernando Rebollar, Sofía; Casado Bernabeu, Aida

    2016-05-01

    Tumors originating in the digestive system, like those in other areas, whether solid or otherwise, may present with extradigestive manifestations in the setting of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune condition most commonly involving women of childbearing age. On occasion it represents a paraneoplastic manifestation heralding a primary tumor. Cancer suspicion is therefore a key element for newly diagnosed SLE cases with nonstandard epidemiology even in the absence of suggestive symptoms, and digestive tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26925842

  19. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations.

  20. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF.

  1. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  2. Neonatal lupus syndrome: a case with chondrodysplasia punctata and other unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Austin-Ward, E; Castillo, S; Cuchacovich, M; Espinoza, A; Cofré-Beca, J; González, S; Solivelles, X; Bloomfield, J

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a newborn infant whose mother had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed before pregnancy. The child had clinical manifestations of neonatal lupus as well as chondrodysplasia punctata and other findings that resemble the congenital anomalies associated with the use of oral anticoagulants, with no history of exposure. We speculate that the combined action of the different maternal autoantibodies may produce the whole spectrum of manifestations. Images PMID:9719383

  3. Sickle cell anemia oral manifestations in a Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Saint Clair de Velasquez, Y; Rivera, H

    1997-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a well known hemoglobinopathy which results from a substitution of amino acids in the polypeptidic chain. SCA was considered endemic in certain areas of the world. It has been recognized now that it may have a wide geographic distribution. Few studies have dealt with dental manifestations or complications of SCA (Cox and Soni, 1984). Nevertheless none of them have showed epidemiological data for a large series of oral manifestations. To date, no epidemiological data of our country is available in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the oral manifestations of SCA in a Venezuelan population. Seventeen patients affected were examined at the University Hospital and the Dental Clinic. Age ranged between 1 1/2-48 years. Each patient was haematologically diagnosed by hemoglobin electrophoresis and only homozygous individuals were selected. Each patient was analyzed according to general clinical history, as well as, dental history; clinical and radiological examination using periapical, panorex and bite-wings radiographs. Our results showed that the most affected group was between 20 to 30 years (41.18%). According to sex, females were more affected than males (64.71%). The most common phenotype was mestizo (47.31%). The most frequent type of hemoglobinopathy was Hg-SS and Hg SS-F. The most common soft tissue oral manifestation was buccal mucosa pallor in 77.05%. In addition, the hard tissue findings involved enlarged medullary spaces (70.58%). Cicatritial infarcts were present in 77.05% of cases and the step-ladder effect was demonstrated in 82.35% of cases. Our observations could be due to genetic, environmental, nutritional and geographical factors. PMID:11885236

  4. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D J; O'Donoghue, P J

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an incidental finding rather than a true infection. Images PMID:8432833

  5. Ultrastructural pathology and immunohistochemistry of mustard gas lesion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrali, J.P.; Oglesby, S.B.; Hamilton, T.A.; Mills, K.R.

    1993-05-13

    The ultrastructural pathology of sulfur mustard gas (HD) skin toxicity has been characterized for several in vivo and in vitro model systems. In animal models, the pathology involves the latent lethal targeting of skin basal cells, a disabling of hemidesmosomes and a progressive edema of the lamina lucida, all of which contribute to the formation of characteristic microblisters at the dermal-epidermal junction. However, the effects of HD toxicity on structural proteins of extracellular domains of the dermal-epidermal junction have not been elucidated. We are beginning an immunohistochemical study of these domains in the hairless guinea pig and summarize here the time course effects of HD of three structural proteins: bullous pemphigoid antigen, laminin and Type IV collagen. The results of this combined ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study indicate that proteins of extracellular matrices of the basement membrane are antigenically altered during the development of HD-induced skin pathology and may contribute to the formation of microblisters.

  6. Organic aerogels: A new type of ultrastructured polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; LeMay, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    Organic aerogels with different ultrastructures can be successfully synthesized from the aqueous sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol with formaldehyde or (2) melamine with formaldehyde. In addition, RF aerogels can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to give vitreous carbon aerogels. The (resorcinol)/(sodium carbonate) ratio is the major variable in the RF polymerization while pH and acid type regulate the MF polymerization. Mechanical property, TEM, and surface area data provide evidence that organic aerogels are similar to their silica counterparts. Based upon these data, we are continuing to explore commonalities between inorganic and organic aerogels so that a universal model might be developed for the structure and properties of these unique materials. Such a model would have a major impact upon the materials science community by opening up new routes for the nanodesign of microporous materials with novel compositions, ultrastructures, and properties. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Ultrastructural lesions induced by neptunium-237: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed

    Pusset, D; Fromm, M; Poncy, J L; Kantelip, B; Galle, P; Chambaudet, A; Baud, M; Boulahdour, H

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we are concerned with the 237 isotope of neptunium (237Np), which is a by-product of uranium in nuclear reactors. To study ultrastructural lesions induced by this element, a group of rats were injected with a solution of 237Np-nitrate once a day for 14 weeks. Lesions observed in liver and kidney are described using electron microscopy. Ultrastructural alterations of cellular membranes and intracellular organelles demonstrated the existence of neptunium toxicity. This toxicity was characterized by various lesions, such as cytoplasmic clarification, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, swollen mitochondria, abnormal condensation of nuclear chromatin, and nuclear fragmentations. This study demonstrated the probable induction of apoptosis by neptunium both in liver and kidneys.

  8. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  9. Ultrastructure of mitosis in the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    Schuster, F L

    1975-01-01

    Naegleria gruberi is an amoeboflagellate found in soil; mitosis is restricted to the amoeboid phase of its life-cycle. Ultrastructural examination of mitotic stages has confirmed some aspects of karyokinesis reported in earlier light-microscopic studies and expanded on other features of nuclear division described in electron-microscopic studies of Naegleria. The nuclear envelope remained intact throughout division, the nucleolus persisted, and centrioles were not found. Chromosomes were indistinguishable at the ultrastructural level, nor was any evidence detected of sites of microtubular attachment to possible chromosomes. An interzonal body, formed during separation in two of the nucleolus, was not an invariable feature of mitosis. The same was true of the polar caps, which appeared to be little more than the ends of the mitotic spindle. It is suggested that, in line with comparable situations in other protists, expansion of the nuclear envelope is chiefly responsible for separation of the nucleus into two daughter nuclei.

  10. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  11. Vitiligo in two water buffaloes: histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; De Caprariis, D; Esposito, L; Maiolino, P; Restucci, B; Roperto, F

    1993-02-01

    Vitiligo, a skin disease, characterized by the spontaneous loss of melanin, has been described in several animals as well as in humans. Most of the reports of large domestic animals have dealt with clinical investigations without morphological data. In this report, the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of two cases of vitiligo in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are presented. Interestingly, many of the ultrastructural observations for vitiliginous buffaloes resemble those previously described for other species, e.g., humans, mouse, and chicken. These data suggest that one or more forms of human vitiligo may have a similar etiopathogenesis to that of the buffalo. Therefore, it is proposed that vitiliginous buffalo may prove to be a useful animal model for the human disease.

  12. Cholangitis as an initial manifestation of polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Risa; Nakamura, Masamoto; Tomisato, Kota; Fukuhara, Tomofumi; Kondo, Akiyuki; Nakamura, Shoko; Matsukawa, Shinobu; Yabutani, Akira; Kobashikawa, Kasen; Nakayoshi, Tomokuni; Uchima, Nobufumi; Kosuge, Noritake; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy 89-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with right upper quadrant pain and mild fever. A diagnosis of cholangitis was suspected based on the patient's physical findings and imaging features. Although he received treatment typical for cholangitis, he suddenly died of shock for unknown reasons two months after disease onset. An autopsy revealed a ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm, which had caused lethal intra-abdominal bleeding. In addition, systemic necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries was detected, and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) was diagnosed after the autopsy. Biliary symptoms as the initial manifestation of PAN are extremely rare.

  13. Initial cutaneous manifestations of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rork, Jillian F; Huang, Jennifer T; Gordon, Leslie B; Kleinman, Monica; Kieran, Mark W; Liang, Marilyn G

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, uniformly fatal, premature aging disease with distinct dermatologic features. We sought to identify and describe the initial skin and hair findings as potential diagnostic signs of the disease. We performed a chart review of the structured initial intake histories of 39 individuals with HGPS enrolled in clinical trials from 2007 to 2010 at Boston Children's Hospital, limited to cutaneous history from birth to 24 months. Medical photographs were provided through the clinical trials and the Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database at Brown University Center for Gerontology and Healthcare Research. All 39 patients reported skin and hair abnormalities within the first 24 months of life. Pathologies included sclerodermoid change, prominent superficial veins, dyspigmentation, and alopecia. The mean age of presentation for each finding was <12 months. The most frequently reported skin feature was sclerodermoid change, which commonly involved the abdomen and bilateral lower extremities. Prominent superficial vasculature manifested as circumoral cyanosis and pronounced veins on the scalp and body. Hypo- and hyperpigmentation were observed over areas of sclerodermoid change. Scalp alopecia progressed in a distinct pattern, with preservation of the hair over the midscalp and vertex areas for the longest period of time. HGPS has distinct cutaneous manifestations during the first 2 years of life that may be the first signs of disease. Awareness of these findings could expedite diagnosis.

  14. Considerations on the ultrastructural particularities of the dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Manolea, H; Deva, V; Bogdan, Fl; Moraru, Iren; Pancă, Oana-Adina; Caraivan, O

    2008-01-01

    We realized an ultrastructural study of the cells of the dental pulp, having in view their particularities relative to other types of conjunctive tissue. For this purpose, we selected five cases represented by teeth without subjective or objective symptomatology. Within the paper there are exposed the morphological aspects observed by means of electron microscopy. The results are then discussed in relation with a series of observations made by other researchers regarding the particularities of the pulp cells structures.

  15. Ultrastructure of psammoma bodies of meningioma in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Lipper, S; Dalzell, J C; Watkins, P J

    1979-12-01

    An 8-day-old tissue culture of a human meningioma was studied by electron microscopy. Psammoma bodies were detected in all stages of evolution, affording a unique opportunity for observing the genesis of these structures. Matrix vesicles appeared instrumental in the calcification of a granular extracellular material. Although matrix vesicles are described in both physiologic and pathologic calcification, they have not been previously reported in the very few ultrastructural studies of psammoma bodies in meningiomas.

  16. Pituitary adenomas: immunohistology and ultrastructural analysis of 118 tumors.

    PubMed

    Esiri, M M; Adams, C B; Burke, C; Underdown, R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the immunohistological and ultrastructural features in a series of 118 surgically removed pituitary adenomas all of which were studied immunohistologically using antisera to growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) ACTH, beta FSH, beta LH and beta TSH, and 75 of which were studied ultrastructurally. Results were analysed according to the mode of presentation of patients. Forty-one (35%) of the tumours were from patients with acromegaly or gigantism, ten (9%) from patients with Cushing's syndrome or Nelson's syndrome, 19 (16%) from patients with clinical features associated with hyperprolactinaemia and 48 (40%) from patients with space occupying lesions which appeared clinically to be overtly endocrinologically functionless. By light microscopy, using the immunoperoxidase (PAP) technique, immunoreactive GH was demonstrated in all the tumours from patients with acromegaly or gigantism, immunoreactive ACTH in all tumours from patients with Cushing's syndrome or Nelson's syndrome and immunoreactive PRL in 95% of tumours associated with effects of hyperprolactinaemia. Forty-five percent of the tumours from acromegalic patients contained some PRL-positive cells as well as GH-positive cells. Among the tumours which appeared clinically to be endocrinologically functionless were three tumours (from males) uniformly stained for immunoreactive PRL. Of the remainder, 60% were negative for immunoreactive hormones and 40% contained small numbers of cells which were positive for a variety of immunoreactive hormones. ACTH-cell and PRL-cell tumours had ultrastructural features as described in previous studies. Fifty percent of GH-cell tumours examined at the EM level contained fibrous bodies, while in the remainder these structures were not identified. Tumours with fibrous bodies were more likely to contain PRL as well as GH with immunoperoxidase. All tumours that were endocrinologically functionless and which were examined at the EM level contained

  17. Ultrastructural observations on the differentiation of spermatids in man.

    PubMed

    Holstein, A F

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of the normal development of human spermatids are presented. Eight typical pictures of differentiation of spermatids are described based on cytological details of the acrosome, nucleus and tail. The transient appearance of a spindle-shaped body, connected to the principal piece of the tail, is pointed out. In most cases, malformed spermatids have developmental disturbances of only one component of the cell, e.g. of the acrosome, nucleus or tail. Some typical malformations are described.

  18. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers of rats after exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akuzawa, M.; Hataya, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers were electron microscopically studied in rats forced to run on the treadmill until all-out. When they were mild and limited to relatively small areas, the reconstruction of filaments ensued within 10 days without infiltration of cells. When they were severe and extensive, phagocytes infiltrated in the lesions and removed degenerative sacroplasmic debris from muscle fibers. A little later, myoblasts appeared and regeneration was accomplished in 30 days in much the same manner as in myogenesis.

  19. Oral manifestation of cleido cranial displasia.

    PubMed

    Sberna, M T; De Angelis, D; Laruffa, F; Tettamanti, L; Storti, E

    2012-10-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a congenital hereditary condition caused by a dominant autosomal mutation. The orthodontic management of CCD patients is often complicated by the manifestations associated with the condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral manifestations of patients suffering from CCD. The subjects underwent a thorough clinical evaluation that examined both hard and soft tissue. The subjects also underwent an X-ray examination in order to isolate possible anomalies in the stomach region related to the condition. Case 1 presented with a bilateral cross-bite, retention of deciduous teeth, presence of supernumerary teeth and agenesis. Case 2 presented with bilateral cross-bite, retention of deciduous teeth, and the presence of supernumerary teeth. The individuals in this study represent a broad range of typical CCD manifestations and confirm the close correlation between the mutation at CBFA1 level and the presence or oral-dental alterations. An early diagnosis of CCD is essential and based on clinical manifestations, x-ray evidence and genetic tests. Diagnosing the condition can be difficult in cases where there are no evident morphological signs; however, in most cases, an alteration in the rhythm of deciduous tooth loss is immediately apparent, making a closer collaboration between dentists and geneticists fundamental in achieving early diagnosis. As stated above, the timing of the treatment is crucial in establishing a correct course of treatment that involves extractions, orthodontic surgery and the use of prosthetics. PMID:23076024

  20. Dyslexia in Regular Orthographies: Manifestation and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness,…

  1. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  2. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  3. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  4. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  5. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complete manifest. 122.75 Section 122.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  6. 19 CFR 123.32 - Manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manifests. 123.32 Section 123.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.32...

  7. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manifest discrepancies. 761.215 Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES..., then write the generator's site address in the designated space for Item 5. (2) Write the name of...

  8. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana Sofía; Martínez-Reyes, Cynthia; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús Kazúo

    2009-11-28

    This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy.

  9. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  10. Neoliberalism, Curriculum Development and Manifestations of "Creativity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Juha T.; Uusikylä, Kari; Järvinen, Esa-Matti

    2015-01-01

    There is a manifest tendency for national education policy to follow global economic trends. In many Western industrialized countries, this relationship has intensified or strengthened within the last decades. The strengthening of this relationship has been seen, among other things, as evidence of the growing power of neoliberal ideology. The…

  11. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  12. Innervation of amphibian reproductive system. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Iruzubieta Villagra, Lucrecia; Fernández, Silvia N; Ramos, Inés

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we describe for the first time in anuran amphibians the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of innervation in the female reproductive organs. The observations in Rhinella arenarum revealed the presence of nerve fibers located predominantly in the ovarian hilium and in the oviduct wall. In both organs the nerves fibers are placed near blood vessels and smooth muscles fibers. In the present study the histological observations were confirmed using antibodies against peripherin and neurofilament 200 proteins. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the innervation of the reproductive organs is constituted by unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cells. Axon terminals contain a population of small, clear, translucent vesicles that coexist with a few dense cored vesicles. The ultrastructural characteristics together with the immunopositive reaction to tyrosine hydroxylase of the nerve fibers and the type of synaptic vesicles present in the axon terminal would indicate that the reproductive organs of R. arenarum females are innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  13. Sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis and ultrastructural changes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Yan-Bin; Fan, Rong; Gao, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells and analyzed the relevant mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that a certain concentration of NaB effectively induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell viability and the apoptosis rate. Western blotting was used to detect changes in the Bcl-2 expression level. We observed cell shape changes with microscopy. Immunofluorescence revealed some apoptotic nuclei. Electron microscopy revealed thick nucleoli, chromatin margination, reduced mitochondria, and dramatic vacuoles. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism by which NaB changed the ultrastructure of MCF-7 cells.

  14. Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Westermann, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koenigsdoerffer, Ekkehart; Strobel, Juergen; Dawczynski, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna (internal limiting membrane, ILM) and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes. Twenty-five patients (25 eyes) who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green (ICG)- and 13 brilliant blue G (BBG)-stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Comparing ICG- and BBG-stained membranes, larger cellular fragments were observed at a higher frequency in the BBG group. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites.

  15. Ultrastructural Damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after Low Frequency Sound Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; André, Michel

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii. PMID:24143265

  16. Gliocyte and Synapse Analyses in Cerebral Ganglia of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir Sinensis: Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, P.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. PMID:27734995

  17. Ultrastructural observations on blood vessels surrounding normal and regenerating spinal cord in newt.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, A

    1992-01-01

    The ultrastructural analysis of capillaries surrounding normal and regenerating caudal spinal cords of two species of newt (Triturus vulgaris and T. cristatus) is reported. Around normal spinal cords, capillaries were generally continuous. Surrounding the regenerating spinal cords the various capillaries of the regenerating blastema appeared discontinuous with small or broad gaps along the capillary wall. This was seen even after two months of tail regeneration when the spinal cord was similar to the normal and many axons were myelinating. These morphological findings suggest that during tail regeneration in newts the blood-brain barrier is not very effective. Also extravasating mature and immature blood cells were observed inside regenerating capillaries. Therefore growing capillaries can exchange metabolites and, possibly, growth factors with the nervous tissue and the other regenerating tissues.

  18. Spermatozoa ultrastructure in Sciaenidae and Polynemidae (Teleostei:Perciformes) with some consideration on Percoidei spermatozoa ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gusmão-Pompiani, P; Oliveira, C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2005-06-01

    Spermatozoa ultrastructure was studied in five marines (Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Larimus breviceps, Cynoscion striatus, Micropogonias furnieri, Menticirrhus americanus, Umbrina coroides, Stellifer rastrifer), and one freshwater (Plagioscion squamosissimus) species of Sciaenidae and one species of Polynemidae (Polydactylus virginicus). The investigation revealed that, in all species, spermatozoa display a round head, a nucleus containing highly condensed, filamentous chromatin clusters, no acrosome, a short midpiece with a short cytoplasmic channel, and a flagellum showing the classic axoneme structure (9+2) and short irregular lateral fins. In Sciaenidae, the spermatozoa are type II, the flagellar axis is parallel to the nucleus, the lateral nuclear fossa is double arched, the centriolar complex is outside the nuclear fossa, the proximal centriole is anterior and perpendicular to the distal centriole, and no more than ten spherical (marine species) or elongate (freshwater species) mitochondria are observed. Polynemidae spermatozoa are of the intermediate type with the flagellar axis eccentric to the hemi-arc-shaped nucleus, and exhibit no nuclear fossa, the centriolar complex close to the upper nuclear end, the proximal centriole lateral and oblique to the distal centriole, and one large ring-shaped mitocondrion. The data available show that no characteristic is exclusively found in the spermatozoa of members of the Sciaenidae family when compared to other Percoidei with type II spermatozoa. However, three characteristics were exclusively found in Polynemidae: (1) the hemi-arched nucleus; the positioning of the centrioles; and (2) the ring-shaped mitocondrion. The interrelationships between Sciaenidae and Polynemidae as well as between these two families and other Percoidei are herein discussed. PMID:15936355

  19. Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

  20. 40 CFR 761.212 - Transporter compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manifest that includes the facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new... new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 761.215(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1... description of the rejection in the discrepancy block of the manifest, and the name, address, phone...

  1. 40 CFR 761.212 - Transporter compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manifest that includes the facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new... new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 761.215(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1... description of the rejection in the discrepancy block of the manifest, and the name, address, phone...

  2. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  3. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  4. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  5. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  6. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  7. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  8. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

  9. Ultrastructural co-localisation of vimentin and cytokeratin in visceral glomerular epithelial cells of dogs with glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Vilafranca, M; Ferrer, L; Wohlsein, P; Trautwein, G; Sanchez, J; Navarro, J A

    1995-07-01

    The expression of cytokeratin and vimentin was studied in the glomerular epithelial cells of canine kidneys with and without glomerular abnormalities. Using ultrastructural, immunogold single and double labelling techniques, cytokeratin and vimentin were found together in the visceral glomerular epithelial cells (vGECs) of abnormal kidneys. In normal kidneys, the vGECs expressed only vimentin, and cytokeratin was found exclusively in parietal glomerular epithelial cells (pGECs). These results confirm previous findings in the same animals, obtained by immunohistological staining techniques.

  10. Changes in root gravitropism, ultrastructure, and calcium balance of pea root statocytes induced by A23187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    product was found in mitochondrial cristae in contrast to control ones. The presence of the precipitate in other Ca 2 +-sequestered organelles was not determined. The data presented suggest that at the ultrastructural level, the effects of the Ca 2 + ionophore manifested in the loss of polarity in statocytes may be functionally related to systems that regulate the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. It is evident that significant increase in Ca 2 + level in A23187-treated statocytes may cause a disbalance in the gravisensor system and/or calcium signaling and therefore to abolish gravitropism of pea roots.

  11. General anesthesia causes long-lasting disturbances in the ultrastructural properties of developing synapses in young rats.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, N; Ori, C; Erisir, A; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V

    2010-02-01

    Common general anesthetics administered to young rats at the peak of brain development cause widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in their immature brain. Behavioral studies have shown that this leads to learning and memory deficiencies later in life. The subiculum, a part of the hippocampus proper and Papez's circuit, is involved in cognitive development and is vulnerable to anesthesia-induced developmental neurodegeneration. This degeneration is manifested by acute substantial neuroapoptotic damage and permanent neuronal loss in later stages of synaptogenesis. Since synapse formation is a critical component of brain development, we examined the effects of highly neurotoxic anesthesia combination (isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and midazolam) on ultrastructural development of synapses in the rat subiculum. We found that this anesthesia, when administered at the peak of synaptogenesis, causes long-lasting injury to the subicular neuropil. This is manifested as neuropil scarcity and disarray, morphological changes indicative of mitochondria degeneration, a decrease in the number of neuronal profiles with multiple synaptic boutons and significant decreases in synapse volumetric densities. We believe that observed morphological disturbances of developing synapses may, at least in part, contribute to the learning and memory deficits that occur later in life after exposure of the immature brain to general anesthesia. PMID:19626389

  12. What we know about ocular manifestations of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Fenzl, Carlton R; Li, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a deadly disease caused by several species of ebolavirus. The current outbreak of 2014 is unique in that it has affected a greater number of people than ever before. It also has an unusual geographic distribution. Nonspecific findings such as fever and generalized weakness have traditionally been very common early in the acute phase. Ophthalmic manifestations have also been reported in significant numbers. Conjunctival injection has been identified in both the acute and late phases. Subconjunctival hemorrhage and excessive lacrimation have also been reported. Various forms of uveitis have been associated with the convalescent phase of the disease. When identified in conjunction with other signs such as fever, acute findings such as conjunctivitis may contribute to the diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Ideally, serologic testing should be performed prior to isolation and treatment of these individuals. Considering the prevalence of the current outbreak and the threat of transcontinental spread, ophthalmic health professionals need to be aware of the ocular manifestations of Ebola hemorrhagic fever as well as the associated signs and symptoms in order to prevent further spread.

  13. Dengue infection presenting with central nervous system manifestation.

    PubMed

    Kankirawatana, P; Chokephaibulkit, K; Puthavathana, P; Yoksan, S; Apintanapong, S; Pongthapisit, V

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of dengue virus infection causing an abnormal neurologic presentation. Between 1996 and 1998, all pediatric patients with clinical manifestations of encephalitis-like illness who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital were prospectively studied for any evidence of dengue virus infection. The diagnosis of dengue virus infection was based on mosquito viral isolation and serologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evidence. Of 44 patients with the preliminary diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis, 8 were diagnosed with dengue infection. All of these 8 patients were diagnosed by serology. In addition to the serologic diagnosis, four also had positive PCR, one had positive viral isolation, and one had both positive PCR and viral isolation. Only two patients were diagnosed by serologic evidence alone. All except one had clinical courses and laboratory findings compatible with typical dengue infection. All had obvious encephalitic clinical manifestations with normal cerebrospinal fluid findings except one patient, who had mildly increased cerebrospinal fluid protein. All of these patients recovered completely and had benign clinical courses except one patient, who developed leakage symptoms. None had liver failure. Dengue virus can cause acute encephalopathy with fever. It can masquerade as other types of acute viral encephalitis. However, its clinical course and prognosis are usually favorable.

  14. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. PMID:26460091

  15. [Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: physiopathology, clinical manifestations and genetics].

    PubMed

    Preiss, Yudith; Santos, José L; Smalley, Susan V; Maiz, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by genetic deficiency of the 27-hydroxylase enzyme (encoded by CYP27A1). It plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism, especially in bile acid synthesis and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the liver. Its deficiency causes reduced bile acid synthesis and tissue accumulation of cholestanol. Clinical manifestations are related to the presence of cholestanol deposits and include tendon xanthomas, premature cataracts, chronic diarrhea, progressive neurologic impairment and less frequently coronary heart disease, early onset osteoporosis and abnormalities in the optic disk and retina. An early diagnosis and treatment with quenodeoxycholic acid may prevent further complications, mainly neurological manifestations. This review summarizes cholesterol metabolism related to bile acid synthesis, physiopathology, biochemistry and treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. PMID:25427019

  16. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Julio

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic disease of the human brain. Modern imaging studies, CT and MRI, have defined the diagnosis and characterization of the disease. Through these studies the therapeutic approach for each case may be individualized with the aid of antihelmintics, steroids, symptomatic medicines, or surgery. The use of one or various therapeutic measures largely depends on the peculiar combination of number, location, and biological stage of lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response to the parasites. Although there is not a typical clinical picture of NCC, epilepsy is the most frequent manifestation of parenchymal NCC, whereas hydrocephalus is the most frequent manifestation of meningeal NCC. Eradication of cysticercosis is an attainable goal by public education and sanitary improvement in endemic areas.

  17. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  18. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14-43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias & cardiac manifestations of drugs used to treat IPF. This review will outline evidence of the association between IPF and cardiovascular conditions and attempt to provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. We also discuss the impact of these cardiovascular diseases on patients with IPF including increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27195188

  19. Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal. PMID:22518126

  20. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14–43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias & cardiac manifestations of drugs used to treat IPF. This review will outline evidence of the association between IPF and cardiovascular conditions and attempt to provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. We also discuss the impact of these cardiovascular diseases on patients with IPF including increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27195188

  1. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use.

  2. Fetal cytomegalovirus infection manifesting as transient pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Kiyokoba, Ryo; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sakata, Yukiyo; Hachisuga, Kazuhisa; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-08-01

    We encountered a patient with a fetal cytomegalovirus infection manifesting as pancytopenia and thoracic hypoplasia. The fetal anemia was treated by transfusion via the umbilical cord, and did not progress after 22 weeks' gestation. The neutropenia resolved spontaneously, and only thrombocytopenia was persistent at birth. The severe thoracic hypoplasia led to pulmonary hypertension and required intensive postnatal respiratory management. Our experience suggests that pancytopenia is a possible manifestation in fetuses infected with cytomegalovirus. This may be transient, resolving spontaneously during fetal life; however, caution should be taken with blood counts, particularly platelet counts, after delivery. In addition, clinicians should carefully follow the thoracic volume in cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses and consider the possibility of postnatal severe respiratory insufficiency.

  3. [Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: physiopathology, clinical manifestations and genetics].

    PubMed

    Preiss, Yudith; Santos, José L; Smalley, Susan V; Maiz, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by genetic deficiency of the 27-hydroxylase enzyme (encoded by CYP27A1). It plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism, especially in bile acid synthesis and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the liver. Its deficiency causes reduced bile acid synthesis and tissue accumulation of cholestanol. Clinical manifestations are related to the presence of cholestanol deposits and include tendon xanthomas, premature cataracts, chronic diarrhea, progressive neurologic impairment and less frequently coronary heart disease, early onset osteoporosis and abnormalities in the optic disk and retina. An early diagnosis and treatment with quenodeoxycholic acid may prevent further complications, mainly neurological manifestations. This review summarizes cholesterol metabolism related to bile acid synthesis, physiopathology, biochemistry and treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

  4. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal. PMID:22518126

  5. [Cardiac sarcoidosis - clinical manifestation and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease defined histologically by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown. Heart involvement in the course of sarcoidosis concerns about 5% of patients. The most common manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis are conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and heart failure. The diagnostic algorithm includes performing a clinical history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram. If any of the initial screening investigations yields an abnormality, diagnostics should be continue using advanced imaging techniques: cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nowadays endomyocardial biopsy is not performed routinely.The clinical picture of cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable. Screening for cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed in all patients diagnosed with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis should also be suspected in young patients without a diagnosis of sarcoidosis who present with conduction abnormalities of unknown etiology, because cardiac sarcoidosis may be the first or the only manifestation of the disease. PMID:27591449

  6. [Cardiac sarcoidosis - clinical manifestation and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease defined histologically by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown. Heart involvement in the course of sarcoidosis concerns about 5% of patients. The most common manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis are conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and heart failure. The diagnostic algorithm includes performing a clinical history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram. If any of the initial screening investigations yields an abnormality, diagnostics should be continue using advanced imaging techniques: cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nowadays endomyocardial biopsy is not performed routinely.The clinical picture of cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable. Screening for cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed in all patients diagnosed with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis should also be suspected in young patients without a diagnosis of sarcoidosis who present with conduction abnormalities of unknown etiology, because cardiac sarcoidosis may be the first or the only manifestation of the disease. PMID:27590654

  7. Acute dacryocystitis: another clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Lima, Iluska Augusta Rocha; Curi, Carolina Lemos; Jordão, Livia; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Curi, Andre Luiz Land

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with exposure to domestic cats is hyperendemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A review of the clinical records at our institute revealed four patients with clinical signs of dacryocystitis and a positive conjunctival culture for Sporothrix who were diagnosed with Sporothrix dacryocystitis. Three patients were children (< 13 years of age) and one patient was an adult. Two patients reported contact with a cat that had sporotrichosis. Dacryocystitis was associated with nodular, ulcerated lesions on the face of one patient and with granulomatous conjunctivitis in two patients; however, this condition manifested as an isolated disease in another patient. All of the patients were cured of the fungal infections, but three patients had chronic dacryocystitis and one patient developed a cutaneous fistula. Sporotrichosis is usually a benign disease, but may cause severe complications when the eye and the adnexa are affected. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists in endemic areas, should be aware of the ophthalmological manifestations and complications of sporotrichosis.

  8. Acute dacryocystitis: another clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Lima, Iluska Augusta Rocha; Curi, Carolina Lemos; Jordão, Livia; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Curi, Andre Luiz Land

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with exposure to domestic cats is hyperendemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A review of the clinical records at our institute revealed four patients with clinical signs of dacryocystitis and a positive conjunctival culture for Sporothrix who were diagnosed with Sporothrix dacryocystitis. Three patients were children (< 13 years of age) and one patient was an adult. Two patients reported contact with a cat that had sporotrichosis. Dacryocystitis was associated with nodular, ulcerated lesions on the face of one patient and with granulomatous conjunctivitis in two patients; however, this condition manifested as an isolated disease in another patient. All of the patients were cured of the fungal infections, but three patients had chronic dacryocystitis and one patient developed a cutaneous fistula. Sporotrichosis is usually a benign disease, but may cause severe complications when the eye and the adnexa are affected. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists in endemic areas, should be aware of the ophthalmological manifestations and complications of sporotrichosis. PMID:24810176

  9. Hand Schuller Christian Disease: A Rare Case Report with Oral Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Manjula, M.; Srikant, K.; Goyal, Stuti; Tanveer, Shahela

    2015-01-01

    Langerhan’s Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is disorders which include abnormalities that result from abnormal proliferation of langerhan’s cells or their precursors. LCH is clinically classified into three types-eosinophilic granuloma, Hand Schuller Christian disease and Abt-Letterer- Siwe disease. It is usually manifested in childhood as well as in adulthood. The clinical manifestations are the result of the accumulation and infilteration of the langerhan cells in organs and tissues. Here is a rare case report of 6-year-old boy with extraoral manifestation of exopthalmic right eye and oral manifestation of mobility of teeth and with typical radiological findings. Basing on the clinical, radiological and histopathological examination the diagnosis of Hand Schuller Christian Disease was given. PMID:25738095

  10. Hand schuller christian disease: a rare case report with oral manifestation.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Ch; Manjula, M; Srikant, K; Goyal, Stuti; Tanveer, Shahela

    2015-01-01

    Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is disorders which include abnormalities that result from abnormal proliferation of langerhan's cells or their precursors. LCH is clinically classified into three types-eosinophilic granuloma, Hand Schuller Christian disease and Abt-Letterer- Siwe disease. It is usually manifested in childhood as well as in adulthood. The clinical manifestations are the result of the accumulation and infilteration of the langerhan cells in organs and tissues. Here is a rare case report of 6-year-old boy with extraoral manifestation of exopthalmic right eye and oral manifestation of mobility of teeth and with typical radiological findings. Basing on the clinical, radiological and histopathological examination the diagnosis of Hand Schuller Christian Disease was given.

  11. 40 CFR 264.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b). (b) Significant differences in quantity are... exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the facility must consult... set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b) after it has signed, dated, and returned a copy of the manifest to...

  12. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  13. Catatonia: an unusual manifestation of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Basu, Aniruddha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Sood, Mamta; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease, characterized by abnormal copper accumulation in the human body, may present with psychiatric manifestations in about one-fifth of patients. The authors report a patient with Wilson's disease who initially presented with acute psychosis and later developed catatonic symptoms. The atypical presentation led to a delay in diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment. Wilson's disease can be ruled out in all young patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms for the first time by screening for a Kayser-Fleischer ring.

  14. Dermatologic Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Dedania, Bhavtosh; Wu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects millions of people worldwide, and an estimated 3.2 million people in the United States. HCV is a hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus that causes not only liver disease, but also a significant number of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). Up to 74% of patients affected by HCV will have HCV-related EHMs of some severity in their lifetime. The EHMs vary from simple cutaneous palpable purpura to complex lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphomas and immune-complex deposit diseases causing local and/or systemic complications. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is manifested by multiple systemic organ involvement, mainly skin, kidney, peripheral nerves, and salivary glands, and less frequently causes widespread vasculitis and malignant lymphoma. MC affects up to 3% of HCV-infected patients with cryoglobulinemia of clinical significance, i.e. >6%. Severe disease requires immunosuppressive or plasma exchange therapy. HCV prevalence in the United States in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) was reported to be 66%, much higher than that in general population. Therefore, all patients with PCT should be screened for HCV. The skin rash of PCT varies from large blisters to small vesicles and/or milia on the hands. Skin manifestations due to PCT usually respond to anti‐HCV treatment together with reducing skin sun exposure, avoiding triggers, having routine phlebotomy (especially for people with chronic iron overload states), and using chloroquine. Lichen planus (LP), which typically affects both the skin and oral mucosa is a chronic inflammatory disease of squamous cell origin affecting about 1% of the worldwide population. The prevalence of HCV in patients with LP varies based on geographic location. We review here the basic pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of dermatologic manifestations of HCV. PMID:26357639

  15. Skin Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Brian L.; Chandra, Stephanie; Shih, David Quan

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease that affects the intestinal tract via an inflammatory process. Patients who suffer from IBD often have diseases that affect multiple other organ systems as well. These are called extraintestinal manifestations and can be just as, if not more debilitating than the intestinal inflammation itself. The skin is one of the most commonly affected organ systems in patients who suffer from IBD. The scientific literature suggests that a disturbance of the equilibrium between host defense and tolerance, and the subsequent over-activity of certain immune pathways are responsible for the cutaneous disorders seen so frequently in IBD patients. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of the types of skin diseases that are typically seen with IBD and their respective pathogenesis, proposed mechanisms, and treatments. These cutaneous disorders can manifest as metastatic lesions, reactive processes to the intestinal inflammation, complications of IBD itself, or side effects from IBD treatments; these can be associated with IBD via genetic linkage, common autoimmune processes, or other mechanisms that will be discussed in this article. Ultimately, it is important for healthcare providers to understand that skin manifestations should always be checked and evaluated for in patients with IBD. Furthermore, skin disorders can predate gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may serve as important clinical indicators leading physicians to earlier diagnosis of IBD. PMID:22347192

  16. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia.

  17. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. PMID:27267534

  18. Blood cell findings resembling Bartonella spp.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Marilucia Ruggiero Martins; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Some Bartonella species are able to invade red blood cells (RBC) and may cause persistent infection in the susceptible host. Use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates, inside erythrocytes, the typical triple-walled agents. However, when examining ultrathin sections of blood cells, the authors have, on several occasions, detected intraerythrocytic abnormalities that mimic but are not typical of Bartonella spp. Small endovesicles, pseudoinclusions, cavities, and irregular hemoglobin granules distribution, resulting in regions of increased or decreased electron density, may be observed in the erythrocytes and platelets, which may be confused with bartonellas. So far, detailed ultrastructural findings of Bartonella spp. in blood cells have not yet been described. Aiming to improve TEM interpretation of blood cells changes, in routine examination of blood sections of patients with suspected bartonellosis, the authors studied the morphological findings they have observed, and present their putative nature, according to information in the literature.

  19. Fetal and maternal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: Value of fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Goel, Reema; Aggarwal, Nishant; Lemmon, Monica E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas in various organ systems of the body. Prenatal screening of fetuses of mothers affected with TSC using ultrasonography (US) may detect cardiac lesions. Fetal US is not sensitive for evaluation of the brain. We describe brain MRI findings in a fetus with cardiac rhabdomyomas identified on prenatal screening US. Postnatal brain MRI at 5 days of age demonstrated fetal MRI findings without significant added information. Fetal MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of cerebral manifestations of TSC. Maternal manifestations of TSC in the abdomen or pelvis may also be demonstrated on fetal MRI. PMID:26838171

  20. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  1. Ultrastructural study of cultured ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Zizza, Sara; Mastrodonato, Maria; Blasi, Antonella; Francioso, Edda; Rossi, Roberta; Crovace, Antonio; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (oBM-MSCs) represent a good animal model for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Despite their use as a new therapeutic tool for several clinical applications, the morphological features of oBM-MSCs are yet unknown. Therefore, in this study the ultrastructural phenotype of these cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest and cultured until they reached near-confluence. After trypsinization, they were processed to investigate their ultrastructural features as well as specific surface marker proteins by flow cytometry and immunogold electron microscopy. Flow cytometry displayed that all oBM-MSCs lacked expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR whereas they expressed CD44, CD58, HLAI and a minor subset of the cell population (12%) exhibited CD90. TEM revealed the presence of two morphologically distinct cell types: cuboidal electron-lucent cells and spindle-shaped electron-dense cells, both expressing the CD90 antigen. Most of the electron-lucent cells showed glycogen aggregates, dilated cisternae of RER, moderately developed Golgi complex, and secretory activity. The electron-dense cell type was constituted by two different cell-populations: type A cells with numerous endosomes, dense bodies, rod-shaped mitochondria and filopodia; type B cells with elongated mitochondria, thin pseudopodia and cytoplasmic connectivity with electron-lucent cells. These morphological findings could provide a useful support to identify "in situ" the cellular components involved in the cell-therapy when cultured oBM-MSCs are injected.

  2. Morphology and ultrastructure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shao, Jian; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinming; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa cell morphology and ultrastructure through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome, a short mid-piece, and a long, cylindrical flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 36.11±2.84μm, with a spherical head length of 2.78±0.31μm. The mean anterior and posterior head widths were 2.20±0.42μm and 2.55±0.53μm, respectively. The nuclear fossa was positioned at the base of the nucleus that contained the anterior portion of flagellum and a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centrioles). The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and possessed just one spherical mitochondrion with a mean diameter of 0.65±0.14μm. The spermatozoa flagellum was long and cylindrical, and could be separated into two parts: a long main-piece and a short end-piece. The main piece of the flagellum had short irregular side-fins. The axoneme composed the typical '9+2' microtubular doublet structure and was enclosed by the cell membran e. This study confirmed that B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa can be categorized as teleostean "Type I" spermatozoa; 'primitive' or 'ect-aquasperm type' spermatozoa. To the best of the authers knowledge, this was the first study conducted on the morphology and ultrastructure of B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa.

  3. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  4. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and mature spermatozoa in the flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus (Polycladida, Cotylea).

    PubMed

    Gammoudi, Mehrez; Salvenmoser, Willi; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Tekaya, Saïda; Egger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study investigating spermatogenesis and spermatozoan ultrastructure in the polyclad flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus. The testes are numerous and scattered as follicles ventrally between the digestive ramifications. Each follicle contains the different stages of sperm differentiation. Spermatocytes and spermatids derive from a spermatogonium and the spermatids remain connected by intercellular bridges. Chromatoid bodies are present in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia up to spermatids. During early spermiogenesis, a differentiation zone appears in the distal part of spermatids. A ring of microtubules extends along the entire sperm shaft just beneath the cell membrane. An intercentriolar body is present and gives rise to two axonemes, each with a 9 + "1" micro-tubular pattern. Development of the spermatid leads to cell elongation and formation of a filiform, mature spermatozoon with two free flagella and with cortical microtubules along the sperm shaft. The flagella exit the sperm shaft at different levels, a finding common for acotyleans, but so far unique for cotylean polyclads. The Golgi complex produces numerous electron-dense bodies of two types and of different sizes. These bodies are located around a perinuclear row of mitochondria. The elongated nucleus extends almost along the entire sperm body. The nucleus is wide in the proximal part and becomes narrow going towards the distal end. Thread-like chromatin mixed with electron-dense intranuclear spindle-shaped bodies are present throughout nucleus. The general sperm ultrastructure, the presence of intranuclear bodies and a second type of cytoplasmic electron-dense bodies may provide characters useful for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26534881

  5. Ultrastructural study of cultured ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Zizza, Sara; Mastrodonato, Maria; Blasi, Antonella; Francioso, Edda; Rossi, Roberta; Crovace, Antonio; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (oBM-MSCs) represent a good animal model for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Despite their use as a new therapeutic tool for several clinical applications, the morphological features of oBM-MSCs are yet unknown. Therefore, in this study the ultrastructural phenotype of these cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest and cultured until they reached near-confluence. After trypsinization, they were processed to investigate their ultrastructural features as well as specific surface marker proteins by flow cytometry and immunogold electron microscopy. Flow cytometry displayed that all oBM-MSCs lacked expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR whereas they expressed CD44, CD58, HLAI and a minor subset of the cell population (12%) exhibited CD90. TEM revealed the presence of two morphologically distinct cell types: cuboidal electron-lucent cells and spindle-shaped electron-dense cells, both expressing the CD90 antigen. Most of the electron-lucent cells showed glycogen aggregates, dilated cisternae of RER, moderately developed Golgi complex, and secretory activity. The electron-dense cell type was constituted by two different cell-populations: type A cells with numerous endosomes, dense bodies, rod-shaped mitochondria and filopodia; type B cells with elongated mitochondria, thin pseudopodia and cytoplasmic connectivity with electron-lucent cells. These morphological findings could provide a useful support to identify "in situ" the cellular components involved in the cell-therapy when cultured oBM-MSCs are injected. PMID:26196242

  6. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  7. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of pituitary folliculostellate cells during aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Riccillo, F L; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2000-01-01

    The impact of aging on pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cells is not well known. The aim of the work reported here was to carry out a quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of the FS population in male and female rats during aging and to correlate the findings with possible changes at the ultrastructural level. Young (4 months), old (20 months) and senescent (29 months) Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were sacrificed by rapid decapitation, their pituitaries dissected and processed by both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Serial sections (4 microm) were obtained at different levels and immunostained by means of rabbit anti-S100 serum as the primary antibody and a peroxidase-mediated EnVision System (Dako). Measurement of volume density (VD) and cell density (CD) was made in S100-reacting elements by means of an image analysis system (Imaging Technology, Optimas). These parameters were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in old and senescent rats as compared to young animals. In senescent females, which presented a high incidence of microprolactinomas, a significant (p < 0.01) increment of VD and CD was observed in FS cells in the area surrounding the adenomas, together with a marked decrease in those parameters within the tumors. Sexual dimorphism was not found except for the prolactinoma-bearing female group. The ultrastructure of FS cells showed the typical characteristics previously described in the pituitary gland. Only moderate changes in the endoplasmic reticulum were observed in old and senescent animals. We conclude that aging has a clear effect on the morphology of the pituitary FS cell population.

  8. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  9. Morphology and ultrastructure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shao, Jian; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinming; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa cell morphology and ultrastructure through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome, a short mid-piece, and a long, cylindrical flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 36.11±2.84μm, with a spherical head length of 2.78±0.31μm. The mean anterior and posterior head widths were 2.20±0.42μm and 2.55±0.53μm, respectively. The nuclear fossa was positioned at the base of the nucleus that contained the anterior portion of flagellum and a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centrioles). The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and possessed just one spherical mitochondrion with a mean diameter of 0.65±0.14μm. The spermatozoa flagellum was long and cylindrical, and could be separated into two parts: a long main-piece and a short end-piece. The main piece of the flagellum had short irregular side-fins. The axoneme composed the typical '9+2' microtubular doublet structure and was enclosed by the cell membran e. This study confirmed that B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa can be categorized as teleostean "Type I" spermatozoa; 'primitive' or 'ect-aquasperm type' spermatozoa. To the best of the authers knowledge, this was the first study conducted on the morphology and ultrastructure of B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa. PMID:27375213

  10. The cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of phagocytes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Jia, Zhihao; Xin, Lusheng; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Phagocytes have been proved to play vital roles in the innate immune response. However, the cellular characteristics of phagocytes in invertebrates, especially in molluscs, remain largely unknown. In the present study, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was employed to sort the phagocytes from the non-phagocytic haemocytes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The cytochemical staining analysis revealed that phagocytes were positive staining for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and myeloperoxidase, while negative staining for toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. The non-phagocytic haemocytes exhibited positive staining for periodic acid-Schiff, weak positive staining for toluidine blue, but negative staining for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and myeloperoxidase. In addition, phagocytes exhibited ultrastructural cellular features similar to those of macrophages, with large cell diameter, rough cell membrane and extended pseudopodia revealed by the scanning electron microscopy, while the non-phagocytic haemocytes exhibited small cell diameter, smooth cell surface and round spherical shape. Transmission electron microscopy further demonstrated that phagocytes were abundant of cytoplasmic bodies and mitochondria, while non-phagocytic haemocytes were characterized as the comparatively large cell nucleus with contorted and condensed heterochromatin adherent to the nuclear envelope. Moreover, compared with non-phagocytic haemocytes, phagocytes exhibited significantly higher levels of intracellular cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interferon-like protein and interleukin-17, and significantly higher abundance of lysosome and reactive oxygen species, which were of great importance to the activation of immune response and pathogen clearance. Taken together, these findings revealed the different cytochemical and ultrastructural features between phagocytes and non-phagocytic haemocytes in C. gigas, which would provide an important clue to investigate the

  11. The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated muscle in the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor.

    PubMed

    Castel, M; Papir, D

    1975-06-13

    The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated fibers of the closer muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor, was studiedmthe muscle is composed of presumably phasic (short sarcomeres) and tonic (long sarcomeres) fibers, the latter greatly predominating. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as an extracellular tracer to delineate the tubular system (TS), and to determine to what extent this system becomes detached from the extracellular space as a result of glycerol treatment. Sarcolemmal clefts invade deeply into the muscle at Z-lines and I-bands; tubules invaginate into the muscle from the clefts and from the surface sarcolemma at the Z-lines, A-I overlaps and A-bands. A tubules are in frequent diadic or tetradic contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), whereas Z tubules appear to be randomly associated with SR, terminal cisterns (TC) and Z-line fibrils. When HRP was administered to normal muscle, black reaction product was found adjacent to the outer surface of the sarcolemma, within the clefts and within profiles of the TS throughout the tissue. In glycerol treated muscle peripheral vacuolation frequently occurred; black reaction product penetrated only as far as the vacuoles and into dilated Z-line tubules, but was virtually absent from the rest of the TS. This lack of continuity between the extracellular space and the A tubules indicated disruption or constriction of the A tubules as a result of glycerol treatment, although Z tubule contact with the extracellular space appeared unimpaired. These findings provide ultrastructural correlates of the electrophysiological changes produced by glycerol treatment of the closer muscle of the ghost crab (Papir, 1973), namely, interference with excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling. The random association of the Z tubules with SR and TC, and their resistance to disruption by glycerol treatment, tend to endorse the claims that the Z tubules in crustacean muscle are not directly involved in e-c coupling (Brandt et

  12. Presynaptic ultrastructural plasticity along CA3→CA1 axons during LTP in Mature Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Jennifer N.; Chirillo, Michael A.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    In area CA1 of the mature hippocampus, synaptogenesis occurs within 30 min after the induction of LTP; however, by 2 hr many small dendritic spines are lost, and those remaining have larger synapses. Little is known, however, about associated changes in presynaptic vesicles and axonal boutons. Axons in CA1 stratum radiatum were evaluated with three-dimensional reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy at 30 min and 2 hr after induction of LTP by theta-burst stimulation (TBS). The frequency of axonal boutons with a single postsynaptic partner was decreased by 33% at 2 hr, corresponding perfectly to the 33% loss specifically of small dendritic spines (head diameters <0.45 μm). Docked vesicles were reduced at 30 min and then returned to control levels by 2 hr following induction of LTP. By 2 hr there were fewer small synaptic vesicles overall in the presynaptic vesicle pool. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was used as a marker of local activity, and axonal boutons containing clathrin-coated pits showed a more pronounced decrease in presynaptic vesicles at both 30 min and 2 hr after induction of LTP relative to control values. Putative transport packets, identified as a cluster of less than 10 axonal vesicles occurring between synaptic boutons, were stable at 30 min but markedly reduced by 2 hr after the induction of LTP. APV blocked these effects, suggesting that the loss of axonal boutons and presynaptic vesicles was dependent on NMDA receptor activation during LTP. These findings show that specific presynaptic ultrastructural changes complement postsynaptic ultrastructural plasticity during LTP. PMID:23784793

  13. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and mature spermatozoa in the flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus (Polycladida, Cotylea).

    PubMed

    Gammoudi, Mehrez; Salvenmoser, Willi; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Tekaya, Saïda; Egger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study investigating spermatogenesis and spermatozoan ultrastructure in the polyclad flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus. The testes are numerous and scattered as follicles ventrally between the digestive ramifications. Each follicle contains the different stages of sperm differentiation. Spermatocytes and spermatids derive from a spermatogonium and the spermatids remain connected by intercellular bridges. Chromatoid bodies are present in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia up to spermatids. During early spermiogenesis, a differentiation zone appears in the distal part of spermatids. A ring of microtubules extends along the entire sperm shaft just beneath the cell membrane. An intercentriolar body is present and gives rise to two axonemes, each with a 9 + "1" micro-tubular pattern. Development of the spermatid leads to cell elongation and formation of a filiform, mature spermatozoon with two free flagella and with cortical microtubules along the sperm shaft. The flagella exit the sperm shaft at different levels, a finding common for acotyleans, but so far unique for cotylean polyclads. The Golgi complex produces numerous electron-dense bodies of two types and of different sizes. These bodies are located around a perinuclear row of mitochondria. The elongated nucleus extends almost along the entire sperm body. The nucleus is wide in the proximal part and becomes narrow going towards the distal end. Thread-like chromatin mixed with electron-dense intranuclear spindle-shaped bodies are present throughout nucleus. The general sperm ultrastructure, the presence of intranuclear bodies and a second type of cytoplasmic electron-dense bodies may provide characters useful for phylogenetic analysis.

  14. Ultrastructure of regenerated bone mineral surrounding hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andre L; Barreto, Isabela C; Maciel, William Q; Rosa, Fabiana P; Rocha-Leão, Maria H; Werckmann, Jacques; Rossi, Alexandre M; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    We report the ultrastructure of regenerated bone surrounding two types of biomaterials: hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite. Critical defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats were filled with micrometer-sized spherical biomaterials and analyzed after 90 and 120 days of implantation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance microscopy, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that hydroxyapatite of both biomaterials became more disordered after implantation in the rat calvaria, indicating that the biological environment induced modifications in biomaterials structure. We observed that the regenerated bone surrounding both biomaterials had a lamellar structure with type I collagen fibers alternating in adjacent lamella with angles of approximately 90°. In each lamella, plate-like apatite crystals were aligned in the c-axis direction, although a rotation around the c-axis could be present. Bone plate-like crystal dimensions were similar in regenerated bone around biomaterials and pre-existing bone in the rat calvaria. No epitaxial growth was observed around any of the biomaterials. A distinct mineralized layer was observed between new bone and hydroxyapatite-alginate biomaterial. This region presented a particular ultrastructure with crystallites smaller than those of the bulk of the biomaterial, and was possibly formed during the synthesis of alginate-containing composite or in the biological environment after implantation. Round nanoparticles were observed in regions of newly formed bone. The findings of this work contribute to a better understanding of the role of hydroxyapatite based biomaterials in bone regeneration processes at the nanoscale.

  15. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing ultrastructural features and cytogenetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Shan; Shen, Qin; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Tu, Pin; Shi, Qun-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized renal neoplasm, which was initially described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but some cases have been reported in otherwise normal kidneys. We report a series of 11 CCPRCC (age range, 33-72 years; male-to-female ratio, 8:3). Follow-up was available for 8 patients. No patients developed local recurrence, distant or lymph-node metastasis, or cancer death. Histologically, all tumors exhibit morphologic features typical of CCPRCC including a mixture of cystic and papillary components, covered by small to medium-sized cuboidal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. All 11 cases exhibited moderate to strong positivity for CK7, CA9, Vim, and HIF-1α, coupled with negative reactions for CD10, P504S, and RCC. We did not find any VHL gene mutations in all 11 cases. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monoploid chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In conclusion, the coexpression of CA9 and HIF-1α in the absence of VHL gene abnormalities in CCPRCC suggests activation of the HIF pathway by mechanisms independent of VHL gene mutation. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monosomies chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases suggesting that at least some of these lesions have demonstrated abnormalities of chromosomes 3. Ultrastructurally, CCPRCC composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of CCRCC suggesting the close pathogenesis relationship of CCPRCC with CCRCC. PMID:24294381

  16. Protective effect of ellagic acid against cyclosporine A-induced histopathological, ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Abdella, Ehab M; Galaly, Sanaa R; Ahmed, Rania H

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressor agent, which is most frequently used in transplant surgeries and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) against CsA-induced testicular histopathology and ultrastructure changes, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity in male albino rats. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group was used as a control, the second group received a subcutaneous injection of slightly alkaline solution, the third group received olive oil orally, the fourth group was injected subcutaneously with EA at a dose of 10 mg/kg b. wt./day, the fifth group was treated with CsA as oral solution at a dose of 15 mg/kg b. wt for 30 days, and the sixth group was treated with CsA simultaneously with EA. Treatment with EA simultaneously with CsA resulted in significant protection. The positive control animals taking CsA alone showed marked histopathological, ultrastructure, and genetic manifestations accompanied by an elevated content of lipid peroxidation and marked reduction of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px) activity, and glutathione concentration in the homogenate of testis tissues. The toxic side effects in testis and bone marrow tissues were greatly ablated with a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation level and elevation in CAT and Px activities and glutathione concentration when using EA. Thus, EA may be used in combination with CsA to improve the histopathological, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity parameters of testicular toxicity induced by CsA due to its antioxidant effects. PMID:27430433

  17. Congenital retrosternal hernias of Morgagni: Manifestation and treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Slepov, Oleksii; Kurinnyi, Sergii; Ponomarenko, Oleksii; Migur, Mikhailo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to scarcity of congenital diaphragmatic hearnias of Morgagni (CDHM), non-specific clinical presentation in the pediatric age group, we aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical manifestations, anatomical characteristics, and develop diagnostic algorithm and treatment of CDHM in children. Materials and Methods: The patients’ records of children with CDHM treated in our hospital during past 20 years were retrospectively reviewed for the age at diagnosis, gender, clinical findings, anatomical features, operative details and outcome. Results: Since 1995 to 2014 we observed 6 (3 boys, 3 girls) patients with CDHM, that comprise 3.2% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernia cases (n = 185). Age at diagnosis varied from 3 mo. to 10y.o. Failure to thrive was main symptom in 4 patients, followed by recurrent respiratory infections (n = 3), dyspnea (n = 3), and gastrointestinal manifestations: constipation (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 1). Work-up consisted of plain X-ray for all (n = 6), upper GI (n = 3), barium enema (n = 2), sonography (n = 6) and CT (n = 2). Abdominal approach used in 5 patients, and thoracotomy in one. Herniated contents were: liver lobes (n = 4), transverse colon (n = 3) and greater omentum (n = 1). 5 had right-sided lesion, 1- left-sided. Defect repaired using local tissues. Post-operative course was uneventful; all patients appeared well during follow-up. Conclusion: CDHM is very uncommon anomaly, very occasionally diagnosed at the early age. Failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory infections are most frequent clinical manifestations. In suspected CDHM we advocate the following work-up: plain chest and abdominal X-ray, contrast study (upper GI series or barium enema), ultrasonographic screen and CT scan. Surgical repair via abdominal approach, using local tissues and hernia sac removal is preferred. PMID:27251653

  18. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Myoung Sook; Kim, Dong Bin

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients' mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection. PMID:27051240

  19. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients’ mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection. PMID:27051240

  20. The Spectrum of Parkinsonian Manifestations Associated With Glucocerebrosidase Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Lopez, Grisel; Vithayathil, Joseph; Davis, Joie; Hallett, Mark; Sidransky, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) result in Gaucher disease and can be associated with a phenotype characterized by adult-onset progressive neurologic deterioration and parkinsonism. Objective To define the clinical and neurologic spectrum of parkinsonian manifestations associated with GBA mutations. Design, Setting, and Patients A prospective case series of 10 patients (7 men and 3 women) with parkinsonism and GBA mutations evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Main Outcome Measures The GBA genotypes were identified by means of DNA sequencing. Tests evaluating neurologic, motor, cognitive, ocular, and olfactory functions were performed and the results were analyzed by a single team. Results Genotyping identified GBA mutations N370S, L444P, and c.84dupG and recombinant alleles. The mean age at onset of parkinsonian manifestations was 49 years (range, 39–65 years), disease duration was 7.8 years (range, 1.2–16.0 years), and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part III score was 26.3 (range, 13–38). Half of the patients reported cognitive changes later in the disease course. Six patients were diagnosed as having Parkinson disease, 3 as having Lewy body dementia, and 1 as having a “Parkinson plus” syndrome. The most frequent nonmotor finding was olfactory dysfunction. Atypical manifestations included myoclonus, electroencephalographic abnormalities, and seizures. Conclusions In the homozygous and heterozygous states, GBA mutations are associated with a spectrum of parkinsonian phenotypes ranging from Parkinson disease, mostly of the akinetic type, to a less common phenotype characteristic of Lewy body dementia. PMID:18852351

  1. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  2. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thomas R.; Sanchez, Carlos G.; Teixeira, Felipe K.; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S.; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A.

    2016-01-01

    i. Summary The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  3. [Ultrastructure and metabolic activity of pea mitochondria under clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Brykov, V A; Generozova, I P; Shugaev, A G

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data on the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration in root apex as well as metabolic activity of the organelles isolated from pea seedling roots after 5-day of clinorotation are presented. It was shown that mitochondrial condensation in the distal elongation zone correlated with an increased rate of oxygen uptake on 7%. We also observed increase in rate of malate oxidation and respiratory control ratio increased simultaneously with a decreased in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Such character of mitochondrial rearrangements in simulated microgravity is assumed to be a consequence of adaptation to these conditions.

  4. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Swiątek, Piotr; Kamińska, Iwona

    2014-11-01

    Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied at the end of their winter dormancy. At this stage, the turions of all species had starch as their main storage material. In contrast with A. vesiculosa, Utricularia turions were rich in protein storage vacuoles, and proteins were also accumulated as crystalline inclusions in the nuclei. All examined species accumulated lipid droplets in cells of epidermal glands.

  5. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  6. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC. PMID:20568987

  7. Ultrastructure of free-ending nerve fibres in oesophageal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Chillida, E M; Rodrigo, J; Mayo, I; Arnedo, A; Gómez, A

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, at the ultrastructural level, the existence of free-ending, intraepithelial nerve fibres has been demonstrated in the oesophagus wall of adult cats and monkeys. Their form, the way they penetrate the epithelium, their location within the epithelium and their relationships with neighbouring cells have been established. A sensory function is suggested for this type of ending. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Figs. 16-17 PMID:7333951

  8. [Ketamine-induced ultrastructural changes in the retina].

    PubMed

    Magdolina, A

    1978-10-01

    Alterations of the retina caused by ketamin were studied in experiment. After a 60-minutes monoanaesthesia with ketamin ultrastructural changes were observed on the inner members of receptor cells, in the three nuclear layers and in the layer of nerve fibres. Severe damage to the structure of the Müller's glial cells providing nutrition to neural-elements was also revealed. Three days after the anaesthesia beside the regression of these alterations, glycogen deposits could be seen in the Müller's cells. This phenomenon and some side effects caused by ketamin can be explained by increased utilization of oxygen and relative hypoxia.

  9. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Swiątek, Piotr; Kamińska, Iwona

    2014-11-01

    Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied at the end of their winter dormancy. At this stage, the turions of all species had starch as their main storage material. In contrast with A. vesiculosa, Utricularia turions were rich in protein storage vacuoles, and proteins were also accumulated as crystalline inclusions in the nuclei. All examined species accumulated lipid droplets in cells of epidermal glands. PMID:24770880

  10. Ultrastructure of metacercarial cysts of six heterophyid trematodes from fish.

    PubMed

    Armitage, M H

    2000-12-01

    The ultrastructure of metacercarial cysts of Ascocotyle sexidigita. A. (Phagicola) diminuta, and Pygidiopsoides spindalis (herein described for the first time) collected from natural hosts in California was compared with that of cysts from A. tenuicollis (also described for the first time), A. pachycystis, and A. leighi collected from natural fish hosts in Mississippi. The results show that none of the cysts studied approximated the thick cyst produced by A. pachycystis, but all cysts comprised several layers of putative glycoprotein except for A. (P.) diminuta, which was associated with a single layer of spongy cyst wall.

  11. Lead induced ultrastructural changes in the testis of rats.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R C; Saxena, D K; Gupta, S K; Chandra, S V

    1991-01-01

    Oral lead administration (250 ppm lead acetate through drinking water) to weaning male rats for 70 days resulted in the marked accumulation of this metal in blood and testicular tissue. No marked changes were evident in light microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were revealed in the form of vacuolisation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm and increase in the number and size of lysosomes. Some of the vacuoles contained vesicle like structures. Although there was no impairment of spermatogenesis, the changes in the Sertoli cells may lead to changes in spermatogenesis after chronic exposure. PMID:1879517

  12. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of peroxisomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliophora.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, B

    1997-01-01

    Peroxisomes of the trophozoites of Balantidium coli isolated from pig intestine content were investigated, using ultrastructural and cytochemical techniques. The peroxisomes of B. coli trophozoites from pigs with subclinical balantidiasis are less then 0.8 mm in diameter whereas those from pigs with acute balantidiasis are greater than 0.8 micron in diameter. In all the trophozoites peroxisomes are round, oval or dumb-bell shaped. Catalase as an indicative enzyme was detected by cytochemical techniques in B. coli peroxisomes. PMID:9643167

  13. Lead induced ultrastructural changes in the testis of rats.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R C; Saxena, D K; Gupta, S K; Chandra, S V

    1991-01-01

    Oral lead administration (250 ppm lead acetate through drinking water) to weaning male rats for 70 days resulted in the marked accumulation of this metal in blood and testicular tissue. No marked changes were evident in light microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were revealed in the form of vacuolisation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm and increase in the number and size of lysosomes. Some of the vacuoles contained vesicle like structures. Although there was no impairment of spermatogenesis, the changes in the Sertoli cells may lead to changes in spermatogenesis after chronic exposure.

  14. Ultrastructural nonisotopic mapping of nucleolar transcription sites in onion protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Melcák, I; Risueño, M C; Raska, I

    1996-01-01

    The post- and preembedding ultrastructural localization of transcribing rRNA genes has been carried out in nucleoli of permeabilized onion growing root tip protoplasts by means of the nonisotopic bromouridine method. By means of both post- and preembedding approaches, major synthetic sites were identified with morphologically distinct subdomains of dense fibrillar components, with some signal also being associated with nucleolar fibrillar centers and vacuoles. Moreover, labeled medusoid fibrils within distinct domains seen in Lowicryl thin sections likely represent the morphological correlate of transcribing nucleolar genes. PMID:8812981

  15. Canalicular adenoma--search for the cell of origin: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis of 7 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Thomas A; Almubarak, Hussain; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Papadimitriou, John C

    2014-04-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is a rare, benign epithelial neoplasm of the salivary glands. Historically considered to be a variant of basal cell adenoma, this "monomorphic" adenoma has a distinct clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical profile. The putative cell of origin remains a topic of debate. A combination of morphology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural analyses have been employed to determine histogenesis, but the interpretations of these studies have implicated multiple different cell types along the salivary gland duct as the cell of origin. The authors sought to further characterize CA using electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and special and immuno-stains on 7 cases. Their morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings support a cell of origin demonstrating features of both the intercalated duct cells and the striated duct luminal epithelial cells.

  16. Ocular manifestations of systemic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Amir; Huang, John J

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation of the eye is often times seen in association with systemic inflammatory diseases. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important as untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. In addition to providing a basic framework for diagnosis and treatment, this review will highlight the ocular manifestations of the following systemic inflammatory conditions: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarteritisnodosa, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, Behçet's syndrome, Kawasaki disease, Cogan's syndrome and relapsing polychondritis.

  17. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  18. Manifestation of optical activity in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Various manifestations of optical activity (OA) in crystals and organic materials are considered. Examples of optically active enantiomorphic and nonenantiomorphic crystals of 18 symmetry classes are presented. The OA of enantiomorphic organic materials as components of living nature (amino acids, sugars, and proteins) is analyzed. Questions related to the origin of life on earth are considered. Examples of differences in the enantiomers of drugs are shown. The consequences of replacing conventional left-handed amino acids with additionally right-handed amino acids for living organisms are indicated.

  19. Skin manifestations of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Robles-Mendez, J C; Vazquez-Martinez, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J

    2015-10-01

    Skin manifestations associated with chronic kidney disease are very common. Most of these conditions present in the end stages and may affect the patient's quality of life. Knowledge of these entities can contribute to establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Severe renal pruritus is associated with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. Nail exploration can provide clues about albumin and urea levels. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a preventable disease associated with gadolinium contrast. Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and secondary hyperparathyroidism, can lead to acquired perforating dermatosis and calciphylaxis, respectively. Effective and innovative treatments are available for all of these conditions.

  20. Neurologic manifestations of iron deficiency in childhood.

    PubMed

    Yager, Jerome Y; Hartfield, Dawn S

    2002-08-01

    Iron deficiency is a common disorder in pediatric patients. Although the most common manifestation is that of anemia, iron deficiency is frequently the source of a host of neurologic disorders presenting to general pediatric neurologic practices. These disorders include developmental delay, stroke, breath-holding episodes, pseudotumor cerebri, and cranial nerve palsies. Although frequent, the identification of iron deficiency as part of the differential diagnosis in these disorders is uncommon and frequently goes untreated. The purpose of the current review is to highlight what is understood regarding iron deficiency and it's underlying pathophysiology as it relates to the brain, and the association of iron deficiency with common neurologic pediatric disease.

  1. Manifest duality for partially massless higher spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin

    2016-09-01

    In four dimensions, partially massless fields of all spins and depths possess a duality invariance akin to electric-magnetic duality. We construct metric-like gauge invariant curvature tensors for partially massless fields of all integer spins and depths, and show how the partially massless equations of motion can be recovered from first order field equations and Bianchi identities for these curvatures. This formulation displays duality in its manifestly local and covariant form, in which it acts to interchange the field equations and Bianchi identities.

  2. Systemic Sclerosis with Multiple Pulmonary Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Parinita; Reddy, Venkata Siva Prasad; Sharma, Tarun; Salim, Nabil Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune multisystem disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and fibroblast dysfunction, which results in progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs more frequently the lungs and gastro intestinal tract. Pulmonary involvement is common in the course of SSc, with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) being the leading causes of death. Here we report, case of an elderly female patient presenting with Diffuse SSc with multiple uncommon pulmonary manifestations like ILD with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern (usually less common), PAH and right sided pleural effusion. PMID:27504339

  3. Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: autopsy findings suggestive of a metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Rossi, Massimiliano; Guibaud, Laurent; Vianey-Saban, Christine

    2016-09-01

    This review highlights the importance of performing an autopsy when faced with fetal abortion or termination of pregnancy with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism. Radiological, macroscopic and microscopic features found at autopsy as well as placental anomalies that can suggest such a diagnosis are detailed. The following metabolic disorders encountered in fetuses are discussed: lysosomal storage diseases, peroxisomal disorders, cholesterol synthesis disorders, congenital disorders of glycosylation, glycogenosis type IV, mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders, transaldolase deficiency, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, hypophosphatasia, arylsulfatase E deficiency, inborn errors of serine metabolism, asparagine synthetase deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia, glutaric aciduria type I, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, glutamine synthase deficiency, sulfite oxidase and molybdenum cofactor deficiency. PMID:27106218

  4. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  5. Periodontal disease: an oral manifestation of psoriasis or an occasional finding?

    PubMed

    Ganzetti, Giulia; Campanati, Anna; Santarelli, Andrea; Pozzi, Valentina; Molinelli, Elisa; Minnetti, Ilaria; Brisigotti, Valerio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Emanuelli, Monica; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Even if the existence of oral psoriasis has been suggested, it is still a debated issue. Indeed, oral inflammatory diseases may histologically resemble psoriasis-related oral lesions. However, an increased prevalence of fissured tongue and geographic tongue has been associated with psoriatic patients, being a transitory and permanent lesion, respectively. Recently, it was hypothesized that gingivitis and periodontitis share the same underlying inflammatory pathogenetic process of psoriasis. Thus, in the present study, psoriatic patients were investigated for oral mucosa lesions prevalence as well as gum disease. Results displayed an increased association between gingivitis/periodontitis and psoriasis, which may suggest common underlying pathogenic risk factors. However, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the real prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in these patients, to consider them a comorbidity of psoriasis.

  6. Case report: bipolar disorder as the first manifestation of CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebrovascular disease, clinically characterized by variable manifestations of migraine, recurrent transient ischemic attack or lacunar strokes, cognitive decline, and mood disturbances. However, manic episodes have rarely been documented as an initial symptom of CADASIL and bipolar disorder presenting as the first manifestation in CADASIL has not been reported previously from evaluations by psychiatrists or psychological testing by psychologists. Case presentation A 53 year old woman developed symptoms of mania in her 50s leading to a personality change involving a continuously labile mood and irritability over a number of years. Neuropsychological testing revealed an intact memory, but impairment in attention and executive function. In the Rorschach test, she showed a high level of cognitive rigidity. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were very consistent with a diagnosis of CADASIL, which was confirmed by genetic testing for NOTCH3 mutations. Atypical antipsychotics proved to be helpful in treating her manic symptoms and for behavior control. Conclusion We present a novel case of CADASIL that first presented as bipolar disorder. We contend that when patients show a late onset personality change or chronically irritable mood that deteriorates over many years, an organic cause such as CADASIL must be considered. Further studies are needed to better understand the exact impacts of cerebral tissue lesions and psychiatric symptoms in CADASIL patients. PMID:24929957

  7. Changes in cell ultrastructure and inhibition of JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway in CBRH-7919 cells with astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Meirong; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Jinjin; Wang, Xiuwen; Liu, Wenbo; Gu, Xinbin; Lv, Changjun

    2012-11-01

    Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophylls carotenoid, possesses significant anticancer effects. However, to date, the molecular mechanism of anticancer remains unclear. In the present research, we studied the anticancer mechanism of AST, including the changes in cell ultrastructure, such as the mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgi complex, and cytoskeleton, the inhibition of Janus kinase 1(JAK1)/transduction and the activators of the transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway using rat hepatocellular carcinoma CBRH-7919 cells. Cell apoptosis was evaluated and the expressions of JAK1, STAT3, non-metastasis23-1 (nm23-1), and apoptotic gene like B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (bcl-xl), proto-oncogene proteins c myc (c-myc) and bcl-2- associated X (bax) were also examined. The results showed that AST could induce cancer cell apoptosis. Under transmission electron microscope, the ultrastructure of treated cells were not clearly distinguishable, the membranes of the mitochondrion, RER, Golgi complex were broken or loosened, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was degranulated. Cytoskeleton depolymerization of the microtubule system led to the collapse of extended vimentin intermediate filament bundles into short agglomerations with disordered distributions. AST inhibited the expression of STAT3, its upstream activator JAK1, and the STAT3 target antiapoptotic genes bcl-2, bcl-xl, and c-myc. Conversely, AST enhanced the expressions of nm23-1 and bax. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AST could induce the apoptosis of CBRH-7919 cells, which are involved in cell ultrastructure and the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  8. Rheumatic manifestations of primary and metastatic bone tumors and paraneoplastic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Waimann, Christian A; Lu, Huifang; Suarez Almazor, Maria E

    2011-11-01

    Bone tumors can show a wide range of nonspecific rheumatic manifestations. The presence of unexplained or atypical chronic bone pain, an enlarging bone mass, neurovascular compression syndromes, or pathologic fractures should alert us to the possibility of a bone tumor causing these symptoms. These patients must undergo a complete physical examination; adequate imaging; and, if needed, a biopsy to confirm their diagnosis and offer them an opportune treatment. In addition, bone tumors and other malignancies can present remote clinical manifestations and unusual laboratory findings (eg, HOA, hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and hypercalcemia) that may be the first and early manifestation of an occult cancer. These findings should motivate a cancer screening according to age, sex, and personal history. Cancer therapies also have a big impact on bone health, increasing the risk of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and/or osteonecrosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of possible long-term adverse events of cancer treatment to avoid future complications.

  9. Material properties of brachiopod shell ultrastructure by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Cusack, Maggie; Zhu, Wenzhong; England, Jennifer; Hughes, John

    2007-02-22

    Mineral-producing organisms exert exquisite control on all aspects of biomineral production. Among shell-bearing organisms, a wide range of mineral fabrics are developed reflecting diverse modes of life that require different material properties. Our knowledge of how biomineral structures relate to material properties is still limited because it requires the determination of these properties on a detailed scale. Nanoindentation, mostly applied in engineering and materials science, is used here to assess, at the microstructural level, material properties of two calcite brachiopods living in the same environment but with different modes of life and shell ultrastructure. Values of hardness (H) and the Young modulus of elasticity (E) are determined by nanoindentation. In brachiopod shells, calcite semi-nacre provides a harder and stiffer structure (H approximately 3-6 GPa; E=60-110/120 GPa) than calcite fibres (H=0-3 GPa; E=20-60/80 GPa). Thus, brachiopods with calcite semi-nacre can cement to a substrate and remain immobile during their adult life cycle. This correlation between mode of life and material properties, as a consequence of ultrastructure, begins to explain why organisms produce a wide range of structures using the same chemical components, such as calcium carbonate.

  10. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M A; Ayala, M E; Fortoul, T I; Bizarro, P; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized form that has been shown to induce toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The reproductive toxicity of vanadium in males was studied through monitoring germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis. We analyzed ultrastructural damage, and testosterone and progesterone concentrations following vanadium tetraoxide administered to male mice for 60 days. Spermatogenesis stages I-III and X-XII frequently showed apoptotic germ cells in control and treated animals; vanadium tetraoxide treatment induced an increase in the number of germ cell apoptosis in stages I-III and XII at 9.4 and 18.8 mg/kg, respectively. Although spermatogenesis is regulated by testosterone, in our study this hormone level was not modified by vanadium administration; thus, germ cell death was not related with testosterone concentration. At the ultrastructural level, we observed inclusion structures that varied as to location and content in the Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:15808796

  11. Ultrastructural alterations during embryonic rats' lung development caused by ozone.

    PubMed

    López, Irma; Sánchez, Ivonne; Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Ustarroz, Martha; Fortoul, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing agent that acts on phospholipids, proteins and sugars of cellular membranes producing free radicals, which cause oxidative damages. The O3 exposure has been used as a model to study oxidative stress, in which the respiratory airways represent the entrance to the organism. In this study, ultrastructural alterations were identified at the bronchiolar level during the intra-uterine lung development, using an O3 exposure model in pregnant rats during 18, 20 and 21 days of gestation. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats, six controls and six exposed to 1 ppm O3 inhalation during 12 h per day, were used. The rats were sacrificed at gestational days 18, 20 and 21; the fetuses were obtained and their lungs dissected. The ultrastructural analysis evidenced swollen mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial cells and structural disorder caused by the oxidative stress. At gestation day 20, flake-off epithelial cells and laminar bodies in the bronchiolar lumen were observed. In the 21-gestation-day group, the mitochondria were edematous and their cristae were disrupted by the damage caused in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:18083976

  12. Ultrastructure of Leydig cells in human ageing testes.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Amat, P; Nistal, M; Martin, A

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of Leydig cells in elderly men revealed the following Leydig cell types: (1) ultrastructurally normal Leydig cells (46.2%); (2) Leydig cells either with multiple cytoplasmic or intranuclear Reinke crystals or with numerous para-crystalline inclusions (6.1%); (3) multivacuolated Leydig cells with the cytoplasm almost filled by lipid droplets (16.7%; (4) dedifferentiated Leydig cells with poor development of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and increased amounts of lipofuscin granules (22.3%); and (5) bi- or trinucleate Leydig cells (8.7%) showing either a normal (2.8%) or dedifferentiated (5.9%) cytoplasm. These results suggest an involution of Leydig cells with advancing age. A correlation between the proportion of altered Leydig cells and the decrease in testosterone and increase in luteinising hormone levels could be observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs. 6-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693056

  13. Ultrastructural study of mixed growth hormone & prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, C; Dinda, A K; Roy, S; Kochupillai, N; Kharbanda, K; Tandon, P N

    1992-08-01

    An ultrastructural study was done on 15 mixed growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas surgically removed from acromegalic patients with hyper-prolactinaemia, in order to see whether the 2 hormones were present in the same cell or in different cells. Double labelling immunogold technique was used for simultaneous ultrastructural localization of GH and PRL. It was found that each neoplastic cell in these 15 tumours (30 to 50 cells were studied in each case) contained 4 populations of granules viz., (i) granules positive for only GH; (ii) granules positive for only PRL; (iii) granules positive for both GH and PRL; and (iv) granules negative for both GH and PRL (unlabelled). Though the relative percentage of these 4 types of granules varied from cell to cell even within the same tumour, the major population (49.9 to 96%) was constituted by the mixed granules showing labelling for both GH and PRL. Almost all the cells examined from each tumour appeared to be mammosomatotrophs. Thus, the study indicated that mammosomatotroph adenomas are perhaps more common among mixed GH and PRL--secreting pituitary adenomas than previously believed. It could be important to recognize these tumours from the therapeutic point of view.

  14. Effect of Hydrofiber wound dressings on bacterial ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hobot, Jan; Walker, Michael; Newman, Geoffrey; Bowler, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Ionic silver has well-proven bactericidal properties, and silver-containing wound dressings are now widely used to aid in the creation of an antimicrobial environment in wounds. The effect of silver ions on bacterial ultrastructure can best be studied by viewing bacterial cells under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Bacterial cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated within a control dressing (e.g. a non-antimicrobial Hydrofiber dressing) (Hydrofiber is a registered trademark of E.R. Squibb and Sons, L.L.C.) and a silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing, followed by processing for TEM. Liquid cultures, with and without silver, were prepared for comparison. The addition of silver to growing bacterial cultures stopped growth of the cells very quickly. Ultrastructurally, the presence of silver was found to affect both the shape of the bacterial nucleoid and the organization of bacterial DNA. X-ray microanalysis of bacteria from liquid cultures showed the presence of silver within silver-treated cells and the absence of calcium. It is suggested that the presence of available silver ions within the Hydrofiber dressing could lead to the loss of cellular ions, vital for maintaining the structural integrity of the nuclear area.

  15. Ultrastructural Changes of the Smooth Muscle in Esophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shraim, Mubarak M; Eid, Refaat A; Musalam, Adel Osman; Radad, Khaled; Ibrahim, Ashraf H M; Malki, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. Despite the advances in the management techniques and neonatal intensive care, esophageal dysmotility remains a very common problem following EA/TEF repair. Our current study aimed to describe the most significant ultrastructural changes of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) trying to highlight some of the underlying mechanisms of esophageal dysmotility following EA/TEF repair. Twenty-three biopsies were obtained from the tip of the lower esophageal pouch (LEP) of 23 patients during primary repair of EA/TEF. Light microscopic examination was performed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and Van Gieson's stains. Ultrastructural examination was done using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histopathological examination showed distortion of smooth muscle layer and deposition of an abundant amount of fibrous tissue in-between smooth muscles. Using TEM, SMCs exhibited loss of the cell-to-cell adhesion, mitochondrial vacuolation, formation of myelin figures, and apoptotic fragmentation. There were also plasmalemmal projections and formation of ghost bodies. Interestingly, SMCs were found extending pseudopodia-like projections around adjacent collagen fibers. Engulfed collagen fibers by SMCs underwent degradation within autophagic vacuoles. Degeneration of SMCs and deposition of abundant extracellular collagen fibers are prominent pathological changes in LEP of EA/TEF. These changes might contribute to the pathogenesis of esophageal dysmotility in patients who have survived EA/TEF. PMID:26548437

  16. Delayed postburn blisters: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, R; David, R; Ramon, Y; Ramon, M; Kerner, H; Kilim, S; Peled, I; Friedman-Birnbaum, R

    1997-08-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to further elucidate the pathogenesis of delayed postburn blistering. Two cases were studied ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically, 1 with blisters on the recipient site of autologous split-thickness skin grafts and the other on the donor site. Ultrastructurally, the basement membrane was on the roof of the blisters in both cases, except for a single small blister in the first case where it was on the dermal floor. In the blister roofs, the basement membrane showed small or marked segments of discontinuity. In the adjacent non-blistered healed skin, the basement membrane was usually continuous, and anchoring fibrils were present. Immunoperoxidase staining on frozen sections, using antibodies to laminin, laminin 5, collagen IV, and collagen VII, showed a mostly continuous linear pattern in the adjacent non-blistered skin, which often became discontinuous near the blisters and markedly discontinuous in the blister roofs. In the blister floors, weakly stained linear or granular deposits of some of these components were sometimes also present. The results of this study support discontinuity of the basement membrane as the main anomaly in delayed postburn blistering. Disturbance in the reassembly or local breakdown of the basement membrane components might be the underlying defect.

  17. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  18. Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

  19. Nanogold labeling of the yeast endosomal system for ultrastructural analyses.

    PubMed

    Mari, Muriel; Griffith, Janice; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2014-07-14

    Endosomes are one of the major membrane sorting checkpoints in eukaryotic cells and they regulate recycling or destruction of proteins mostly from the plasma membrane and the Golgi. As a result the endosomal system plays a central role in maintaining cell homeostasis, and mutations in genes belonging to this network of organelles interconnected by vesicular transport, cause severe pathologies including cancer and neurobiological disorders. It is therefore of prime relevance to understand the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and organization of the endosomal system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been pivotal in this task. To specifically label and analyze at the ultrastructural level the endosomal system of this model organism, we present here a detailed protocol for the positively charged nanogold uptake by spheroplasts followed by the visualization of these particles through a silver enhancement reaction. This method is also a valuable tool for the morphological examination of mutants with defects in endosomal trafficking. Moreover, it is not only applicable for ultrastructural examinations but it can also be combined with immunogold labelings for protein localization investigations.

  20. Ultrastructure of cilia and flagella - back to the future!

    PubMed

    Fisch, Cathy; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale

    2011-06-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella perform motility and sensory functions which are essential for cell survival in protozoans, and to organism development and homoeostasis in metazoans. Their ultrastructure has been studied from the early beginnings of electron microscopy, and these studies continue to contribute to much of our understanding about ciliary biology. In the light of the progress made in the visualization of cellular structures over the last decade, we revisit the ultrastructure of cilia and flagella. We briefly describe the typical features of a 9+2 axoneme before focusing extensively on the transition zone, the ciliary necklace, the singlet zone, the ciliary cap and the ciliary crown. We discuss how the singlet zone is linked to sensory and/or motile function, the contribution of the ciliary crown to ovocyte and mucosal propulsion, and the relationship between the ciliary cap and microtubule growth and shortening, and its relation to ciliary beat. We further examine the involvement of the transition zone/the ciliary necklace in axonemal stabilization, autotomy and as a diffusion barrier.

  1. Ultrastructural observation of oocytes in six types of stony corals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the ultrastructure of the oocytes of 6 types of scleractinian corals was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed to improve our understanding of the organelles involved in coral oocyte formation. In all 6 stony coral species, the microvilli were tubular and directly grew from the surface of the oocyte membrane; yolk bodies, lipid granules, and cortical alveoli accounted for most of the volume inside the oocytes, suggesting that they are associated with energy storage and buoyancy. Clear differences were observed in the size of yolk bodies and lipid granules in the oocytes of the 6 stony coral species, which occupied approximately 55%-80% of the inner space of the oocytes. Galaxea fascicularis exhibited the largest lipid granule volume, but the oocytes contained only an average number of 12.45 lipid granules per unit area. Only Montipora incrassata oocytes contained symbiotic algae. The smallest size and proportion of lipid granules in M. incrassata oocytes may be attributed to the presence of symbiotic algae and large yolk bodies, which may help oocytes produce energy and function as a nutritional source. This study is crucial for improving the understanding of the basic biology of coral reproduction, and the ensuing datasets is critical for conservation-oriented studies seeking to cryopreserve corals during these times of dramatic global climate change. PMID:27265208

  2. Physicochemical design of the morphology and ultrastructure of cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Trygg, Jani; Fardim, Pedro; Gericke, Martin; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose was dissolved in NaOH-urea-water and beads were prepared by coagulation into nitric acid as well as saline solution. Morphology and ultrastructure of the beads were modified by controlling the molarity of the acid (0-10M) and temperature (5-50°C) of the coagulation media and the cellulose concentration (3-7%). The beads were characterized by optical image analysis (shape, volume, and size distribution) and weight (total porosity). Cross-sections of CO2 critical point dried beads were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and specific surface areas of 336-470m(2)g(-1) were determined from nitrogen adsorption isoterms. Pore size distribution was analyzed using solute exclusion technique. Our results demonstrate that the ultrastructure can be controlled by alteration of the coagulation conditions. Changes in size, shape and surface area were substential. Also generation of micro- (⩽2Å), meso-, or macropores (⩾50Å) can be favored.

  3. Cyanobacterial ultrastructure in light of genomic sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C R; Smarda, J; Rippka, R; Axen, S D; Guglielmi, G; Gugger, M; Kerfeld, C A

    2016-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are physiologically and morphologically diverse photosynthetic microbes that play major roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the biosphere. Recently, they have gained attention as potential platforms for the production of biofuels and other renewable chemicals. Many cyanobacteria were characterized morphologically prior to the advent of genome sequencing. Here, we catalog cyanobacterial ultrastructure within the context of genomic sequence information, including high-magnification transmission electron micrographs that represent the diversity in cyanobacterial morphology. We place the image data in the context of tabulated protein domains-which are the structural, functional, and evolutionary units of proteins-from the 126 cyanobacterial genomes comprising the CyanoGEBA dataset. In particular, we identify the correspondence between ultrastructure and the occurrence of genes encoding protein domains related to the formation of cyanobacterial inclusions. This compilation of images and genome-level domain occurrence will prove useful for a variety of analyses of cyanobacterial sequence data and provides a guidebook to morphological features. PMID:27344651

  4. Ultrastructure as a Control for Protistan Molecular Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Taylor

    1999-10-01

    A variety of molecular sequences and treeing methods have been used in attempts to unravel early protistan evolution and the origins of "higher" eukaryotic taxa. How does one know which approach is closest to the real phylogenetic tree? Obviously it is the robustness of its resulting trees, the coherence with other data sets, both structural and molecular, that is the test. Simply put: it should make biological sense. It seems evident, comparing morphology, especially ultrastructure, with ribosomal DNA trees, that the major lineages have now been confirmed. In particular, the remarkably conservative mitochondrial crista type in protists is coherent with mitochondrial DNA sequences. Several amitochondrial groups, presumed to be primitive on the basis of SSU ribosomal DNA, show alarming positional volatility when other genes are used. In addition, the presence of mitochondrial genes in the nucleus of several amitochondrial flagellates raises doubts about them being primordially amitochondrial. Consequently, the root of the eukaryote tree is still in question. A disturbing question arises: can loss of features in parasitism mimic primitiveness not only in a morphological but also in a molecular way, evolving more rapidly and creating long branches that methodologically place them basal in the trees? Conflicting molecular phylogenies cannot be resolved by molecular data alone. Morpholological, especially ultrastructural, data are an essential component of phylogenetic reconstruction.

  5. Cortical ultrastructure and chemoreception in ciliated protists (Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, L A

    1992-08-01

    The ciliated protists (ciliates) offer a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between chemoreception and cell structure. Ciliates resemble chemosensory neurons in their responses to stimuli and presence of cilia. Ciliates have highly patterned surfaces that should permit precise localization of chemoreceptors in relation to effector organelles. Furthermore, ciliates are easy to grow and to manipulate genetically; they can also be readily studied biochemically and by electrophysiological techniques. This review contains a comparative description of the ultrastructural features of the ciliate cell surface relevant to chemoreception, examines the structural features of putative chemoreceptive cilia, and provides a summary of the electron microscopic information available so far bearing on chemoreceptive aspects of swimming, feeding, excretion, endocytosis, and sexual responses of ciliates. The electron microscopic identification and localization of specific chemoreceptive macromolecules and organelles at the molecular level have not yet been achieved in ciliates. These await the development of specific probes for chemoreceptor and transduction macromolecules. Nevertheless, the electron microscope has provided a wealth of information about the surface features of ciliates where chemoreception is believed to take place. Such morphological information will prove essential to a complete understanding of reception and transduction at the molecular level. In the ciliates, major questions to be answered relate to the apportionment of chemoreceptive functions between the cilia and cell soma, the global distribution of receptors in relation to the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes of the cell, and the relationship of receptors to ultrastructural components of the cell coat, cell membrane, and cytoskeleton.

  6. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Thysanotaenia congolensis (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae, Inermicapsiferinae): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Feliu, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Thysanotaenia congolensis, an intestinal parasite of black rat Rattus rattus from Cape Verde, is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural organization of the sperm cell of T. congolensis follows Levron et al.'s type VII of the Eucestoda. It corresponds to a uniflagellate spermatozoon that presents crested bodies, periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus spiralled around the axoneme. These characteristics are also present in the spermatozoa of other inermicapsiferines and differ from the characters found in species belonging to the remaining subfamilies of anoplocephalids, namely Anoplocephalinae, Linstowiinae and Thysanosomatinae. Several authors consider the family Anoplocephalidae as a polyphyletic group, and its relationships with the Davaineidae are a matter of controversy. The phylogenetic implications of spermatological ultrastructural features present in inermicapsiferines and in the remaining anoplocephalids are discussed, and the available data on anoplocephalids are compared to similar results in davaineids in order to contribute to a better knowledge of relationships between these cyclophyllidean families. PMID:27083191

  7. Extradigestive manifestations of IBD in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Aloi, M; Cucchiara, S

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are often associated with extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), which occur in approximately one third of patients. There is only few published data on the occurrence of these manifestations in children and adolescents, so most of the data are taken by studies in adult patients. The organs most commonly affected are joints, skin, eyes and biliary tract, although nearly every organ may be involved. Some of the EIMs are clearly related to intestinal disease activity (i.e., erythema nodosum, peripheral arthritis, orofacial lesions), whereas others occur independently (i.e., pyoderma gangrenosum, anterior uveitis/iritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis). Many extraintestinal disorders may be direct inflammatory and metabolic complications of the intestinal inflammation (i.e., osteoporosis, growth retardation, nephrolithiasis, ureteral obstruction, thromboembolic disease). In this review we provide an overview on the prevalence and clinical aspects of the more commonly reported EIMs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in pediatric patients, focusing on specific issues of children affected by IBD (growth failure and metabolic osteopathy). PMID:19530508

  8. CANDLE Syndrome: orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  9. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  10. Citing geospatial feature inventories with XML manifests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, R.; McGarva, G.

    2006-12-01

    Today published scientific papers include a growing number of citations for online information sources that either complement or replace printed journals and books. We anticipate this same trend for cartographic citations used in the geosciences, following advances in web mapping and geographic feature-based services. Instead of using traditional libraries to resolve citations for print material, the geospatial citation life cycle will include requesting inventories of objects or geographic features from distributed geospatial data repositories. Using a case study from the UK Ordnance Survey MasterMap database, which is illustrative of geographic object-based products in general, we propose citing inventories of geographic objects using XML feature manifests. These manifests: (1) serve as a portable listing of sets of versioned features; (2) could be used as citations within the identification portion of an international geospatial metadata standard; (3) could be incorporated into geospatial data transfer formats such as GML; but (4) can be resolved only with comprehensive, curated repositories of current and historic data. This work has implications for any researcher who foresees the need to make or resolve references to online geospatial databases.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: manifestation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Monica; Davis, Brandon; Romine, Cassandra; George, Carrie; Lee, Donghyung

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of ADHD in adults using a combination of structured clinical interview, behavioral self-report, and a range of neuropsychological measures. Symptom criteria that are endorsed by adults with ADHD as compared to non-diagnosed adults and an adult sample with other clinical disorders tend to reflect problems with follow-through, forgetting, organization, and losing things. Notably, adults in the No Diagnosis group endorsed a higher frequency of symptoms than base rates reported elsewhere. Related to sense of time, adults with ADHD endorsed problems with meeting deadlines, not completing tasks, not planning ahead, and having a poorer sense of time significantly more frequently than adults in either the No-Diagnosis or Other Clinical Disorder group. Results highlighted the need for further research specific to the manifestation of ADHD in adulthood and the development of diagnostic criteria that take into account the differences in development as well as age-related differences in contextual demands. PMID:15708734

  12. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  13. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient’s paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto’s encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27672526

  14. [Ebola: characterization, history and cutaneous manifestations].

    PubMed

    Kolbach, Marianne; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Vial-Letelier, Verónica

    2015-11-01

    Ebola virus (EV) is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Fruits bats are its natural reservoir, the transmission to humans is across wild animals (especially primates) and the propagation in human populations is through bodily fluid contact. The actual outbreak started in December 2013 and crossed continental borders. Up to now, there are 17,145 suspected and confirmed cases with 6,070 deaths, resulting a total case fatality rate of 35%. Clinical manifestations can be divided in 3 phases. In phase I, symptoms are similar to flu, which may appear in a range of 2 to 21 days. In phase II which occurs in over 50% of cases, visceral symptoms and mucocutaneous manifestations appear within 4 and 5 days of the onset of symptoms. The main symptoms are a macular or maculopapular non-pruritic rash, desquamation and mucosal involvement of eyes, mouth and pharynx. In phase III, recovery or death occurs. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, epidemiological suspicion and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The treatment is supportive. If there is a suspected case, it should be notified immediately and all relevant safety measures should be instituted. PMID:26757869

  15. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient’s paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto’s encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids.

  16. Thoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Julia; Grimberg, Alexandre; Thompson, Bruna M; Antunes, Viviane B; Jasinowodolinski, Dany; Meirelles, Gustavo S P

    2012-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases are a diverse group of immunologically mediated systemic disorders that often lead to thoracic changes. The collagen vascular diseases that most commonly involve the lung are rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Sjögren syndrome. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the main causes of mortality and morbidity among patients with collagen vascular diseases. Given the broad spectrum of possible thoracic manifestations and the varying frequency with which different interstitial lung diseases occur, the interpretation of thoracic images obtained in patients with collagen vascular diseases can be challenging. The task may be more difficult in the presence of treatment-related complications such as drug toxicity and infections, which are common in this group of patients. Although chest radiography is most often used for screening and monitoring of thoracic alterations, high-resolution computed tomography can provide additional information about lung involvement in collagen vascular diseases and may be especially helpful for differentiating specific disease patterns in the lung. General knowledge about the manifestations of thoracic involvement in collagen vascular diseases allows radiologists to provide better guidance for treatment and follow-up of these patients.

  17. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ali S; Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient's paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto's encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27672526

  18. [Psychiatric manifestations by prions. A narrative review].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Robles, Daniel; García Maldonado, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form. In humans, the illness has been classified as idiopathic, inherited and acquired through exposure to exogenous material containing abnormal prions. The most prominent neurological manifestation of prion diseases is the emergence of a rapidly progressive dementia, mioclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia and also extra pyramidal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms occur in early stages of the illness and can contribute to timely diagnosis of this syndrome. Psychiatric symptoms have traditionally been grouped in three categories: affective symptoms, impaired motor function and psychotic symptoms. Such events usually occur during the prodromal period prior to the neurological manifestations and consists in the presence of social isolation, onset of delusions, irritability/aggression, visual hallucinations, anxiety and depression, and less frequent first-rank symptoms among others. Definite diagnosis requires post mortem examination. The possibility that a large number of cases may occur in the next years or that many cases have not been considered with this diagnosis is a fact. In our opinion, psychiatrists should be aware of symptoms of this disease. The main objective of this research consisted of assessing the correlation between this disturbance and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and particularly if this psychiatric manifestations integrate a clinical picture suggestive for the diagnosis of these diseases, but firstly reviewed taxonomic

  19. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  20. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  1. 40 CFR 263.21 - Compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new manifest that will accompany the... shipment, and the new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 264.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6) or 40 CFR 265.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6). (ii) For a...

  2. 40 CFR 263.21 - Compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new manifest that will accompany the... shipment, and the new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 264.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6) or 40 CFR 265.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6). (ii) For a...

  3. 40 CFR 263.21 - Compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new manifest that will accompany the... shipment, and the new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 264.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6) or 40 CFR 265.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6). (ii) For a...

  4. 40 CFR 263.21 - Compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new manifest that will accompany the... shipment, and the new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 264.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6) or 40 CFR 265.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6). (ii) For a...

  5. 40 CFR 263.21 - Compliance with the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility's date and signature, and the Manifest Tracking Number of the new manifest that will accompany the... shipment, and the new manifest must include all of the information required in 40 CFR 264.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6) or 40 CFR 265.72(e)(1) through (6) or (f)(1) through (6). (ii) For a...

  6. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  7. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  8. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  9. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  10. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  11. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  12. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  13. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  14. 40 CFR 262.24 - Use of the electronic manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with 49 CFR 177.817, a generator originating an electronic manifest must also provide the initial... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.24 Use of the electronic... requirement in these regulations for a generator to keep or retain a copy of each manifest is satisfied...

  15. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dangerous cargo manifest. 176.30 Section 176.30... Requirements § 176.30 Dangerous cargo manifest. (a) The carrier, its agents, and any person designated for this purpose by the carrier or agents shall prepare a dangerous cargo manifest, list, or stowage plan....

  16. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous cargo manifest. 176.30 Section 176.30... Requirements § 176.30 Dangerous cargo manifest. (a) The carrier, its agents, and any person designated for this purpose by the carrier or agents shall prepare a dangerous cargo manifest, list, or stowage plan....

  17. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dangerous cargo manifest. 176.30 Section 176.30... Requirements § 176.30 Dangerous cargo manifest. (a) The carrier, its agents, and any person designated for this purpose by the carrier or agents shall prepare a dangerous cargo manifest, list, or stowage plan....

  18. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dangerous cargo manifest. 176.30 Section 176.30... Requirements § 176.30 Dangerous cargo manifest. (a) The carrier, its agents, and any person designated for this purpose by the carrier or agents must prepare a dangerous cargo manifest, list, or stowage plan....

  19. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dangerous cargo manifest. 176.30 Section 176.30... Requirements § 176.30 Dangerous cargo manifest. (a) The carrier, its agents, and any person designated for this purpose by the carrier or agents must prepare a dangerous cargo manifest, list, or stowage plan....

  20. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  1. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  2. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  3. Oral manifestations of connective tissue disease and novel therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Heath, Kenisha R; Rogers, Roy S; Fazel, Nasim

    2015-10-16

    Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and Sjögren syndrome (SS) have presented many difficulties both in their diagnosis and treatment. Known causes for this difficulty include uncertainty of disease etiology, the multitude of clinical presentations, the unpredictable disease course, and the variable cell types, soluble mediators, and tissue factors that are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases. The characteristic oral findings seen with these specific connective tissue diseases may assist with more swift diagnostic capability. Additionally, the recent use of biologics may redefine the success rate in the treatment and management of the disease. In this review we describe the oral manifestations associated with SLE, SSc, and SS and review the novel biologic drugs used to treat these conditions.

  4. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  5. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy manifested with isolated calcaneal periostitis in bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Moralidis, Efstratios; Gerasimou, Georgios; Theodoridou, Athina; Hilidis, Ilias; Mylonaki, Efrosyni; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is an incompletely understood syndrome characterized by digital clubbing and periosteal proliferation of long bones and it is commonly associated with primary lung tumors. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method in detecting HOA and characteristic findings have been reported. We present the case of a man with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, unremarkable clinical examination and blood tests and no digital clubbing. During disease staging, however, bone scintigraphy showed intense calcaneal cortical proliferation bilaterally without involvement of other parts of the skeleton. Cortical reaction of both calcanei resolved significantly after chemotherapy. This case indicates that HOA may manifest with isolated calcaneal periostitis bilaterally, which is a new addition to the literature.

  6. [Dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations after a stay in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Krippner, R; Hanisch, G; Kretschmer, H

    1990-06-01

    On returning from a 24-day long stay in Thailand a 30-year-old German woman fell ill with high fever and head and limb aches. Soon after a confluent petechial exanthem was noted, as well as conjunctival and gastrointestinal bleedings. Biochemical findings (fall in haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, rise in lactate dehydrogenase) and a rise in Dengue antibody titre to 1 : 320 (on the 13th day of illness) confirmed the diagnosis of Dengue fever with haemorrhagic manifestations. This mosquito-transmitted viral disease, while so far only rarely reported in tourists, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever of undetermined origin in travellers to the tropics.

  7. [Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Chico, Ricardo; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    Complications due to cocaine are a public health problem. The typical cutaneous disease is leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or thrombotic vasculopathy affecting mainly the ears. No intense systemic involvement is usually present, but there may be several cutaneous, mucosal and systemic manifestations. Other findings associated as arthralgia, neutropaenia or agranulocytosis, low titer positive antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibody positivity and neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against multiple antigens help the diagnosis. This disease requires a clinical suspicion with a clinical history, a complete physical examination and a broad differential diagnosis for an early and correct diagnosis. The course is usually self-limited. In most cases the only treatment is to discontinue the use of cocaine associated with symptomatic treatment, no proven benefit of systemic corticosteroids.

  8. Changes in chloroplast lipid contents and chloroplast ultrastructure in Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria leaves under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bejaoui, Fatma; Salas, Joaquín J; Nouairi, Issam; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Youssef, Nabil Ben

    2016-07-01

    The possible involvement of chloroplast lipids in the mechanisms of NaCl tolerance was studied in leaves of two varieties of Fabaceae: Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria, which were subjected to 200mM NaCl over 20days. Changes in membrane lipid peroxidation, chloroplast lipids content, fatty acids (FA) composition and the ultrastructure of chloroplasts under salt stress were investigated. Chloroplast lipids were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD). The results showed that salinity induced a significant decrease in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and sulfoquinovosylglycerol (SQDG) content in both S. carnosa and S. coronaria leaves, whereas monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) content did not change significantly in S. carnosa leaves. The MGDG/DGDG ratio remained stable in S. coronaria leaves but increased in those of S. carnosa. In addition, the unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio (UFAs:SFAs) did not change under salt stress in S. coronaria leaves, while it decreased significantly in S. carnosa leaves. Moreover, salinity did not induce significant changes in MGDG and DGDG unsaturation level in S. carnosa leaves, in contrast to S. coronaria, in which salinity seems to enhance the unsaturation level in MGDG, DGDG and PG. Furthermore, the level of membrane lipid peroxidation, as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased at 200mM in S. carnosa leaves, while it did not change significantly in those of S. coronaria. With respect to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts at 200mM NaCl, investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in S. carnosa mesophyll. These ultrastructural changes were observed especially in the spongy tissue in S. coronaria. Taken together, these findings suggest that the stability of MGDG/DGDG ratio, the unchanged unsaturation level, and increasing unsaturation

  9. Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Leme, Raquel A; Oliveira, Thalita E S; Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Alfieri, Alice F; Yang, Ming; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2016-07-01

    We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses. PMID:27315157

  10. Geode of the femur: an uncommon manifestation potentially reflecting the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonuk; Terk, Michael R; Hu, Bing; Garber, Elayne K; Weisman, Michael H

    2006-12-01

    Geodes are noted frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but large geodes of the femur are uncommon. We describe a patient with RA and a large geode in his femur; histological findings were consistent with a rheumatoid nodule and chronically inflamed synovium. We review the literature of large femoral geodes and what this particular manifestation may reflect about the pathogenesis of RA.

  11. Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Raquel A.; Oliveira, Thalita E.S.; Alcântara, Brígida K.; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Alice F.; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses. PMID:27315157

  12. Susac's Syndrome: A Case with Unusual Cardiac Vestibular and Imaging Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    River, Yaron; Shupak, Avi; Tiosano, Beatrice; Danilov, Vika; Braverman, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Susac's syndrome (SS) is a disease of the microvasculature of the retina, brain, and inner ear. We describe a patient with unusual manifestations of SS with possible involvement of the brainstem, cardiac arrhythmia, and MRI findings lacking the characteristic lesions found in Susac's syndrome. PMID:26688762

  13. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography.

  14. Brucella arteritis: clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Jesica A; Lederman, Robert J; Sullivan, Brigit; Powers, John H; Palmore, Tara N

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis, and causes a considerable burden of disease in endemic countries. Cardiovascular involvement is the main cause of mortality due to infection with Brucella spp, and most commonly manifests as endocarditis, peripheral and cerebrovascular aneurysms, or arterial and venous thromboses. We report a case of brucellosis presenting as bacteraemia and aortic endarteritis 18 years after the last known exposure to risk factors for brucella infection. The patient was treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and gentamicin, and underwent surgical repair of a penetrating aortic ulcer, with a good clinical recovery. We review the signs and symptoms, diagnostic approach, prognosis, and treatment of brucella arteritis. We draw attention to the absence of consensus about the optimum therapy for vascular brucellosis, and the urgent need for additional studies and renewed scientific interest in this major pathogen. PMID:24480149

  15. Skin manifestations of hormone-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Serge A

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine and metabolic diseases, besides affecting other organs, can result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology and can lead to a complex symptomatology. Dermatologists may see some of these skin lesions first, either before the endocrinologist, or even after the internist or specialist has missed the right diagnosis. Because some skin lesions might reflect a life-threatening endocrine or metabolic disorder, identifying the underlying disorder is very important, so that patients can receive corrective rather than symptomatic treatment. In this issue, we will review various hormone-secreting tumors, including pituitary disorders (Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly), hyperthyroidism, glucagonoma, carcinoid syndrome, mastocytosis, and hyperandrogenism. We will focus on clinical manifestations, mainly cutaneous, followed by a brief discussion on how to make the diagnosis of each condition in addition to treatment options. PMID:21054708

  16. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Robert M

    2009-05-01

    Since the publication of the American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for Fibromyalgia 18 years ago, there have been an ever-increasing number of research articles and reviews. From the National Library of Medicine alone there are more than 10,000 articles related to fibromyalgia. The major clinical manifestations of fibromyalgia have not changed, but their prevalence, associations, relative importance to the patient, and scientific underpinnings are increasingly better understood. This article provides an update on fibromyalgia symptomatology and looks at issues that need to be considered in the development of updated diagnostic guidelines. There is still no gold standard for making a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, but there is an increasing consensus for the development of new guidelines for diagnosis that modifies the currently proscribed tender point evaluation.

  17. Clinical manifestations of pediatric idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Lau, Keith K

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is a common metabolic disorder in children with protean manifestations, many of which can mimic other common pediatric diseases. Reports in the medical literature describe children with IH presenting with a wide array of calculi and non-calculi related clinical symptoms such as hematuria, urinary tract infections (UTIs), urgency, urinary incontinence and recurrent abdominal pain. Many of these symptom complexes have been only loosely associated with IH with no definite established causal relationship. Due to the common nature of IH and the varied clinical features attributed to it, it is of utmost importance for health-care professionals to be aware of these; this will facilitate early and appropriate investigations and prompt institution of therapy to avoid long-term morbidity.

  18. Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms are examples of variable extraintestinal manifestations of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These complications of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) seem to be underrecognized by both pulmonary physicians and gastroenterologists. The objective of the present review was to gather and summarize information on this particular matter, on the basis of available up-to-date literature. Tracheobronchial involvement is the most prevalent respiratory presentation, whereas IBD-related interstitial lung disease is less frequent. Latent and asymptomatic pulmonary involvement is not unusual. Differential diagnosis should always consider infections (mainly tuberculosis) and drug-induced lung pathology. The common link between intestinal disease and lung pathology is unknown, but many hypotheses have been proposed. It is speculated that environmental pollution, common immunological mechanisms and predisposing genetic factors may play a role. PMID:26788078

  19. Natural curvature for manifest T-duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláček, Martin; Siegel, Warren

    2014-01-01

    We reformulate the manifestly T-dual description of the massless sector of the closed bosonic string, directly from the geometry associated with the (left and right) affine Lie algebra of the coset space Poincaré/Lorentz. This construction initially doubles not only the (spacetime) coordinates for translations but also those for Lorentz transformations (and their "dual"). As a result, the Lorentz connection couples directly to the string (as does the vielbein), rather than being introduced ad hoc to the covariant derivative as previously. This not only reproduces the old definition of T-dual torsion, but automatically gives a general, covariant definition of T-dual curvature (but still with some undetermined connections).

  20. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices.

  1. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma manifesting as hearing disturbance.

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyuki; Tokunaga, So; Shono, Tadahisa; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Tomio

    2009-09-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with a rare case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma manifesting as only hearing disturbance. He had suffered from hearing difficulty in the right ear for a few months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass lesion with an internal fluid level and surrounding flow voids in the right cerebellopontine (CP) angle. Cerebral angiography disclosed a vascular-rich tumor fed by both the superior cerebellar and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. En bloc resection of the tumor was planned under a preoperative diagnosis of cerebellar hemangioblastoma. The tumor protruded into the CP cistern and compressed cranial nerve VIII. The feeding arteries were meticulously coagulated and the tumor was successfully removed. The histological diagnosis was hemangioblastoma. After the operation, the patient's hearing acuity improved dramatically. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CP angle tumors associated with hearing disturbance.

  2. Gastrointestinal manifestations in myotonic muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Massimo; Biagi, Sonia; Stasi, Cristina; Costa, Francesco; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Marchi, Santino

    2006-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is characterized by myotonic phenomena and progressive muscular weakness. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is frequent and may occur at any level. The clinical manifestations have previously been attributed to motility disorders caused by smooth muscle damage, but histologic evidence of alterations has been scarce and conflicting. A neural factor has also been hypothesized. In the upper digestive tract, dysphagia, heartburn, regurgitation and dyspepsia are the most common complaints, while in the lower tract, abdominal pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits are often reported. Digestive symptoms may be the first sign of dystrophic disease and may precede the musculo-skeletal features. The impairment of gastrointestinal function may be sometimes so gradual that the patients adapt to it with little awareness of symptoms. In such cases routine endoscopic and ultrasonographic evaluations are not sufficient and targeted techniques (electrogastrography, manometry, electromyography, functional ultrasonography, scintigraphy, etc.) are needed. There is a low correlation between the degree of skeletal muscle involvement and the presence and severity of gastrointestinal disturbances whereas a positive correlation with the duration of the skeletal muscle disease has been reported. The drugs recommended for treating the gastrointestinal complaints such as prokinetic, anti-dyspeptic drugs and laxatives, are mainly aimed at correcting the motility disorders. Gastrointestinal involvement in MD remains a complex and intriguing condition since many important problems are still unsolved. Further studies concentrating on genetic aspects, early diagnostic techniques and the development of new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve our management of the gastrointestinal manifestations of MD. PMID:16609987

  3. Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Gheita, Tamer A; Ezzat, Yasser; Sayed, Safaa; El-Mardenly, Ghada; Hammam, Waleed

    2010-02-01

    To detect and describe the incidence of musculoskeletal manifestations in different malignant diseases as well as their relation to the treatment received whether by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Sixty patients with different malignant diseases were included in this study, 45 with solid tumors and 15 patients with hematological malignancy. The mean age was 46.55 +/- 11.04 years and the mean disease duration was 2 +/- 0.75 years. The patients were fully examined for any rheumatologic involvement, laboratory investigations were performed as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study for bone densitometry. Treatment strategies were assessed including the chemotherapeutics, radiation therapy, and/or surgery. Myalgias and arthralgias were the most frequent followed by flexor tenosynovitis, frozen shoulder, and fibromyalgia syndrome. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy was seen in five patients, cutaneous vasculitis in two patients as well as arthritis. Osteonecrosis was present in one of the lunate carpal bones of a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.67%) and receiving high dose steroids. Rheumatoid factor was positive in four patients, three of which had hepatitis C virus positivity and cryoglobulins. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative in all the studied patients. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced in the patients with malignancy compared to the control. Mild to moderate osteoporosis was present, being more evident in the spine and forearm. The bone loss was higher in those with solid tumors and even more obvious in those receiving aromatase inhibitors. Musculoskeletal manifestations occurring during malignancies and following the treatment represent a significant percentage of symptoms and signs which may raise a clue to differential diagnosis.

  4. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  5. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  6. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-03-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte.

  7. Coordinated ultrastructural and phylogenomic analyses shed light on the hidden phycobiont diversity of Trebouxia microalgae in Ramalina fraxinea.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Santiago; del Campo, Eva M; Barreno, Eva; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Casano, Leonardo M

    2016-01-01

    The precise boundary delineations between taxa in symbiotic associations are very important for evolutionary and ecophysiological studies. Growing evidence indicates that in many cases, the use of either morphological characters or molecular markers results in diversity underestimation. In lichen symbioses, Trebouxia is the most common genus of lichen phycobionts, however, the diversity within this genus has been poorly studied and as such there is no clear species concept. This study constitutes a multifaceted approach incorporating aspects of ultrastructural characterization by TEM and phylogenomics to evaluate the morphological and genetic diversity of phycobionts within the sexually reproducing lichen Ramalina fraxinea in the context of Mediterranean and temperate populations. Results reveal an association with at least seven different Trebouxia lineages belonging to at least two species, T. decolorans and T. jamesii, and diverse combinations of such lineages coexisting within the same thallus depending on the analyzed sample. Some of these lineages are shared by several other non-related lichen taxa. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly diverse assemblage of Trebouxia algae associating with R. fraxinea and suggest a possible incipient speciation within T. decolorans rendering a number of lineages or even actual species. This study stresses the importance of coordinated ultrastructural and molecular analyses to improve estimates of diversity and reveal the coexistence of more than one Trebouxia species within the same thallus. It is also necessary to have clearer species delimitation criteria within the genus Trebouxia and microalgae in general. PMID:26516030

  8. Convergent evolution of eye ultrastructure and divergent evolution of vision-mediated predatory behaviour in jumping spiders.

    PubMed

    Su, K F; Meier, R; Jackson, R R; Harland, D P; Li, D

    2007-07-01

    All jumping spiders have unique, complex eyes with exceptional spatial acuity and some of the most elaborate vision-guided predatory strategies ever documented for any animal of their size. However, it is only recently that phylogenetic techniques have been used to reconstruct the relationships and key evolutionary events within the Salticidae. Here, we used data for 35 species and six genes (4.8 kb) for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships between Spartaeinae, Lyssomaninae and Salticoida. We document a remarkable case of morphological convergence of eye ultrastructure in two clades with divergent predatory behaviour. We, furthermore, find evidence for a stepwise, gradual evolution of a complex predatory strategy. Divergent predatory behaviour ranges from cursorial hunting to building prey-catching webs and araneophagy with web invasion and aggressive mimicry. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry evolved once from an ancestral spartaeine that was already araneophagic and had no difficulty entering webs due to glue immunity. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry was lost once, in Paracyrba, which has replaced one highly specialized predation strategy with another (hunting mosquitoes). In contrast to the evolution of divergent behaviour, eyes with similarly high spatial acuity and ultrastructural design evolved convergently in the Salticoida and in Portia.

  9. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  10. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Ito, Eri; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Masuda, Natsumi; Qi, Wang-Mei; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine.

  11. Convergent evolution of eye ultrastructure and divergent evolution of vision-mediated predatory behaviour in jumping spiders.

    PubMed

    Su, K F; Meier, R; Jackson, R R; Harland, D P; Li, D

    2007-07-01

    All jumping spiders have unique, complex eyes with exceptional spatial acuity and some of the most elaborate vision-guided predatory strategies ever documented for any animal of their size. However, it is only recently that phylogenetic techniques have been used to reconstruct the relationships and key evolutionary events within the Salticidae. Here, we used data for 35 species and six genes (4.8 kb) for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships between Spartaeinae, Lyssomaninae and Salticoida. We document a remarkable case of morphological convergence of eye ultrastructure in two clades with divergent predatory behaviour. We, furthermore, find evidence for a stepwise, gradual evolution of a complex predatory strategy. Divergent predatory behaviour ranges from cursorial hunting to building prey-catching webs and araneophagy with web invasion and aggressive mimicry. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry evolved once from an ancestral spartaeine that was already araneophagic and had no difficulty entering webs due to glue immunity. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry was lost once, in Paracyrba, which has replaced one highly specialized predation strategy with another (hunting mosquitoes). In contrast to the evolution of divergent behaviour, eyes with similarly high spatial acuity and ultrastructural design evolved convergently in the Salticoida and in Portia. PMID:17584241

  12. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the protective effect of ginger extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Doaa A; Abdeen, Ahmed M; Ismail, Mohammed F; Mostafa, Mai A

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used anticancer drug; however, it has several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, consumed since ancient times has numerous health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of ginger extract (GE) against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. CP group displayed a marked renal failure characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in addition to severe histopathological and ultrastructural renal alterations. Also, CP group showed an increase in the immunohistochemical expression of Bax proapoptotic protein. In contrast, GE+CP group showed significant decrease in the elevated serum creatinine and BUN levels and an improvement in the histopathological and ultrastructural renal injury induced by CP. The overexpression of Bax proapoptotic protein was significantly decreased in the GE+CP group. Hence, the present results indicated that GE has a protective effect against CP-induced renal damage in rats. Thereby, such findings recommended the usage of GE to prevent and/or decrease the renal damage induced by CP chemotherapeutic treatment.

  13. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Ito, Eri; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Masuda, Natsumi; Qi, Wang-Mei; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine. PMID:25890991

  14. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  15. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  16. How effectively does a clinostat mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity on plant cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Columella cells of seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Bear Hybrid grown in the microgravity of orbital flight allocate significantly larger relative-volumes to hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, and significantly smaller relative-volumes to dictyosomes, plastids, and starch than do columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. The ultrastructure of columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g and on a rotating clinostat is not significantly different. However, the ultrastructure of cells exposed to these treatments differs significantly from that of seedlings grown in microgravity. These results indicate that the actions of a rotating clinostat do not mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in columella cells of Z. mays.

  17. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (Mikulicz's disease) of the salivary gland: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, L B

    1979-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland demonstrated that the so-called epimyoepithelial cell islands were sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma by a thick basement membrane containing collagen fibers. The hyaline material seen by light microscopy within the islands was ultrastructurally similar in appearance to this delimiting basement membrane. The epithelial cells within the islands were united by well formed desmosomes and many had prominent tonofilament bundles, but myogenic differentiation was not observed. Hydropic degeneration was not seen in these epithelial cells; cells with a perinuclear clear space seen by light microscopy corresponded to large lymphoid cells ultrastructurally.

  18. Ultrastructural observations of programmed cell death during metanephric development in mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Guo, Min; Shao, Youzhi

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies revealed apoptosis as an only programmed cell death (PCD) during renal morphogenesis before alternative type of PCD, necroptosis were introduced. Evidences of non-apoptotic PCD during renal development were scarce and needed to be accumulated. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether non-apoptotic PCD is involved in and observe ultrastructural features of apoptotic cells or non-apoptotic PCD during metanephros development. For this purpose, light and transmission electron microscopy were used. The most significant finding to come out of this study was that necroptosis was observed during developing metanephros by electron microscopy. The results also provided another fact that apoptosis and necroptosis constituted the PCD during embryonic development of kidney in mouse. Compared to necroptosis, apoptosis was more predominantly evident throughout whole development period and in every compartment of metanephros except for proximal tubule. However, necroptosis was only exhibited in developing nephrons also except for proximal tubule. In addition, outcomes of PCD were related to morphogenetic features of metanephric development. Efferocytosis for apoptotic cell or bodies took place in each type cell and whole period of developing metanephros. Besides efferocytosis blood flow and urine flux were available to remove the corpses of PCD, especially PCD from developing nephrons. Our findings suggested that both apoptosis and necroptosis play important roles during nephrogenesis and observed three ways to clear the PCD cell: efferocytosis, blood flow, and urine flux.

  19. Early ultrastructural changes of apoptosis induced by fumonisin B1 in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Moon, W S; Kim, J H; Kang, M J; Lee, D G

    2000-04-01

    A time sequential study was performed to investigate the histological and ultrastructural findings of fumonisin B1-induced apoptosis in the male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. Six hours after administration of FB1, marked morphologic changes of hepatocytes included the appearance of small vacuoles along the margin of cell membrane. Twelve hours after injection of FB1, acidophilic degeneration of cells occurred, but no fragmented nucleus was evident around the centrilobular area, with few apoptotic cells. By electron microscope, the degenerated acidophilic cells revealed following changes: characteristic formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, condensed cytoplasm, detachment from neighboring cells, and as well as margination of nuclear chromatin and swollen mitochondria with amorphous matrical deposit. The number of apoptotic cells or bodies was further enhanced at 24 hours in the vicinity of dense acidophilic cells, resulting in a marked increase over the values of control rats. Serum analysis revealed the elevation of cholesterol levels from the beginning to the end of this experiment. Morphologic data and serum findings in this study support the theory that FB1-induced alteration of membrane lipid constituents of the hepatocytes are likely to be early key events in explaining the FB1 apoptotic effect.

  20. Effects of water turbulence on variations in cell ultrastructure and metabolism of amino acids in the submersed macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John.

    PubMed

    Atapaththu, K S S; Miyagi, A; Atsuzawa, K; Kaneko, Y; Kawai-Yamada, M; Asaeda, T

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between macrophytes and water movement are not yet fully understood, and the causes responsible for the metabolic and ultrastructural variations in plant cells as a consequence of turbulence are largely unknown. In the present study, growth, metabolism and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in the aquatic macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, after exposure to turbulence for 30 days. The turbulence was generated with a vertically oscillating horizontal grid. The turbulence reduced plant growth, plasmolysed leaf cells and strengthened cell walls, and plants exposed to turbulence accumulated starch granules in stem chloroplasts. The size of the starch granules increased with the magnitude of the turbulence. Using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), analysis of the metabolome found metabolite accumulation in response to the turbulence. Asparagine was the dominant amino acid that was concentrated in stressed plants, and organic acids such as citrate, ascorbate, oxalate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) also accumulated in response to turbulence. These results indicate that turbulence caused severe stress that affected plant growth, cell ultrastructure and some metabolic functions of E. nuttallii. Our findings offer insights to explain the effects of water movement on the functions of aquatic plants.