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Sample records for manifestations ultrastructural findings

  1. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  2. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  3. Electrocardiographic findings and cardiac manifestations in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Momenzadeh, Seyed-Akbar; Shadnia, Shahin

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) poisoning has a high mortality due to cardiovascular involvement. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of cardiac manifestations and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in 20 patients with acute AlP poisoning, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Tehran, Iran, over a period of 6 months (between October 2008 and April 2009). The sex, age, cause and manner of ingestion, number of ingested AlP tablets, cardiac and ECG manifestations, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-myocardial band (CPK-mb) and troponin-T (TnT) were extracted from the patients' files. All data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority (60%) of patients were male. The mean age was 27 ± 8.7 years. The mortality rate was 40%. In all of the patients, the cause of poisoning was intentional suicide and ingestion was the route of exposure. The mean number of ingested AlP tablets per patient was 2.2 ± 1.1. The average time interval between admission and cardiovascular manifestations or ECG findings was 168.8 ± 116.2 min. The range of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure was 60-130 mmHg and 40-70 mmHg, respectively. Dysrhythmia was observed in nine (45%) cases. Elevation of the ST segment was seen in nine cases (45%). Seven patients (35%) had prolonged QTc intervals. Bundle branch block (BBB) was observed in four (20%) patients. In nine (45%) patients, the serum cardiac TnT qualitative assay was positive. There were no significant differences between normal and abnormal ECG groups according to sex, age, number and manner of ingested AlP tablets and SBP. There was a significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and ECG findings and TnT-positive results with mortality in acute AlP poisoning.

  4. Dentomaxillofacial manifestations of Gaucher's disease: preliminary clinical and radiographic findings

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, RM; Ribeiro, ALR; Alves-Junior, SM; Tuji, FM; Rodrigues Pinheiro, M das G; Pinheiro, LR; Pinheiro, JJV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A wide variety of manifestations is presented in patients with Gaucher's disease (GD), including bone, haematology and visceral disturbances. This study was conducted to ascertain the main maxillofacial abnormalities by means of clinical survey, panoramic and cone beam CT (CBCT); to compare the patient's group with an age–sex matched control group; and to correlate clinical and radiological data. Methods Ten patients previously diagnosed with GD were submitted to clinical and radiological surveys (CBCT and panoramic radiographs). The examination consisted of anamnesis, extra- and intraoral examinations and analyses of each patient's records. Imaging data were collected from the point of view of 3 observers, and the results compared with a healthy group (20 individuals) by means of statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test). Results Gaucher patients had significantly more manifestations than otherwise healthy carriers. The most prevalent findings were enlarged marrow spaces, generalized osteopenia and effacement of jaw structures (mandibular canal, lamina dura and mental foramen). Here we describe a case in which thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa was observed on CBCT rather than opacification of the sinus as seen on panoramic radiographs. Pathological fractures, root resorption and delay on tooth eruption were not observed. Conclusions A poor relationship could be observed between clinical and radiological data. Patients showed important bone manifestations, which require careful diagnostic and surgical planning whenever necessary. Although panoramic radiographs have shown significant differences, CBCT is more effective in pointing out differences between patients and a control group, thus showing it as an important tool for evaluation of Gaucher patients. PMID:22988312

  5. Visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sefi-Yurdakul, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors. METHODS The medical charts of the patients with intracranial tumors who initially admitted to the Neuro-ophthalmology and Strabismus Department with ocular complaints between August 1999 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The detailed clinical history and the findings of neuro-ophthalmologic examination were recorded. Ocular symptoms and signs, the types and locations of intracranial tumors, and the duration of symptoms before the diagnosis were evaluated. RESULTS The mean age of 11 women (61.1%) and 7 men (38.9%) was 42.2±11.0 (range 20-66y) at the time of intracranial tumor diagnosis. Initial symptoms were transient visual obscurations, visual loss or visual field defect in 16 cases (88.9%), and diplopia in 2 cases (11.1%). Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed normal optic discs in both eyes of 6 patients (33.3%), paleness, atrophy or edema of optic disc in 12 patients (66.7%), and sixth cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients (11.1%). Visual acuity ranged between normal vision and loss of light perception. Cranial imaging demonstrated craniopharyngioma (n=1), plasmacytoma (n=1), meningioma (n=6; olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae, pontocerebellar angle, anterior cranial fossa, frontal vertex, suprasellar region), and pituitary macroadenoma (n=10). The mean duration between the onset of visual disturbances and the diagnosis of intracranial tumor was 9.8±18mo (range 3d-6y). CONCLUSION The ophthalmologist is frequently the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of intracranial tumors that may cause neurological and ocular complications. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings should be carefully evaluated to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors. PMID:26309882

  6. Visual evoked potential findings in Behcet's disease without neurological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anlar, Omer; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Tombul, Temel; Calka, Omer; Bilgili, Serap G

    2006-03-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent multisystem inflammatory disorder firstly described by Turkish dermatologist Dr. Hulusi Behçet in 1937. The classic triad consists of recurrent oral and genital ulcerations and uveitis. The article presents the value of visual evoked potential findings of a series of 44 patients with BD without neurological manifestations seen at the Medical Hospital in Neurology and Dermatology clinics over the past 8 years. The mean latency value of positive peak P100 in BD patients was significantly delayed compared to that of control subjects (patients's mean: 105.6 ms in right eye and 107.7 ms in left eye; control subject's mean: 101.4 ms in right eye and 101.7 ms in left eye).

  7. Ultrastructural findings in placentae of HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Villegas, H; Carrillo-farga, J; Paredes, Y; Karchmer, S

    1993-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an infected mother to the fetus has been shown to occur. The route of infection is probably through the placenta, yet the exact mechanism of how this occurs is still unclear. Researchers in Mexico report in this article their findings on placental tissue taken from 9 HIV-seropositive women. The placentas from new deliveries were sectioned and the tissue fixed and embedded in plastic. Thin sections were cut, stained, and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HIV-like particles were found near or inside the trophoblastic villi in 4 placental specimens examined. In one case these particles were found in the endothelium of the umbilical artery. Mast-like cells were found in the free villous stroma in 2 tissue samples. Vertical transmission of HIV has been a major source of HIV infections in Europe and the US. On the other hand, Mexico doesn't report similar findings. The authors suggest that this is the case because of lower female drug use. It is still unclear why some babies from HIV-seropositive mothers become infected while others do not.

  8. Clinical manifestations and oral findings in Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Lima, Luciana Monti; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first known case report of Fraser syndrome in the dental literature. Its purpose was to present the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental treatment of a 14-year, 10-month-old female patient. Fraser syndrome is a rare recessive autosomal genetic disorder characterized by multisystemic malformation, usually comprising cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and renal defects. The child presented with: (1) hydrocephaly; (2) face asymmetry; (3) low-inserted ears; (4) flat nose bridge; (5) cryptophthalmos; (6) bilateral absence of eyeballs; (7) hypertelorism; (8) syndactyly on the left fingers and toes; (9) skeletal defects; and (10) lower limb asymmetry. The intraoral examination revealed: (1) complete primary denture; (2) malocclusion; (3) tooth crowding; (4) ogival palate; (5) normal labial frena; (6) absence of lingual frenum (not compromising the tongue movements); (7) parched lips; (8) supragingival calculus adhered to all tooth surfaces; and (9) moderate gingivitis. The dental treatment consisted of periodic monitoring of the patient's oral health status and supragingival scaling associated with topical applications of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel at 2-week intervals to reduce gingivitis.

  9. Cutaneous epithelioid cell histiocytoma: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggesting endothelial origin.

    PubMed

    Manente, L; Schmitt, I; Onetti, A M; Peris, K; Caracciolo, E; Chimenti, S

    1997-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with a polypoid nodule localized in the groin. Although the clinical and histopathological features corresponded to previously described diagnostic criteria of epithelioid cell histiocytoma, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggested vascular differentiation of the epithelioid cells. In particular, the immunohistochemical negativity of the epithelioid cell elements for Factor XIIIa failed to substantiate the previously forwarded hypothesis that this lesion represents a dendrocytoma. Instead, the presence of histiocytoid, vacuolated cells occasionally containing sparse red blood cells, positive staining for Factor VIII-related antigen, and ultrastructural evidence of endothelial characteristics in epithelioid neoplastic cells favor the hypothesis that "epithelioid cell histiocytoma" is of endothelial origin. We suggest the descriptive term cutaneous histiocytoid hemangioendothelioma for this lesion.

  10. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland. Ultrastructural, clinical and experimental findings in disturbances of secretion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Donath, K

    1976-01-01

    Among the secretory disturbances ("Dyschylien") of salivary glands the sialadenosis of the parotid gland is a clinic and a morphologic definited entity. The typical clinical symptom is a bilateral, often recurrent, and painless swelling of the parotid gland. The characteristic pathological findings consist in an acinar cell hypertrophy without any inflammatory signs. According to this definition, sialadenosis has to be separated from those diseases of salivary glands, which are primarily altered by inflammation of the salivary tissue with secondary secretory disturbances. From flinical point of view it is possible to distinguish the following kinds of sialadenosis according to the syntropy with various diseases: Endocrine sialadenosis (in diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of gonads, pituitary gland, thyroid gland etc.); dystrophic-metabolic sialadenosis (malnutrition, avitaminosis, alcohilsm, chronic liver diseases etc.), and neurogenic sialadenosis (dysfunction of the vegetative nervous system, drug damages e.g. antihypertensive agents). The question arises, whether all forms of sialadenosis have a common etiology and a coincidental pathogenic factor. The following studies were carried out with the aim to find further details concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of sialadenosis. The study is based on the following material: a) 126 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with sialadenosis (Register of salivary gland diseases at the Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). This material was collected from 1965 to 1973. b) 80 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with other diseases (parotitis [4]; acinic cell carcinoma [4]; other parotid and oral tumors [72]; for comparison. c) Experimental studies on the parotid salivary glands of Wistar-rats. The biopsies of the parotid glands were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally. The investigations centered on the ultrastruct of sialadenosis

  11. [The different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis: multidetector computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Koren Fernández, L; Alonso Charterina, S; Alcalá-Galiano Rubio, A; Sánchez Nistal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a fungal infection usually caused by inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus spores. However, when we talk about aspergillosis, we normally refer to the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings that depend directly on the patient's immune status, on the prior existence of lung disease, and on the virulence of the infective organism. There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis), and each type has its own distinct radiologic findings. We review the signs of pulmonary aspergillosis on multidetector computed tomography and we correlate them with patients' symptoms and immune responses. Likewise, we discuss the differential diagnoses.

  12. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  13. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  14. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin revealing novel insights into genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Sobey, G J; Wagner, B E; Peres, L C; Bowen, J; Bexon, J; Javaid, M K; Arundel, P; Bishop, N J

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. Over 90% of patients with OI have a mutation in COL1A1/COL1A2, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In-depth phenotyping and in particular, studies involving manifestations in the skin connective tissue have not previously been undertaken in OI. The aims of the study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in a cohort of patients with OI; to identify common and distinguishing features in order to inform genotype-phenotype correlation; and to identify common and distinguishing features between the different subtypes of OI. As part of the RUDY (Rare Diseases in Bone, Joints and/or Blood Vessels) study, in collaboration with the NIHR Rare Diseases Translational Research Collaboration, we undertook a national study of skin biopsies in patients with OI. We studied the manifestations in the skin connective tissue and undertook in-depth clinical and molecular phenotyping of 16 patients with OI. We recruited 16 patients: analyses have shown that in type 1 collagen mutation positive patients (COL1A1/ COL1A2) (n-4/16) consistent findings included: variable collagen fibril diameter (CFD) and presence of collagen flowers. Histological examination in these patients showed an increase in elastic fibers that are frequently fragmented and clumped. These observations provide evidence that collagen flowers and CFD variability are consistent features in OI due to type 1 collagen defects and reinforce the need for accurate phenotyping in conjunction with genomic analyses.

  15. Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes.

  16. Ultrastructural findings in murine seminiferous tubules as a consequence of subchronic vanadium pentoxide inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, Teresa Imelda; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Acevedo-Nava, Sandra; Piñón-Zárate, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Avila-Casado, Maria del Carmen; Avila-Costa, Maria-Rosa; Saldivar-Osorio, Liliana

    2007-06-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal emitted to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Its current status as an atmospheric pollutant increases the need for information about the effects that this element might have on the reproductive health of exposed populations. The present study investigated changes in testicular ultrastructure following inhalation exposure of male mice to V (as vanadium pentoxide). Tissue V level was constant during the 12-week time period. We observed necrosis of spermatogonium, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells, as well as pseudo-nuclear inclusion and disruption of cellular junctions. Our findings stressed the importance of the hemato-testicular barrier in supporting the function of Sertoli cells and suggest as a possible target of V, tight junction proteins. Further analysis is needed in order to identify the role that reactive oxidative species (ROS) might have on these cellular junctions, and if a specific protein is the target of its toxic effects. The relevance of this report concerns the impact that metal air pollution could have on male fertility in dense cities with vehicular traffic problems.

  17. Cutaneous manifestations in neuro-oncology: clinically relevant tumor and treatment associated dermatologic findings.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Strowd, Lindsay C; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings are a rare but important aspect of the evaluation and management of patients with tumors of the nervous system. Skin findings have the highest prevalence in genetic tumor syndromes termed neuro-genodermatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and tuberous sclerosis. Skin changes are observed in patients with non-syndromic nervous system malignancy, often as a result of pharmacotherapy. The skin may also manifest findings in paraneoplastic conditions that affect the nervous system, providing an early indication of underlying neoplasm, including dermatomyosistis, neuropathic itch, and brachioradial pruritus. In this article, we review the major cutaneous findings in patients with tumors of the brain, spine, and peripheral nervous system focusing on (1) cutaneous manifestations of genetic and sporadic primary nervous system tumor syndromes, and (2) paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with prominent cutaneous features.

  18. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  19. Anatomical and pathological findings in hearts from fetuses and infants with cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Deborah M.; Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M.; Tseng, Chung-E.; Dische, Renata; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Halushka, Marc; Clancy, Robert M.; Buyon, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The autopsy and clinical information on children dying with anti-SSA/Ro-associated cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) were examined to identify patterns of disease, gain insight into pathogenesis and enhance the search for biomarkers and preventive therapies. Methods. A retrospective analysis evaluating reports from 18 autopsies of cardiac NL cases and clinical data from the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus was performed. Results. Of the 18 cases with autopsies, 15 had advanced heart block, including 3 who died in the second trimester, 9 in the third trimester and 3 post-natally. Three others died of cardiomyopathy without advanced block, including two dying pre-natally and one after birth. Pathological findings included fibrosis/calcification of the atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node and bundle of His, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), papillary muscle fibrosis, valvular disease, calcification of the atrial septum and mononuclear pancarditis. There was no association of pathology with the timing of death except that in the third-trimester deaths more valvular disease and/or extensive conduction system abnormalities were observed. Clinical rhythm did not always correlate with pathology of the conduction system, and the pre-mortem echocardiograms did not consistently detect the extent of pathology. Conclusion. Fibrosis of the AV node/distal conduction system is the most characteristic histopathological finding. Fibrosis of the SA node and bundle of His, EFE and valve damage are also part of the anti-Ro spectrum of injury. Discordance between echocardiograms and pathology findings should prompt the search for more sensitive methods to accurately study the phenotype of antibody damage. PMID:22308531

  20. Study on Neurological Manifestations of Eclampsia & Findings of CT scan of Brain.

    PubMed

    Begum, F; Nahar, K; Ahmed, M U; Ferdousi, R A; Akter, F A; Rahman, M M

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of January 2011 to December 2012 to evaluate neurological manifestations in eclampsia by CT scan of brain. A total 35 patients with eclampsia were studied, who underwent CT scan of brain in Radiology & Imaging Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The study patients were divided into two groups, those who had changes in brain on CT scan (Group A) & those who had no changes in brain on CT scan (Group B). Finally the study variables were compared between these two groups. Each selected patient fulfilling the criteria was sent to the department of Radiology & Imaging for CT scanning of brain. In antepartum cases of eclampsia CT scan of brain were done after delivery/ termination of pregnancy. In all cases, CT scan of brain was done within 72 hours of admission. Out of 35 patients total 85.72% had changes in brain on CT scan & 14.28% had no changes in brain on CT scan. Among them 45.72% patients had cerebral oedema, 37.14% had cerebral infarct & 2.86% patients had intracerebral haemorrhage. Comparison of neurological parameters were done & showed that there were statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding headache, visual disturbance, hypereflexia & depression of consciousness. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aphasia & hemiplegia between the two groups. So the CT scan of brain has been useful in demonstrating the lesion of brain in patients with eclampsia & also helpful to evaluate the neurological manifestations in eclampsia.

  1. Histopathological findings of extra-ileal manifestations at initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease-related ileitis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian S; Miller, Gregory C; Bettington, Mark L; Rosty, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Our objective was to review the histological findings in index biopsies from the terminal ileum and other gastro-intestinal tract sites of Crohn's disease patients prior any treatment and to compare them with the findings from patients with non-specific ileitis. A total of 111 consecutive Crohn's disease cases (55 females, median age 27 years) with extra-ileal biopsies were retrospectively selected. Upper gastrointestinal inflammatory changes were found in 68 % of gastric biopsies, 60 % of oesophageal biopsies and 43 % of duodenal biopsies with no significant difference in frequency between paediatric and adult cases. Crohn's colitis was more common in paediatric cases than adult cases (85 % versus 57 %). Granuloma in at least one extra-ileal site was observed in 40 %, more frequently in paediatric cases than in adults (78 vs 27 %). Compared with Crohn's disease cases, the group of 151 non-specific ileitis cases (75 females, median age 52 years) were more likely to have normal upper and lower gastrointestinal biopsies and to show less frequent crypt architectural changes in the terminal ileum. In summary, Crohn's disease ileitis is often associated with inflammation elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract while non-specific ileitis was infrequently associated with inflammation elsewhere for both paediatric and adult patients. These findings support the role of systematic biopsies in multiple gastrointestinal sites to help distinguishing Crohn's ileitis from non-specific ileitis in paediatric and adult population.

  2. A translational murine model of sub-lethal intoxication with Shiga toxin 2 reveals novel ultrastructural findings in the brain striatum.

    PubMed

    Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Geoghegan, Patricia A; Cangelosi, Adriana; Pinto, Alipio; Loidl, C Fabian; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute renal failure, and also central nervous system complications in around 30% of the children affected. Besides, neurological deficits are one of the most unrepairable and untreatable outcomes of HUS. Study of the striatum is relevant because basal ganglia are one of the brain areas most commonly affected in patients that have suffered from HUS and since the deleterious effects of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin have never been studied in the striatum, the purpose of this study was to attempt to simulate an infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in a murine model. To this end, intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 (0.5 ηg per mouse) was used and the correlation between neurological manifestations and ultrastructural changes in striatal brain cells was studied in detail. Neurological manifestations included significant motor behavior abnormalities in spontaneous motor activity, gait, pelvic elevation and hind limb activity eight days after administration of the toxin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin caused early perivascular edema two days after administration, as well as significant damage in astrocytes four days after administration and significant damage in neurons and oligodendrocytes eight days after administration. Interrupted synapses and mast cell extravasation were also found eight days after administration of the toxin. We thus conclude that the chronological order of events observed in the striatum could explain the neurological disorders found eight days after administration of the toxin.

  3. A Translational Murine Model of Sub-Lethal Intoxication with Shiga Toxin 2 Reveals Novel Ultrastructural Findings in the Brain Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Pinto, Alipio; Loidl, C. Fabian; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute renal failure, and also central nervous system complications in around 30% of the children affected. Besides, neurological deficits are one of the most unrepairable and untreatable outcomes of HUS. Study of the striatum is relevant because basal ganglia are one of the brain areas most commonly affected in patients that have suffered from HUS and since the deleterious effects of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin have never been studied in the striatum, the purpose of this study was to attempt to simulate an infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in a murine model. To this end, intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 (0.5 ηg per mouse) was used and the correlation between neurological manifestations and ultrastructural changes in striatal brain cells was studied in detail. Neurological manifestations included significant motor behavior abnormalities in spontaneous motor activity, gait, pelvic elevation and hind limb activity eight days after administration of the toxin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin caused early perivascular edema two days after administration, as well as significant damage in astrocytes four days after administration and significant damage in neurons and oligodendrocytes eight days after administration. Interrupted synapses and mast cell extravasation were also found eight days after administration of the toxin. We thus conclude that the chronological order of events observed in the striatum could explain the neurological disorders found eight days after administration of the toxin. PMID:23383285

  4. Tendon's ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon's components.

  5. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region.

    PubMed

    Kaup, F J; Drommer, W; Damsch, S; Deegen, E

    1990-09-01

    Extensive light and electron microscope studies (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) of the bronchioles and alveolar region, in 28 horses suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eight control horses, revealed good correlation between clinical severity and morphological changes. In the bronchiolar epithelium the non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, in particular, showed ultrastructural alterations and, even in the mild stages of disease, these presented degenerative changes and lack of differentiation. Together with loss of granulation in the Clara cells and metaplasia of the goblet cells, cells were seen with unusual intracytoplasmic lamellar inclusion, the number of which increased sharply with clinical severity. The focal changes in the alveolar region were necrosis of type I epithelial cells, alveolar fibrosis of varying degrees with type II epithelial transformation and emphysema or hyperinflation, with an increase in Kohn's pores. Some horse also showed morphological signs of interference with the surfactant system, in the form of marked cysts with lamellar structure. The alveolar changes were mostly in the peribronchiolar region and were, therefore, interpreted as reactive processes. No conclusions as to the aetiology of equine COPD can be derived from these morphological investigations.

  6. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  7. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  8. VHL Manifestations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Genetic Research and VHL Be Part of Finding a Cure About Researchers Progress Towards a Cure Get Involved ... VHL Progress Towards a Cure Be Part of Finding a Cure About Researchers VHLA Research Grant Program Get Involved ...

  9. Tendon’s ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Summary The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon’s components. PMID:23885339

  10. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages. Patients and methods The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin. Results Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05). Conclusion Younger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood. PMID:26514242

  11. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Grover, Madhusudan; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Bernard, Cheryl E; Lurken, Matthew S; Smyrk, Thomas C; Parkman, Henry P; Abell, Thomas L; Snape, William J; Hasler, William L; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Koch, Kenneth L; Calles, Jorges; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders. As part of the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, full thickness gastric body biopsies from 20 diabetic and 20 idiopathic gastroparetics were studied by light microscopy. Abnormalities were found in many (83%) but not all patients. Among the common defects were loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neural abnormalities. No distinguishing features were seen between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Our aim was to provide a detailed description of the ultrastructural abnormalities, compare findings between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and determine if patients with apparently normal immunohistological features have ultrastructural abnormalities. Tissues from 40 gastroparetic patients and 24 age- and sex-matched controls were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial cells of Cajal showing changes suggestive of injury, large and empty nerve endings, presence of lipofuscin and lamellar bodies in the smooth muscle cells were found in all patients. However, the ultrastructural changes in ICC and nerves differed between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and were more severe in idiopathic gastroparesis. A thickened basal lamina around smooth muscle cells and nerves was characteristic of diabetic gastroparesis whereas idiopathic gastroparetics had fibrosis, especially around the nerves. In conclusion, in all the patients TEM showed abnormalities in ICC, nerves and smooth muscle consistent with the delay in gastric emptying. The significant differences found between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis offers insight into pathophysiology as well as into potential targeted therapies. PMID:21914127

  12. Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice...AChE +/+) and acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE -/-) mice to determine the compensatory mechanism manifested by the neuromuscular junction to...had smaller nerve terminals and diminished pre- and postsynaptic surface contacts relative to neuromuscular junctions of AChE +/+ mice. The

  13. Ultrastructure of eccrine cystadenoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M O; Khan, M A

    1979-10-01

    A case of eccrine cystadenoma was studied by electron microscopy. The tumor showed two types of cells, luminal and basal cells. The cells lacked the characteristics of the secretory segment of the sweat glands. The features of the luminal cells are similar to those of the intradermal portion of the eccrine sweat duct. In some areas, the lesion showed features characteristic of apocrine gland structure. Nuclear bodies were very frequent. The ultrastructural findings of eccrine cystadenoma support an origin from the ductal portion of eccrine sweat glands.

  14. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, J G

    1979-05-01

    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone.

  15. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  16. Genitourinary manifestations of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gilbert J; Marella, Venkata K

    2003-02-01

    By the 1980s, the availability of antituberculosis chemotherapy reduced the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis. Changing patterns of population emigration and the development of large pools of immune-compromised individuals reversed the downward trend of tuberculosis. The incidence of genitourinary tuberculosis has remained constant. The manifestations of GU TB can be variable and cause a variety of clinical patterns that mimic other diseases. Adrenal insufficiency, renal disease, obstructive uropathy, and chronic cystitis are not uncommon with TB. The patient with TB may have genital disease that simulates STD or scrotal tumors. Infertility can be caused by GU tuberculosis. Awareness of environmental factors and patient history should alert the urologist to the wide array of clinical findings in the genitourinary system that can be caused by tuberculosis.

  17. [Cardiovascular manifestations of human toxocariasis].

    PubMed

    Bolívar-Mejía, Adrián; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Delgado, Olinda

    2013-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection produced by helminths that cannot reach their adult stage in humans. For their etiological species (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), man is a paratenic host. Infection by such helminths can produce a variety of clinical manifestations, such as: visceral larvae migrans syndrome, ocular larvae migrans syndrome and covert toxocariasis. In the visceral larvae migrans syndrome, the organs that are mainly involved include liver, lungs, skin, nervous system, muscles, kidneys and the heart. Regarding the latter, the importance of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, as well as its clinical relevance, has increasingly begun to be recognized. The current article is based on a systematic information search, focused mainly on the clinical and pathological aspects of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, including its pathophysiology, laboratory findings, diagnosis and therapeutical options, with the objective of highlighting its importance as a zoonosis and its relevance to the fields of cardiovascular medicine in adults and children.

  18. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic lesions in 49 patients was evaluated to find significant differences between benign and malignant cells. The patients studied included 9 with benign epithelial (racial) melanosis, 2 with pigmented squamous cell papillomas, 16 with conjunctival nevi, 18 with primary acquired melanosis, and 11 with invasive nodules of malignant melanoma. In benign epithelial melanosis, dendritic melanocytes were situated along the basement membrane region of the conjunctival epithelium, with one basilar dendritic melanocyte lodged among every five or six basilar keratinocytes. The dendritic melanocytes extended arborizing cellular processes between the basilar and among the suprabasilar keratinocytes, which manifested considerable uptake of melanin granules into their cytoplasm. The benign dendritic melanocytes possessed nuclei with clumped heterochromatin at the nuclear membrane, small, tightly wound nucleoli, and large, elongated, fully melaninized melanin granules. In two patients with benign hyperplasia of the dendritic melanocytes, occasional dendritic melanocytes were located in a suprabasilar position, but were always separated from each other by keratinocytes or their processes. In the two black patients with benign pigmented squamous papillomas, the benign dendritic melanocytes were located hapharzardly at all levels of the acanthotic epithelium and not just along the basement membrane region. Melanin uptake by the proliferating keratinocytes was minimal. In benign melanocytic nevi of the conjunctiva, nevus cells within the intraepithelial junctional nests displayed a more rounded cellular configuration; short villi and broader cellular processes suggestive of abortive dendrites were found. The nuclear chromatin pattern was clumped at the nuclear membrane, but the nucleoli were somewhat larger than those of benign dendritic melanocytes in epithelial melanosis. The melanosomes were smaller and rounder than those in dendritic

  19. Rheumatic manifestations of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Claudia; Possemato, Niccolò; Pipitone, Nicolò; Manger, Bernhard; Salvarani, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the rheumatological manifestations of scurvy, based on articles published in English from 1965 until October 2014, with a particular focus on rheumatological manifestations. Scurvy is a rare, uncommon disease in developed countries. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, the disease can easily mimic rheumatologic conditions leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  20. [Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Amschler, K; Seitz, C S

    2017-03-17

    Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in up to 30% of cases. This review summarizes and illustrates in detail the differences between specific and unspecific skin manifestations of sarcoidosis. Important differential diagnoses, such as tuberculosis, cutaneous lymphoma and syphilis have to be excluded. The indications for systemic treatment are primarily determined by the extent of organ involvement and also by the cosmetic impairment.

  1. Ultrastructural immunochemistry of J chains in chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    Using ultrastructural immunochemistry, we have determined subcellular localization of J chain molecules in chicken splenic cells. The majority of J chain positive cells (JPC) were lymphoblast-like cells. The data show that J chains predominantly are localized in cytoplasm with a considerable amount distributed on the cell surface. In the cytoplasm, J chains were diffusely expressed. Furthermore, these J chain molecules were clearly seen as cluster type. In addition to the J chain localization of subcellular organelles as described above, J chains were partly found on perinuclear spaces. As J chains are key protein in B cell differentiation into immunoglobulin (Ig) producing cells, these findings might help for studying regulation of B cell differentiation in addition to revealing the molecular assembly of polymeric Ig.

  2. Ophthalmic manifestations of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Huson, S; Jones, D; Beck, L

    1987-01-01

    The eyes of 64 patients known to have neurofibromatosis were examined. Lisch nodules were the commonest manifestation of the disease and were present in 95% of all patients (100% of those aged 16 years or older). Images PMID:3103673

  3. Cardiopulmonary Manifestations of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mahnaz; Taylor, Nora; Tehrani, Mahsa

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that usually affects young men. Cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary disease are well-known and commonly reported extra-articular manifestation, associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). AS has also been reported to be specifically associated with aortitis, aortic valve diseases, conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. The pulmonary manifestations of the disease include fibrosis of the upper lobes, interstitial lung disease, ventilatory impairment due to chest wall restriction, sleep apnea, and spontaneous pneumothorax. They are many reports detailing pathophysiology, hypothesized mechanisms leading to these derangements, and estimated prevalence of such findings in the AS populations. At this time, there are no clear guidelines regarding a stepwise approach to screen these patients for cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. PMID:21547038

  4. [Unusual Migraine Manifestations].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S

    2016-06-08

    Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies.

  5. Manifestations of Lyme carditis.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Tomislav; Momčilović, Stefan; Perišić, Zoran D; Apostolović, Svetlana R; Cvetković, Jovana; Jovanović, Andriana; Barać, Aleksandra; Šalinger-Martinović, Sonja; Tasić-Otašević, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    The first data of Lyme carditis, a relatively rare manifestation of Lyme disease, were published in eighties of the last century. Clinical manifestations include syncope, light-headedness, fainting, shortness of breath, palpitations, and/or chest pain. Atrioventricular (AV) electrical block of varying severity presents the most common conduction disorder in Lyme carditis. Although is usually mild, AV block can fluctuates rapidly and progress from a prolonged P-R interval to a His-Purkinje block within minutes to hours and days. Rarely, Lyme disease may be the cause of endocarditis, while some studies and reports, based on serological and/or molecular investigations, have suggested possible influence of Borrelia burgdorferi on degenerative cardiac valvular disease. Myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure have also been described as possible manifestations of Lyme carditis. The clinical course of Lyme carditis is generally mild, short term, and in most cases, completely reversible after adequate antibiotic treatment.

  6. Cutaneous Manifestations of ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Antonia J.; Leslie, Kieron S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A broad range of skin diseases occurs in patients with ESRD: from the benign and asymptomatic to the physically disabling and life-threatening. Many of them negatively impact on quality of life. Their early recognition and treatment are essential in reducing morbidity and mortality. The cutaneous manifestations can be divided into two main categories: nonspecific and specific. The nonspecific manifestations are commonly seen and include skin color changes, xerosis, half-and-half nails, and pruritus. The specific disorders include acquired perforating dermatosis, bullous dermatoses, metastatic calcification, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. This review article describes these conditions and considers the underlying pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:24115194

  7. Ultrastructural study of cutaneous lesions in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.

    PubMed

    Bardagí, Mar; Fondati, Alessandra; Fondevila, Dolors; Ferrer, Lluís

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural appearance of flame figures, reported to comprise a mixture of degenerate collagen and degranulated eosinophils, in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC). Skin specimens from eight cats with EGC and from two clinically healthy cats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Flame figures appeared to comprise ultrastructurally normal collagen fibrils separated by oedema and surrounded by large numbers of degranulating eosinophils. Longitudinal sections of collagen fibrils displayed the characteristic cross-striation of normal dermal collagen. Feline eosinophils, analogous to human eosinophils, degranulated both by cytolysis and piecemeal degranulation. The results of this study suggest that flame figures form in feline EGC due to eosinophil recruitment and degranulation, and that collagen fibres are partially disrupted but collagen fibrils are not damaged. These findings suggest that eosinophil accumulation and the release of granule contents represent the primary events in feline EGC.

  8. Rheumatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Crispin, José C; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2003-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus has been linked to disorders of bones and joints, including neuroarthropathy, limited joint mobility, and hyperostosis. Some of the relations have known pathogenic mechanisms, but most are based on epidemiologic findings. This article reviews the associations between diabetes mellitus and its putative rheumatologic manifestations, and proposes a classification composed of four categories: consequences of diabetic complications, consequences of metabolic derangements inherent to diabetes, syndromes that may share etiologic mechanisms with microvascular disease, and probable associations. This approach may facilitate a clearer understanding of the musculoskeletal conditions that are prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:27034812

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer.

  11. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  12. Destiny - Not So Manifest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    Higher education in the United States is facing a period of uncertainty, confusion, conflict, and potential change, and it has little to guide it in its past experiences. For most of its three and one-third century history, it has had a manifest destiny and through the period from 1820-1870 was marked by rapid change and some student unrest. Two…

  13. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  14. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  15. Ultrastructural studies of unstable angina in living man

    SciTech Connect

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Freeman, M.R.; Salerno, T.A.; Lichtenstein, S.V.; Armstrong, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen patients with refractory unstable angina who were undergoing aortocoronary bypass were studied to assess the extent of platelet aggregation present in the microvasculature. Ultrastructural findings on the morphology of cardiac muscle and microvasculature were correlated with the findings on coronary angiograms and thallium scans. There were no significant correlations. The presence of platelet aggregates was identified in four biopsies, two of which had thrombus by angiographic criteria. Biopsy in areas with thallium defects revealed an increased prevalence of white blood cells without acute myocardial infarction. This study confirms the presence of platelet aggregates in patients with unstable angina, albeit at a reduced frequency when compared with autopsy studies.

  16. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.

  17. Inflammatory Manifestations of Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Catherine L.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphedema results from lymphatic insufficiency leading to a progressive inflammatory process that ultimately manifests as discomfort, recurrent infections, and, at times, secondary malignancy. Collectively, these morbidities contribute to an overall poor quality of life. Although there have been recent advances in microsurgical interventions, a conservative palliative approach remains the mainstay of treatment for this disabling disease. The absence of a cure is due to an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological changes that result in lymphedema. A histological hallmark of lymphedema is inflammatory cell infiltration and recent studies with animal models and clinical biopsy specimens have suggested that this response plays a key role in the pathology of the disease. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the ongoing research in and the current understanding of the inflammatory manifestations of lymphedema. PMID:28106728

  18. Diverse manifestations of trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    McCunney, R J

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene, a solvent used in a variety of industrial settings for more than 60 years, has caused adverse health effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, the skin, liver, kidney, and heart. Three men have shown relatively unusual manifestations secondary to exposure to trichloroethylene in degreasing operations in the jewelry industry. Toxic encephalopathy, hepatitis, and carpal spasm occurred among young, healthy workers. Clinical and laboratory data, including measurement of urinary trichloroacetic acid concentrations, are presented. PMID:3342194

  19. [Respiratory manifestations in aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Regimbaud, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of cosmopolitan fungi with a selective pulmonary tropism. Their pathogenic role is due either to spreading in pre-existing pulmonary cavities, or to their allergizing capacity. Cavitary sequellae of tuberculosis and suppuration, particularly frequent and important in tropical environment, are elective localization for Aspergillus colonization. Surgical treatment is nowadays the only efficient one. Allergic manifestations are a more complex problem of therapy, exclusion of allergen being difficult to get in tropical environment.

  20. Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest System (E-Manifest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information on EPA's work toward developing a hazardous waste electronic manifest system. Information on the Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest Establishment Act, progress on the project and frequent questions are available.

  1. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+“1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa. PMID:27688980

  2. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    White, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone. Images Figure 15 Figure 16 Figures 17 and 18 Figures 19 and 20 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5 and 6 Figures 7 and 8 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figures 13 and 14 Figures 21 and 22 Figures 23 through 26 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:453324

  3. Ophthalmologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos; Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Schor, Paulo; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Ophthalmic manifestations are within the extra-intestinal manifestations, and can be divided into those of autoimmune disorders or those due to absorptive disabilities. This article reviewed the ophthalmologic manifestation of celiac disease. Ophthalmic symptoms are rare, but should be investigated in patients with celiac disease and taken into consideration as the first systemic manifestation. PMID:26949627

  4. Unusual manifestation of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Fong, M Y; Wong, K T; Rohela, M; Tan, L H; Adeeba, K; Lee, Y Y; Lau, Y L

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of unusual cutaneous toxoplasmosis manifestation in a HIV-positive patient. He presented with hard and painful nodular lesions on the arms, hands and chest. Serology tests for anti-Toxoplasma antibody were negative. However, histopathologic examination of the lesion revealed foci of macrophages containing crescent-shaped organisms resembling the zoites of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Ultrastructure examination under electron microscopy and PCR confirmed the organism as T. gondii.

  5. [Ocular Manifestations in Sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Walscheid, K; Tappeiner, C; Heiligenhaus, A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory multi-organ disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterised by non-necrotising granulomata. Sarcoidosis predominantly manifests in the lung, but any other organ may be affected. Ocular involvement is present in about 25 to 50 % of patients. The most common ocular manifestation is uveitis, especially of the anterior eye segment. If ocular sarcoidosis is suspected, interdisciplinary assessment of the patient is mandatory, including laboratory tests, chest X-ray, assessment by a specialist in internal medicine and, ideally, histological evidence of granuloma formation in a tissue specimen. Other (infectious) causes of granulomatous inflammation need to be excluded, especially tuberculosis or syphilis. For the ophthalmological assessment, detection of granulomatous lesions is of particular importance, especially by visualising chorioretinal granuloma by fluorescein and indocyanin green angiography. Cystoid macular oedema and glaucoma are the most frequent complications limiting visual acuity. Corticosteroids, which can be administered either locally or systemically, are the mainstay of therapy. Depending on the clinical course and the development of ocular complications, systemic steroid-sparing immunosuppressive medication may be indicated.

  6. Gravity receptors - An ultrastructural basis for peripheral sensory processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Donovan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present ultrastructural study of serial sections has shown that type II hair cells of the anterior part of the utricular macula are integrated into the afferent neural circuitry of type I cells, which are arranged in clusters. Additionally, there exists a complex system of intramacularly originating efferent-type nerve fibers and terminals. The findings, taken together, suggest that on morphological grounds, complex processing of sensory information occurs in gravity receptors. Asymmetry of such a complex system may contribute to motion and space-motion sickness.

  7. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions.

  8. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  9. Manifold manifestations of ergotism.

    PubMed

    Payne, B; Sasse, B; Franzen, D; Hailemariam, S; Gemsenjäger, E

    2000-08-19

    Vasospastic side effects leading to organic manifestations are rare in ergotamine therapy. To our knowledge, combinations of more than two signs of ergotism have rarely been described in the literature so far. We present a 65-year-old male patient who as a consequence of severe migraine had developed ergotamine abuse. He was admitted to our hospital after one week of increasing abdominal pain. During laparotomy, necrotic areas of the small intestine and the sigmoid colon were resected, which on histopathologic examination revealed severe hypertrophy of the smooth musculature of mesenteric arteries, resulting from chronic vasospasms. Postoperatively, the patient developed ischaemia of the limbs which was confirmed by angiography. Before death, the patient also showed ischaemic signs in the acrae and necrosis of the tongue.

  10. High-pressure freezing of soybean nodules leads to an improved preservation of ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Studer, D; Hennecke, H; Müller, M

    1992-09-01

    High-pressure freezing of chemically untreated nodules of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), in sharp contrast to chemical fixation and prefixation, appears to preserve the ultrastructure close to the native state. This is supported by the observation that the peribacteroid membrane of high-pressure-frozen samples is tightly wrapped around the bacteroids, a finding that is fully consistent with the current views on the physiology of oxygen and metabolite transport between plant cytosol and bacteroids. In soybean root nodules, the plant tissue and the enclosed bacteria are so dissimilar that conventional aldehyde-fixation procedures are unable to preserve the overall native ultrastructure. This was demonstrated by high-pressure freezing of nodules that had been pre-fixed in glutaraldehyde at various buffer molalities: no buffer strength tested preserved all ultrastructural aspects that could be seen after high-pressure freezing of chemically untreated nodules.

  11. Caffeine-induced psychiatric manifestations: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-07-01

    The association between caffeine consumption and various psychiatric manifestations has long been observed. We present two cases that show the ability of caffeine to induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and we also review the extant literature on caffeine-induced psychiatric manifestations. On the basis of our own and others' findings, we suggest that caffeine may be related to not only de-novo psychotic or mood symptoms but also to aggravation of pre-existing psychotic or mood disorders. We therefore suggest that caffeine consumption among patients with mood or psychotic symptoms should be assessed carefully in clinical practice as part of routine psychiatric evaluations.

  12. Ocular manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Salzman, M B; Sood, S K; Slavin, M L; Rubin, L G

    1992-05-01

    Ocular manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, other than conjunctivitis, are uncommon. Optic disk swelling, optic nerve atrophy, retinal exudates and hemorrhages, and cranial nerve palsies have been infrequently reported. We describe a 15-year-old patient who developed bilateral optic disk edema and iritis during an acute infection with M. pneumoniae and review the world literature on findings associated with ocular manifestations of infection with this pathogen. Although our patient experienced complete resolution of iritis and optic disk edema after 6 weeks, several patients described in the literature have experienced permanent sequelae as a result of optic neuropathy.

  13. Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective.

    PubMed

    Gribbins, Kevin M

    2011-07-01

    Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the entire ontogenic progression of germ cells through the phases of reptilian spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis). The purpose of this review is to provide an ultrastructural and histological atlas of spermatogenesis in reptiles. The morphological details provided here are the first of their kind and can hopefully provide histological information on spermatogenesis that can be compared to that already known for anamniotes (fish and amphibians), birds and mammals. The data supplied in this review will provide a basic model that can be utilized for the study of sperm development in other reptiles. The use of such an atlas will hopefully stimulate more interest in collecting histological and ultrastructural data sets on spermatogenesis that may play important roles in future nontraditional phylogenetic analyses and histopathological studies in reptiles.

  14. Cilia ultrastructure in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McLean, Laurie; MacCormick, Johnna; Robb, Ian; Carpenter, Blair; Pothos, Mary

    2003-12-01

    Chronic sinusitis, otitis media with effusion, and upper respiratory tract infections are commonly found in patients with Down syndrome. These diseases are generally felt to be secondary to depressed immune function and altered craniofacial dimensions. Recently, a cilia ultrastructure abnormality was found in a child with Down syndrome. This study is the first to be carried out to determine if cilia ultrastructure abnormalities are prevalent in the population with Down syndrome. Four of 10 patients had documented cilia abnormalities, but these were present in the background of normal cilia, suggesting that they were the result rather than the cause of chronic sinusitis. Similarly, nasal epithelium metaplasia was detected in 50% of the patients. Chronic sinusitis, otitis media with effusion, and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in children with Down syndrome cannot generally be attributed to primary cilia ultrastructure abnormalities.

  15. Ultrastructure of mouse striated muscle fibers following pravastatin administration.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael; Salman, Hertzel; Djaldetti, Meir; Alexandrova, Svetlana; Punsky, Igor; Bessler, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    To examine the effect of pravastatin administration on striated muscle ultrastructure, 10 BalbC mice were given pravastatin 40 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn for evaluation of the serum creatine phospho-kinase (CPK) level and the muscles of the hind legs, as well as the heart and liver of the animals were examined with a light and transmission electron microscope. After treatment with pravastatin the results showed a 101% increase in serum CPK level in comparison to untreated controls. Hematoxillin-eosin stained tissues of pravastatin treated mice did not show any abnormal findings. While the ultrastructure of the heart and liver of the treated animals appeared normal, the muscle fibers showed a marked alterations of the mitochondria, which were increased in size compared to those of the controls. The cristae were heavily damaged and even completely destructed, giving the mitochondria appearance of empty vacuoles. The findings are in favor of a specificity of pravastatin for striated muscles.

  16. Ultrastructural features of eosinophilic oesophagitis: impact of treatment on desmosomes

    PubMed Central

    Capocelli, Kelley E; Fernando, Shahan D; Menard-Katcher, Calies; Furuta, Glenn T; Masterson, Joanne C; Wartchow, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Aims A growing body of evidence suggests a role for altered epithelial barrier function in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), but few have described the epithelial structure during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to define ultrastructural features of active, inactive EoE and control subject’s oesophageal epithelia. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of EoE. Mucosal pinch biopsies were obtained from the distal oesophagus and processed for routine histology and electron microscopic assessment. Clinical features of enrolled subjects were analysed and subjects were divided into four groups: normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inactive EoE and active EoE. Representative photomicrographs of the basal and superficial epithelia were reviewed for abnormalities. Desmosomes were quantified on the surface of epithelia three to four prickle-cell layers above the basal layer. Results Twenty-nine paediatric cases (ages 2–18 years) were enrolled in the study. We observed a significant decrease in the number of desmosomes per cell (DPC) of subjects with active EoE compared with inactive EoE, GERD and normal epithelia. With respect to DPC, no significant differences were found between inactive EoE compared with GERD or normal subjects. Additional ultrastructural features observed included epithelial microplicae and evidence of eosinophil transmigration, degranulation, and sombrero formation. Conclusions Consistent with clinical and molecular findings, our ultrastructural data provide support for an altered oesophageal barrier in paediatric cases with active EoE, which may improve following treatment. PMID:25359789

  17. Cardiovascular manifestations of autonomic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2006-02-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic manifestations of seizures occur frequently in the epileptic population. Common manifestations include alterations in heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, ECG changes and chest pain. The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological underpinnings of these autonomic manifestations are not been fully elucidated. Diagnostic confusion may arise when ictal symptoms are confined to the autonomic nervous system; conversely, such symptoms in association with convulsions or altered consciousness are more readily recognized as concomitant ictal features. Awareness of the diverse autonomic manifestations of epilepsy will enhance diagnosis and lead to more effective therapy of these patients.

  18. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, S.; Chan, V. O.; Ridge, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:28250993

  19. A comparative study of mitochondrial ultrastructure in melanocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and perilesional halo nevi skin.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gao-Zhong; Zhao, Wen-E; Li, Xue; Gong, Qing-Li; Lu, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Vitiligo and halo nevi are both pigmentary disorders of the skin characterized by the acquired loss of functional epidermal melanocytes manifesting as white macules and patches. The cellular mechanism(s) and biochemical changes that result in the appearance of these two types of achromic lesions are still uncertain; and the relationship between vitiligo and halo nevi has been in dispute. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructure of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology through a stereological study. As previously reported, we found that melanocytes from perilesional active vitiligo skin were loosely connected with their surroundings by their retracted dendrites. The surface density and the volume density of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin are increased significantly compared with the controls, especially in active vitiligo. In contrast, there are no significant differences in mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional halo nevi skin compared with the controls. In summary, the tendency of different morphologic alterations in mitochondria from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin reflect heterogeneous backgrounds between the two diseases, revealing that vitiligo and halo nevi may have separate pathogenic mechanisms. These findings may help elucidate the relationship of these two diseases and their underlying mechanisms.

  20. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  1. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: cutaneous manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Polizel, Juliana Ocanha; Munhoz, Tânia; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is the current name for clinical manifestations of diseases previously known as “infantile systemic hyalinosis” and “juvenile hyaline fibromatosis”. The authors report representative clinical cases of each one of the above subtypes with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and difficulties for early diagnosis in this syndrome, essentially of multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27192526

  2. Lead (Pb)-induced biochemical and ultrastructural changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The focus of the present study was to explore lead (Pb)-induced metabolic alterations vis-à-vis ultrastructural changes in wheat roots to establish Pb toxicity syndrome at a structural level. Pb (50-500 μM) enhanced malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) and hydrogen peroxide content, and electrolyte leakage, thereby suggesting reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of membrane integrity and oxidative stress in wheat roots. The activities of superoxide dismutases and catalases enhanced upon Pb exposure, whereas those of ascorbate and guaiacol peroxidases declined. Pb-induced metabolic disruption was manifested in significant alterations in wheat root ultrastructure as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Pb caused thinning of cell wall (at 50 μM), formation of amoeboid protrusions and folds and intercellular spaces, and appearance of lesions and nicks/breaks (at ≥ 250 μM Pb). Pb was deposited along the cell walls as dark precipitates. At ≤ 250 μM Pb, the number of mitochondria increased significantly, whereas structural damage in terms of change of shape and disintegration was observed at ≥ 250 μM Pb. Pb reduced the size of nucleoli and induced puff formation (at 250 μM), resulting in complete disintegration/disappearance of nucleolus at 500 μM. The study concludes that Pb inhibited wheat root growth involving an ROS-mediated oxidative damage vis-à-vis the ultrastructural alterations in cell membrane and disruption of mitochondrial and nuclear integrity.

  3. Ultrastructural study of hippocampal cortex neurons in an experimental model of valproate encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Sobaniec, Wojciech; Sobaniec, Piotr; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug. A serious neurological-outcome defined as valproate encephalopathy (VE) may rarely occur during VPA therapy. Structural abnormalities within neurons are postulated as one of the reasons for VE. The aim of this study was to assess the ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal cortex during the course of chronic application of VPA to rats. VPA was chronically administered to rats, intragastrically, once daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The samples of hippocampal cortex, after routine laboratory preparation, were examined by electron microscopy. The drug induced pronounced ultrastructural changes in the population of pyramidal neurons within the hippocampal cortex after 9 and 12 months of VPA administration. The most expressed abnormalities were observed within the mitochondria and manifested by fragmentation of crests and almost complete disappearance of intramitochondrial granules. Mitochondria of numerous neurons resembled large vacuolar structures. Widening, shortening and irregular distribution of rough endoplasmic reticulum was also found. A characteristic feature of damaged neurocytes in the last two phases of the experiment was the disintegration of nuclear chromatin and the presence of numerous lipofuscin deposits within hyaloplasm. These cells assumed the look of "dark neurons" and presented the ultrastructural features of apoptosis and necrosis. Our results indicate that long-term VPA administration to rats leads to aponecrosis of hippocampal neurons.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti obtained from persistent carriers after repeated courses of diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Alves, L C; Cavalcanti, M G S; Araújo, H R C; Silva, G M; Veras, D L; Paiva, M H S; Brayner, F A

    2009-01-01

    Single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) used in control programs is effective in breaking the transmission of filariasis. In order to investigate the effect of aggressive therapy on Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) microfilariae, DEC was given to 29 patients who were positive for the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) assay but did not have clinical manifestations of filariasis, at 6 mg/kg/day for 12 days and again six months later using the same dosing regimen. For each patient, microfilarial density and serum CFA were followed up for two years. Ultrastructural analyses on Wb microfilariae obtained after repeated treatment with DEC were also performed. Microfilaremia and antigenemia decreased significantly after 12 months but returned to the initial levels after 24 months. This could indicate, as shown by other authors, that aggressive repeated therapy with DEC alone is ineffective in eradicating adult W. bancrofti, particularly in infected but asymptomatic individuals. The objective of the present study was to analyze the microfilaremic and antigenemic behavior and ultrastructural changes caused by different DEC concentrations in vitro in Wb microfilariae obtained from individuals who were sensitive and refractory to treatment. After in vitro treatment of the microfilariae using 5 and 10 microg/ml of DEC for 1h, ultrastructural analysis revealed low levels of cell damage compared with embryos obtained from individuals from a different area who had never received DEC treatment before. The results obtained suggest that microfilariae from patients who receive repeated aggressive therapy are less sensitive to DEC in vitro.

  5. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism.

  6. Anatomy and ultrastructure of the sporophyte of Takakia ceratophylla (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Renzaglia, K; McFarland, K; Smith, D

    1997-10-01

    In this study, morphogenesis and structure of the sporophyte of Takakia ceratophylla are characterized beginning with the late embryo and culminating in the fully dehisced capsule. Information is presented on the development, ultrastructure, and anatomy of the three organographic regions of the sporophyte, namely capsule, seta, and foot. Diagnostic features that identify Takakia as a moss include the gradual elongation of seta, persistence of an apical calyptra, expansion of the capsule after cessation of seta elongation, existence of a columella, monoplastidic meiosis, spore ultrastructure (including a perine layer deposited late in spore wall (development), and the structure of the foot. Commonalities with the capsule of the Andreaeopsida include sporogenous tissue that overarchs a central columella, absence of stomata, and lack of a peristome and operculum. Peculiarities of the genus are seen in the internal structure of the capsule, the disintegration of the columella with spore maturation, and the dehiscence of the capsule along a single, spiralled, longitudinal suture line. Passive spore dispersal through longitudinal splitting of the capsule occurs in andreaeopsid mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and seedless vascular plants. The precise mechanism of dehiscence along a spiralled suture is unparalleled in extant archegoniates but finds counterparts in ancestral land plants such as the pteridophyte Tortilicaulis.

  7. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  8. Critical Manifestations of Pneumoscrotum

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Lee, Min Y.; Warren, Kelly; Imhof, Reese; Khan, Sardar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumoscrotum is a critical, physical finding that may indicate significant morbidity and mortality. Accumulation of gas in the scrotum can be primary or secondary. Objective This paper discusses rapid diagnosis and treatment options. Material and Methods PubMed searches for pneumoscrotum, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Results: We review the historical perspective, classification, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options of pneumoscrotum, as well as the presentation of pneumoscrotum in neonates/infants. Conclusion It is crucial to diagnose the etiology pneumoscrotum and designing a treatment option based off that. PMID:27390577

  9. Cutaneous Manifestations of Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joshua W; Swoger, Jason M; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Awareness of the extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease is increasing in dermatology and gastroenterology, with enhanced identification of entities that range from granulomatous diseases recapitulating the underlying inflammatory bowel disease to reactive conditions and associated dermatoses. In this review, the underlying etiopathology of Crohn disease is discussed, and how this mirrors certain skin manifestations that present in a subset of patients is explored. The array of extraintestinal manifestations that do not share a similar pathology, but which are often seen in association with inflammatory bowel disease, is also discussed. Treatment and pathogenetic mechanisms, where available, are discussed.

  10. Ocular manifestations of feline herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Andrew, S E

    2001-03-01

    Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection is ubiquitous in the domestic cat population worldwide. The most common clinical ocular manifestations of infection with FHV-1 are conjunctivitis and keratitis. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of feline herpesvirus-1 and discusses the various clinical ocular manifestations, diagnostic techniques and treatment of FHV-1-induced diseases. Ocular manifestations include: conjunctivitis, keratitis, stromal keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ophthalmia neonatorium, symblepharon, corneal sequestrum, eosinophilic keratitis and anterior uveitis. Diagnostic techniques discussed include: virus isolation, fluorescent antibody testing, serum neutralising titers, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Various therapies are also discussed.

  11. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  12. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  13. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  15. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    PubMed

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found.

  16. Plantar fibromatosis: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Santucci, A; Gigante, A; Di Giulio, A; Carloni, S

    1999-04-01

    The analogies between plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren's disease (palmar fibromatosis) are well known. The latter is clinically more frequent and has been the object of extensive immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, with a view to investigating its pathogenesis. By contrast, such data on plantar fibromatosis are quite scarce. A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study was performed on nodule tissue from six patients who were subjected to total fasciectomy for plantar fibromatosis. The study of myofibroblasts revealed features suggestive of their fibroblastic origin and evidenced a cytoskeleton and an extracellular filamentous system that could enable myofibroblasts to generate and exert the intracellular forces that contribute to the contraction of the aponeurosis. These aspects are similar to those observed in Dupuytren's disease and seem to lend support to the theory that the two diseases are expressions of the same disorder.

  17. Effect of Cadmium on Cellular Ultrastructure in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xuejuan; Wang, Yanwu; Fan, Rong; Qiu, Chao; Zhong, Shan; Wei, Lei; Luo, Daji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the cytotoxicity and pathological effects of cadmium on the ovary. Our studies revealed that cadmium was deposited in the mouse ovary after 8 d cadmium injection in vivo. Also, the increase in the rate of body weight was slowed, while the gonadosomatic index was reduced in the CdCl2 group, compared with the control group. Meanwhile, cadmium affected the maturation of follicles, the degradation of corpus luteum, the arrangement of follicles and corpus luteum, and increased the number of atresia follicles. Besides, under the electron microscope, chromatin margination, karopyknosis, swelling of mature cisternae of Golgi apparatus, mitochondrial cristae disappearance, and swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum can be observed in the CdCl2 group mice. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism that the exposure of cadmium changed the ultrastructure of cells in ovary tissues.

  18. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  19. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E. M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and "natural" animal and human Campylobacter infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3354638

  20. Ultrastructural observations on a variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, M; Gardyn, J; Maran, R; Floru, S; Mittelman, M

    1993-03-01

    A patient with acute leukemia is presented in whom the leukemic cells, as seen by light microscopy were typical promyelocytes. The cells had normal or slightly invaginated nuclei with typical cytoplasmic granules and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytochemistry. The clinical course was rapid and the patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and urosepsis within a few days of diagnosis. However, electron microscopic examination showed cells with extremely convoluted and lobulated nuclei with nuclear pockets and cytoplasmic bridges as well as the complete absence of cytoplasmic granules in the majority of the cells. Furthermore, the urine lysozyme (muramidase) was elevated. These findings suggest that the leukemia in this patient may be classified as a hypogranular variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with monocytoid ultrastructural appearances.

  1. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  2. Subcellular taxonomy: An ultrastructural classification system with diagnostic applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLay, A.L.C.; Toner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Ultrastructure, Nomenclature, and Disease; Numerical Listing: YX Cellular and Subcellular Structure; Alphabetical Listing; and Appendix: Proposed Revised Listing of M-6 Codes.

  3. Efficacy of tamoxifen and l-carnitine on sperm ultrastructure and seminal oxidative stress in patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Nada, E A; El Taieb, M A; Ibrahim, H M; Al Saied, A E-R A

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic oligoathenoteratozoospermia (iOAT) is a common finding in the evaluation of male infertility. Oxidative stress (OS) may underlie its pathology. Tamoxifen and l-carnitine are used to treat idiopathic male infertility. The aim of this work was to detect the efficacy of tamoxifen and l-carnitine on sperm parameters, sperm ultrastructure and seminal OS in iOAT patients. Sixty patients were recruited for this study and divided into three groups; the 1st was treated with tamoxifen, 2nd with l-carnitine and 3rd with both drugs. Semen analysis, malondialdehye (MDA) level and transmission electron microscopy were performed before and after three months treatment. The first group showed significant improvement in MDA levels, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, ultrastructural head, acrosomal and mitochondrial anomalies (P < 0.01). Other parameters were not significantly improved. In the 2nd group, significant improvements in MDA, sperm motility, sperm morphology, ultrastructural mitochondrial and tail anomalies were detected (P < 0.01). No significant improvement in the other parameters. Third group showed improvement in MDA, all semen parameters and all ultrastructural anomalies (P < 0.01). In conclusion, tamoxifen and l-carnitine are effective in improving seminal OS, semen parameters and sperm ultrastructure. Combination of both drugs is superior to monotherapy.

  4. The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome: oral manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Chetty, M; Stephen, L; Fieggen, K; Beighton, P

    2014-05-01

    Tricho-rhino-phalangeal Syndrome (TRPS) is a rare inherited dysplasia affecting hair, nasal structure and fingers. A literature review indicated that since first described, three types of manifestations have been identified. A Table summarising the oral manifestations demonstrates the variety of presentations. A South African male child presented with the syndrome and was found to show premature eruption of permanent teeth, a finding that has not been previously reported. His oro-facial manifestations also included malaligned and unerupted crowded teeth, bulbosity of the nasal tip and an elongated philtrum and evidence of mild intellectual impairment. A protocol has been developed to guide the future management of these cases.

  5. Cutaneous manifestations of human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Gavignet, Béatrice; Piarroux, Renaud; Aubin, François; Millon, Laurence; Humbert, Philippe

    2008-12-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease characterized by the presence of larvae of the genus Toxocara in human tissues. T canis and T cati, the adult roundworms of which are found in dog and cat intestines, respectively, are the most common causative agents of the disease. Toxocaral larvae usually cause two severe syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans, depending on the location of the larvae. Two other syndromes, covert toxocariasis and common toxocariasis, which are less typical and not as severe, have also been described. During the last two decades, cutaneous manifestations such as chronic urticaria, chronic pruritus, and miscellaneous eczema, in patients with Toxocara antibodies, have been studied by different authors. In some cases, these cutaneous manifestations are the only signs indicating the presence of the disease, and they are cured after antihelmintic treatment when there is good patient compliance. In this review, we focus on these particular skin manifestations regarding their clinical description, diagnosis, and treatment.

  6. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel, Maurice A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  7. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  8. Atypical manifestations of tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, Mirjana; Seyfarth, Florian; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2007-01-01

    Tinea corporis classically presents as an erythematous annular plaque with a scaly, centrifugally advancing border. However, sometimes vesicles and pustules are observed. Occasionally, even frank bullae appear secondary to severe inflammation. Diagnostic difficulties arise when atypical manifestations mimic other inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic or seborrheic dermatitis, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, or vesicular diseases. We report five cases of atypical tinea corporis, where the initial clinical diagnosis was different from dermatophytosis. The differential diagnoses and the diagnostic difficulties related to atypical manifestations of fungal infections are discussed. Moreover, our cases emphasise the importance of conventional histological examination, which enables a fast, correct diagnosis.

  9. Cutaneous manifestations in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, L; Proietti, I; Leggio, L; Ferrulli, A; Vonghia, L; Capizzi, R; Rotoli, M; Amerio, PL; Gasbarrini, G; Addolorato, G

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gluten-dependent enteropathy characterized by atrophy of intestinal villi that improves after gluten-free diet (GFD). CD is often associated with extra-intestinal manifestations; among them, several skin diseases are described in CD patients. The present review reports all CD-associated skin manifestations described in the literature and tries to analyze the possible mechanisms involved in this association. The opportunity to evaluate the possible presence of CD in patients affected by skin disorders is discussed. PMID:16521210

  10. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  11. Hematological manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Burns, Kathleen H; Confer, Bradley; Borowitz, Michael J; Streiff, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Pancytopenia is an uncommon manifestation of cystinosis, a congenital lysosomal storage disease. We describe a 34-year-old patient with nephropathic cystinosis with multisystem involvement who developed progressive bone marrow failure after renal transplantation. Bone marrow examination demonstrated widespread deposition of cystine crystals in histiocytes and in the background. We review the literature on the hematologic manifestations of cystinosis and discuss the available treatment options for patients with bone marrow failure secondary to cystine accumulation. The availability of effective oral therapy and the limited activity of hematopoietic growth factors in these patients highlight the importance of bone marrow examination early in the evaluation of cystinosis patients with abnormal blood counts.

  12. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases.

  13. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Cowden's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kundoor Vinay Kumar; Anusha, Amarthuluri; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Sunitha, Kesidi; Thakur, Moni

    2016-01-01

    Cowden's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with variable orofacial and systemic manifestations. Here we present one such classical case of Cowden's syndrome in a 45-year-old female patient with features such as multiple cutaneous papillomatosis, oral fibromas, and fibromas involving multiple organs such as gastrointestinal tract (multiple polyps), thyroid disorders, and breast cancer. PMID:27990388

  14. ENT manifestations of Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Dabholkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis with multisystemic involvement. We present two cases of Wegener's presenting with otological manifestations as the first symptom. These symptoms are subtle and diagnosis may be easily overlooked. Hence a high index of suspicion is required. Early diagnosis and treatment goes a long way in improving the outcomes and in preventing further complications.

  15. Ultrastructure of cyst differentiation in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Lázaro, Mónica; González-Robles, Arturo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Bonilla, Patricia; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-05-01

    Cysts represent a phase in the life cycle of biphasic parasitic protozoa that allow them to survive under adverse environmental conditions. Two events are required for the morphological differentiation from trophozoite to cyst and from cyst to trophozoite: the encystation and excystation processes. In this paper, we present a review of the ultrastructure of the encystation and excystation processes in Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Giardia lamblia. The comparative electron microscopical observations of these events here reported provide a morphological background to better understand recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of the differentiation phenomena in these microorganisms.

  16. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... delivery of the waste to the first transporter designated on the manifest prepared under paragraph (e) or... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  17. Aging Drosophila melanogaster display altered pre- and postsynaptic ultrastructure at adult neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole; Laugks, Ulrike; Heckmann, Manfred; Asan, Esther; Neuser, Kirsa

    2015-11-01

    Although age-related changes in synaptic plasticity are an important focus within neuroscience, little is known about ultrastructural changes of synaptic morphology during aging. Here we report how aging affects synaptic ultrastructure by using fluorescence and electron microscopy at the adult Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of ventral abdominal muscles. Mainly four striking morphological changes of aging NMJs were revealed. 1) Bouton size increases with proportionally rising number of active zones (AZs). 2) Synaptic vesicle density at AZs is increased in old flies. 3) Late endosomes, cisternae, and multivesicular bodies accumulate in the presynaptic terminal, and vesicles accumulate between membranes of the terminal bouton and the subsynaptic reticulum. 4) The electron-dense pre- and postsynaptic apposition is expanded in aging NMJs, which is accompanied by an expansion of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. These findings suggest that aging is possibly accompanied by impaired synaptic vesicle release and recycling and a potentially compensatory expansion of AZs and postsynaptic densities.

  18. Chronic mild stress damages mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Chai, Yi; Ding, Jian-Hua; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2011-01-13

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression.

  19. Ultrastructure and pathology of Besnoitia caprae in the naturally infected goats of Kerman, East of Iran.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Azizi, S

    2008-05-01

    A disease with clinical manifestations of thickening and alopecia of the skin over the lower limbs, around the eyes, face, and nose, thickening and shrinkage of the scrotum, and presence of white granular cysts in the sclero-conjunctiva in goats in Kerman Province, were reported to the Pathology Department of Shiraz Veterinary School. Primary histopathological studies demonstrated an outbreak of caprine besnoitiosis in this region. To study the histopathological and ultrastructural features of the disease, samples were collected from various organs of the suspected slaughtered goats for further investigations. In histopathological studies, dermis and subcutaneous fascia covering lower portion of the limbs, skin over frontal sinus, ear tips, scrotum, eye lids as well as the eye's sclera, epididymal and testicular parenchyma, and their tunics were severely infected with Besnoitia cysts. Tongue, pharynx, prepuce and penis, deeper striated muscles, subcutaneous bone matrices, abomasum, esophagus, subcutaneous tendons, and periosteal surfaces of the limb bones showed lower rates of infection. Except the vagina and vestibule, no cyst was observed in other female urogenital organs, the central nervous system, intestines, heart, liver, spleen, and different lymph nodes. The host reaction to the cysts was variable, ranging from the absence of inflammatory cells around intact normal cysts up to infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, fibroblasts, and connective tissues around the degenerated cysts. Ultrastructural studies showed this coccidian parasite belonged to eukaryotic protozoa, and the cystic form had the typical feature of the Besnoitia spp. of the apicomplexa. This study showed that the organism demonstrated ultrastructurally minor differences with other Besnoitia species infecting other animal species.

  20. How methylglyoxal kills bacteria: An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Erika; Serem, June Cheptoo; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Gaspar, Anabella Regina Marques; Bester, Megan Jean

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of honey is due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), H2O2, bee defensin as well as polyphenols. High MGO levels in manuka honey are the main source of antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to reduce the swarming and swimming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to de-flagellation. Due to the complexity of honey it is unknown if this effect is directly due to MGO. In this ultrastructural investigation the effects of MGO on the morphology of bacteria and specifically the structure of fimbriae and flagella were investigated. MGO effectively inhibited Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis; MIC 0.8 mM and Staphylococcus aureus; MIC 1.2 mM) and Gram negative (P. aeruginosa; MIC 1.0 mM and Escherichia coli; MIC 1.2 mM) bacteria growth. The ultrastructural effects of 0.5, 1.0 and 2 mM MGO on B. substilis and E. coli morphology was then evaluated. At 0.5 mM MGO, bacteria structure was unaltered. For both bacteria at 1 mM MGO fewer fimbriae were present and the flagella were less or absent. Identified structures appeared stunted and fragile. At 2 mM MGO fimbriae and flagella were absent while the bacteria were rounded with shrinkage and loss of membrane integrity. Antibacterial MGO causes alterations in the structure of bacterial fimbriae and flagella which would limit bacteria adherence and motility.

  1. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  2. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda.

  3. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Luppi, Stefania; Boscolo, Rita; Martinelli, Monica; Zweyer, Marina; Trevisan, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  4. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Luppi, Stefania; Boscolo, Rita; Martinelli, Monica; Zweyer, Marina; Trevisan, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia. PMID:26436098

  5. Assessment of Parkinson Disease Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic condition that causes motor and non-motor manifestations. Treatment provides symptomatic benefit but no current treatment has been proven to slow disease progression. Research studies of PD require a means of rating the severity of disease by measurement of motor manifestations, assessment of ability to perform daily functional activities, and symptomatic response to medication. The most common rating scales are the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr staging, and the Schwab and England rating of activities of daily living. Each of these rating scales are described, including detailed instructions on how to implement these ratings. Although these are the most widely applied rating scales of PD, there are still substantial limitations to these scales that must be considered when using them for research. Finally, some common applications of these scales are described. PMID:19802812

  6. Porphyria and its neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are rare disorders resulting from a defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can produce significant disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, in addition to other organ systems, with acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria as the subtypes associated with neurologic manifestations. The presence of a motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy (axonal predominant), accompanied by gastrointestinal distress and neuropsychiatric manifestations, should be a strong clue to the diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical confirmation can be made through evaluation of urine porphyrins during an exacerbation of disease. While hematin is helpful for acute treatment, long-term effective management requires avoidance of overstimulation of the cytochrome P450 pathway, as well as other risk factor control.

  7. Orofacial manifestations of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Veale, B J; Jablonski, R Y; Frech, T M; Pauling, J D

    2016-09-23

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of unknown aetiology characterised by microangiopathy, dysregulated immune function and tissue remodelling, which commonly involves the oral cavity. Orofacial manifestations of SSc contribute greatly to overall disease burden and yet are regularly overlooked and under-treated. This may reflect a pre-occupation amongst rheumatology clinicians on potentially life-threatening internal organ involvement, but is also a consequence of insufficient engagement between rheumatologists and dental professionals. A high proportion of SSc patients report difficulty accessing a dentist with knowledge of the disease and there is recognition amongst dentists that this could impact negatively on patient care. This review shall describe the clinical features and burden of orofacial manifestations of SSc and the management of such problems. The case is made for greater collaborative working between rheumatologists and dental professionals with an interest in SSc in both the research and clinical setting.

  8. Clinical manifestations of synovial cysts.

    PubMed

    Burt, T B; MacCarter, D K; Gelman, M I; Samuelson, C O

    1980-08-01

    Although synovial cysts are most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, they may occur in many other conditions. The clinical manifestations of these cysts are numerous and may result from pressure, dissection or acute rupture. Vascular phenomena occur when popliteal cysts compress vessels, and result in venous stasis with subsequent lower extremity edema or thrombophlebitis. Rarely, popliteal cysts may cause arterial compromise with intermittent claudication. Neurological sequelae include pain, paresthesia, sensory loss, and muscle weakness or atrophy. When synovial cysts occur as mass lesions they may mimic popliteal aneurysms or hematomas, adenopathy, tumors or even inguinal hernias. Cutaneous joint fistulas, septic arthritis or osteomyelitis, and spinal cord and bladder compression are examples of other infrequent complications. Awareness of the heterogeneous manifestations of synovial cysts may enable clinicians to avoid unnecessary diagnostic studies and delay in appropriate management. Arthrography remains the definitive diagnostic procedure of choice, although ultrasound testing may be useful.

  9. Rheumatic manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lebiedz-Odrobina, Dorota; Kay, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    DM is associated with various musculoskeletal manifestations. The strength of this relationship varies among the various musculoskeletal disorders; the associations are based mostly on epidemiologic data. For most of these conditions, definitive pathophysiologic correlates are lacking.Hand and shoulder disorders occur more frequently than other musculoskeletal manifestations of DM. Recognition of the association between DM and shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, and stenosing flexor tenosynovitis facilitates their correct diagnosis in the setting of DM and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, which may include optimizing glycemic control. Conversely, awareness and identification of the characteristic musculoskeletal manifestations of DM may facilitate earlier diagnosis of DM and initiation of glucose-lowering therapy to retard the development of diabetic complications.Much less has been published about the musculoskeletal complications of DM than about its micro- and macrovascular complications. Prospective case-control cohort studies are needed to establish the true prevalence of musculoskeletal complications of DM and the metabolic syndrome, especially in this era of tighter glycemic control.The potential relationship between DM and the development of OA needs to be clarified in large, prospective, case-control cohort studies. The effect on musculoskeletal manifestations of various therapeutic regimens to manage DM should be studied prospectively. Treatment regimens for some musculoskeletal conditions associated with DM, such as DISH, should be studied in larger prospective, randomized,controlled clinical trials.At the molecular level, further studies are warranted to clarify the potential contribution of AGEs and adipokines to the development of OA and diabetic musculoskeletal syndromes, such as shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, and LJM. Identification of such molecular targets for therapy would promote the development of

  10. Articular Manifestations of Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bensen, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    Many systemic diseases present with articular manifestations. An understanding of the clinical, laboratory and radiological features of these diseases can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. This article describes the articular presentation and management of four generalized disorders: idiopathic hemachromatosis; sarcoidosis; hepatitis-B virus-induced arthritis, and polymyositis-dermatomyositis induced arthritis. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21283470

  11. Systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (FeLV); feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. Recognition of these cutaneous signs may help alert the clinician to the possibility of an internal disorder so that the appropriate diagnostic tests can be considered.

  12. Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Malay Y.; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up. PMID:24369521

  13. Neonatal muscular manifestations in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Tulinius, Már; Oldfors, Anders

    2011-08-01

    During the last decade rapid development has occurred in defining nuclear gene mutations causing mitochondrial disease. Some of these newly defined gene mutations cause neonatal or early infantile onset of disease, often associated with severe progressive encephalomyopathy combined with other multi-organ involvement such as cardiomyopathy or hepatopathy and with early death. Findings suggesting myopathy in neonates are hypotonia, muscle weakness and wasting, and arthrogryposis. We aim to describe the clinical findings of patients with mitochondrial disease presenting with muscular manifestations in the neonatal period or in early infancy and in whom the genetic defect has been characterized. The majority of patients with neonatal onset of mitochondrial disease have mutations in nuclear genes causing dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, leading to defective oxidative phosphorylation.

  14. [Pulmonary manifestations of antisynthetase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jouneau, S; Hervier, B; Jutant, E-M; Decaux, O; Kambouchner, M; Humbert, M; Delaval, P; Montani, D

    2015-06-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is an inflammatory myopathy frequently associated with pulmonary manifestations, especially interstitial lung diseases, and uncommonly pulmonary hypertension. In the context of a suggestive clinical and radiological picture, positive anti-RNA synthetase antibodies confirm the diagnosis. Anti-Jo1, anti-PL7, and anti-PL12 antibodies are the more commonly encountered. The presence of a number of extra-thoracic manifestations in association with pulmonary disease may suggest the diagnosis. These include: myalgia or muscular deficit, Raynaud's phenomenon, polyarthritis, fever, mechanics hands. Serum creatine kinase levels are usually increased. Electromyogram, muscular magnetic resonance imaging or muscle pathology are not mandatory to make the diagnosis. There is a high variability in symptoms and severity, between patients but also during the course of the disease in the same patient. The presence of an interstitial lung disease is a major prognostic factor and an indication for more intensive treatment, principally with systemic corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive drugs. Improving respiratory physicians' knowledge of this disease, which is often revealed by its pulmonary manifestations, should help diagnosis, therapeutic management, and possibly prognosis.

  15. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  16. Deciduous teeth structure changes in congenital heart disease: Ultrastructure and microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Basmah; Abd-Alhakem, Gehan; Ibrahim, Fatma M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Oral manifestations recorded for congenital heart disease (CHD) patients include teeth hypoplasia and high caries incidence. These observations suggested that the enamel and dentin of the teeth may be altered, increasing the risk for caries incidence. This study was designed to investigate the effect of CHD on the ultrastructure and composition of deciduous sound teeth. Methods Thirty sound exfoliated human deciduous incisor teeth were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups, Group I (control) from healthy children (n = 6), Group II from acyanotic CHD children (n = 12) and Group III from cyanotic CHD children (n = 12). Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned, providing enough specimens for ultrastructure and chemical analysis using ESEM/EDAX. The results of ESEM/EDAX and dentin image analysis were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey’s test. Results Enamel of groups II and III showed increased dissolution and irregular orientation of enamel prisms. Orifices of dentinal tubules demonstrated widening and irregular outlines, also lateral branching increased markedly. Image analysis of dentin ESEM photomicrographs showed a highly significant increase in surface area of dentinal tubules. Decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion CHDs affect the structure and chemical composition of deciduous teeth. PMID:25243076

  17. Ultrastructural aspects of acute pancreatitis induced by 2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in rats.

    PubMed

    Tukaj, C; Olewniak-Adamowska, A; Pirski, M I; Woźniak, M

    2012-08-01

    Pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been clearly established; nevertheless, accumulating evidence implicates highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) as important mediators of exocrine tissue damage. In this study, we used a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2 -azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress insult to the rat pancreas. The detailed characterisation of acini ultrastructural changes in the early course (3, 6, 12, 24 h) of AAPH-induced pancreatitis (40 mg/1 kg body weight) was performed. Considerable damage to the mitochondria in acinar cells manifested by increased translucence of the matrix, partial destruction of cristae, and formation of myelin figures were noted. At the same time, focal dilation, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and reduced number of zymogen granules was observed. The most prominent ultrastructural feature was accumulation of highly polymorphic cytoplasmic vacuoles in acinar cells. Double membrane-bound autophagosomes, different in size and shape, with sequestered organelles, autophagolysosomes, and large, empty, single-membrane-bound vacuoles were observed within the cytoplasm. The results indicate that intensive and impaired autophagy mediates pathological accumulation of vacuoles in acinar cells. The rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by AAPH is useful to investigate the early events of oxidative stress insult to the pancreas.

  18. Sperm ultrastructure of shrimp from family Penaeidae (Crustacea: Dendrobranchiata) in a phylogenetic context.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Tavani Rocha; Rossi, Natalia; Castilho, Antonio L; Costa, Rogério C; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Zara, Fernando José

    2017-03-27

    We describe the sperm ultrastructure of six penaeid species, including at least one member of each tribe (Penaeini, Parapenaeini and Trachypenaeini). Fragments of the vas deferens of the Penaeidae Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Parapenaeus americanus, Rimapenaeus constrictus and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were fixed and processed according to the routine for transmission electron microscopy. The morphological results were contextualized in an evolutionary perspective using molecular markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of this group. A phylogram was proposed by Bayesian inference based on 1007 bp of 33 sequences of the combined genes (16S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 27 dendrobranchiate specimens. Our findings show that morphological differences in the sperm ultrastructures of members among the tribes of Penaeidae can be used as a baseline to understand their evolutionary relationships. Individuals from the Penaeini tribe show plesiomorphic characteristics in the sperm ultrastructure compared to the Trachypenaeini tribe from which they were derived, such as shrimp from family Sicyoniidae. The morphological complexity of the sperm of the different penaeid members corroborated with the genetic phylogeny, which showed different clades for each tribe and the close relationship with Sicyoniidae. The sperm features of the selected species studied here reflected their evolutionary history. These features confirm the previous phylogenetic hypothesis and question the monophyly of Penaeidae, which should be verified in the future with a more complete set of representative members of each tribe.

  19. Ultrastructural demonstration of chemical modification of melanogenesis in hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Gellin, G.A.; Hoshino, S.; Epstein, J.H.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-02-01

    We investigated chemical and physical modifications of the genetically determined ultrastructure of melanosomes. The flank skin of hairless mice was treated with ultraviolet energy (UV) shorter than 320 nm or with a combination of a photosensitizer and UV (PUVA treatment). All melanosomes in the induced melanocytes and those in resident melanocytes in the ear skin showed eumelanogenesis, although the degree of melanin deposition differed considerably according to the induction process. Eumelanogenesis was most advanced in the resident melanocytes while PUVA-induced melanocytes showed more immature premelanosomes. We then topically applied 4-tertiary butyl catechol on the skin. The depigmenting agent caused an appearance of pheomelanosomes. The alteration in melanogenesis was seen most distinctly in premelanosomes of the PUVA-induced cells. Altered ultrastructure was also observed in matured melanosomes; this change was most apparent in the resident melanocytes. These findings indicate that cells with eumelanogenesis may undergo pheomelanogenesis. The present study demonstrated effects of chemicals on genetically determined function of melanocytes by quantitative analysis of melanosome ultrastructure.

  20. Avian minor salivary glands: an ultrastructural study of the secretory granules in mucous and seromucous cells.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, L A; Samar, M E; Avila, R E; de Crosa, M G; Dettin, L

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural descriptions in birds are scarce thus, in this study we have characterized the secretory granules of mucous and seromucous cells from the palatine and lingual salivary glands of birds with different diets. The samples were taken from the tongue and palatine mucosa of chicken (Gallus gallus), quail (Coturnix coturnix), chimango (Milvago chimango) and white heron (Egretta thula). The samples were processed for observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) employing 4% Karnovsky solution for fixation. The most noteworthy finding was the heterogeneous ultrastructural appearance of the secretory granules. Differences in substructure were found between the four species, between the palatine and lingual glands in the same species and even within the same acinus and the same cell. At variance with other authors, these differences cannot be attributed to the type of fixative solution used taking into account that all the samples were processed in the same way. Previous histochemical studies have shown the presence of sulfated and non sulfated glycoconjugates in these glands which can be associated to the maturation of the granules. These granules are probably representative of peculiar storage of the secretory products that would give rise to a heterogeneous and complex ultrastructural pattern of granules in the mucosa and seromucosa cells of these avian species.

  1. Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease

  2. Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Robert C; Strollo, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease

  3. Clinical manifestation of mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Magner, Martin; Kolářová, Hana; Honzik, Tomáš; Švandová, Ivana; Zeman, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MD) represent a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases associated with dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Our aim was to illustrate the most common clinical presentation of MD on the example of selected diseases and syndromes. The minimal prevalence of MD is estimated as 1 to 5,000. MD may manifest at any age since birth until late-adulthood with acute manifestation or as a chronic progressive disease. Virtually any organ may be impaired, but the organs with the highest energetic demands are most frequently involved, including brain, muscle, heart and liver. Some MD may manifest as a characteristic cluster of clinical features (e.g. MELAS syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome). Diagnostics includes detailed history, the comprehensive clinical examination, results of specialized examinations (especially cardiology, visual fundus examination, brain imaging, EMG), laboratory testing of body fluids (lactate, aminoacids, organic acids), and analysis of bioptic samples of muscle, skin, and liver, eventually. Normal lactate level in blood does not exclude the possibility of MD. Although the aimed molecular genetic analyses may be indicated in some of mitochondrial diseases, the methods of next generation sequencing come into focus. Examples of treatment are arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome, ketogenic diet in pyruvate oxidation disorders or quinone analogs in patients with LHON. Conclusion: The clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder is often delayed, or the disease remains undiagnosed. The correct diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve prognosis of the patient. Access to genetic counseling is also of great importance.

  4. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  5. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease.

  6. Ultrastructural Analysis of Myoblast Fusion in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiliang; Chen, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myoblast fusion in Drosophila has become a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. The identification of important components of myoblast fusion by genetic analysis has led to a molecular pathway toward our understanding of this cellular process. In addition to the application of immunohistochemistry and live imaging techniques to visualize myoblast fusion at the light microscopic level, ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy remains an indispensable tool to reveal fusion intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. In this chapter, we describe conventional chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during Drosophila myoblast fusion. Furthermore, we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative to the fusion apparatus. PMID:18979250

  7. The mammalian tubuli recti: ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Osman, D I; Plöen, L

    1978-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the tubuli recti was studied in the testes of sexually mature bulls, boars, rams, goats, rabbits and rats fixed by vascular perfusion. The tubuli recti are lined with a simple epithelium that varies in height, from squamous to tall columnar according to the species and the region. The cells are characterized by extensive lateral and tortuous basal plasma membranes and a luminal border with microvilli. Tight junctions and desmosomes are found in the upper half of the lateral borders. The Golgi apparatus is sizable and associated with it are coated vesicles and many smooth vesicles concentrated towards the luminal border. A distal segment of the tubuli recti is found in bulls only and is characterized by a high epithelium which is thrown into folds giving the lumen a festooned appearance. It is suggested that the epithelial cells of the tubuli recti are involved in fluid exchange and in the removal of unwanted spermatozoa.

  8. Effects of ultrasound upon endothelial cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    A number of new brain applications for therapeutic ultrasound are emerging including drug delivery through BBB opening, enhancement of angiogenesis, sonothrombolysis and neuromodulation. Safety remains important as alterations in the cytoskeleton and tight junctions of endothelial cells have been described. In this study we characterize the in vitro effects of ultrasound on cell morphology using a new human brain cell line (hCMEC/D3). Changes in ultrastructure were analyzed with antibodies against tubulin, actin and catenin. Transport was analyzed by measuring transferrin uptake. No significant changes were seen after continuous wave ultrasound treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells grown in Opticell{trade mark, serif} chambers. We could not observe disassembled actin stress fibers or variations in the microtubule network. However, severe damage occurred in cells cultured in petri dishes.

  9. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David

    2013-01-01

    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae). PMID:23549851

  10. The effect of age on mitochondrial ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Franks, L M

    1975-01-01

    The ultrastructure of perfused livers and of mitochondrial fractions from 6-month-old and 30-month-old C57/BL mice were studied. In old mice the liver cell mitochondria were enlarged and rounded with a light 'foamy', vacuolated matrix, short cristae and a loss of dense granules. Quantitative studies showed a 60% increase in the mean size and an increased proportion of larger mitochondria in intact 30-month-old perfused livers. Endothelial and Kupffer cell mitochondria were smaller than those of the parenchymal cells. Mitochondria in pellets prepared from 6- and 30-month-old livers were rounded and condensed, although there were a few larger and 'foamy' mitochondria in the preparations from old mice. Up to 47% of large mitochondria in the old livers were lost during cell fractionation.

  11. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  12. Ultrastructure of spore development in Scutellospora heterogama.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Peter; Robinson-Boyer, Louisa; Rice, Paul; Newsam, Ray J; Dodd, John C

    2007-07-01

    The ultrastructural detail of spore development in Scutellospora heterogama is described. Although the main ontogenetic events are similar to those described from light microscopy, the complexity of wall layering is greater when examined at an ultrastructural level. The basic concept of a rigid spore wall enclosing two inner, flexible walls still holds true, but there are additional zones within these three walls distinguishable using electron microscopy, including an inner layer that is involved in the formation of the germination shield. The spore wall has three layers rather than the two reported previously. An outer, thin ornamented layer and an inner, thicker layer are both derived from the hyphal wall and present at all stages of development. These layers differentiate into the outer spore layer visible at the light microscope level. A third inner layer unique to the spore develops during spore swelling and rapidly expands before contracting back to form the second wall layer visible by light microscopy. The two inner flexible walls also are more complex than light microscopy suggests. The close association with the inner flexible walls with germination shield formation consolidates the preferred use of the term 'germinal walls' for these structures. A thin electron-dense layer separates the two germinal walls and is the region in which the germination shield forms. The inner germinal wall develops at least two sub-layers, one of which has an appearance similar to that of the expanding layer of the outer spore wall. An electron-dense layer is formed on the inner surface of the inner germinal wall as the germination shield develops, and this forms the wall surrounding the germination shield as well as the germination tube. At maturity, the outer germinal wall develops a thin, striate layer within its substructure.

  13. [Respiratory manifestations of Marfan's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Neuville, M; Jondeau, G; Crestani, B; Taillé, C

    2015-02-01

    Marfan's syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the gene FBN1, coding for the protein fibrillin-1. Cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and ophthalmic manifestations are the most commonly observed, but minor diagnostic criteria also include pulmonary manifestations. Pneumothorax, frequently relapsing, affects 5 to 11% of patients. Rib cage abnormalities (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum) and apical blebs may contribute to their occurrence. Treatment does not require any specific procedure but there is an increased risk of recurrence. Pectus excavatum affects up to 60% of the patients, without any functional impairment in most cases. Surgery may be required (using the Nuss procedure) in case of cardiovascular or psychological symptoms. Marfan's syndrome is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, which may itself contribute to aortic dilatation. Some studies suggest a potential role of craniofacial abnormalities in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea in these patients. Pulmonologists should consider Marfan's syndrome when treating patients for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax or rib cage abnormalities, since early detection of cardiac abnormalities improves the prognosis significantly.

  14. Coronal manifestations of preflare activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Webb, D. F.; Woodgate, B.; Waggett, P.; Bentley, R.; Hurford, G.; Schadee, A.; Schrijver, J.; Harrison, R.; Martens, P.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of coronal manifestations of precursors or preheating for flares are discussed. Researchers found that almost everyone with a telescope sees something before flares. Whether an all-encompassing scenario will ever be developed is not at all clear at present. The clearest example of preflare activity appears to be activated filaments and their manifestations, which presumably are signatures of a changing magnetic field. But researchers have seen two similar eruptions, one without any evidence of emerging flux (Kundu et al., 1985) and the other with colliding poles (Simon et al., 1984). While the reconnection of flux is generally agreed to be required to energize a flare, the emergence of flux from below (at least on short timescales and in compact regions) does not appear to be a necessary condition. In some cases the cancelling of magnetic flux (Martin, 1984) by horizontal motions instead may provide the trigger (Priest, 1985) Researchers found similarities and some differences between these and previous observations. The similarities, besides the frequent involvement of filaments, include compact, multiple precursors which can occur both at and near (not at) the flare site, and the association between coronal sources and activity lower in the atmosphere (i.e., transition zone and chromosphere).

  15. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  16. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  17. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  18. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  19. Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burakoff, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The most common manifestations involve the musculoskeletal and dermatologic systems. Other manifestations involve the hepatopan-creatobiliary system (eg, primary sclerosing cholangitis) as well as the ocular, renal, and pulmonary systems. A multidisciplinary team approach is often needed for effective management, and emergency situations require prompt evaluation. PMID:21857821

  20. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  1. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  2. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  3. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  4. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  5. Cerebellar Stroke-manifesting as Mania

    PubMed Central

    Jagadesan, Venkatesan; Thiruvengadam, Kannapiran R.; Muralidharan, Rengarajalu

    2014-01-01

    Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an hour only to find that he could not walk. He became quarrelsome. His Psycho motor activities and speech were increased. He was euphoric and was expressing grandiose ideas. Bender Gestalt Test showed signs of organicity. Score in Young mania relating scale was 32; productivity was low in Rorschach. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar signs like ataxia and slurring of speech. Computed tomography of brain showed left cerebellar infarct. Relationship between Psychiatric manifestations and cerebellar lesion are discussed. PMID:25035567

  6. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  7. Coronary artery manifestations of fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Olin, Jeffrey W; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d'Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-09-09

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic "string of beads" that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  8. Novel ultrastructures of Treponema primitia and their implications for motility

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gavin E.; Matson, Eric G.; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Berg, Howard C.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Members of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes are generally helical cells propelled by periplasmic flagella. The spirochete Treponema primitia is interesting because of its mutualistic role in the termite gut, where it is believed to cooperate with protozoa that break down cellulose and produce H2 as a by-product. Here we report the ultrastructure of T. primitia as obtained by electron cryotomography of intact, frozen-hydrated cells. Several previously unrecognized external structures were revealed, including bowl-like objects decorating the outer membrane, arcades of hook-shaped proteins winding along the exterior and tufts of fibrils extending from the cell tips. Inside the periplasm, cone-like structures were found at each pole. Instead of the single peptidoglycan layer typical of other Gram-negative bacteria, two distinct periplasmic layers were observed. These layers formed a central open space that contained two flagella situated adjacent to each other. In some areas, the inner membrane formed flattened invaginations that protruded into the cytoplasm. High-speed light microscopic images of swimming T. primitia cells showed that cell bodies remained rigid and moved in a helical rather than planar motion. Together, these findings support the ‘rolling cylinder’ model for T. primitia motility that posits rotation of the protoplasmic cylinder within the outer sheath. PMID:18248579

  9. Ultrastructural changes during asexual multiple reproduction in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Yusof, A; Kumar, S

    2012-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. Its mode of reproduction has always been reported to be binary fission. The high parasite numbers seen in a relatively short period in in vitro cultures led us to believe that there must be other modes of reproduction. The present study for the first time provides transformational evidence at the ultrastructural level seen in tropohozoites of T. vaginalis undergoing a multiple asexual mode of reproduction. The findings show that the single cell with a nucleus is capable of dividing to as many as eight nuclei within the cytoplasmic body. Before the commencement of division, the nucleus remained round or ovoid in shape with condensed chromatin masses and only a few endoplasmic reticula surrounding the nucleus. During the division, the nucleus started to elongate and become irregular in shape with visible chromatin masses condensing with the accumulation of numerous endoplasmic reticula. Nuclear division gave rise to as many as eight nuclei within a cell, which could be seen to be connected by numerous endoplasmic reticula. In addition, a high number of hydrogenosomes and vacuoles can be seen in multinucleated T. vaginalis compared with single nucleated T. vaginalis. This study confirms that multiple modes of nuclear division do exist in T. vaginalis and are a precursor to progeny formation.

  10. MUCOCUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CF) is an arboviral acute febrile illness transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. After a quiescence of more than three decades, CF has recently re-emerged as a major public health problem of global scale. CF is characterized by an acute onset of high fever associated with a severe disabling arthritis often accompanied by prominent mucocutaneous manifestations. The disease is usually self-limiting, but the joint symptoms and some of the cutaneous features may persist after the defervescence. A wide range of mucocutaneous changes has been described to occur in association with CF during the current epidemic. Besides a morbilliform erythema, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, excoriated papules, aphthous-like ulcers, vesiculobullous and lichenoid eruptions, and exacerbation of pre-existing or quiescent dermatoses had been observed frequently. These unusual features may help in the clinical differential diagnosis of acute viral exanthems mimicking CF. PMID:20418982

  11. Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, Manole; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multifaceted autoimmune inflammatory disease that can affect any part of the body. SLE is a disease of unknown aetiology with a variety of presenting features and manifestations. Interest in the disease has been stimulated in recent years, and improved methods of diagnosis have resulted in a significant increase in the number of cases recognized. It is apparent that it can no longer be regarded as a rare disease. The majority of the pathology in SLE is related to deposits of immune complexes in various organs, which triggers complement and other mediators of inflammation. Symptoms vary from person to person, and may come and go, depend on what part of the body is affected, can be mild, moderate, or severe. Diagnosis can be difficult because lupus mimics many other diseases; it requires clinical and serologic criteria. PMID:22879850

  12. Cardiac manifestations in Behcet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Demirelli, Selami; Degirmenci, Husnu; Inci, Sinan; Arisoy, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Summary Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, with vasculitis underlying the pathophysiology of its multisystemic effects. Venous pathology and thrombotic complications are hallmarks of BD. However, it has been increasingly recognised that cardiac involvement and arterial complications are also important aspects of the course of the disease. Cardiac lesions include pericarditis, endocarditis, intracardiac thrombosis, myocardial infarction, endomyocardial fibrosis, and myocardial aneurysm. Treatment of cardiovascular involvement in BD is largely empirical, and is aimed towards suppressing the vasculitis. The most challenging aspect seems to be the treatment of arterial aneurysms and thromboses due to the associated risk of bleeding. When the prognosis of cardiac involvement in BD is not good, recovery can be achieved through oral anticoagulation, immunosuppressive therapy, and colchicine use. In this review, we summarise the cardiovascular involvement, different manifestations, and treatment of BD. PMID:25984424

  13. [Protracted rheumatologic manifestations in travelers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Tali; Kivity, Shaye; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    Protracted rheumatological manifestations especially arthralgia and or polyarthritis may occur as a consequence of a wide range of pathogens including viral, bacterial and parasites. Few pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations have been suggested including a direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens, immune complex formation, and others. The natural history of infectious arthritis/arthralgia is altogether benign, with full recovery and without sequelae, albeit sometimes very long. Diagnosis of infections-related arthralgia/arthritis is important since these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Since many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints a long time after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Thus, travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatologic setting.

  14. Genital manifestations of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Richens, J

    2004-01-01

    Genital symptoms in tropical countries and among returned travellers can arise from a variety of bacterial, protozoal, and helminthic infections which are not usually sexually transmitted. The symptoms may mimic classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by producing ulceration (for example, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis), wart-like lesions (schistosomiasis), or lesions of the upper genital tract (epididymo-orchitis caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, and brucellosis; salpingitis as a result of tuberculosis, amoebiasis, and schistosomiasis). A variety of other genital symptoms less suggestive of STI are also seen in tropical countries. These include hydrocele (seen with filariasis), which can be no less stigmatising than STI, haemospermia (seen with schistosomiasis), and hypogonadism (which may occur in lepromatous leprosy). This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:14755029

  15. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  16. Psoriasis: pathophysiology and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Kaminski, M J; Pulitzer, D R; Hu, J; Thomas, H F

    1996-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, remitting and relapsing inflammatory skin disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. Psoriasis affects 1-3% of the world's population in their early lives representing a disabling condition with significant social and economic impact. Despite a great deal of research on the etiology and tissue destruction mechanisms, the disease is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to provide current information from the literature with a special focus on oral manifestations. The major signs and symptoms presented in the oral environment of a psoriasis patient may include geographic tongue, fissure tongue, gingival and/or mucosal lesions. Inflammatory temporomandibular joint lesions have been reported in less than 5% of psoriasis patients. Multiple treatment strategies, be they topical or systemic, have been applied to these patients for symptom relief but not for cure.

  17. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  18. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  19. Ultrastructural changes and nestin expression accompanying compensatory renal growth after unilateral nephrectomy in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed; M Elsaed, Wael; Atef, Hoda; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background Several renal disorders affect the glomerular podocytes. Compensatory structural and functional changes have been observed in animals that have undergone unilateral renal ablation. These changes occur as a pliant response to quench the increased functional demand to maintain homeostasis of fluid and solutes. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein present in the glomerular podocytes of the adult kidney and is linked with the maintenance of its foot process structure. Structural changes in the podocytes ultimately restructure the filtration barrier. Very few studies related to the ultrastructural and histopathologic changes of the podocytes are documented. The present study aimed to assess the histopathologic changes at the ultrastructural level in the adapted kidney at different time intervals following unilateral renal ablation in adult rats and its relation with nestin. Methods Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups (n=12 in each group). The animals of Group A were control naïve rats, while the group B, group C and group D animals underwent left unilateral nephrectomy and the remaining right kidney was removed on days 10, 20 and 30, respectively. Each group included four sham-operated rats, which were sacrificed at the same time as the naïve rats. Each nephrectomized sample was weighed and its sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin examination, transmission electron microscopic study as well as immunostaining using the intermediate filament protein nestin. Results No difference was found between the kidney sections from the control group and the sham-operated groups. A significant increase in the weight of the right kidneys was noted in groups B, C and D (P<0.001). The ultrastructural adaptive changes seen in the glomeruli of group B were subsequently reduced in groups C and D. This finding corresponded to a similar pattern of nestin expression in the podocytes, which showed significant increase in group B followed by reduced

  20. [Development and differentiation of the rat epididymis. I: ultrastructural aspects of the peritubular zone].

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; Santiemma, V; Francavilla, F; Moscardelli, S; Forcella, G; Fabbrini, A

    1979-07-15

    We investigated the ultrastructural aspects of the peritubular cells of epididymis and their development from birth to adult age. At birth the peritubular zone consisted of polygonal cells which did not differ from other interstitial cells. Cytoplasmic filaments were visible in the cells of the inner layer at day 6. From day 22 the peritubular cells reached the adult aspect. The peritubular cells in the rat epididymis had aspects similar to those of peritubular smooth muscle cells of rat testis, with a more precocious appearance of cytoplasmic filaments. This finding concurs with the observed precocious contractility of epididymis.

  1. Ultrastructural changes in neonatal sciatic nerve tissue: effects of passive maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, K S; Kaufmann, R C; Weberg, A D

    1985-01-01

    The dangers of cigarette smoking having already been recognized, this study attempts to delineate findings from a passive smoking study at the ultrastructural level. The project utilized a model of mice subjected to cigarette smoke and encompassed the electron microscopic examination of neonatal tissue for morphological abnormalities. Study of sciatic nerve tissue taken from the offspring of passively smoked females revealed definite toxic effects on the neonatal tissue. This investigation, which concentrated on morphological changes, indicates that passive maternal smoke inhalation may result in abnormal changes to the fine structure of fetal tissue although further investigation in this area is necessary to broaden our knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  2. [Myositis and the skin: cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Jinnin, Masatoshi

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Among them, cutaneous manifestations are observed most frequently in dermatomyositis. While dermatomyositis commonly affects the skin and muscles, it can also affect the lungs and other organs. Dermatomyositis presenting clinically and histopathologically with typical cutaneous lesions, but without myositis, is called amyopathic dermatomyositis. Given that the Bohan and Peter criteria cannot distinguish amyopathic dermatomyositis, understanding the characteristic skin manifestations may be essential for diagnosing this condition. The cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis are thought to be the result of the Koebner phenomenon, vasculopathy, or photosensitivity; manifestations include various eruptions, such as heliotrope rush, Gottron's sign, Gottron's papules, mechanic's hand, nail-fold bleeding, skin ulcer, vasculitis, flagellate erythema, V-sign, and Shawl sign. The presence of multiple types of eruptions can help diagnose the disease. Several skin diseases, including adult Still's disease, contact dermatitis, and sarcoidosis, can mimic the cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis. Skin biopsy is useful for differential diagnoses. Histopathologically, dermatomyositis of the skin is characterized by liquefaction degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, edema, and mucin deposition. Dermatologists, neurologists, and rheumatologists are responsible for the diagnosis and management of dermatomyositis, in cooperation with pulmonologists, pediatricians, and pathologists. This review aims to provide clinicians with recent findings regarding skin involvement in dermatomyositis.

  3. Cutaneous manifestations in disorders of hepatobiliary system

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Shashi K.; Thappa, Devinder M.; Pottakkatt, Biju; Hamide, Abdoul; Barath, Jagadisan; Munisamy, Malathi; Chiramel, Minu J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatobiliary diseases are associated with various mucocutaneous changes that are directly and indirectly associated with these diseases. There is a dearth of studies from India dealing with cutaneous manifestations in liver disorders. Aim: This study was conducted to know the spectrum of cutaneous changes and their correlation with liver function tests in patients with disorders of hepatobiliary system. Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted among in patients and outpatients with primary hepatobiliary disorders at a tertiary care center in South India. Detailed history taking and examination was done. Visual analog score (VAS) and 5D itch score was employed to quantify pruritus. Correlation of liver function tests with pruritus and comparison of skin changes in the major disease groups was attempted. Results: A total of 303 patients were recruited. Hepatic mass/malignancy followed by nonalcoholic liver disease were the most common diagnoses. Icterus followed by pruritus were the most common cutaneous complaints. The mean VAS and 5D itch scores among the patients with pruritus were 4.7 ± 1.9 and 13.6 ± 4.9. The most common mucocutaneous findings observed were icterus (241 patients; 79.5%), ichthyosis/xerosis (172 patients; 56.7%), pallor (131 patients; 43.2%), excoriations (118 patients; 38.9%), hyperpigmented palmar creases (118 patients; 38.9%), clubbing (113 patients; 37.2%), and pedal edema (85 patients; 28%). There was statistically significant correlation between serum bilirubin levels and pruritus. Conclusion: The common mucocutaneous manifestations associated with primary hepatobiliary disorders were icterus, ichthyosis/xerosis, pallor, excoriations, hyperpigmented palmar creases, clubbing, and pedal edema. PMID:28217465

  4. Ultrastructure of mitochondrial nucleoid and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Prachař, Jarmil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter. They are mainly located in the matrix between cristae inside the mitochondrial tube but they are also frequently found close to the inner mitochondrial surface. In tightly packed form, their interior exhibits sophisticated nucleoprotein regularity. The core surroundings form an electron-lucent thick layer which is probably partitioned into separate chambers. We suggest that the morphology of nucleoids mirrors the mode of energy production, glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation. The new high resolution transmission electron microscopy method enabled us to obtain morphological characteristics on yet unpublished level.

  5. Ultrastructural Analysis of Vascular Calcifications in Uremia

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, Anke; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Krüger, Thilo; Behets, Geert J.; Ghadimi, Reza; Weirich, Thomas E.; Rohrmann, Dorothea; Langer, Stephan; Tordoir, Jan H.; Amann, Kerstin; Westenfeld, Ralf; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Mayer, Joachim; Ketteler, Markus; McKee, Marc D.; Floege, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated intimal and medial calcification and sclerosis accompany the increased cardiovascular mortality of dialysis patients, but the pathomechanisms initiating microcalcifications of the media are largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated the ultrastructural properties of medial calcifications from patients with uremia. We collected iliac artery segments from 30 dialysis patients before kidney transplantation and studied them by radiography, microcomputed tomography, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy including electron energy loss spectrometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. In addition, we performed synchrotron x-ray analyses and immunogold labeling to detect inhibitors of calcification. Von Kossa staining revealed calcification of 53% of the arteries. The diameter of these microcalcifications ranged from 20 to 500 nm, with a core-shell structure consisting of up to three layers (subshells). Many of the calcifications consisted of 2- to 10-nm nanocrystals and showed a hydroxyapatite and whitlockite crystalline structure and mineral phase. Immunogold labeling of calcification foci revealed the calcification inhibitors fetuin-A, osteopontin, and matrix gla protein. These observations suggest that uremic microcalcifications originate from nanocrystals, are chemically diverse, and intimately associate with proteinaceous inhibitors of calcification. Furthermore, considering the core-shell structure of the calcifications, apoptotic bodies or matrix vesicles may serve as a calcification nidus. PMID:20203159

  6. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  7. Amphiesmal ultrastructure in Noctiluca miliaris Suriray (Dinophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkonian, M.; Höhfeld, I.

    1988-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the cell covering (amphiesma) of vegetative cells of Noctiluca miliaris (Dinophyceae) was studied in detail using thin sections. The amphiesma is typically amphidinoid and contains the following components (starting from the outside): (a) a continuous outer membrane (plasmamembrane) surrounding the cell; (b) a layer of contiguous vesicles (amphiesmal vesicles) that contain a thin “honeycomb-patterned” layer of material appressed mainly to the outer portion of the vesicle membrane; (c) a finely granular pellicular layer that lies beneath the amphiesmal vesicles and (d) groups of cortical microtubules (only present in certain regions of the cell). The pellicular layer is always present but its thickness is highly variable (20 800 nm) depending on regional specializations of the amphiesma. Trichocysts and mucocysts project through the pellicular layer and amphiesmal vesicles, the apical portion of their limiting membrane docks at the plasmamembrane. Small vesicles that presumably contain material for the “honeycomb-patterned” layer traverse the pellicular layer through discontinuities and presumably fuse with the amphiesmal vesicles. We conclude that Noctiluca has a typical dinophycean (i.e. amphidinoid) cell covering, and that the most recent proposal for the developmental origin of the dinoflagellate pellicle should be revised.

  8. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Mirko; Goellner, Sarah; Acosta, Eliana Gisela; Neufeldt, Christopher John; Oleksiuk, Olga; Lampe, Marko; Haselmann, Uta; Funaya, Charlotta; Schieber, Nicole; Ronchi, Paolo; Schorb, Martin; Pruunsild, Priit; Schwab, Yannick; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Ruggieri, Alessia; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2017-02-28

    A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  9. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  10. Ultrastructural studies on Maedi-Visna virus.

    PubMed

    Weiland, F; Bruns, M

    1980-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) particles isolated from tissue culture fluids of MVV-infected cells as well as cultured cells infected with MVV were performed. MVV particles aree bounded by an envelope with projections loosely attached to its surface. Virions contain a core (sometimes two or more) of conical or ovoid shape enclosing an electron-dense nucleoid which is much smaller in diameter than the core and which can only be seen in ultrathin sections. A distinct core shell is to be found in most of the ultrasectioned particles. Cores, liberated from the virions by detergent treatment, exhibited the same shape as their enveloped counterparts. Budding structures with crescents underlying the cell membrane without an intermediate space seem to be bordered on their cell side by an electron-dense thin layer. Particles obviously representing intervenig stages of viral maturation showing parts of the crescents at the viral membrane and empty core shells could be found in single cases.

  11. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  12. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

    2012-11-01

    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  13. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  14. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  15. Hyperkalemia Induced Brugada Phenocopy: A Rare ECG Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Ghulam; Mirrani, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited disorder of cardiac ion channels characterized by peculiar ECG findings predisposing individuals to ventricular arrhythmias, syncope, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Various electrolyte disturbances and ion channels blocking drugs could also provoke BrS ECG findings without genetic BrS. Clinical differentiation and recognition are essential for guiding the legitimate action. Hyperkalemia is well known to cause a wide variety of ECG manifestations. Severe hyperkalemia can even cause life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Most common ECG findings include peaked tall T waves with short PR interval and wide QRS complex. Since it is very commonly encountered disorder, physicians need to be aware of even its rare ECG manifestations, which include ST segment elevation and Brugada pattern ECG (BrP). We are adding a case to the limited literature about hyperkalemia induced reversible Brugada pattern ECG changes. PMID:28326201

  16. Radiologic findings in primary hyperoxaluria

    SciTech Connect

    Martijn, A.; Thijn, C.J.P.

    1982-03-01

    Six out of seven patients with primary hyperoxaluria showed various degrees of oxalosis. The radiographic manifestations differ between patients younger than 15 years and those older than 45 years. The mild manifestations in children, only urolithiasis, can be explained by the, as yet, unimpaired renal function. The renal function in the older patients, with extensive pathologic changes like nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis, soft-tissue calcification, and osseous changes, is very poor. The findings of extensive softtissue calcification and the bony changes are not in complete agreement with those in the literature.

  17. Cardiac manifestations of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Diamantino, Adriana Costa; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2017-03-11

    The heart may be affected directly or indirectly by a variety of protozoa and helminths. This involvement may manifest in different ways, but the syndromes resulting from impairment of the myocardium and pericardium are the most frequent. The myocardium may be invaded by parasites that trigger local inflammatory response with subsequent myocarditis or cardiomyopathy, as occurs in Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and infection with free-living amoebae. In amoebiasis and echinococcosis, the pericardium is the structure most frequently involved with consequent pericardial effusion, acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade or constrictive pericarditis. Chronic hypereosinophilia due to helminth infections, especially filarial infections, has been associated with the development of tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, a severe form of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Schistosomiasis-associated lung vasculature involvement may cause pulmonary hypertension (PH) and cor pulmonale Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, which is characterised by progressive interstitial fibrosis and restrictive lung disease, may lead to PH and its consequences may occur in the course of filarial infections. Intracardiac rupture of an Echinococcus cyst can cause membrane or secondary cysts embolisation to the lungs or organs supplied by the systemic circulation. Although unusual causes of cardiac disease outside the endemic areas, heart involvement by parasites should be considered in the differential diagnosis especially of myocardial and/or pericardial diseases of unknown aetiology in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. In this review, we updated and summarised the current knowledge on the major heart diseases caused by protozoan and metazoan parasites, which either involve the heart directly or otherwise influence the heart adversely.

  18. Neurologic manifestations of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thibert, Ronald L; Larson, Anna M; Hsieh, David T; Raby, Annabel R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by the loss or reduction of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A enzyme. Angelman syndrome results from a deletion or mutation of the maternally inherited 15q11.2-13.1 region, paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or an imprinting error. Epilepsy is common and may present with multiple seizure types, including nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Seizures are often intractable and typically require broad-spectrum antiepileptic medications. Dietary therapy has also proved successful in Angelman syndrome. Electroencephalographic patterns include notched δ and rhythmic θ activity and epileptiform discharges. Sleep disorders are also common, often characterized by abnormal sleep-wake cycles. Movement disorders are nearly universal in Angelman syndrome, most frequently presenting with ataxia and tremor. Neurocognitive impairment is always present to varying degrees, and expressive speech is typically severely affected. Individuals with Angelman syndrome often manifest psychiatric comorbidities including hyperactivity, anxiety, and challenging behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. We focus on a comprehensive whole-child approach to the diagnosis and long-term clinical care of individuals with Angelman syndrome.

  19. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    PubMed Central

    LENCU, CODRUŢA; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary – cortical, and involuntary – metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves’ disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease. PMID:27857512

  20. [Collagen diseases with gastrointestinal manifestations].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ohara, Mikiko; Imai, Kohzoh

    2004-06-01

    Collagen vascular diseases are known to present with a diverse array of gastrointestinal manifestations. These can be classified as: 1) gastrointestinal damage due to the collagen vascular disease itself; 2) adverse events caused by pharmacotherapies; or 3) gastrointestinal infections following immunosuppression due to corticosteroid (CS) administration. The first group includes lupus enteritis and protein-losing gastroenteropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), reflux esophagitis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and pneumatosis cystoids intestinalis in systemic sclerosis, amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis, bowel ulcer and bleeding in rheumatoid vasculitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and ileocecal ulcer in Behcet disease. In particular, colonic ulcers associated with SLE represent refractory lesions resistant to CS. Analysis of reported cases showing colonic lesions with SLE (22 cases in Japan) revealed that mean duration of SLE was 9.9 years and 77% of colonic lesions were observed in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Half of the patients developed intestinal perforation or penetration, and 6 of the 11 patients with perforation died. The second group includes lesions in the small and large intestine due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and CSs, in addition to peptic ulcers. As perforation in CS-treated patients displays relatively high incidence with poor prognosis, careful attention to such complications is needed. The third group includes candidal esophagitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Prompt diagnosis is required to prevent colonic bleeding and perforation due to CMV.

  1. Rheumatological manifestations in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Angela; Cerinic, Marco Matucci; De Giorgio, Francesca; Minari, Chiara; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Rheumatological manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus may be classified in: non articular, articular and bone conditions. Among non articular conditions, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, frequent in type I diabetes, the most important disorder related to limited joint mobility, results in stiff skin and joint contractures. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, flexor tenosynovitis, and Duputryen's and Peyronie's diseases are also linked to limited joint mobility. Diffuse skeletal hyperostosis, due to calcification at entheses, is frequent and early, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Neuropathies cause some non articular conditions, mainly neuropathic arthritis, a destructive bone and joint condition more common in type I diabetes. Algodistrophy, shoulder-hand and entrapment syndromes are also frequent. Mononeuropathy causes diabetic amyotrophy, characterised by painless muscle weakness. Among muscle conditions, diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, sometimes severe, condition. Among articular conditions, osteoarthritis is frequent and early in diabetes, in which also chondrocalcinosis and gout occur. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes I have a common genetic background and the presence of diabetes gives to RA an unfavourable prognosis. Among bone conditions, osteopenia and osteoporosis may occur early in type 1 diabetes. Contrarily, in type 2 diabetes, bone mineral density is similar or, sometimes, higher than in non diabetic subjects, probably due to hyperinsulinemia.

  2. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  3. Skin manifestations in autoinflammatory syndromes.

    PubMed

    Braun-Falco, Markus; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases encompass a group of inflammatory diseases that are non-infectious, non-allergic, non-autoimmune and non-immunodeficient. The term was initially coined for a small group of familial periodic fever syndromes of which familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common and best known. Genetic and molecular analyses demonstrated for the majority of these diseases an impairment of inflammasomes to cause an increased activity of an interleukin-1-dependent inflammatory response. Over the last years an increasing number of either rare hereditary syndromes or acquired common diseases could be summarized under the designation of autoinflammatory disease, thus creating an emerging new rubric of inflammatory diseases. Many of them display cutaneous manifestations as both concomitant or more rarely main symptoms. To name some of them like erysipelas-like erythema in FMF; urticaria-like rashes in tumor necrosis factor receptor 1- or cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (TRAPS, CAPS), hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS) or Schnitzler syndrome; pyoderma gangrenosum and acne in PAPA syndrome; or behçetoid aphthous ulcerations in HIDS and PFAPA syndrome. Based on the new insights into pathogenesis one increasingly realizes the good response of these diseases to IL-1 antagonist therapies.

  4. Oral Manifestation in Mentally Challenged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, V K; Mathew, Cinil; Jose, Sunil; Thomas, George; Noushad, M C; Feroz, T P Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, mentally challenged children have higher rates poor oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis than the general population. An investigation was undertaken to assess the oral manifestations of mentally challenged children in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 150 children (70 Down syndrome patients and 80 cerebral palsy patients). Of which, 93 patients were males and 57 were females. Results: Speech difficulty hindered the communication between the patient and the dentist. Mastication and swallowing difficulties were also present in few children. Profuse salivation was a cause for drooling of saliva down the cheeks, which was a constant finding in cerebral palsy children. The oral hygiene statuses of the patient were significantly poor. The prevalence of periodontitis was 35.7% in Down syndrome and 55.0% in cerebral palsy patients. Whereas, the prevalence of gingivitis was found to be 92.9% and 61.3% respectively. The prevalence of fractured maxillary anterior teeth was found to be more evident in cerebral palsy patients (62.9%) when compared to Down syndrome patients (0.0%). An increase in age shows an increase in the decayed-missing-filled teeth which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prominent findings like flat nasal bridge (94.3%), hypertelorism (92.9%), high arched palate (78.6%) and fissured tongue (78.6%) in our study, suggest that they could be used as a reliable clinical markers to diagnose Down syndrome condition. PMID:25859105

  5. Space Launch System Co-Manifested Payload Options for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) has a co-manifested payload capability that will grow over time as the rocket matures and planned upgrades are implemented. The final configuration is planned to be capable of inserting a payload greater than 10 metric tons (mt) into a trans-lunar injection trajectory along with the crew in the Orion capsule and the service module. The co-manifested payload is located below the Orion and its service module in a 10-meter high fairing similar to the way the Saturn launch vehicle carried the lunar lander below the Apollo command and service modules. A variety of approaches have been explored that utilizes this co-manifested payload capability to build up infrastructure in deep space in support of future asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission scenarios. This paper is a report on the findings from the Advanced Concepts Office study team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, working with the Advanced Exploration Systems Program on the Exploration Augmentation Module Project. It includes some of the possible options for habitation in the co-manifested payload volume on SLS. Findings include module designs that can be developed in 10mt increments to support these missions, including overall conceptual layouts, mass properties, and approaches for integration into various scenarios for near-term support of deep space habitat research and technology development, support to asteroid exploration, and long range support for Mars transfer flights.

  6. Space Launch System Co-Manifested Payload Options for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) has a co-manifested payload capability that will grow over time as the launch vehicle matures and planned upgrades are implemented. The final configuration is planned to be capable of inserting a payload greater than 10 metric tons (mt) into a trans-lunar injection trajectory along with the crew in the Orion capsule and its service module. The co-manifested payload is located below the Orion and its service module in a 10 m high fairing similar to the way the Saturn launch vehicle carried the lunar lander below the Apollo command and service modules. Various approaches that utilize this comanifested payload capability to build up infrastructure in deep space have been explored in support of future asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission scenarios. This paper reports on the findings of the Advanced Concepts Office study team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) working with the Advanced Exploration Systems Program on the Exploration Augmentation Module Project. It includes some of the possible options for habitation in the co-manifested payload volume of the SLS. Findings include a set of module designs that can be developed in 10 mt increments to support these co-manifested payload missions along with a comparison of this approach to a large-module payload flight configuration for the SLS.

  7. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    all stages of HIV infection. Fifty-six percent of the cases of ocular toxoplasmosis had simultaneous toxoplasmic cerebritis. Ocular toxoplasmosis responded to standard anti-microbial therapy. Varicella zoster virus retinitis, when manifested by the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome, responded to intravenous acyclovir therapy. Conversely, in a limited number of patients with the progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome, the disease responded poorly to intravenous acyclovir therapy, but appeared to respond to combination foscarnet and acyclovir therapy. Neuro-ophthalmic lesions were present in 6% of the patients with AIDS. The most common cause of a neuro-ophthalmic lesion was cryptococcal meningitis, and 25% of the patients with cryptococcal meningitis developed a neuro-ophthalmic complication. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular manifestations are common in patients with AIDS. CMV retinitis represented a major vision-threatening problem in these patients. While available therapy was successful in initially controlling the retinitis, the phenomenon of relapse resulted in some degree of long-term visual loss. Preservation of the patient's visual acuity in at least one eye was generally successful. Other opportunistic ocular infections were substantially less common than CMV retinitis but require aggressive therapy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719695

  8. Gastrointestinal manifestations in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, E

    1996-08-01

    CFTR, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the gene product that is defective in cystic fibrosis, is present in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells from the stomach to the colon. In the foregut, the clinical manifestations are not directly related to the primary defect of the CFTR chloride channel. The most troublesome complaints and symptoms originate from the oesophagus as peptic oesophagitis or oesophageal varices. In the small intestinal wall, the clinical expression of CF depends largely on the decreased secretion of fluid and chloride ions, the increased permeability of the paracellular space between adjacent enterocytes and the sticky mucous cover over the enterocytes. As a rule, the brush border enzyme activities are normal and there is some enhanced active transport as shown for glucose and alanine. The results of continuous enteral feeding of CF patients clearly show that the small intestinal mucosa, in the daily situation, is not functioning at maximal capacity. Although CFTR expression in the colon is lower, the large intestine may be the site of several serious complications such as rectal prolapse, meconium ileus equivalent, intussusception, volvulus and silent appendicitis. In recent years colonic strictures, after the use of high-dose pancreatic enzymes, are being increasingly reported; the condition has recently been called CF fibrosing colonopathy. The CF gastrointestinal content itself differs mainly from the normal condition by the lower acidity in the foregut and the accretion of mucins and proteins, eventually resulting in intestinal obstruction, in the ileum and colon. Better understanding of the CF gastrointestinal phenotype may contribute to improvement of the overall wellbeing of these patients.

  9. [Neurologic manifestations of infectious endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Béard, T; Ben Ismail, M

    1991-01-01

    Thirty out of 287 patients (10.4%) admitted to hospital for infective endocarditis between December 1970 and January 1990 had neurological complications. Twenty-three patients had native valve infectious endocarditis and 7 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The clinical features were characterized by the frequency of aortic valve involvement (23 out of 30) and other complications, especially cardiac failure (16 cases) and peripheral vascular manifestations (7 cases). The commonest organism was the staphylococcus (53% of identified organisms) but the number of negative blood cultures was high (50% of cases). The neurological complication was often the presenting symptom of the endocarditis (19 cases) but it occurred after bacteriological cure in 4 cases. The complications observed were cerebral ischemia (16 cases), cerebral haemorrhage (11 cases), coma (2 cases), and one peripheral neuropathy causing a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. These complications presented with hemiplegia in 17 cases, a meningeal syndrome in 8 cases, a convulsion in 1 case, a Von Wallenberg syndrome in 1 case, and a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome in 1 case. Twelve patients had a transient or permanent neurological coma. Cerebral CT scan showed ischemic lesions in 7 cases and haemorrhagic lesions in 10 cases. Carotid angiography demonstrated mycotic aneurysms in 6 patients. Twelve patients died: the cause of death was neurological coma (7 cases), low cardiac output (4 cases) and haemorrhagic shock (1 case). Four patients underwent neurosurgery: 3 for clipping a mycotic aneurysm and 1 for drainage of an intracerebral haematoma. Poor prognostic factors were: coma, cardiac failure, cardiac valve prosthesis and, above all, the extent and multiplicity of the neurological lesions. The authors propose the following measures to improve the prognosis: early surgery in cases of large and/or mobile vegetations especially when the infecting organism is a staphylococcus and when a systemic embolism has

  10. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R

    1984-01-01

    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, M; Goto, T

    1996-08-01

    The ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were elucidated by observation with several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryo-microscopy. The virus particle consists of an envelope, a core and matrix. The virus particles were observed extracellularly as having one of three profiles: (1) a centric or an eccentric electron-dense core, (2) rod-shaped electron-dense core, and (3) doughnut-shaped. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high resolution electron cryo-microscopy to be globular, and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Many projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially head parts, were found to vary in each projection. By isolation with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, HIV-1 cores were confirmed to consist of p24 protein by immunogold labeling. When the virus enters the cell, two entry modes were found: membrane fusion and endocytosis. No structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm after viral entry. In HIV-1-infected cells, positive reactions by immuno-labeling suggest that HIV-1 Gag may be produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by cytoskeletons. Then a crescent electron-dense layer was first formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle was released from the cell surface. Several cell clones producing defective particles were isolated from MT-4/HIV-1 cells. Among them, doughnut-shaped or teardrop-shaped particles were seen to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins faced each other against the inner electron dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein.

  12. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may use... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  13. Teaching about Manifest Destiny: Clarifying the Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiodo, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Manifest Destiny and the expansionist ideals of the United States, especially during the 19th century. Offers a lesson plan that will help students understand the concept of Manifest Destiny, including an assessment activity, how to expand the lesson, an appendix, and references. (CMK)

  14. Ultrastructural Characterization of the Lower Motor System in a Mouse Model of Krabbe Disease.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Valentina; Marchetti, Laura; Parlanti, Paola; Landi, Silvia; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Cecchini, Marco; Piazza, Vincenzo; Gemmi, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse. We find mild effects on motorneuron soma, severe ones on sciatic nerves and very severe effects on nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions at P30, with peripheral damage being already detectable at P15. Finally, we find that the gastrocnemius muscle undergoes atrophy and structural changes that are independent of denervation at P15. Our data further characterize the ultrastructural analysis of the KD mouse model, and support recent theories of a dying-back mechanism for neuronal degeneration, which is independent of demyelination.

  15. Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Ribeiro, A A C M; Loesch, A

    2004-04-01

    The present study investigated the ultrastructural features of the basilar artery of the largest rodent species, the capybara. The study suggests that the general ultrastructural morphological organization of the basilar artery of the capybara is similar to that of small rodents. However, there are some exceptions. The basilar artery of the capybara contains a subpopulation of 'granular' vascular smooth muscle cells resembling monocytes and/or macrophages. The possibility cannot be excluded that the presence of these cells reflects the remodelling processes of the artery due to animal maturation and the regression of the internal carotid artery. To clarify this issue, more systemic studies are required involving capybaras of various ages.

  16. [Ultrastructural changes in the cerebral cortex following transcranial micropolarization].

    PubMed

    Akimova, I M; Novikova, T A

    1978-12-01

    Electron microscopy of the cerebral cortex in cats and monkeys following transcranial micropolarization (TCMP) demonstrated ultrastructural changes whose degree was dependent on the electric current intensity and the stimulation period. In the focus of stimulation the current affected the brain tissue directly, different elements of the cerebral cortex showing unegual sensitivity to various TCMP regimens. The glia was the first to respond, then the neuronal bodies, and the last -- the synaptic structures. In the areas distant from the TCMP focus synaptic components altered first. The ultrastructural changes revealed were not of pathological character.

  17. Morphological, cytochemical, and ultrastructural study of thrombocytes and leukocytes in neotropical fish, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1850 (Characidae, Bryconinae).

    PubMed

    Tavares-Dias, M; Moraes, F R

    2006-01-01

    Morphological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies are important to demonstrate the function of the blood cells, which is very little understood in teleosts. In peripheral blood of 'piracanjuba' Brycon orbignyanus, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and heterophils were studied and characterized. Thrombocytes had a fusiform or oval shape with PAS-positive granules. Lymphocytes presented small size with sparse basophilic cytoplasm. Monocytes were large in size, presented basophilic cytoplasm that may be foamy or vacuolated, with non-specific esterase staining. The neutrophils presented lightly neutrophilic granule cytoplasm, with positivity for PAS and peroxidase. The heterophils were large in size, with eosinophilic and basophilic granules cytoplasm and PAS-positive. Transmission electron microscopy study demonstrated that the thrombocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes features were similar to other teleosts. In ultrastructural study only one type of neutrophils was observed. Cytochemical findings indicated that neutrophils and monocytes of B. orbignyanus may be involved in phagocytosis, and neutrophils play an important microbicidal role.

  18. Ultrastructural model for size selectivity in glomerular filtration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A; Daniels, B S; Deen, W M

    1999-06-01

    A theoretical model was developed to relate the size selectivity of the glomerular barrier to the structural characteristics of the individual layers of the capillary wall. Thicknesses and other linear dimensions were evaluated, where possible, from previous electron microscopic studies. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was represented as a homogeneous material characterized by a Darcy permeability and by size-dependent hindrance coefficients for diffusion and convection, respectively; those coefficients were estimated from recent data obtained with isolated rat GBM. The filtration slit diaphragm was modeled as a single row of cylindrical fibers of equal radius but nonuniform spacing. The resistances of the remainder of the slit channel, and of the endothelial fenestrae, to macromolecule movement were calculated to be negligible. The slit diaphragm was found to be the most restrictive part of the barrier. Because of that, macromolecule concentrations in the GBM increased, rather than decreased, in the direction of flow. Thus the overall sieving coefficient (ratio of Bowman's space concentration to that in plasma) was predicted to be larger for the intact capillary wall than for a hypothetical structure with no GBM. In other words, because the slit diaphragm and GBM do not act independently, the overall sieving coefficient is not simply the product of those for GBM alone and the slit diaphragm alone. Whereas the calculated sieving coefficients were sensitive to the structural features of the slit diaphragm and to the GBM hindrance coefficients, variations in GBM thickness or filtration slit frequency were predicted to have little effect. The ability of the ultrastructural model to represent fractional clearance data in vivo was at least equal to that of conventional pore models with the same number of adjustable parameters. The main strength of the present approach, however, is that it provides a framework for relating structural findings to the size

  19. Testicular apoptosis after dietary zinc deficiency: ultrastructural and TUNEL studies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepa; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2011-10-01

    The present study was conducted in Wistar rats to determine whether prepubertal dietary zinc deficiency causes apoptotic changes in testes. Prepubertal male Wistar rats (40-50 gm) were divided into 3 groups: zinc control (ZC), pairfed (PF), and zinc deficient (ZD). Control and pairfed groups were given a 100 ppm zinc diet while the deficient groups received 1 ppm zinc diet for 2 and 4 weeks (w), respectively. Ultrastructural studies revealed several apoptotic features such as wavy basement membrane, displaced nuclei, chromatin condensation, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear membrane dissolution, loss of inter-Sertoli cell junctional complexes, and intercellular bridges and deformed mitochondria. A variable spectrum of sperm defects had also been visualized e.g., acrosomal deformities such as decapitation and a ring of condensed chromatin around the nuclear periphery, deformed sperm heads with a condensed nucleus, tail-elements with superfluous cytoplasm, and damage to the mitochondrial sheath and aggregation of spermatozoa within the membrane. This was further supported by TUNEL studies. Apoptotic index, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index also revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in zinc deficient groups (2 and 4 w) when compared with their respective control and pairfed groups. All the above findings are indicative that changes observed in the testes after dietary zinc deficiency are due to the onset of apoptosis. Increased apoptotic degeneration in testes may cause irreversible changes in the germ cells associated with decreased epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index which contributes to the low efficiency of spermatogenesis thereby indicating a possible role of zinc in fertility.

  20. Ultrastructural Examination of a Case of Pagetoid Bowen Disease Exhibiting Immunohistochemical Features in Common With Extramammary Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Baldovini, Chiara; Betts, Christine M; Reggiani, Camilla; Reggiani, Maurizio; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-07-01

    A panel of immunohistochemical markers may be used to differentiate between pagetoid Bowen disease (PBD) and primary extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) in selected cases. Although diffuse staining with cytokeratin 7 (CK7), CAM5.2, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 generally supports diagnosis of EMPD, cases have been reported where PBD also expressed CK7, EMA, and CAM5.2. Based on these findings, some authors suggested that the 2 entities may arise from the same multipotent stem cell, capable of further differentiation toward squamous and secretory lines. To the best of our knowledge, this issue has never been investigated by comparing PBD and EMPD at the ultrastructural level. We performed the first ultrastructural study of a case of PBD exhibiting common immunohistochemical features with EMPD. The lesion displayed some ultrastructural features often observed in Bowen disease and some that are typically found in EMPD. These findings indicate the presence of a bidirectional differentiation--secretory and squamous--within the same lesion, thus supporting the hypothesis that PBD and primary EMPD may arise from a common progenitor cell.

  1. [Quantitative changes in the ultrastructure of myocardial cells in Japanese quail during hypergravity, hypodynamia and space flight].

    PubMed

    Bózner, A; Boda, K; Dostál, J; Matĕjková, Z; Devecka, V

    1993-03-01

    The experimental work aimed at the quantitative ultrastructure of the myocardial cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica during hypergravitation, hypodynamism and space flight in a Soviet satellite. For the determination of quantitative changes of the myocardial ultrastructure a morphometrical method was used with parameters like the number of mitochondria, average mitochondrial size, relative mitochondrial volume, deficiency of cristae and relative volume of myofibrils. The quails were observed in 3 groups. The absolute control consisted of quails living in normal Earth conditions, in the laboratory group the quails were exposed to conditions of hypergravitation and hypodynamism in a specially constructed centrifuge, and in the flying group the quails were exposed to space flight in a Soviet orbital station MIR. In the group of absolute controls no pathological changes of the myocardial ultrastructure were found. In the flying group there were no significant changes, with the exception of decreased relative volume of myofibrils, which however agrees with the findings on symptoms corresponding to human and animal heart weakness during space flights. In the laboratory group, pathological changes were observed in each of the fractions. The most significant pathological findings were found in the group controls in the center and in hypergravitation combined with hypodynamism. It can be concluded that the laboratories can simulate conditions induced by the start and flight of space ships. (Fig. 2, Ref, 8.)

  2. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  3. Distinct decalcification process of dentin by different cariogenic organic acids: Kinetics, ultrastructure and mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Y-C; Burwell, A.K.; Saeki, K.; Fernandez-Martinez, A.; Pugach, M.K.; Nonomura, G.; Habelitz, S.; Ho, S.P.; Rapozo-Hilo, M.; Featherstone, J.D.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We studied artificial dentin lesions in human teeth generated by lactate and acetate buffers (pH 5.0), the two most abundant acids in caries. The objective of this study was to determine differences in mechanical properties, mineral density profiles and ultrastructural variations of two different artificial lesions with the same approximate depth. Methods 0.05 M (pH 5.0) acetate or lactate buffer was used to create 1) 180 μm-deep lesions in non-carious human dentin blocks (acetate 130 h; lactate 14days); (2) demineralized, ~180 μm-thick non-carious dentin discs (3 weeks). We performed nanoindentation to determine mechanical properties across the hydrated lesions, and micro X-ray computed tomography (MicroXCT) to determine mineral profiles. Ultrastructure in lesions was analyzed by TEM/selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Demineralized dentin discs were analyzed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Results Diffusion-dominated demineralization was shown based on the linearity between lesion depths versus the square root of exposure time in either solution, with faster kinetics in acetate buffer. Nanoindentation revealed lactate induced a significantly sharper transition in reduced elastic modulus across the lesions. MicroXCT showed lactate demineralized lesions had swelling and more disorganized matrix structure, whereas acetate lesions had abrupt X-ray absorption near the margin. At the ultrastructural level, TEM showed lactate was more effective in removing minerals from the collagenous matrix, which was confirmed by SAXS analysis. Conclusions These findings indicated the different acids yielded lesions with different characteristics that could influence lesion formation resulting in their distinct predominance in different caries activities, and these differences may impact strategies for dentin caries remineralization. PMID:26745819

  4. Toxocara infection and its association with allergic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Elena; Aranzamendi, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats that can also infect humans worldwide. Although these parasites do not reach the adult stage in the human host the larvae migrate to different organs and can persist for many years. Migration of larvae through the lungs may result in respiratory distress such as wheezing, coughs, mucous production and hyper-reactivity of the airways. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that infection with this helminth contributes to the development of allergic manifestations, including asthma. These findings are however conflicting since in others studies no association between these two immunopathologies has been found. This article reviews information on Toxocara spp. and findings from epidemiological and experimental studies on the association between Toxocara infection and allergic manifestations. In addition, the immunological mechanisms and the factors involved in the helminth allergy-association are discussed.

  5. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  6. Observational Manifestation of Chaos in Astrophysical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, A.; Marov, M.; Miller, R.

    2002-12-01

    This book addresses a broad range of problems related to observed manifestations of chaotic motions in galactic and stellar objects, by invoking basic theory, numerical modeling, and observational evidence. For the first time, methods of stochastic dynamics are applied to actually observed astronomical objects, e.g. the gaseous disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 3631. In the latter case, the existence of chaotic trajectories in the boundary of giant vortices was recently found by the calculation of the Lyapunov characteristic number of these trajectories. The reader will find research results on the peculiarities of chaotic system behaviour; a study of the integrals of motion in self-consistent systems; numerical modeling results of the evolution process of disk systems involving resonance excitation of the density waves in spiral galaxies; a review of specific formations in stars and high-energy sources demonstrating their stochastic nature; a discussion of the peculiarities of the precessional motion of the accretion disk and relativistic jets in the double system SS 433; etc. This book stands out as the first one that deals with the problem of chaos in real astrophysical objects. It is intended for graduate and post-graduate students in the fields of non-linear dynamics, astrophysics, planetary and space physics; specifically for those dealing with computer modeling of the relevant processes. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0935-6

  7. Talc: understanding its manifestations in the chest.

    PubMed

    Feigin, D S

    1986-02-01

    Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. The first form, talcosilicosis, is caused by talc mined with high-silica-content mineral. Findings in this form are identical with those of silicosis. Talcoasbestosis closely resembles asbestosis and is produced by crystalline talc, generally inhaled with asbestos fibers. Pathologic and radiographic abnormalities are virtually identical with those of asbestosis, including calcifications and malignant tumor formation. The third form, talcosis, caused by inhalation of pure talc, may include acute or chronic bronchitis as well as interstitial inflammation; radiographically, it appears as interstitial reticulations or small, irregular nodules, typical of small-airway obstruction. The fourth form, due to intravenous administration of talc, is usually associated with abuse of oral medications and production of vascular granulomas manifested by consolidations, large nodules, and masses. Radiographic abnormalities associated with talc can be predicted when there is sufficient history of the nature of exposure, including the region of origin of the talc in cases of inhalation. Radiographic changes, such as diaphragmatic plaques, often attributed to both talc and asbestos have not been documented to be caused by talc alone. The author provides review of 18 well-documented cases.

  8. Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases: concept and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of the growing spectrum of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases including recently described syndromes. The autoinflammatory diseases can be grouped based on clinical findings: 1. the three classic hereditary "periodic fever syndromes", familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF); TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS); and mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS); 2. the cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), comprising familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) or CINCA, and; 3. pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA); 4. disorders presenting with skin pustules, including deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA); Majeed syndrome; pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome; deficiency of interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (DITRA); CARD14 mediated psoriasis (CAMPS), and early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (EO-IBD); 5. inflammatory disorders caused by mutations in proteasome components, the proteasome associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) and 6. very rare conditions presenting with autoinflammation and immunodeficiency.

  9. Effects of sodium-hyaluronate and glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate on remodeling stage of tenotomized superficial digital flexor tendon in rabbits: a clinical, histopathological, ultrastructural, and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Meimandiparizi, Abdul-Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sodium-hyaluronate (NaH) combined with glucosamine HCl-chondroitin sulfate (GlcN-CS) on the post-surgical repair of tendon rupture on day 84 post injury. Twenty white New Zealand female rabbits were divided randomly into two equal groups of injured treated and injured untreated. After tenotomy and surgical repair, using the modified Kessler technique and running pattern, the injured legs were casted for 14 days. NaH was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on days 3, 7, and 10 and was followed by daily oral administration of GlcN-CS on days 3 to 23 post injury. The control animals received normal saline injection and oral placebo similarly. The weight of the animals, tendon diameter, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were conducted for 12 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized 84 days post injury and the tendons were evaluated at macroscopic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural level and were assessed for biomechanical and percentage dry-weight parameters. Treatment significantly reduced the tendon diameter and ultimate and yield strain, and increased the echogenicity, dry-weight content, ultimate and yield strength, and stress and stiffness of the injured tendons compared to those of the untreated ones. Treatment also significantly enhanced the maturation rate of the tenoblasts, fibrillogenesis, the diameters of the collagen fibrils, and fibrillar density. These findings suggest that a combined treatment of NaH and GlcN-CS could be effective in restoring the morphological and biomechanical properties of injured superficial digital flexor tendon of rabbits and might be helpful for future clinical trial studies in tendon ruptures.

  10. [Ultrastructural observation of morphologically abnormal sperm: Advances in studies and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-xiong; Shi, Yi-chao; Yang, Shen-min

    2016-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructural abnormalities are often associated with sperm motility, the integrity of genetic material, and the fertilization potential. The investigation of sperm ultrastructural abnormalities is based on the evolution of microscopy techniques. In his paper, we review the improvement of the microscopy techniques and the ultrastructure of several specific morphological defects and he apoptotic spermatogenic cells in order to expound the significance of sperm ultrastructural observation in clinical practice. We deem it necessary to analyze the sperm ultrastructure before exploring the pathology and adopting assisted reproductive technology for some special patients with teratozoospermia.

  11. Biochemical and ultrastructural study of Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Zierdt, C H; Donnolley, C T; Muller, J; Constantopoulos, G

    1988-01-01

    This study was prompted by the paradox of strong presence of mitochondria in an anaerobic protozoan, recently reclassified from the yeasts. Stemming from publication in 1911 to 1912, Blastocystis hominis has been generally accepted as a harmless intestinal yeast of humans, with short standardized textbook (parasitology) descriptions, even to the present day. Reports since 1967 have changed the classification of B. hominis from yeast to protozoan (Sarcodina), and this has been followed by interest in B. hominis-caused disease, resulting in documentation of disease in humans and other primates. In this study of B. hominis, the basic ultrastructure of the mitochondria was shown by thin-section electron microscopy to be identical to that of an archetypical mitochondrion. There were hundreds of them in large B. hominis cells (100 to 200 microns in diameter). Mitochondria were confined to a peripheral ring of cytoplasm bounded by the outer cell membrane (there is no cell wall) and the membrane of the large, spherical, organelle-free central body that constitutes 75% of the cell's volume. Mitochondria tended to surround the cell's usual two to four nuclei. Rhodamine 123 stained the mitochondria selectively, visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The cell was devoid of cytochromes. Addition of 0.1% cytochrome c to the growth medium increased utilization of glucose by 34% and that of lactate by 17%. Furthermore, it markedly increased the number of mitochondrion-filled cells. At higher concentrations, cytochrome c inhibited the growth of the cells. Despite the presence of large numbers of mitochondria, activities of the mitochondrial enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase were absent. Thus, the function of the mitochondria in B. hominis remains unknown. Considerable activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were found. Aldolase

  12. Systemic manifestations of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gaddam, Samson Sujit Kumar; Buell, Thomas; Robertson, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects functioning of various organ systems in the absence of concomitant non-neurologic organ injury or systemic infection. The systemic manifestations of TBI can be mild or severe and can present in the acute phase or during the recovery phase. Non-neurologic organ dysfunction can manifest following mild TBI or severe TBI. The pathophysiology of systemic manifestations following TBI is multifactorial and involves an effect on the autonomic nervous system, involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, release of inflammatory mediators, and treatment modalities used for TBI. Endocrine dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, and respiratory manifestations are common following TBI. The influence of TBI on systemic immune response, coagulation cascade, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and other systems is becoming more evident through animal studies and clinical trials. Systemic manifestations can independently act as risk factors for mortality and morbidity following TBI. Some conditions like neurogenic pulmonary edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation can adversely affect the outcome. Early recognition and treatment of systemic manifestations may improve the clinical outcome following TBI. Further studies are required especially in the field of neuroimmunology to establish the role of various biochemical cascades, not only in the pathophysiology of TBI but also in its systemic manifestations and outcome.

  13. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings.

  14. MRI manifestations of bowler's thumb.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Martha F; Flemming, Donald J; Bernard, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Bowler's thumb is a rare perineural fibrosis involving the ulnar digital nerve of the thumb. Affected patients present with pain, neuropathy, and mass lesion. The condition is caused by chronic repetitive impaction of the ulnar soft tissues of the thumb against the thumbhole of a bowling ball. In our case, MRI showed decreased signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images surrounding an enlarged ulnar digital nerve of the thumb. The findings can be confused with giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath or peripheral-nerve-sheath tumor.

  15. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 reduces age-related alterations in the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Bakeeva, Lora E.; Eldarov, Chupalav M.; Vangely, Irina M.; Kolosova, Nataliya G.; Vays, Valeriya B.

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is an eye disorder affecting many people at an old age. Because dry eye syndrome is accelerated by aging, a useful approach to the prevention of this syndrome may be an intervention into the aging process. Previously, we showed that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 delays manifestations of aging and inhibits the development of age-related diseases including dry eye syndrome. Nevertheless, the link between SkQ1's effects and its suppression of age-related changes in the lacrimal gland remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with SkQ1 (250 nmol/[kg body weight] daily) starting at age 1.5 months significantly alleviated the pathological changes in lacrimal glands of Wistar rats by age 24 months. By this age, lacrimal glands underwent dramatic deterioration of the ultrastructure that was indicative of irreversible disturbances in these glands' functioning. In contrast, in SkQ1-treated rats, the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland was similar to that in much younger rats. Morphometric analysis of electron-microscopic specimens of lacrimal glands revealed the presence of numerous secretory granules in acinar cells and a significant increase in the number of operating intercalary ducts. Our results confirm that dietary supplementation with SkQ1 is a promising approach to healthy ageing and to prevention of aberrations in the lacrimal gland that underlie dry eye syndrome. PMID:27852065

  16. Morphological, anatomical, and ultrastructural changes (visualized through scanning electron microscopy) induced in Triticum aestivum by Pb²⁺ treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Lead (Pb) causes severe damage to crops, ecosystems, and humans, and alters the physiology and biochemistry of various plant species. It is hypothesized that Pb-induced metabolic alterations could manifest as structural variations in the roots of plants. In light of this, the morphological, anatomical, and ultrastructural variations (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) were studied in 4-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum grown under Pb stress (0, 8, 16, 40, and 80 mg Pb(2+) l(-1); mild to highly toxic). The toxic effect was more pronounced in radicle growth than on the plumule growth. The SEM of the root of T. aestivum depicted morphological alterations and surface ultrastructural changes. Compared to intact and uniform surface cells in the control roots, cells were irregular and desiccated in Pb(2+)-treated roots. In Pb(2+)-treated roots, the number of root hairs increased manifold, showing dense growth, and these were apparently longer. Apart from the deformity in surface morphology and anatomy of the roots in response to Pb(2+) toxicity, considerable anatomical alterations were also observed. Pb(2+)-treated root exhibited signs of injury in the form of cell distortion, particularly in the cortical cells. The endodermis and pericycle region showed loss of uniformity post Pb(2+) exposure (at 80 mg l(-1) Pb(2+)). The cells appeared to be squeezed with greater depositions observed all over the tissue. The study concludes that Pb(2+) treatment caused structural anomalies and induced anatomical and surface ultrastructural changes in T. aestivum.

  17. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-11-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome.

  18. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution.

  19. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

  20. Studies on Ultrastructure and Purification of Isolated Plant Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James E.; Elfvin, Lars-G.; Biale, Jacob B.; Honda, S. I.

    1968-01-01

    Sweetpotato mitochondria, that showed respiratory control, were studied with respect to ultrastructure. If fixed in media containing sucrose at 0.4 M, the cristae were dilated and the matrix was highly condensed. A more orthodox ultrastructural form was observed when the mitochondria were fixed in a medium containing sucrose at 0.25 M, i.e., the matrix was more expanded, the cristae were less dilated, and peripherally, the inner membrane element lay adjacent to the outer membrane element. These results are discussed in terms of a sucrose-accessible space (space between outer and inner membrane elements including intracristal space), and a space relatively inaccessible to sucrose (matrix). Ultrastructural shifts were not observed with change in metabolic steady state of the mitochondria. High resolution electron micrographs showed that the ultrastructure of sweetpotato mitochondria is very similar to that of animal mitochondria. Purity and homogeneity of mitochondrial fractions were followed both by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Preparations from sweetpotato, using older methods, were relatively homogeneous with respect to particle type and size, whereas avocado preparations contained a high proportion of chloroplasts and cellular debris. A method of purification involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation was developed. Purified mitochondria exhibited respiratory control and appeared similar to unpurified mitochondria under the electron microscope. Images PMID:16657002

  1. Hypertextual Ultrastructures: Movement and Containment in Texts and Hypertexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Rosemarie L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface-level experience of hypertextuality as formless and unbounded, blurring boundaries among texts and between readers and writers, is created by a deep structure which is not normally presented to readers and which, like the ultrastructure of living cells, defines and controls texts' nature and functions. Most readers, restricted to…

  2. Ultrastructural study of thyroid capillaries after IR laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Lourdes; Perez de Vargas, I.; Carrillo, F.; Parrado, C.; Pelaez, A.

    1994-02-01

    Laser radiation causes microscopical changes in the follicular cells relative to dose intensity. So, we have observed focal degenerative phenomena, at maximal doses, and activation of cellular function similar to the ones observed after stimulation with TSH, at minimal doses. In order to evaluate the evolution of these changes we have planned an ultrastructural study of rats thyroid capillaries treated with IR laser radiation.

  3. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela; Leisch, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  4. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  5. Tissue section AFM: In situ ultrastructural imaging of native biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Helen K.; Hodson, Nigel W.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Millward-Sadler, Sarah J.; Garrod, David; Scothern, Anthea; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Cox, Thomas R.; Erler, Janine T.; Trafford, Andrew W.; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional approaches for ultrastructural high-resolution imaging of biological specimens induce profound changes in bio-molecular structures. By combining tissue cryo-sectioning with non-destructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging we have developed a methodology that may be applied by the non-specialist to both preserve and visualize bio-molecular structures (in particular extracellular matrix assemblies) in situ. This tissue section AFM technique is capable of: i) resolving nm–µm scale features of intra- and extracellular structures in tissue cryo-sections; ii) imaging the same tissue region before and after experimental interventions; iii) combining ultrastructural imaging with complimentary microscopical and micromechanical methods. Here, we employ this technique to: i) visualize the macro-molecular structures of unstained and unfixed fibrillar collagens (in skin, cartilage and intervertebral disc), elastic fibres (in aorta and lung), desmosomes (in nasal epithelium) and mitochondria (in heart); ii) quantify the ultrastructural effects of sequential collagenase digestion on a single elastic fibre; iii) correlate optical (auto fluorescent) with ultrastructural (AFM) images of aortic elastic lamellae. PMID:20144712

  6. Collagen Fibril Ultrastructure in Mice Lacking Discoidin Domain Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Tonniges, Jeffrey R; Albert, Benjamin; Calomeni, Edward P; Roy, Shuvro; Lee, Joan; Mo, Xiaokui; Cole, Susan E; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2016-06-01

    The quantity and quality of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) have a pivotal role in dictating biological processes. Several collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) are known to modulate collagen deposition and fibril diameter. However, limited studies exist on alterations in the fibril ultrastructure by CBPs. In this study, we elucidate how the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) regulates the collagen content and ultrastructure in the adventitia of DDR1 knock-out (KO) mice. DDR1 KO mice exhibit increased collagen deposition as observed using Masson's trichrome. Collagen ultrastructure was evaluated in situ using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Although the mean fibril diameter was not significantly different, DDR1 KO mice had a higher percentage of fibrils with larger diameter compared with their wild-type littermates. No significant differences were observed in the length of D-periods. In addition, collagen fibrils from DDR1 KO mice exhibited a small, but statistically significant, increase in the depth of the fibril D-periods. Consistent with these observations, a reduction in the depth of D-periods was observed in collagen fibrils reconstituted with recombinant DDR1-Fc. Our results elucidate how DDR1 modulates collagen fibril ultrastructure in vivo, which may have important consequences in the functional role(s) of the underlying ECM.

  7. Ultrastructure of platelets in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, J E; Gilchrist, G S; Brigden, L P; Bowie, E J

    1975-07-01

    The platelets of a patient with the Bernard-Soulier syndrome were studied by electron microscopy. The main abnormalities were the presence of giant and often round platelets, hypertrophic and frequently widely dilated open canalicular system, disorganized microtubules, and platelets with sparse or absent granulation. Although well defined, these ultrastructural morphologic aberrations are not considered diagnostic or pathognomonic of the syndrome.

  8. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  9. Collagen Fibril Ultrastructure in Mice Lacking Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Tonniges, Jeffrey R.; Albert, Benjamin; Calomeni, Edward P.; Roy, Shuvro; Lee, Joan; Mo, Xiaokui; Cole, Susan E.; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) have a pivotal role in dictating biological processes. Several collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) are known to modulate collagen deposition and fibril diameter. However, limited studies exist on alterations in the fibril ultrastructure by CBPs. In this study, we elucidate how the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) regulates the collagen content and ultrastructure in the adventitia of DDR1 knock-out (KO) mice. DDR1 KO mice exhibit increased collagen deposition as observed using Masson’s trichrome. Collagen ultrastructure was evaluated in situ using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Although the mean fibril diameter was not significantly different, DDR1 KO mice had a higher percentage of fibrils with larger diameter compared with their wild-type littermates. No significant differences were observed in the length of D-periods. In addition, collagen fibrils from DDR1 KO mice exhibited a small, but statistically significant, increase in the depth of the fibril D-periods. Consistent with these observations, a reduction in the depth of D-periods was observed in collagen fibrils reconstituted with recombinant DDR1-Fc. Our results elucidate how DDR1 modulates collagen fibril ultrastructure in vivo, which may have important consequences in the functional role(s) of the underlying ECM. PMID:27329311

  10. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  11. Ultrastructure Study of Apple Meristem Cells During Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  12. Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in Euglena cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, S.; Bonaly, J.; Bariaud, A.; Vannereau, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    The ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis grown in the presence of Cd showed only numerous myelin-like structures in mitochondria, chloroplasts altered in shape, and thylakoid arrangement and increase of osmiophilic plastoglobuli. These alterations indicate that respiratory processes are the initial target of Cd toxicity.

  13. Molecular and Ultrastructural Properties of Maize White Line Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Maize white line mosaic virus (MWLMV) and describes the ultrastructural features of infected maize cells. The viral genome is an RNA molecule 4293 nt in size with the same structural organization of members of the Aureusvirus and ...

  14. Pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The case of neurological sarcocystosis in a nine months old bull calf that died in 1982 was restudied. The bull was suspected to have rabies. Therefore, only brain was examined histologically. Thirty four years later, we restudied sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of brain. Numerous schizonts a...

  15. Systemic adenovirus infection in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): histological, ultrastructural and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Moormann, S; Seehusen, F; Reckling, D; Kilwinski, J; Puff, C; Elhensheri, M; Wohlsein, P; Peters, M

    2009-07-01

    Three Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps) from two breeding groups were humanely destroyed following a period of anorexia. Two of the animals were 8-months old and related and one animal was approximately 2-weeks old. Necropsy examination revealed poor bodily condition but no other gross abnormalities. Microscopically there was non-suppurative hepatitis and interstitial nephritis. Multiple large, amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies were present within hepatocytes and epithelial cells of the bile ducts, renal tubules, small and large intestinal mucosa, pancreatic acini and oral mucous membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the inclusions comprised viral particles with morphology consistent with an adenovirus. A fragment of the adenoviral polymerase gene was amplified, sequenced and compared with other reptilian adenoviral sequences.

  16. Cervical tuberculous adenitis: CT manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Reede, D.L.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    Cervical tuberculous adenitis is being seen with increasing frequency in the United States; in the appropriate clinical setting it should be included in the differential diagnosis of an asymptomatic neck mass. Patients are typically young adults who are recent arrivals from Southeast Asia. A history of tuberculosis is not always elicited nor is the chest radiograph always abnormal. All of these patients have positive purified protein derivative tests unless they are anergic. The CT findings may lead to the diagnosis. Several CT patterns of nodal disease can be seen in tuberculous adenitis; some may mimic benign and neoplastic disease. The presence of a multiloculated or multichambered (conglomerate nodal) mass with central lucency and thick rims of enhancement and minimally effaced fascial planes is highly suggestive of tuberculous adenitis, especially if the patient has a strongly positive tuberculosis skin test.

  17. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  19. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  20. Ultrastructural aspects of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli) in continuous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Assis, Dnieber C; Ribeiro, Múcio F Barbosa; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Frenkel, Jacob K; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2014-06-01

    Cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. The lack of animal models susceptible to C. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. This study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of C. belli in Monkey Rhesus Kidney Cells (MK2) and Human Ileocecal Adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8). Zoites of C. belli exhibited typical morphological features of coccidia, which included a trilaminar pellicle, an apical complex formed by a conoid, polar rings, rhoptries, and micronemes, in addition to dense granules and the endoplasmic reticulum. No crystalloid body was observed but various lipid and amylopectin granules were usually present in the cytoplasm of zoites. We observed a tendency of the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell to be located near the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Merozoites were formed by endodyogeny and during replication, the apical complex of the mother cell remained intact. The formation of gametes or oocysts was not observed. The ultrastructural findings of C. belli are further evidence of its proximity to Sarcocystidae family members and corroborate their reclassification as Cystoisospora spp.

  1. Developmental and Ultrastructural Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp. of Brazilian Leptodactilydae Frogs.

    PubMed

    Attias, Márcia; Sato, Lyslaine H; Ferreira, Robson C; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; de Souza, Wanderley

    2016-09-01

    We described the phylogenetic affiliation, development in cultures and ultrastructural features of a trypanosome of Leptodacylus chaquensis from the Pantanal biome of Brazil. In the inferred phylogeny, this trypanosome nested into the Anura clade of the basal Aquatic clade of Trypanosoma, but was separate from all known species within this clade. This finding enabled us to describe it as Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp., which also infects other Leptodacylus species from the Pantanal and Caatinga biomes. Trypanosoma herthameyeri multiplies as small rounded forms clumped together and evolving into multiple-fission forms and rosettes of epimastigotes released as long forms with long flagella; scarce trypomastigotes and glove-like forms are common in stationary-phase cultures. For the first time, a trypanosome from an amphibian was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a cytostome opening, well-developed flagellar lamella, and many grooves in pumpkin-like forms. Transmission electron microscopy showed highly developed Golgi complexes, relaxed catenation of KDNA, and a rich set of spongiome tubules in a regular parallel arrangement to the flagellar pocket as confirmed by electron tomography. Considering the basal position in the phylogenetic tree, developmental and ultrastructural data of T. herthameyeri are valuable for evolutionary studies of trypanosome architecture and cell biology.

  2. Recurrent uveitis in horses: vitreal examinations with ultrastructural detection of leptospires.

    PubMed

    Brandes, K; Wollanke, B; Niedermaier, G; Brem, S; Gerhards, H

    2007-06-01

    This study documents the examination of 17 horses (both sexes, 3-18 years old) suffering from spontaneous equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). Vitreal samples obtained by pars plana vitrectomy were examined macroscopically and ultrastructurally, and in most cases also by cultural examination, by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and by polymerase chain reaction. In 24% (4/17) of the animals, ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy revealed intact leptospiral bacteria in the vitreous. The leptospires were detected freely in the vitreous and also incorporated by a phagocyte. They were surrounded by a rim of proteinaceous material which was reduced around a phagocytosed leptospira. Ninety-four per cent (16/17) of the vitreal samples presented significant antibody levels in the MAT, mostly against leptospiral serovar Grippotyphosa. Seventy-five per cent (9/12) of bacterial culture examinations were positive for leptospira. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in all (16/16) examinations performed. Our findings support previous reports suggesting that leptospires play an important role in the pathogenesis of ERU. Interestingly, this study found leptospires after secondary and later acute episodes. A persistent leptospiral infection is therefore suggested as the cause of ERU.

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of the ovary and oogenesis in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata (Branchiopoda) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Biliński, Szczepan M

    2014-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have indicated a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda and postulated their unification into the Pancrustacea/Tetraconata clade. Certain molecular analyses have also suggested that the crustacean lineage, which includes the Branchiopoda, might be the sister group of Hexapoda. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural features of oogenesis in two branchiopod species, Cyzicus tetracerus and Lynceus brachyurus, representing two separate orders, Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata, respectively. The female gonads of these species have not been investigated before. Here, we demonstrate that in both studied species the ovarian follicles develop inside characteristic ovarian protrusions and comprise a germline cyst surrounded by a simple somatic (follicular) epithelium, supported by a thin basal lamina. Each germline cyst consists of one oocyte and three supporting nurse cells, and the oocyte differentiates relatively late during ovarian follicle development. The synthesis of oocyte reserve materials involves rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The follicular cells are penetrated by a complex canal system and there is no external epithelial sheath covering the ovarian follicles. The structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural characteristics of oogenesis are not only remarkably similar in both Cyzicus and Lynceus, but also share morphological similarities with Notostraca as well as the basal hexapods Campodeina and Collembola. Possible phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Ultrastructure of the Subcutaneous Primo-Vascular System in Rat Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified the primo-vascular system (PVS), a novel vascular network, in rat subcutaneous tissues. Little is known about the subcutaneous PVS (sc-PVS). Here, we examined the ultrastructure of the sc-PVS in the hypodermis at the rat abdominal midline by electron microscopy. On the surface of sc-PVS, we observed three types of cells: microcells (5-6 μm), large elliptical cells (>20 μm), and erythrocyte (3-4 μm). The inside of the sc-PVS was filled with numerous cells, which can be classified into three major groups: leucocytes, mast cells, and erythrocytes. The dense leucocytes and mast cells were easily noticed. The extracellular matrix of the sc-PVS was mainly composed of extensive fibers (79 ± 6.5 nm) tightly covered by micro- (0.5-1 μm) and nanoparticles (10-100 nm). In conclusion, the ultrastructural features, such as the resident cells on and in the sc-PVS and fiber meshwork covered by particles, indicate that sc-PVS might act as a circulatory channel for the flow and delivery of numerous cells and particles. Our findings will help understand the nature of various sc-PVS beneath-the-skin layers and how they relate to acupuncture meridians.

  5. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs.

  6. Ultrastructural investigation of coelomocytes in representatives of Naidinae and Rhyacodrilinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Envall, Ida; Erséus, Christer; Gustavsson, Lena M

    2008-09-01

    Various types of free-floating cells are found in the coelomic fluid of representatives of several annelid groups. The ultrastructure of these "coelomocytes," however, has been studied to a limited degree. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope to investigate the coelomocytes in specimens of five species of Naidinae and three species of Rhyacodrilinae (all oligochaetous clitellates within the family Tubificidae). These were compared with each other and with previously described coelomocytes of representatives of other oligochaete taxa. Only one distinguishable coelomocyte type was found in the studied specimens: a round to oblong cell without pseudopodia or other appendages, primarily containing membrane-bound granules of varying electron density, a prominent network of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. This type differs to a great extent from most of the previously described coelomocytes, but shows similarities to certain types found in members of Enchytraeidae and Megascolecidae. Although we noticed some variation, we did not find any ultrastructural characters in these cells obviously useful for phylogenetic studies within Tubificidae.

  7. Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Trost, L; McDonnell, J

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has many extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. Anyone presenting with IBD should be examined for cutaneous manifestations. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a severe painful ulcerating disease that requires moist wound management and, in the absence of secondary infection, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or both. Infliximab may also be used. Erythema nodosum is a common cause of tender red nodules of the shins. Management includes leg elevation, NSAIDs, and potassium iodide. Oral manifestations of IBD include aphthous stomatitis, mucosal nodularity (cobblestoning), and pyostomatitis vegetans. Treatment should be directed both at the cutaneous lesions and at the underlying systemic condition. PMID:16143688

  8. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, M H A; Khamashta, M A; Merashli, M; Sabbouh, T; Hughes, G R V; Uthman, I

    2016-04-01

    The scope of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has increased dramatically since its discovery in 1983, where any organ system can be involved. Musculoskeletal complications are consistently reported in APS patients, not only causing morbidity and mortality, but also affecting their quality of life. We reviewed all English papers on APS involvement in the musculoskeletal system using Google Scholar and Pubmed; all reports are summarized in a table in this review. The spectrum of manifestations includes arthralgia/arthritis, avascular necrosis of bone, bone marrow necrosis, complex regional pain syndrome type-1, muscle infarction, non-traumatic fractures, and osteoporosis. Some of these manifestations were reported in good quality studies, some of which showed an association between aPL-positivity and the occurrence of these manifestations, while others were merely described in case reports.

  9. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... represent a full and complete enumeration and description of the cargo carried in this flight except that... manifests: Attached Shipper's Export Declarations represent a full and complete enumeration and...

  10. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... represent a full and complete enumeration and description of the cargo carried in this flight except that... manifests: Attached Shipper's Export Declarations represent a full and complete enumeration and...

  11. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... represent a full and complete enumeration and description of the cargo carried in this flight except that... manifests: Attached Shipper's Export Declarations represent a full and complete enumeration and...

  12. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... represent a full and complete enumeration and description of the cargo carried in this flight except that... manifests: Attached Shipper's Export Declarations represent a full and complete enumeration and...

  13. Cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis and their management.

    PubMed

    Callen, Jeffrey P

    2010-06-01

    Dermatomyositis is a condition with pathognomonic and characteristic cutaneous lesions. This article describes the skin manifestations observed in patients with dermatomyositis, their differential diagnosis, their relationship to internal disease (particularly malignancy), and their management.

  14. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  15. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  16. Pulsed electromagnetic wave exposure induces ultrastructural damage and upregulated expression of heat shock protein 70 in the rat adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Ren, Dong-Qing; Yi, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Yong-Bin; Li, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Gui-Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural damage and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the rat adenohypophysis following pulsed electromagnetic wave (PEMW) exposure. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(4) pulses of PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure. Whole body radiation of 1 x 10(4) pulses, 1 x 10(5) pulses and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW were delivered with a field strength of 100 kV/m. The rats in each group (n=6 in each) were sacrificed 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after PEMW exposure. Transmission electron microscopy was then used to detect the ultrastructural changes and immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of HSP70. Cellular damage, including mitochondrial vacuolation occurred as early as 12 h after PEMW exposure.More severe cellular damages, including cell degeneration and necrosis, occurred 24 and 48 h after PEMW exposure. The PEMW-induced cellular damage increased as the number of PEMW pulses increased. In addition, the expression of HSP70 significantly increased following PEMW exposure and peaked after 12 h. These findings suggested that PEMW induced ultrastructural damages in the rat adenohypophysis and that HSP70 may have contributed to the PEMW-induced adenohypophyseal damage.

  17. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  18. Effect of rapid freezing-thawing techniques on the sperm parameters and ultrastructure of Chinese Taihang black goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liguang; Ren, Youshe; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Xun, Wenjuan; Yue, Wenbin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Rujie

    2014-02-01

    Supercooling sperm in liquid nitrogen vapour is a feasible and economic technique for the practical production. The study aimed to reveal the negative effects of this rapid freezing and thawing processes on Taihang black goat spermatozoa and to find out the changing of spermatozoa motility and ultrastructure by using CASA and TEM. Qualified semen samples, which collected from twenty Chinese Taihang black goats using artificial vagina were pooled and investigated the kinematics parameters and ultrastructural morphology. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused a significant reduction in the spermatozoon total motility (P<0.001), in rapid and medium cell numbers (P<0.001) and motility parameters (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and BCF) (P<0.01). Immotile spermatozoa number was increased significantly after freezing-thawing (P<0.001). In the ultrastructural analysis, the shape with a sperm nucleus characterized by ruptures, bend and deformity was observed. The plasma membranes were broken, and nucleoplasm erupted. The mitochondria in the middle piece were disturbed by partial absence or additional accumulations. Swelling, coiling, vacuolization and structural disorganization of mitochondria were also observed. In conclusion, Freezing-thawing procedure has a detrimental effect on motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria of goat spermatozoa. Transmission electron microscopy provides an intuitive observation to investigate deformity spermatozoa.

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential.

  20. Ultrastructural Characteristics of Three Undifferentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Lines and Their differentiated Three-Dimensional Derivatives: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential. PMID:24606239

  1. Ultrastructural Characterization of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: A Distinct Entity from Acinic Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Guilmette, Julie; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Faquin, William C; Selig, Martin; Nosé, Vânia; Chi, Anthony W S; Sadow, Peter M

    2017-02-13

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands is a recently described neoplasm of the salivary glands with a characteristic morphology complemented by a specific cytogenetic translocation and gene rearrangements. Although immunophenotypic and cytogenetic differences allow for a more reliable distinction, ultrastructural features can also provide important information about the relationship between MASC, classic acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), and AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant. Following approval from the hospital's institutional review board, 7 cases of MASC, 8 cases of classic AciCC, and 4 cases of AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant were retrieved from the pathology files of Massachusetts General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Electron microscopy was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Ultrastructural features of all 19 neoplasms of the salivary glands were recorded. The predominant cell-types observed in MASC are those with intercalated/striated duct cell differentiation. These features include prominent invaginations of the cell surface studded with microvilli, and some intra- and intercellular lumina also with a microvillous surface. Classic AciCC dominant cell-type recapitulates acinar cell differentiation. These cells contain large intracytoplasmic zymogen-like granules. AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant showed both cell populations in various proportions with the intercalated/striated duct cell type usually being the dominant one. MASC presents with distinctive ultrastructural features that allows its proper differentiation from classic AciCC. However, significant ultrastructural features overlaps between both AciCC intercalated duct cells-predominant and classic AciCC and MASC. These findings indicate a very close proximity between these tumors.

  2. Metabolic and hormonal signatures in pre-manifest and manifest Huntington's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Ross, Christopher A; Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Siddiqui, Sana; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder typified by involuntary body movements, and psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities. Many HD patients also exhibit metabolic changes including progressive weight loss and appetite dysfunction. Here we have investigated metabolic function in pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects to establish an HD subject metabolic hormonal plasma signature. Individuals at risk for HD who have had predictive genetic testing showing the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) expansion causative of HD, but who do not yet present signs and symptoms sufficient for the diagnosis of manifest HD are said to be "pre-manifest." Pre-manifest and manifest HD patients, as well as both familial and non-familial controls, were evaluated for multiple peripheral metabolism signals including circulating levels of hormones, growth factors, lipids, and cytokines. Both pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects exhibited significantly reduced levels of circulating growth factors, including growth hormone and prolactin. HD-related changes in the levels of metabolic hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon, and amylin were also observed. Total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were significantly decreased in HD subjects. C-reactive protein was significantly elevated in pre-manifest HD subjects. The observation of metabolic alterations, even in subjects considered to be in the pre-manifest stage of HD, suggests that in addition, and prior, to overt neuronal damage, HD affects metabolic hormone secretion and energy regulation, which may shed light on pathogenesis, and provide opportunities for biomarker development.

  3. Manifestations of pediatric appendicopathia oxyurica.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mary M; Sanders, Jennifer E; Stallworth, Christina R; Russell, Scott; Titus, Olivia; Hill, Jeanne G; Cina, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a parasite that inhabits the human digestive tract. We present two pediatric patients with symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis who were found to have E. vermicularis infection. The first case is a 5-year-old female who presented with flank and abdominal pain associated with low-grade fever and anorexia. She had localized tenderness in the right lower quadrant and a leukocytosis with left shift. Intraoperative findings included a normal-appearing appendix, but ex vivo examination revealed Enterobius vermicularis. The second case is a 7-year-old female who presented with periumbilical abdominal pain, anorexia, and emesis. She had tenderness at McBurney's point, and ultrasound revealed a small echogenic focus within the appendix. Intraoperatively, the distal tip of the appendix appeared inflamed. Again, ex vivo examination revealed E. vermicularis. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the appendix can present with a clinical picture similar to acute appendicitis. In at-risk populations, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for children with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Complete therapy requires treatment with mebendazole.

  4. [The local manifestations of diphtheria].

    PubMed

    Kapustian, V A; Boldyrev, V V; Maleev, V V; Mikhaĭlova, E I; Sedak, E F

    1994-01-01

    The development of diphtheria is characterized by a pronounced local process, but the description of local changes in the disease are based only on postmortem findings. 67 patients with different forms of diphtheria were examined. In 11 cases of descending croup bronchoscopic examination was carried out. As revealed in this study, at the primary stage of the disease films cover the whole of the air duct system, and the process is identical to that on tonsils. In the course of convalescence and under the action of specific antiserum films on the tonsils, the soft palate and the vocal cords disappeared, and films in the larynx, the trachea and bronchi could be easily separated from the mucous membrane, but always with the formation of erosions and even perforations in it. The character of the process was indicative of the absence of any specific action of diphtheria toxin on the mucous membrane at the site of the inoculation of the infective agent. No correlation between the severity of the course of diphtheria, the degree of edema and the frequency of the development of complications was noted.

  5. Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Infection: Navigating CHASM

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Amy C.; Sherman, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This article describes the importance of extra-hepatic systemic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recent findings While most HCV literature focuses on liver injury and fibrosis progression, a spectrum of systemic disease processes, collectively called CHASM (C Hepatitis Associated Systemic Manifestations) are present in a high proportion of infected persons. These include thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves disease, thyroid cancer), cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease), renal disease (MPGN, glomerulosclerosis), eye disease (Mooren’s ulcers, sicca syndrome), skin disease (PCT, vasculitis, lichen planus), and lymphomas (NHL, splenic T-cell), and diabetes. Summary Mechanistic understanding of how HCV leads to CHASM processes could lead to development of new interventions. The role of early HCV treatment and cure may result in preventive strategies for a variety of complex disease states. PMID:26208812

  6. Non-stroke Central Neurologic Manifestations in Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yelnik, Cécile M; Kozora, Elizabeth; Appenzeller, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Thrombotic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are well known, and various non-stroke neuro-psychiatric manifestations (NPMs) have also been consistently described, but their place in APS remains unclear. Some syndromes, such as migraine or cognitive dysfunction, are frequently described in APS, whereas others, like seizure, multiple sclerosis-like symptoms, transverse myelitis, movement disorders, or psychiatric symptoms, are rarely found. Overlap with other autoimmune diseases, in particular with systemic lupus erythematosus, the lack of large sample size prospective studies, and discrepancies in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) determinations complicate the study of the relationship between those disorders and aPL/APS. This review article aimed to summarize updated data on pathophysiologic, epidemiologic, and radiologic findings about non-stroke NPM described in primary APS and aPL-positive patients without overlap of other autoimmune diseases.

  7. Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Hassanpour, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, not only affect the intestinal tract but also have an extraintestinal involvement within the oral cavity. These oral manifestations may assist in the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease activity, whilst ignoring them may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and useless and expensive workups. Indurated tag-like lesions, cobblestoning, and mucogingivitis are the most common specific oral findings encountered in CD cases. Aphthous stomatitis and pyostomatitis vegetans are among non-specific oral manifestations of IBD. In differential diagnosis, side effects of drugs, infections, nutritional deficiencies, and other inflammatory conditions should also be considered. Treatment usually involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In severe cases with local symptoms, topical and/or systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs might be used. PMID:24379574

  8. Freeze-induced membrane ultrastructural alterations in rye (Secale cereale) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.S.; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Freezing injury in protoplasts isolated from leaves of nonacclimated rye (Secale cereale cv Puma) is associated with the formation of the inverted hexagonal (H[sub II]) phase. However, in protoplasts from cold-acclimated rye, injury is associated with the occurrence of localized deviations in the fracture plane, a lesion referred to as the [open quotes]fracture-jump lesion.[close quotes] To establish that these ultrastructural consequences of freezing are not unique to protoplasts, the authors have examined the manifestations of freezing injury in leaves of nonacclimated and cold-acclimated rye by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. At [minus]10[degrees]C, injury in nonacclimated leaves was manifested by the appearance of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and by the frequent occurrence of the H[sub II] phase. The H[sub II] phase was not observed in leaves of cold-acclimated rye frozen to [minus]35[degrees]C. Rather, injury was associated with the occurrence of the fracture-jump lesion between the plasma membrane and closely appressed cytoplasmic membranes. Studies of the time dependence of H[sub II] phase formation in nonacclimated leaves indicated that freeze-induced dehydration requires longer times in leaves than in isolated protoplasts. These results demonstrate that the freeze-induced formation of the H[sub II] phase in nonacclimated rye and the fracture-jump lesion in cold-acclimated rye are not unique to protoplasts but also occur in the leaves from which the protoplasts are isolated. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D J; O'Donoghue, P J

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an incidental finding rather than a true infection. Images PMID:8432833

  10. Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172

  11. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transported under Customs red in-bond seals and is accompanied by a transportation in-bond manifest, a.... (c) Manifest forms to be used. The in-transit manifest forms to be used are: (1) For trucks,...

  12. Nocturnal manifestations of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Colosimo, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although nocturnal disturbances are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the continuum of daytime manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still little evidence in the medical literature to support the occurrence of these complex phenomena in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). Based on the anatomical substrates in APDs, which are considered to be more extensive outside the basal ganglia than in PD, we might expect that patients with APDs encounter the whole range of nocturnal disturbances, including motor, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and neuropsychiatric manifestations at a similar, or even greater, frequency than in PD. This article is a review of the current literature on the problems at nighttime of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. MEDLINE, life science journals and online books were searched by querying appropriate key words. Reports were included if the studies were related to nocturnal manifestations in APDs. Forty articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Differences between these symptoms in APDs and PD are highlighted, given the evidence available about each manifestation. This analysis of nocturnal manifestations of APDs suggests the need for future studies to address these issues to improve the quality of life not only of patients with APDs but the caregivers who encounter the challenges of supporting these patients on a daily basis.

  13. Pulmonary drug toxicity: radiologic and pathologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S E; Erasmus, J J; McAdams, H P; Sporn, T A; Goodman, P C

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary drug toxicity is increasingly being diagnosed as a cause of acute and chronic lung disease. Numerous agents including cytotoxic and noncytotoxic drugs have the potential to cause pulmonary toxicity. The clinical and radiologic manifestations of these drugs generally reflect the underlying histopathologic processes and include diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), eosinophilic pneumonia, obliterative bronchiolitis, pulmonary hemorrhage, edema, hypertension, or veno-occlusive disease. DAD is a common manifestation of pulmonary drug toxicity and is frequently caused by cytotoxic drugs, especially cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, and carmustine. It manifests radiographically as bilateral hetero- or homogeneous opacities usually in the mid and lower lungs and on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans as scattered or diffuse areas of ground-glass opacity. NSIP occurs most commonly as a manifestation of carmustine toxicity or of toxicity from noncytotoxic drugs such as amidarone. At radiography, it appears as diffuse areas of heterogeneous opacity, whereas early CT scans show diffuse ground-glass opacity and late CT scans show fibrosis in a basal distribution. BOOP, which is commonly caused by bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (as well as gold salts and methotrexate), appears on radiographs as hetero- and homogeneous peripheral opacities in both upper and lower lobes and on CT scans as poorly defined nodular consolidation, centrilobular nodules, and bronchial dilatation. Knowledge of these manifestations and of the drugs most frequently involved can facilitate diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment.

  14. Effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on mammalian myocardial ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, T A; Fischer, V W

    1995-01-01

    Previous observations have indicated lamellated ultrastructural lesions in the myocardium of a patient treated with methylphenidate (Ritalin) hydrochloride (MPH). A causal relationship between MPH exposure and these membranous changes was tested in the myocardium of rats and mice. Following injection of varying doses of MPH for different periods, myocardial ultrastructure was examined and lesions were quantified by stereological techniques. Myocardial tissue also was stained using techniques selective for acid phosphatase and for sarcoplasmic reticulum to identify possible pathogenetic mechanisms. MPH induced membrane accumulations and lamellations which were not membrane-bound and did not react for acid phosphatase, but stained positively for sarcoplasmic reticulum. Both lesions were highly focal, surrounded by normal appearing myocardial tissue. Lamellations were evident at the earliest timepoints examined and appeared to occur without lysosomal involvement. Lesions were still apparent 12 weeks after terminating MPH. These data suggest that MPH may have persistent, cumulative effects on the myocardium.

  15. [Ultrastructural features of femoral artery myocytes during experimental leg lengthening].

    PubMed

    Ir'ianov, Iu M; Migalkin, N S; Kniazeva, L M

    1984-11-01

    Femoral arteries in mature dogs have been studied electron microscopically at various stages of the shin lengthening performed after G. A. Ilizarov method. Certain ultrastructural signs demonstrating biosynthetic and secretory activation of myocytes directed to intensification of elastogenetic processes have been revealed. Immature elastic fibers are forming around myocytes as aggregations of microfibrils, later accumulations of amorphous material appear in them. On the 28th, 42d days of distraction, hyperproduction of intra- and extracellular vesicles is noted, as well as that of intracellular matrix. Cytoplasmic islets of myocytes and intercellular connections increase in number. In the subintimal layer, of the tunica media and at its border with adventitium, longitudinally situating fasciculi of smooth muscle cells are forming. The myocytic ultrastructural peculiarities noted, the new formations of elastic elements depend, at early stages of the experiment, on changes of regional hemodynamics, and at advanced stages - also on the effect of longitudinally acting tension stress.

  16. Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus

    PubMed Central

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2013-01-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

  17. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  18. Ultrastructural lesions induced by neptunium-237: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed

    Pusset, D; Fromm, M; Poncy, J L; Kantelip, B; Galle, P; Chambaudet, A; Baud, M; Boulahdour, H

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we are concerned with the 237 isotope of neptunium (237Np), which is a by-product of uranium in nuclear reactors. To study ultrastructural lesions induced by this element, a group of rats were injected with a solution of 237Np-nitrate once a day for 14 weeks. Lesions observed in liver and kidney are described using electron microscopy. Ultrastructural alterations of cellular membranes and intracellular organelles demonstrated the existence of neptunium toxicity. This toxicity was characterized by various lesions, such as cytoplasmic clarification, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, swollen mitochondria, abnormal condensation of nuclear chromatin, and nuclear fragmentations. This study demonstrated the probable induction of apoptosis by neptunium both in liver and kidneys.

  19. Pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of human paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, L. C.; Fairshter, R. D.; McRae, D. M.; Smith, W. R.; Glauser, F. L.; Wilson, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of a case of human paraquat poisoning is investigated and compared with normal human pulmonary ultrastructure. Alveoli in the paraquat patient are numerically reduced in comparison to the control. They are filled with edematous proteinaceous plasma-like fluid containing erythrocytes, macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblast-like cells, platelets, and fibrin. These alveoli are lined by granular pneumocytes. Interstitial areas in the paraquat patient are greatly expanded and there are no alveolar septums. Interstitial areas contain proteinaceous plasma-like material, collagen, fibrin, platelets, mature fibroblasts, plasma cells, many leukocytes, numerous erythrocytes, and capillaries. Capillary permeability seems to be enhanced in the paraquat patient either by vesicles forming transendothelial channels or pores or by disruption of endothelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 3-7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:213978

  20. Bacillus atrophaeus outer spore coat assembly and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Plomp, Marco; Leighton, Terrance J; Wheeler, Katherine E; Pitesky, Maurice E; Malkin, Alexander J

    2005-11-08

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of approximately 11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of approximately 8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer planar and point defects as well as domain boundaries similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals were identified. For several Bacillus species rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  1. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient. PMID:22888407

  2. Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Silpa-archa, Sukhum; Lee, Joan J; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.

  3. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers of rats after exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akuzawa, M.; Hataya, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers were electron microscopically studied in rats forced to run on the treadmill until all-out. When they were mild and limited to relatively small areas, the reconstruction of filaments ensued within 10 days without infiltration of cells. When they were severe and extensive, phagocytes infiltrated in the lesions and removed degenerative sacroplasmic debris from muscle fibers. A little later, myoblasts appeared and regeneration was accomplished in 30 days in much the same manner as in myogenesis.

  4. Uveitis as an initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Chui-Lien; Chen, Shih-Chou; Chen, Yao-Shen; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a multisystem disease that can involve the human eyes. Using ophthalmic examination records from January 2006 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in our hospital. The study was performed at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. Data included age, gender, ophthalmic examinations, systemic conditions, CD4 cell counts, course, and treatment. Eleven patients were identified as having AIDS with uveitis as their presenting manifestation. All were men, with a mean age of 39.5 ± 11.4 years (range 24-56). The mean CD4(+) T-cell counts were 91.7 ± 50.3 cells/μl (range 27-169). Ocular diagnoses included cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in five patients, ocular syphilis in four patients, and ocular toxoplasmosis in two patients. Uveitis resolved in all patients after medical treatment. However, a retinal detachment developed in two eyes in CMV retinitis and one eye in ocular syphilis. Ocular manifestations are among the most common clinical features in patients with HIV/AIDS who have varying clinical presentations that affect almost all ocular structures. This study demonstrated that ocular findings could be an initial manifestation of an underlying disease. Awareness of ocular lesions in HIV/AIDS is important for early recognition and management.

  5. Epidermal ultrastructure of the southern right whale calf (Eubalaena australis).

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Rowntree, V J

    1996-04-01

    An ultrastructural analysis by transmission and scanning electron microscopy was carried out on normal epidermis of six southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves which stranded over a period of several months at Peninsula Valdes, Argentina. This was undertaken to 1) provide the first normal skin ultrastructural data on this highly endangered species which is known to display skin pathology in some instances, and 2) to elucidate further the integumentary specializations which have developed in diving marine mammals. Southern right whale lipokeratinocytes demonstrated parakeratosis and numerous intracellular lipid bodies, keratin and melanosomes, as reported for other cetacean species, but showed several unique ultrastructural features as well. These included a high prevalence of intranuclear inclusion bodies resembling small fragments of cytoplasmic keratin, and close structural relationship between cytoplasmic lipid droplets and the nucleus. The subcellular morphology supported the concept of possible nuclear import of cytoplasmic keratin and lipid metabolites through enlargements of the nuclear pore complex or other disruptions of the nuclear envelope. The light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy also revealed an irregular contour of the lipokeratinocytes which comprised the thick stratum externum, and surface flaking of the outermost cells which were covered by stubby microvillous-like remnants of intercellular junctions. These results thus suggest that the long-tem aquatic evolution of this cetacean species has resulted in a number of integumentary specializations and that investigation of their submicroscopic cytology may help elucidate the general cell biology of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions.

  6. [Ultrastructure of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shu-Min; Chen, Guang-Hua; Wang, Yi; Wu, De-Pei

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the ultrastructure of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSC). hUCMSC from full-term newborn umbilical cord were isolated and cultured by collagenase digestion, and then subcultured, amplification, and cell morphology was observed by microscopy. The immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential of hUCMSCs at passage 3 were analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the ultrastructure of hUCMSC. The results indicated that appearance of hUCMSC was spindle-shaped and polygonal, and nuclei were observed. hUCMSC expressed immunophenotype CD44, CD73, CD105, did not express CD34, CD45, CD31 and human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR. hUCMSC were capable of adipogenic, osteogenic, and cartilage differentiation; the short and thick microvilli processes were seen at the surface of hUCMSC by scanning electron microscope. Two different cell morphologies of hUCMSC were seen under transmission electron microscope, the one was a quiescent period in which a large and round or oval nucleus only one nucleolus were seen, cytoplasmic organelles were less; the other was in a relatively active period in which one or two nuclei in the same one cell were observed, the organelles were rich, structure was clear, expansion of the mitochondria was visible. It is concluded that the cells successfully isolated and cultured from umbilical cord, which possess biological characteristics of MSC and display two different states of ultrastructure.

  7. Cardiomyocyte ultrastructural damage in β-thalassaemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanyear, Chanita; Butthep, Punnee; Nithipongvanich, Ramaneeya; Sirankapracha, Pornpan; Winichagoon, Pranee; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from the absence or reduction in β-globin chain production. Heart complications related to iron overload are the most serious cause of death in these patients. In this report cardiac pathology of β-thalassaemic mice was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The study was carried out in thalassaemic mice carrying human β-thalassaemia mutation, IVSII-654 (654), transgenic mice carrying human βE-globin transgene insertion (E4), thalassaemic mice with human βE-globin transgene insertion (654/E4) and homozygous thalassaemic mice rescued by the human βE-globin transgene (R), which is generated by cross-breeding between the 654 and E4 mice. Histology showed iron deposition in cardiac myocytes of 654 and R mice, but the ultrastructural damage was observed only in the R mice when compared with the wild type, 654, E4 and 654/E4 mice. Histopathological changes in the cardiomyocytes of the R mice included mitochondrial swelling, loss of myofilaments and the presence of lipofuscin, related to the increased level of tissue iron content. The progressive ultrastructural pathology in R mice cardiomyocytes is consistent with the ultrastructural pathology previously studied in patients with thalassaemia. Thus, this R thalassaemic mouse model is suitable for in vivo pathophysiological study of thalassaemic heart. PMID:24020406

  8. Superimposed segmental manifestation of cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Teresa; Andres, Christian; Hein, Rüdiger; Ring, Johannes; Chen, Wenchieh

    2011-01-01

    Cherry angioma is a common, acquired, vascular proliferation, probably of a polygenic mode of inheritance. Segmental manifestation of multiple cherry angiomas associated with the development of non-segmental lesions has not yet been reported. We describe a 62-year-old Caucasian woman with early formation of segmental cherry angiomas after pregnancy, which are superimposed on non-segmental lesions of later onset after menopause. In this pattern, segmental cherry angiomas could be taken as a further example of superimposed segmental manifestation of a polygenic skin disorder. Molecular research would be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Bodily manifestations in the psychoanalytic process.

    PubMed

    Vartzopoulos, Ioannis; Beratis, Stavroula

    2012-07-01

    The broadening scope of psychoanalysis has brought to the fore patients whose unconscious conflicts tend to be literally played out on the stage of the body. In these cases, the body seems to be predominantly used in a concrete, not symbolic, way in order to express underlying conflicts. In a similar vein, transference and countertransference can be manifested via the body. The authors briefly discuss some of the literature on body-mind issues, and then present an extended case report to illustrate bodily manifestations in the psychoanalytic process.

  10. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576

  11. Ultrastructural changes in human skin after exposure to a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, H.; Tan, O.T.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Selective vascular injury following irradiation using a pulsed laser source at 577 nm was examined using ultrastructural methods in the skin of 3 fair-skinned healthy human volunteers. This vascular-specific damage was confined to the papillary dermis. Red blood cells were altered in several ways. As well as an increase in the electron density, configurational distortion modified the normal biconcave forms to ameboid structures. The most interesting finding was the appearance within these altered cells of well-defined circular/oval electron-lucent areas of 800 A diameter, possibly representing a heat-fixed record of steam formation within the red blood cell. In addition, considerable degenerative changes were evident in endothelial cells and pericytes, while mast cells, neutrophils, histiocytes, and fibroblasts as well as collagen bundles immediately surrounding most laser-damaged blood vessels appeared normal.

  12. The ultrastructure of cerebral blood capillaries in the ratfish, Chimaera monstrosa.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, M

    1982-01-01

    Sharks and skates (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) have a glial blood-brain barrier, while all other vertebrates examined so far have an endothelial barrier. For comparative reasons it is desirable to examine the blood-brain barrier in species from the other subclass of cartilaginous fish, the holocephalans. The ultrastructure of cerebral capillaries in the chimaera (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) is described in the present study. The endothelial cells are remarkably thick. Fenestrae and transendothelial channels were not observed. The endothelial cells are joined by elaborate tight junctions. The perivascular glial processes are separated by wide spaces (15-60 nm) without obliterating junctional complexes. These findings indicate that the chimaera has an endothelial blood-brain barrier.

  13. Subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. Clinical, ultrastructural, biochemical and therapeutic studies in an infant.

    PubMed

    Gröbe, H; Bassewitz, D B; Dominick, H C; Pfeiffer, R A

    1975-09-01

    Subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (SNE) has been observed in an infant with regressing psychomotor development. The concentrations of alanine, pyruvate and lactate were increased in the serum and blood as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate carboxylase activity was reduced in the liver tissue. An inhibitor of thiamine-pyrophosphate-ATP-phosphotransferase was present in the urine. Thiamine treatment was followed by a decrease of serum alanine and blood pyruvate and lactate, but there was no clinical improvement during a period of 17 months. Ultrastructural investigations revealed high glycogen levels in liver tissue and skeletal muscle. These findings contrast with decreased gluconeogenesis, which is suggested by the diminished pyruvate carboxylase activity. Therefore it is concluded that reduced hepatic pyruvate carboxylase activity is not the primary cause of SNE.

  14. Ultrastructural Damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after Low Frequency Sound Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; André, Michel

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii. PMID:24143265

  15. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  16. Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Westermann, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koenigsdoerffer, Ekkehart; Strobel, Juergen; Dawczynski, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna (internal limiting membrane, ILM) and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes. Twenty-five patients (25 eyes) who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green (ICG)- and 13 brilliant blue G (BBG)-stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Comparing ICG- and BBG-stained membranes, larger cellular fragments were observed at a higher frequency in the BBG group. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites.

  17. Gliocyte and Synapse Analyses in Cerebral Ganglia of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir Sinensis: Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, P.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. PMID:27734995

  18. An Unusual Case of Multiple Intraoral Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    M, Sheejith; Joseph, Benny; Sheejith, Bhavya

    2014-01-01

    The various oral manifestations of neurofibromatosis in dentulous patients have been documented in literature. Although most of the previous documents have discussed on common findings like a prominent lingual papillae, or solitary overgrowth of gingival soft tissue, this article focuses on a relatively rare occurrence of multiple nodular manifestations of Neurofibromatosis–1 on an edentulous alveolar ridge, tongue, palate and lips of an elderly female patient. PMID:25654048

  19. Oral manifestations of Schimmelpenning syndrome: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Skovby, F; Andreasen, J O; Cohen, M M; Jensen, B L; Kreiborg, S

    1999-09-01

    Schimmelpenning syndrome (SS) is characterised by specific skin manifestations, skeletal defects, and central nervous system abnormalities. Here, the SS is briefly reviewed, and the oral and dental manifestations are described in a patient whose medical findings were previously published and included severe hypophosphatemic rickets. Significant oral and dental features included papillomatous lesions of the gingiva, hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy) of the tongue, bone cysts, aplasia of teeth, enlarged pulp chambers, hypoplastic or absent enamel, and an odontodysplasia-like permanent tooth.

  20. Neurological manifestations of connective tissue diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pelidou, Sigliti-Henrietta; Giannopoulos, Sotiris; Tzavidi, Sotiria; Tsifetaki, Niki; Kitsos, Georgios; Stefanou, Dimitrios; Kostadima, Vassiliki; Drosos, Alexandros A; Kyritsis, Athanassios P

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze retrospectively the clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of multiple sclerosis (MS), such as the manifestations in a cohort of 132 patients referred to the neurology in and outpatient clinic. The proposed clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria for MS and connective tissue disorders were systematically assessed in 132 consecutive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid serology and brain or spinal cord MRI were studied in all cases. In patients suspected for connective tissue disorder, schirmer test, rose bengal staining and biopsy of minor salivary glands were performed. A total of 115 (87%) patients were diagnosed to have definite MS, while 17 (13%) were diagnosed to have connective tissue disorder. Positive neurological and MRI findings were observed in both groups. The majority of patients with connective tissue disorder demonstrated extra-neurological manifestations like Raynaud's phenomenon, arthritis, livedo reticularis, purpura and presence of multiple autoantibodies in their sera. All patients with MS should be screened systematically for connective tissue disorder. In the absence of pathognomonic clinical and laboratory findings, the diagnosis of MS is a diagnosis of exclusion.

  1. Initial cutaneous manifestations of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rork, Jillian F; Huang, Jennifer T; Gordon, Leslie B; Kleinman, Monica; Kieran, Mark W; Liang, Marilyn G

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, uniformly fatal, premature aging disease with distinct dermatologic features. We sought to identify and describe the initial skin and hair findings as potential diagnostic signs of the disease. We performed a chart review of the structured initial intake histories of 39 individuals with HGPS enrolled in clinical trials from 2007 to 2010 at Boston Children's Hospital, limited to cutaneous history from birth to 24 months. Medical photographs were provided through the clinical trials and the Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database at Brown University Center for Gerontology and Healthcare Research. All 39 patients reported skin and hair abnormalities within the first 24 months of life. Pathologies included sclerodermoid change, prominent superficial veins, dyspigmentation, and alopecia. The mean age of presentation for each finding was <12 months. The most frequently reported skin feature was sclerodermoid change, which commonly involved the abdomen and bilateral lower extremities. Prominent superficial vasculature manifested as circumoral cyanosis and pronounced veins on the scalp and body. Hypo- and hyperpigmentation were observed over areas of sclerodermoid change. Scalp alopecia progressed in a distinct pattern, with preservation of the hair over the midscalp and vertex areas for the longest period of time. HGPS has distinct cutaneous manifestations during the first 2 years of life that may be the first signs of disease. Awareness of these findings could expedite diagnosis.

  2. Myelitis and Lupus: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis and Treatment. Review.

    PubMed

    Chiganer, Edson Hernán; Hryb, Javier Pablo; Carnero Contentti, Edgar

    2016-08-23

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems. Myelopathy is one of 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes related to SLE defined by the American College of Rheumatology. Although infrequent, it is a severe manifestation, leading to motor and sensory deficits, and sphincter dysfunction. The pathogenesis is not clearly known, but may be related to arterial thrombosis and vasculitis. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests and the use of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The standard therapy is the combination of intravenous cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. In refractory disease, other treatments such as plasmapheresis or rituximab have been used.

  3. [A case of glioblastoma manifesting 49 years after lobotomy].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Yamaguchi, T; Arai, T; Nakagawa, S; Tsuchiya, K; Torii, N; Shirai, M

    1998-08-01

    We report a case of glioblastoma manifesting 49 years after a lobotomy. He was diagnosed as having schizophrenia at age 20 and was operated on with a standard lobotomy when he was 27 years old. He had led a useful life after 40 years old without medication. Because of hallucination and delusion, he was hospitalized at the end of 1996. CT showed a well enhanced tumor adjacent to the cavity made by the lobotomy in the left frontal lobe. This is the second case report of glioblastoma just beside the cavity formed by lobotomy. The relationship between glioblastoma and old lobotomy is discussed, especially in regard to morphology and CT findings.

  4. [Cat-scratch disease with bone compromise: atypical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez C, Magdalena; Giachetto L, Gustavo; Cuneo E, Alejandro; Gutiérrez B, María del C; Shimchack R, Mario; Pírez G, M Catalina

    2009-08-01

    Fever, headache, myalgias and lymphadenopathy are characteristic manifestations of cat-scratch disease but other less common findings are described in 2 to 10% of cases. We report two children that presented with hepatosplenic abscesses and bone involvement. One child, had multiple areas of increased uptake in the bone scintigram with a positive serology (IgG > 1/256, IgM slightly positive). The second child had destruction of the L2 vertebral body that compromised the channel and right foramen as visualized by MRI. In both cases, bacilli were observed in the bone biopsy by Warthing-Starry stain.

  5. Changes in root gravitropism, ultrastructure, and calcium balance of pea root statocytes induced by A23187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    product was found in mitochondrial cristae in contrast to control ones. The presence of the precipitate in other Ca 2 +-sequestered organelles was not determined. The data presented suggest that at the ultrastructural level, the effects of the Ca 2 + ionophore manifested in the loss of polarity in statocytes may be functionally related to systems that regulate the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. It is evident that significant increase in Ca 2 + level in A23187-treated statocytes may cause a disbalance in the gravisensor system and/or calcium signaling and therefore to abolish gravitropism of pea roots.

  6. 21 CFR 11.50 - Signature manifestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.50 Signature manifestations. (a) Signed electronic... the same controls as for electronic records and shall be included as part of any human readable...

  7. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 761.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may use...) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  8. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  9. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complete manifest. 122.75 Section 122.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  10. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  11. Hepatic angiosarcoma manifested as recurrent hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Song, Chun-Young; Gi, Young-Hwa; Kang, Sang-Beom; Kim, Yon-Soo; Nam, Soon-Woo; Lee, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jong-Ok

    2008-05-14

    Angiosarcoma is a rare tumor that account for less than 1% of all sarcomas. Although hepatic angiosarcoma usually presents with unspecific symptoms, it rapidly progresses and has a high mortality. We report a rare case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma manifested as recurrent hemoperitoneum.

  12. Neoliberalism, Curriculum Development and Manifestations of "Creativity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Juha T.; Uusikylä, Kari; Järvinen, Esa-Matti

    2015-01-01

    There is a manifest tendency for national education policy to follow global economic trends. In many Western industrialized countries, this relationship has intensified or strengthened within the last decades. The strengthening of this relationship has been seen, among other things, as evidence of the growing power of neoliberal ideology. The…

  13. Candidal endophthalmitis: a manifestation of systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B. C.; Kaye, S. B.; Morgan, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    Two patients on total parenteral nutrition who developed endophthalmitis secondary to Candida albicans are described. Candidal endophthalmitis as a manifestation of systemic candidiasis is discussed and its early diagnosis by bedside fundal examination in patients at risk is stressed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3116523

  14. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  15. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana Sofía; Martínez-Reyes, Cynthia; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús Kazúo

    2009-11-28

    This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy.

  16. [Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative spondylarthritis].

    PubMed

    Cammelli, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Seronegative spondylarthritis are frequently characterised by extra-articular manifestations. They are frequently in recurrent uveitis. Between the cutaneous manifestations should be mentioned erythema nodosum, typical of inflammatory bowel diseases, and keratoderma blenorrhagicum, in the Reiter's syndrome. Cardiac complications in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) include aortic valvular regurgitation and arrhythmia and, more rarely, mitral valvulopathy, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. Pulmonary involvement in AS includes ventilatory restrictive syndrome and fibro-bullous disease of the apex. Vertebral osteoporosis is a very important extra-articular manifestation because of the possibility of spontaneous fractures of the vertebrae. Central neurological manifestations include medullary compression from cervical sub-luxation while the most important peripheral involvements are lumbar stenosis and the cauda equina syndrome. Type AA amyloidosis is a rare late complication of the AS, possible cause of death especially in patients with aggressive disease. Kidney complications can be observed as consequences of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy, but the most frequent renal complications are amyloidosis and mesangial IgA segmental and focal glomerulonephritis.

  17. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  18. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  19. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  20. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  1. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of the... § 262.40(a). (b) The generator must give the transporter the remaining copies of the manifest. (c)...

  2. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of the... § 262.40(a). (b) The generator must give the transporter the remaining copies of the manifest. (c)...

  3. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of the... § 262.40(a). (b) The generator must give the transporter the remaining copies of the manifest. (c)...

  4. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of the... § 262.40(a). (b) The generator must give the transporter the remaining copies of the manifest. (c)...

  5. 40 CFR 262.24 - Use of the electronic manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.24 Use of the electronic... requirement in these regulations for a generator to keep or retain a copy of each manifest is satisfied by retention of a signed electronic manifest in the generator's account on the national e-Manifest...

  6. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of the... § 262.40(a). (b) The generator must give the transporter the remaining copies of the manifest. (c)...

  7. Two ultrastructural distribution patterns of immunoglobulin G in human placenta and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Korteweg, Christine; Qiu, Yamei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Zhengshan; Huang, Guowei; Li, Weiqiu; Gu, Jiang

    2014-11-01

    The placenta is known to protect the fetus from infection and maternal rejection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that placental trophoblasts can synthesize immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this study, we investigated the distribution of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), IgG receptors (FcRn and FcgammaRIII), and complement proteins in placental trophoblasts at the ultrastructural level. In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of IgG1 heavy chain (IGHG1), recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1), RAG2, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with nested RT-PCR in primary cultured trophoblasts. The mRNA transcripts of IGHG1, RAG1, RAG2, and AID were all identified in primary trophoblasts, further establishing the IgG-producing capacity of trophoblasts. At the ultrastructural level with colloidal gold-labeled antibodies, IgG was found to be distributed in two distinct locations in syncytiotrophoblasts. For one, it was colocalized with FcRn in endosome displaying low electron density, and for the other it was colocalized with complement C1q in medium-electron density irregular structures that have not been reported previously. This characteristic distribution suggests that IgG is likely processed through two molecular mechanisms in syncytiotrophoblasts: receptor-bound transportation across the syncytiotrophoblast and formation of immune complexes with locally produced IgG. The latter mechanism is probably aimed at neutralizing detrimental maternal anti-paternal major histocompatibility complex antibodies. Our findings support the hypothesis that placenta-produced IgG can selectively react with maternal anti-fetus antibodies and provide a mechanism of fetomaternal tolerance to protect the fetus from maternal immune rejection.

  8. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  9. The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated muscle in the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor.

    PubMed

    Castel, M; Papir, D

    1975-06-13

    The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated fibers of the closer muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor, was studiedmthe muscle is composed of presumably phasic (short sarcomeres) and tonic (long sarcomeres) fibers, the latter greatly predominating. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as an extracellular tracer to delineate the tubular system (TS), and to determine to what extent this system becomes detached from the extracellular space as a result of glycerol treatment. Sarcolemmal clefts invade deeply into the muscle at Z-lines and I-bands; tubules invaginate into the muscle from the clefts and from the surface sarcolemma at the Z-lines, A-I overlaps and A-bands. A tubules are in frequent diadic or tetradic contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), whereas Z tubules appear to be randomly associated with SR, terminal cisterns (TC) and Z-line fibrils. When HRP was administered to normal muscle, black reaction product was found adjacent to the outer surface of the sarcolemma, within the clefts and within profiles of the TS throughout the tissue. In glycerol treated muscle peripheral vacuolation frequently occurred; black reaction product penetrated only as far as the vacuoles and into dilated Z-line tubules, but was virtually absent from the rest of the TS. This lack of continuity between the extracellular space and the A tubules indicated disruption or constriction of the A tubules as a result of glycerol treatment, although Z tubule contact with the extracellular space appeared unimpaired. These findings provide ultrastructural correlates of the electrophysiological changes produced by glycerol treatment of the closer muscle of the ghost crab (Papir, 1973), namely, interference with excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling. The random association of the Z tubules with SR and TC, and their resistance to disruption by glycerol treatment, tend to endorse the claims that the Z tubules in crustacean muscle are not directly involved in e-c coupling (Brandt et

  10. Morphology and ultrastructure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shao, Jian; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinming; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa cell morphology and ultrastructure through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome, a short mid-piece, and a long, cylindrical flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 36.11±2.84μm, with a spherical head length of 2.78±0.31μm. The mean anterior and posterior head widths were 2.20±0.42μm and 2.55±0.53μm, respectively. The nuclear fossa was positioned at the base of the nucleus that contained the anterior portion of flagellum and a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centrioles). The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and possessed just one spherical mitochondrion with a mean diameter of 0.65±0.14μm. The spermatozoa flagellum was long and cylindrical, and could be separated into two parts: a long main-piece and a short end-piece. The main piece of the flagellum had short irregular side-fins. The axoneme composed the typical '9+2' microtubular doublet structure and was enclosed by the cell membran e. This study confirmed that B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa can be categorized as teleostean "Type I" spermatozoa; 'primitive' or 'ect-aquasperm type' spermatozoa. To the best of the authers knowledge, this was the first study conducted on the morphology and ultrastructure of B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa.

  11. Ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni juvenile and adult male worms after in vitro incubation with primaquine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Reem Osama A; Bayaumy, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS Ultrastructural alterations in the tegumental surface of 21-day-old juvenile and adult male worms of S. mansoni were demonstrated following primaquine treatment at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/mL) and incubation periods (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h) in vitro, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS At low concentrations (2, 5, and 10 µg/mL) both juvenile and adult male worms were alive after 24 h of incubation, whereas contraction, paralysis, and death of all worms were observed after 24 h of drug exposure at 20 µg/mL. The tegument of juvenile and adult male worms treated with primaquine exhibited erosion, peeling, and sloughing. Furthermore, extensive damage of both tegumental and subtegumental layers included embedded spines, and shrinkage of muscles with vacuoles. The in vitro results confirmed that primaquine has dose-dependent effects with 20 µg/mL as the most effective concentration in a short incubation period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The schistosomicidal activity of primaquine indicates that this drug possesses moderate in vitro activity against juvenile and adult male worms, since it caused high mortality and tegumental alterations. This study confirmed that the antimalarial drug primaquine possesses anti-schistosomal activity. Further investigation is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:28327785

  12. How to Participate: Testing the e-Manifest System (e-Manifest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page explains options for stakeholders like TSDFs and generators who wish to contribute to the discussion about the development of e-manifest. Directions are provided here to help the stakeholders test and provide feedback on the system.

  13. PATTERN OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Abhishek; Raina, Sujeet; Kaushal, Satinder S; Mahajan, Vikram; Sharma, Nand Lal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: Xerosis (44%), diabetic dermopathy (36%), skin tags (32%), cutaneous infections (31%), and seborrheic keratosis (30%). Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year. PMID:20418975

  14. [Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: physiopathology, clinical manifestations and genetics].

    PubMed

    Preiss, Yudith; Santos, José L; Smalley, Susan V; Maiz, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by genetic deficiency of the 27-hydroxylase enzyme (encoded by CYP27A1). It plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism, especially in bile acid synthesis and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the liver. Its deficiency causes reduced bile acid synthesis and tissue accumulation of cholestanol. Clinical manifestations are related to the presence of cholestanol deposits and include tendon xanthomas, premature cataracts, chronic diarrhea, progressive neurologic impairment and less frequently coronary heart disease, early onset osteoporosis and abnormalities in the optic disk and retina. An early diagnosis and treatment with quenodeoxycholic acid may prevent further complications, mainly neurological manifestations. This review summarizes cholesterol metabolism related to bile acid synthesis, physiopathology, biochemistry and treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

  15. Acute dacryocystitis: another clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Lima, Iluska Augusta Rocha; Curi, Carolina Lemos; Jordão, Livia; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Curi, Andre Luiz Land

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with exposure to domestic cats is hyperendemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A review of the clinical records at our institute revealed four patients with clinical signs of dacryocystitis and a positive conjunctival culture for Sporothrix who were diagnosed with Sporothrix dacryocystitis. Three patients were children (< 13 years of age) and one patient was an adult. Two patients reported contact with a cat that had sporotrichosis. Dacryocystitis was associated with nodular, ulcerated lesions on the face of one patient and with granulomatous conjunctivitis in two patients; however, this condition manifested as an isolated disease in another patient. All of the patients were cured of the fungal infections, but three patients had chronic dacryocystitis and one patient developed a cutaneous fistula. Sporotrichosis is usually a benign disease, but may cause severe complications when the eye and the adnexa are affected. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists in endemic areas, should be aware of the ophthalmological manifestations and complications of sporotrichosis.

  16. Cutaneous manifestations of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, N; Velho, G; Horta, M; Martins, A; Massa, A

    2005-09-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis, characterized by the systemic deposition of amyloid with a particular involvement of the peripheral nerves. The disease generally manifests as a severe sensory, motor and autonomic neuropathy. Cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities and carpal tunnel syndrome may occur in a variable association with the neuropathy. Trophic dermatological lesions are frequent in the more advanced stages of the disease. We examined the skin of 142 patients. The cutaneous manifestations more frequently observed were: xerosis (81.6%), seborrheic dermatitis (21.8%), traumatic and burn lesions (19.7%), acne (18.3%), neurotrophic ulcers (14%) and onychomycosis (10.5%). Among the hepatic transplanted patients (31%), seborrheic dermatitis and acne were the most frequent diagnoses.

  17. Pulmonary manifestations of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A; Ahmed, S

    2003-01-01

    Pulmonary complications account for significant morbidity and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease. Clinical lung involvement manifests in two major forms: the acute chest syndrome and sickle cell chronic lung disease. Acute chest syndrome is characterised by fever, chest pain, and appearance of a new infiltrate on chest radiograph. Sickle cell chronic lung disease, on the other hand, manifests as radiographic interstitial abnormalities, impaired pulmonary function, and, in its most severe form, by the evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology and management of these complications. In this review the current knowledge of the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease are discussed. PMID:12897216

  18. Oral manifestations of HIV positive children.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, M G; Bueno, D F; Serra, E; Gonçalves, R

    2001-01-01

    Oral manifestations in HIV positive children were observed in thirty-eight HIV infected children that have received care at the Special Care Dentistry Center (SCDC) of the School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo. Results have shown that 52.63% of the children presented at least one oral manifestation related with HIV/AIDS. Angular cheilitis occurred in 28.94%, parotid gland bilateral enlargement, pseudomembranous candidiasis and erythematous candidiasis in 18.42%, conventional gingivitis in 13.15%, herpes simplex in 5.26%, hairy leukoplakia, recurrent aphthous ulcer and condyloma acuminatum in 2.63%. Although enamel hypoplasia occurred in 23.68%, this could not be attributed specifically to HIV infection.

  19. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  20. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, M.; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks and harms the body's own tissues. The systemic autoimmune diseases include collagen vascular diseases, the systemic vasculitides, Wegener granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. These disorders can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and pancreas. They can cause a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations that are influenced by the pathophysiologic characteristics of the underlying disease process. There is a wide variation of gastrointestinal manifestations from these autoimmune disorders including, but not limited to: oral ulcers, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, pseudo-obstruction, perforation and gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical workup should be initiated by the patient's subjective complaints. In this review, we analyze the effects of autoimmune diseases on the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21977190

  1. Acute dacryocystitis: another clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Lima, Iluska Augusta Rocha; Curi, Carolina Lemos; Jordão, Livia; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Curi, Andre Luiz Land

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with exposure to domestic cats is hyperendemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A review of the clinical records at our institute revealed four patients with clinical signs of dacryocystitis and a positive conjunctival culture for Sporothrix who were diagnosed with Sporothrix dacryocystitis. Three patients were children (< 13 years of age) and one patient was an adult. Two patients reported contact with a cat that had sporotrichosis. Dacryocystitis was associated with nodular, ulcerated lesions on the face of one patient and with granulomatous conjunctivitis in two patients; however, this condition manifested as an isolated disease in another patient. All of the patients were cured of the fungal infections, but three patients had chronic dacryocystitis and one patient developed a cutaneous fistula. Sporotrichosis is usually a benign disease, but may cause severe complications when the eye and the adnexa are affected. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists in endemic areas, should be aware of the ophthalmological manifestations and complications of sporotrichosis. PMID:24810176

  2. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  3. Oral manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Létourneau, Y; Pérusse, R; Buithieu, H

    2001-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare hereditary disease of the connective tissue which can present oral manifestations. A brief history of the disease is presented along with the epidemiology and characteristics of the 8 main phenotypes of the syndrome. The article also describes the case of a 12-year-old patient presenting with hypermobility of the temporo-mandibular joint and capillary fragility, and highlights the precautions to take when treating patients with this syndrome.

  4. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  5. MR enterographic manifestations of small bowel Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Damian J M; Greenhalgh, Rebecca; Zealley, Ian A; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A

    2010-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is a clinically useful technique for the evaluation of both intraluminal and extraluminal small bowel disease, particularly in younger patients with Crohn disease. MR enterography offers the advantages of multiplanar capability and lack of ionizing radiation. It allows evaluation of bowel wall contrast enhancement, wall thickening, and edema, findings useful for the assessment of Crohn disease activity. MR enterography can also depict other pathologic findings such as lymphadenopathy, fistula and sinus formation, abscesses, and abnormal fold patterns. Even subtle disease manifestations may be detected when adequate distention of the small bowel is achieved, although endoscopic and double-contrast barium small bowel techniques remain superior in the depiction of changes in early Crohn disease (eg, aphthoid ulceration). Further research will be needed to determine whether MR imaging enhancement patterns may reliably help discriminate between active and inactive disease.

  6. Effects of manifest ethnic identification on employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Barron, Laura G; Hebl, Michelle; King, Eden B

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from recent laboratory experiments suggests that ethnic identification can lead to negative evaluations of ethnic minorities (Kaiser & Pratt-Hyatt, 2009). The current research considers the generalizability of these findings to face-to-face interactions in contexts wherein impression management concerns are salient: the workplace hiring process. In a field experiment, Black, Hispanic, and Irish individuals applied for retail jobs with or without visible display of their ethnic identification. Analysis of indicators of formal (e.g., application offering, interview scheduling) and interpersonal discrimination (e.g., interaction length, nonverbal negativity) suggest store personnel interacting with other-race applicants exhibited greater positivity and longer interactions when applicants displayed ethnic identification than when they did not. The findings suggest that psychologists need to understand not only attitudes or intentions expressed in the lab, but also the behavioral consequences of manifest group identity as they unfold in natural environments.

  7. Ultrastructural study of the nucleus Cuneiformis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gioia, M; Bianchi, R

    1987-01-01

    The Cuneiformis nucleus (Cu.n.) is a reticular nucleus of the mesencephalic tegmentum which is involved in several functions and particularly in locomotor activities. While the physiological properties and the nervous connections of the nucleus have been studied, there is no data about its ultrastructure. Therefore, we investigated this region in cat at the electron microscope and with morphoquantitative methods to clarify its ultrastructural organization and particularly the characteristics of its synaptic complex. The neurons are small and medium in size, with a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and a modest rough endoplasmic reticulum organization. The neuropil is very extensive. Myelinated axons are very numerous. Dendritic profiles whose plasmalemma is almost completely covered by synaptic boutons are observed frequently. There are few somatic synapses; 81% have symmetrical junctions and 23% have round vesicles only. There are numerous synapses in the neuropil, 40% having asymmetrical junctions and 60% containing round vesicles only. The greater functional complexity indicated by the morphological data and the greater extension of the neuropil synapses with respect to that of the somatic ones, suggest that the neuropil is the main site of modulation and integration of the inputs to the nucleus. A highly significant statistical difference between the sizes of the somatic vesicles and those of the neuropil was found. This may point to the presence of distinct populations of vesicles, which may be correlated with the variety of substances (neurotransmitters, neuropeptides etc ...) found in the nucleus. The remarkable ultrastructural similarity between the Cu.n. and the periaqueductal gray matter is discussed.

  8. Endocrine manifestations of systemic mastocytosis in bone.

    PubMed

    Greene, Loren Wissner; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Corradi, Patricia Freitas; Akin, Cem

    2016-09-01

    Systemic Mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by accumulation of clonal, neoplastic proliferations of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more organ system other than skin. Presence of these multifocal clusters of abnormal mast cells is an essential feature of SM. Frequently associated with D816V (KIT) mutation, the presence of this mutation and elevated serum tryptase are minor criteria for diagnosis. SM manifestations depend on the degree of mast cell proliferation, activation and degranulation. SM has a variable prognosis and presentation, from indolent to "smoldering" to life-threatening disease. Bone manifestations of SM include: osteopenia with or without lytic lesions, osteoporosis with or without atraumatic fracture, osteosclerosis with increased bone density, and isolated lytic lesions. Male sex, older age, higher bone resorption markers, lower DKK1 level, lower BMD, absence of urticaria pigmentosa, and alcohol intake are all associated with increased risk of fracture. Treatment of SM is generally palliative. Most therapy is symptom-directed; and, infrequently, chemotherapy for refractory symptoms is indicated. Anti-histamines may alleviate direct bone effects of histamine. Bisphosphonates, including alendronate, clodronate, pamidronate and zoledronic acid are recommended as a first line treatment of SM and osteoporosis. Interferon α may act synergistically with bisphosphonates. As elevation of RANKL and OPG is reported in SM, denosumab could be an effective therapy for bone manifestations of SM.

  9. Orthopaedic manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Feldman, David S; Jordan, Charles; Fonseca, Lauren

    2010-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disease that affects 1 in 3,000 persons worldwide. Café-au-lait macules and peripheral nerve sheath tumors (ie, neurofibromas) are the most commonly recognized manifestations of NF-1. However, NF-1 affects multiple organ systems, and a multidisciplinary approach to treatment is required. Management of the orthopaedic manifestations of NF-1 is often difficult. The most complex manifestations are scoliosis (dystrophic and nondystrophic), congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, and problems related to soft-tissue tumors. Metabolic bone disease is common; many patients are frankly osteopenic, which further complicates treatment. Dystrophic scoliosis, which may be caused by either bony dysplasia or intraspinal pathology, is characterized by early presentation and rapid progression. Pseudarthrosis is common even after instrumented fusion. Nondystrophic scoliosis tends to behave like adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, although it may present earlier and is associated with a higher rate of pseudarthrosis. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia is a long-bone dysplasia that afflicts patients with NF-1. Management of this osseous deformity is challenging. Failure to achieve union and refracture are common.

  10. Skin Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Brian L.; Chandra, Stephanie; Shih, David Quan

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease that affects the intestinal tract via an inflammatory process. Patients who suffer from IBD often have diseases that affect multiple other organ systems as well. These are called extraintestinal manifestations and can be just as, if not more debilitating than the intestinal inflammation itself. The skin is one of the most commonly affected organ systems in patients who suffer from IBD. The scientific literature suggests that a disturbance of the equilibrium between host defense and tolerance, and the subsequent over-activity of certain immune pathways are responsible for the cutaneous disorders seen so frequently in IBD patients. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of the types of skin diseases that are typically seen with IBD and their respective pathogenesis, proposed mechanisms, and treatments. These cutaneous disorders can manifest as metastatic lesions, reactive processes to the intestinal inflammation, complications of IBD itself, or side effects from IBD treatments; these can be associated with IBD via genetic linkage, common autoimmune processes, or other mechanisms that will be discussed in this article. Ultimately, it is important for healthcare providers to understand that skin manifestations should always be checked and evaluated for in patients with IBD. Furthermore, skin disorders can predate gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may serve as important clinical indicators leading physicians to earlier diagnosis of IBD. PMID:22347192

  11. Hematological manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    At onset mitochondrial disorders (MID) frequently manifest as a mono-organic problem but turn into multisystem disease during the disease course in most of the cases. Organs/tissues most frequently affected in MID are the cerebrum, peripheral nerves, and the skeletal muscle. Additionally, most of the inner organs may be affected alone or in combination. Hematological manifestations of MID include aplastic, megaloblastic, or sideroblastic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or pancytopenia. In single cases either permanent or recurrent eosinophilia has been observed. Hematological abnormalities may occur together with syndromic or nonsyndromic MIDs. Syndromic MIDs, in which hematological manifestations predominate, are the Pearson syndrome (pancytopenia), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (anemia), Barth syndrome (neutropenia), and the autosomal recessive mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia syndrome. In single cases with Leigh's syndrome, MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber) syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and Friedreich's ataxia anemia has been described. Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, or pancytopenia can frequently also be found in nonsyndromic MIDs with or without involvement of other tissues. Therapy of blood cell involvement in MID comprises application of antioxidants, vitamins, iron, bone marrow-stimulating factors, or substitution of cells.

  12. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia.

  13. Phenotypic and dermatological manifestations in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sureshbabu, Rengasamy; Kumari, Rashmi; Ranugha, Subramaniam; Sathyamoorthy, Ramanathan; Udayashankar, Carounanidy; Oudeacoumar, Paquirissamy

    2011-02-15

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with various uncommon dermatological disorders and increased frequency of some common dermatoses. This study was conducted over a 2-year period to evaluate the frequency of phenotypic and dermatologic manifestations in patients with Down syndrome in south India. The most common phenotypic manifestations that characterize DS include the epicanthic fold (93.7%), brachicephaly (90.6%), flat nasal bridge (84.2%), upward angle of eyes (83.2%), wide gap between first and second toe (81.1%), clinodactyly (77.9%), small nose (74.7%), short broad neck (72.6%), single palmar crease (61.1%), increased nuchal skin fold (61.1%), and fissured tongue (52.6%). The most common dermatological manifestation seen in patients with DS were lichenification, xerosis, dental anomaly, fine, sparse hair, and delayed dentition. Alopecia areata was seen in 9.4 percent of patients and tended to be severe. Infections were relatively less common in our study. Our study has highlighted many phenotypic features and dermatoses, which may help provide better care for patients and counseling to the families.

  14. Ophthalmic manifestations in IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebbo, Mikael; Patient, Matthieu; Grados, Aurelie; Groh, Matthieu; Desblaches, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Saadoun, David; Audia, Sylvain; Rigolet, Aude; Terrier, Benjamin; Perlat, Antoinette; Guillaud, Constance; Renou, Frederic; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Schleinitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by variable tissue or organ involvements sharing common pathological findings. Orbital or orbital adnexa involvement of the disease has been reported in a few case series. The aim of our study was to characterize and analyze ophthalmic manifestations from a nationwide French case-series. Patients with IgG4-RD and orbital or orbital adnexa involvement included in the French multicentric IgG4-RD case-registry were identified. Only patients fulfilling “modified” comprehensive diagnostic criteria with pathological documentation were retained for the study. Clinical, biological, pathological, radiological findings and data regarding the response to treatment were retrospectively analyzed. According to our data registry, the frequency of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) was 17%. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.1 ± 7.1 years with a male/female ratio of 2.2. The 19 cases of IgG4-ROD consisted of lacrimal gland (68.4%), soft tissue (57.9%), extra-ocular muscles (36.8%), palpebral (21.1%), optical nerve (10.5%), orbital bone (10.5%), and mononeuritis (V1 and/or V2, 10.5%) involvements. IgG4-ROD was bilateral in 57.9% of cases. Extra-ophthalmic manifestations were reported in 78.9% of cases. All patients responded to prednisone but two-thirds of patients relapsed within a mean (SD) of 9.8 (3.5) months and 72.2% required long-term glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive agents. Eight patients were treated by rituximab with a favorable response in 87.5% of cases. Lacrimal involvement is the most frequent ophthalmic manifestation of IgG4-RD and is frequently associated with extra-orbital manifestations. Despite initial favorable response to steroids, the long-term management of relapsing patients needs to be improved. PMID:28272212

  15. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Swiątek, Piotr; Kamińska, Iwona

    2014-11-01

    Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied at the end of their winter dormancy. At this stage, the turions of all species had starch as their main storage material. In contrast with A. vesiculosa, Utricularia turions were rich in protein storage vacuoles, and proteins were also accumulated as crystalline inclusions in the nuclei. All examined species accumulated lipid droplets in cells of epidermal glands.

  16. Ultrastructure of the excretory system of Brachylaimus aequans (Trematoda: Brachylaimoidea).

    PubMed

    Soboleva, T N; Zdárská, Z; Stĕrba, J; Valkounová, J

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the flame cell, excretory capillaries, ducts, collecting ducts, excretory bladder, and excretory pore of Brachylaimus aequans was studied 6-8 days p.i. The excretory ducts, collecting ducts and excretory bladder are provided with numerous lamellae on the luminal side. The cilia of lateral flames in the excretory ducts have a triated rootlet. The excretory pore is covered by a tegument identical with the body tegument. The syncytium of the excretory bladder is connected with the tegument of the excretory pore by means of a septate desmosome. No lipid or excretory corpuscles have been demonstrated in the excretory system.

  17. Macroscopic, histologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Samuel P

    2006-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are uncommon neoplasms that arise from the cells forming the serosal membranes of the body cavities. Approximately 90-95% of mesotheliomas arise in the pleural cavity and 5-10% in the peritoneal cavity. Rare mesotheliomas arise in the pericardium and in the tunica vaginalis. Unlike many neoplasms, mesotheliomas grow in a diffuse distribution and tend to encase the organs in the various body cavities. A combination of histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features are often necessary to accurately diagnose mesotheliomas. These techniques are highlighted in this review article on mesothelioma.

  18. [Ultrastructure and metabolic activity of pea mitochondria under clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Brykov, V A; Generozova, I P; Shugaev, A G

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data on the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration in root apex as well as metabolic activity of the organelles isolated from pea seedling roots after 5-day of clinorotation are presented. It was shown that mitochondrial condensation in the distal elongation zone correlated with an increased rate of oxygen uptake on 7%. We also observed increase in rate of malate oxidation and respiratory control ratio increased simultaneously with a decreased in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Such character of mitochondrial rearrangements in simulated microgravity is assumed to be a consequence of adaptation to these conditions.

  19. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  20. Ultrastructural evidence for intramolecular double stranding in iota-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Abeysekera, R M; Bergström, E T; Goodall, D M; Norton, I T; Robards, A W

    1993-10-04

    Kinetic studies of primary processes of conformational ordering in gel-forming biopolymers have suggested that a change in mechanism from intermolecular to intramolecular multistrand formation occurs on lowering the concentration of biopolymer. We report here ultrastructural observations consistent with intramolecular double stranding in a carbohydrate polymer, iota-carrageenan, by arresting this process of primary conformational ordering by an ultra-rapid freeze fixation technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed isolated iota-carrageenan chains showing a range of morphologies (linear, circular, and hairpin) consistent with intramolecular stranding. Control experiments in which iota-carrageenan was frozen in the disordered form revealed longer and thinner strands.

  1. Relationship between ultrastructure and biomechanical properties of the knee meniscus.

    PubMed

    Gabrion, A; Aimedieu, P; Laya, Z; Havet, E; Mertl, P; Grebe, R; Laude, M

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of the knee meniscus and to relate them to its ultrastructure. The knee joint menisci are semicircular, fibrocartilaginous structures interposed between the femoral and tibial condyles. For a long time, they were considered to be embryologic vestiges. This study describes the response of the knee joint meniscus to circumferential, radial and axial compressive forces. The results show an anisotropic response of the knee joint meniscus to unconfined compression. The Young's modulus increased approximately twofold between vertical and circumferential or radial directions with a 10 mm/min-compression rate. This response is probably a direct consequence of the orientation of collagen fibres.

  2. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC.

  3. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  4. Comparative ultrastructural features of excitatory synapses in the visual and frontal cortices of the adult mouse and monkey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Alexander; Luebke, Jennifer I; Medalla, Maria

    2017-03-03

    The excitatory glutamatergic synapse is the principal site of communication between cortical pyramidal neurons and their targets, a key locus of action of many drugs, and highly vulnerable to dysfunction and loss in neurodegenerative disease. A detailed knowledge of the structure of these synapses in distinct cortical areas and across species is a prerequisite for understanding the anatomical underpinnings of cortical specialization and, potentially, selective vulnerability in neurological disorders. We used serial electron microscopy to assess the ultrastructural features of excitatory (asymmetric) synapses in the layers 2-3 (L2-3) neuropil of visual (V1) and frontal (FC) cortices of the adult mouse and compared findings to those in the rhesus monkey (V1 and lateral prefrontal cortex [LPFC]). Analyses of multiple ultrastructural variables revealed four organizational features. First, the density of asymmetric synapses does not differ between frontal and visual cortices in either species, but is significantly higher in mouse than in monkey. Second, the structural properties of asymmetric synapses in mouse V1 and FC are nearly identical, by stark contrast to the significant differences seen between monkey V1 and LPFC. Third, while the structural features of postsynaptic entities in mouse and monkey V1 do not differ, the size of presynaptic boutons are significantly larger in monkey V1. Fourth, both presynaptic and postsynaptic entities are significantly smaller in the mouse FC than in the monkey LPFC. The diversity of synaptic ultrastructural features demonstrated here have broad implications for the nature and efficacy of glutamatergic signaling in distinct cortical areas within and across species.

  5. Effects of subchronic aluminum exposure on spatial memory, ultrastructure and L-LTP of hippocampus in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifeng; Jin, Cuihong; Liu, Qiufang; Lu, Xiaobo; Wu, Shengwen; Yang, Jinghua; Du, Yanqiu; Zheng, Linlin; Cai, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have indicated that aluminum (Al), as an important environmental neurotoxicant, could cause damage to the cognitive function which was closely related with neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is one form of synaptic plasticity in association with cognitive function. Previous studies have demonstrated that Al impaired early phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in vivo and in vitro. However, Al-induced damage to late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) has poorly been studied. The present study was designed to observe the effects of subchronic Al exposure on the spatial memory, hippocampus ultrastructure and L-LTP in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Neonatal rats were exposed to Al by parental lactation from parturition to weaning for 3 weeks and then fed with the distilled water containing 0, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% aluminum chloride (AlCl3) respectively from weaning to postnatal 3 months. The levels of Al in blood and hippocampus were quantitated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Morris water maze test was performed to study spatial memory. The induction and maintenance of L-LTP in area of Schaffer collateral- CA1 synapse was recorded by extracellular microelectrode recording technology in hippocampus of experimental rats. Hippocampus was collected for transmission electron microscopy observation. The results showed that the Al concentrations in blood and hippocampus of Al-exposed rats were higher than those of the control rats. Al could impair spatial memory ability of rats. Neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure from Al-exposed rats presented pathological changes; the incidence of L-LTP has a decrease trend while population spike (PS) amplitude was much smaller significantly stimulated by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in Al-exposed rats. Our findings showed that Al exposure caused spatial memory damage, under which the neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure changes maybe were their

  6. Congenital retrosternal hernias of Morgagni: Manifestation and treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Slepov, Oleksii; Kurinnyi, Sergii; Ponomarenko, Oleksii; Migur, Mikhailo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to scarcity of congenital diaphragmatic hearnias of Morgagni (CDHM), non-specific clinical presentation in the pediatric age group, we aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical manifestations, anatomical characteristics, and develop diagnostic algorithm and treatment of CDHM in children. Materials and Methods: The patients’ records of children with CDHM treated in our hospital during past 20 years were retrospectively reviewed for the age at diagnosis, gender, clinical findings, anatomical features, operative details and outcome. Results: Since 1995 to 2014 we observed 6 (3 boys, 3 girls) patients with CDHM, that comprise 3.2% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernia cases (n = 185). Age at diagnosis varied from 3 mo. to 10y.o. Failure to thrive was main symptom in 4 patients, followed by recurrent respiratory infections (n = 3), dyspnea (n = 3), and gastrointestinal manifestations: constipation (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 1). Work-up consisted of plain X-ray for all (n = 6), upper GI (n = 3), barium enema (n = 2), sonography (n = 6) and CT (n = 2). Abdominal approach used in 5 patients, and thoracotomy in one. Herniated contents were: liver lobes (n = 4), transverse colon (n = 3) and greater omentum (n = 1). 5 had right-sided lesion, 1- left-sided. Defect repaired using local tissues. Post-operative course was uneventful; all patients appeared well during follow-up. Conclusion: CDHM is very uncommon anomaly, very occasionally diagnosed at the early age. Failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory infections are most frequent clinical manifestations. In suspected CDHM we advocate the following work-up: plain chest and abdominal X-ray, contrast study (upper GI series or barium enema), ultrasonographic screen and CT scan. Surgical repair via abdominal approach, using local tissues and hernia sac removal is preferred. PMID:27251653

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis as Initial Manifestation of Whipple Disease

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Mônica Souza de Miranda; da Paz, Alexandre Rolim; Gaertner, Ana Beatriz Person; Melo, Cibelle Ingrid Stephen; Filgueiras, Priscyanne Lins; Jerome, Rafaella Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wipple disease (WD) is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as “stroke-like syndrome” or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Objective We report a case of venous thrombosis as initial manifestation of WD. Case Report We describe the case of a 53-year-old male with iliofemoral vein thrombosis followed by intermittent diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distension, and bloating. A mild malnutrition state with a weight loss of 13 kg, pallor (+/4 +), presence of lower-limb edema (+/4 +), and hypertympanic distended abdomen occurred. Laboratory tests on admission revealed anemia, positive inflammatory activity tests, and normal coagulation. Endoscopic examination showed villous edema with white dotted infiltrates in the second duodenal portion and intestinal lymphangiectasia in the terminal ileum. Pathological examination revealed numerous macrophages with positive periodic acid-Schiff inclusions. Venous Doppler ultrasound showed extensive deep thrombosis on the left lower limb and recanalization of the femoral vein in the right lower limb. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and enoxaparin sodium, which led to an improvement of gastrointestinal and thrombosis symptoms. Comments Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, vasculitis, and blood stasis are present in T. whipplei infection, which are associated with the activation of inflammatory mechanisms as well as procoagulant and thromboembolic events. WD should be part of the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause venous thrombosis of unknown origin. PMID:27920655

  8. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients’ mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection. PMID:27051240

  9. Macro- and microvascular endothelial cells in vitro: maintenance of biochemical heterogeneity despite loss of ultrastructural characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, D.B.; Jacobson, B.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla and brain and macrovessel endothelial cells from bovine aorta were isolated and cultured under similar conditions in order to determine morphologic and biochemical heterogeneity in vitro. All three cell types exhibited nearly identical ultrastructural morphology and two-dimensional gel protein patterns of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled whole cells. Two-dimensional gel analysis of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled plasma membrane proteins however, revealed two-dimensional gel protein patterns unique to the tissue type from which the endothelial cells were isolated. This suggests that the functional significance of these specific endothelial cell types is manifested primarily in surface-associated proteins and that many of the differences are sustained in culture. To determine the potential of aorta, brain, and adrenal medulla endothelial cell (EC) cultures to respond to developmentally significant signals, morphology, growth pattern, and cell surface proteins were monitored in the presence and absence of growth factors. A 17 to 26% increase in cell density as well as an increase in the number of elongated and overlapping cells resulted when all three EC types were exposed to a mitogenic medium. Additionally, expression of specific glycoprotein profiles, as determined by Concanavalin A Western blotting of two-dimensional gels, was dependent on the presence or absence of growth factors in the medium. The ability to induce this morphologic and biochemical variation in the three endothelial cell types was maintained into later passage. Taken together, these data imply that endothelial cells isolated from different tissues exhibit and maintain biochemical heterogeneity and do not completely dedifferentiate into a common endothelial cell type in culture.

  10. Ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at early gonadal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Makabe, S; Naguro, T; Heyn, R; Motta, P M

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at different stages of the testicular prenatal development is described by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation (w.g.) the interstitial tissue of the gonad is filled with small undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, migrating primordial germ cells and blood vessels. When the embryo is 7 to 8 weeks-old Leydig cells (LC) appear in basically two morphological patterns, light and dark cells. Their most significative feature is the development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) as a dense tubulo-vesicular network and the presence of numerous pleomorphic mitochondria with mainly lamellar cristae. At 14 and 16 w.g. the testicular interstitium reaches the maximum development; the cytoplasm of the LC shows a widespread network of anastomosing tubules of the SER and mitochondria with tubular cristae. Fetal LC show a partial cell coat, lack the crystals of Reinke, have few lipid droplets and show no signs of massive cell degeneration, at least until 16 w.g. These ultrastructural modifications in fetal LC are in accordance with the changes in both steroidogenic activity and hCG levels reported by the literature to occur at this stage of development. Junctional complexes were often observed among LC from 7 to 8 w.g. onwards.

  11. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp. (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Carnegie, R B; Kroeck, M A; Villalba, A; Engelsma, M Y; Burreson, E M

    2014-07-24

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the other forms recognized as B. exitiosa. Two groups of ultrastructural features were identified; those associated with metabolism (mitochondrial profiles, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum), and those associated with haplosporogenesis (Golgi, indentations in the nuclear surface, the putative trans-Golgi network, perinuclear granular material and haplosporosome-like bodies). Metabolic features were regarded as having little taxonomic value, and as the process of haplosporogenesis is not understood, only haplosporosome shape and size may be of taxonomic value. However, the uni-nucleate stages of spore-forming haplosporidians are poorly known and may be confused with Bonamia spp. uni-nucleate stages. The many forms of NZ B. exitiosa have not been observed in other hosts, which may indicate that it has a plastic life cycle. Although there are similarities between NZ B. exitiosa and Chilean Bonamia in the development of a larger uni-nucleate stage and the occurrence of cylindrical confronting cisternae, the clarification of the identity of Chilean Bonamia must await molecular studies.

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of Candida albicans when exposed to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm.

  13. Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

  14. Ultrastructural observation of oocytes in six types of stony corals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the ultrastructure of the oocytes of 6 types of scleractinian corals was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed to improve our understanding of the organelles involved in coral oocyte formation. In all 6 stony coral species, the microvilli were tubular and directly grew from the surface of the oocyte membrane; yolk bodies, lipid granules, and cortical alveoli accounted for most of the volume inside the oocytes, suggesting that they are associated with energy storage and buoyancy. Clear differences were observed in the size of yolk bodies and lipid granules in the oocytes of the 6 stony coral species, which occupied approximately 55%-80% of the inner space of the oocytes. Galaxea fascicularis exhibited the largest lipid granule volume, but the oocytes contained only an average number of 12.45 lipid granules per unit area. Only Montipora incrassata oocytes contained symbiotic algae. The smallest size and proportion of lipid granules in M. incrassata oocytes may be attributed to the presence of symbiotic algae and large yolk bodies, which may help oocytes produce energy and function as a nutritional source. This study is crucial for improving the understanding of the basic biology of coral reproduction, and the ensuing datasets is critical for conservation-oriented studies seeking to cryopreserve corals during these times of dramatic global climate change.

  15. Collyricloides massanae (Digenea, Collyriclidae): spermatozoon ultrastructure and phylogenetic importance

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye Jacque; Quilichini, Yann; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae), a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae. PMID:25394323

  16. [Psychiatric manifestations in dementia: phenomenologic perspectives].

    PubMed

    Paquette, I

    1993-12-01

    The study of psychiatric manifestations in dementia has long been overshadowed by the more classical manifestations of the disease, such as memory loss and other cognitive deficits. In recent years, however, psychiatric symptoms as part of the demential process have attracted interest and research has become more specific. Clinicians are faced with diagnostic, treatment and management difficulties related to affective or psychotic symptoms, which account for much distress and morbidity. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in clinical populations of patients suffering from dementia is high: 15% to 30% for hallucinations, 15% to 30% for delusions, ten percent to 20% for major depression and 40% to 50% for depressed mood. These figures tend to confirm the hypothesis that psychiatric features in dementia are neither infrequent nor atypical. Thus, researchers have sought to link psychotic or depressive symptomatology with several clinical characteristics of dementia, namely stage, severity, prognosis or cognitive dysfunction. Some recent studies involving extensive neuropsychological evaluations indicate that subgroups of patients can be defined according to psychiatric criteria, as well as cognitive or neurological criteria. Unfortunately, results are inconsistent. Some of the contradictions in the literature are related to poorly defined terms and symptoms, a lack of reliable operational criteria, absence of validation of instruments and scales and heterogeneity of the populations studied. Ambiguous syndromes, such as pseudodementia, while illustrative of certain clinical situations, have not been helpful in categorizing demented patients. The author suggests that research focused on specific and clearly defined psychiatric symptoms in dementia will better serve our comprehension of mixed syndromes.

  17. Cardiac manifestations in HIV-infected Thai children.

    PubMed

    Pongprot, Yupada; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Silvilairat, Suchaya; Sirisanthana, Virat

    2004-06-01

    Cardiac complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. There have been few reports of cardiac manifestations in HIV-infected children in developing countries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical manifestations and echocardiographic findings in Thai children with HIV infection and determine the clinical predictors of left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 infants infected with HIV perinatally who presented with cardiovascular problems at a tertiary care hospital between 1995 and 2000. The mean age at initial cardiac evaluation was 36 months (range 8-65). Signs and symptoms included dyspnoea in all cases, oedema in 12 (44%), finger clubbing in 11 (41%), cyanosis in 6 (22%) and S(3) gallop in 8 (30%). Echocardiographic abnormalities included pericardial effusion in 12 (44 %), right ventricular dilatation in 12 (44%), pulmonary hypertension in 11 (41%), diminished left ventricular fractional shortening in 10 (37%), left ventricular dilatation in 9 (33%) and combined ventricular dilatation in 2 (7%). Left ventricular dysfunction did not correlate with HIV CDC classification, age, nutritional status or clinical signs and symptoms.

  18. Neural Manifestations of Implicit Self-Esteem: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lili; Cai, Huajian; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yu L. L.; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Jing; Shi, Yuanyuan; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral research has established that humans implicitly tend to hold a positive view toward themselves. In this study, we employed the event-related potential (ERP) technique to explore neural manifestations of positive implicit self-esteem using the Go/Nogo association task (GNAT). Participants generated a response (Go) or withheld a response (Nogo) to self or others words and good or bad attributes. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to the self paired with good than the self paired with bad, whereas the opposite proved true for others, reflecting the positive nature of implicit self-esteem. ERP results showed an augmented N200 over the frontal areas in Nogo responses relative to Go responses. Moreover, the positive implicit self-positivity bias delayed the onset time of the N200 wave difference between Nogo and Go trials, suggesting that positive implicit self-esteem is manifested on neural activity about 270 ms after the presentation of self-relevant stimuli. These findings provide neural evidence for the positivity and automaticity of implicit self-esteem. PMID:25006966

  19. [The sacroiliac joint dysfunction: clinical manifestations, diagnostics and manual therapy].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2005-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is one of the proved causes of sacroiliac joint syndrome. We are talking about the restricted mobility of sacrum opposite to ilium the type of "reversible blockage of movement". Main characteristics of dysfunction are as follows: restricted "joint play", referred pain, normal radiological finding, normal lab results and disappearance of clinical symptoms after deblocking of articular bodies. Pain from a blocked joint can be referred to lower back, buttocks, hip, groin, thigh, calf and lower part of abdomen. Dispersion of painful regions is a consequence of a complex and variable innervation of articular capsule. Blocked position of articular bodies and protracted tension of articular capsule causes a stimulus of nociceptors by which a capsule is protected. Nociceptive activity is manifested with referred pains in innervational region of stimulated sensitive nerves. In the article, besides the clinical manifestations, there is described a diagnostics and manual therapy of dysfunction. Springing tests by means of which a passive mobility ("joint play") is being tested, are most valuable in dysfunction diagnostics. Manual therapy (mobilization/manipulation) is indicated and efficacious with the patients suffering from dysfunction.

  20. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  1. Hemiplegia: an initial manifestation of Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, A; Arunodaya, G R; Taly, A B; Swamy, H S; Vasudev, M K

    2003-09-01

    A 7-year-old boy from an area endemic to Japanese encephalitis (JE) manifested with acute febrile illness, left hemiplegia and preserved consciousness during the prodromal phase of illness. The child developed features of encephalitis 48 hours after the onset of hemiplegia. IgM MAC ELISA for JE virus revealed high titers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid suggestive of JE. MRI of the brain showed asymmetrical bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted image, considered diagnostic of JE. Hemiplegia during the prodromal phase or as an initial symptom of JE is rather unusual.

  2. Norwegian scabies - rare case of atypical manifestation*

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Karina Corrêa; Alves, Júlia Barazetti; Tomé, Lísias de Araújo; de Moraes, Carlos Floriano; Gaspar, Arianne Ditzel; Franck, Karin Fernanda; Hussein, Mohamad Ali; da Cruz, Lucas Raiser; Ebrahim, Leonardo Duque; Sidney, Luis Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Human scabies affects all social classes and different races around the world. It is highly contagious, but the exact figures on its prevalence are unknown. A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room reporting fever (38°C) and multiple lesions throughout the body, except face, soles, and palms. Lesions were non-pruritic, which hampered the initial diagnostic suspicion. Skin biopsy was performed, and the final diagnosis was crusted scabies (Norwegian). It was concluded that human scabies is a significant epidemic disease, due to its different clinical manifestations, and because it is extremely contagious. PMID:28099611

  3. Delayed cutaneous manifestations of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Scherer, Kathrin

    2010-07-01

    Drugs may elicit a considerable variety of clinical signs, often affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. The most common are maculopapular exanthemas and urticaria, more rarely pustules, bullae vasculitic lesions, and lichenoid lesions may also be observed. Apart from the morphology, the chronology of the occurrence and the evolution of single skin lesions and exanthema are also paramount in the clinical diagnosis of cutaneous drug hypersensitivity. Often, the skin represents the only organ manifestation; however, it may be the herald for a systemic involvement of internal organs, such as in severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndromes or anaphylaxis.

  4. Extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Hom, Christopher; Vaezi, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    This article discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and pulmonary and ear/nose/throat manifestations of reflux and outlines the recent developments in the diagnostic and treatment strategies for this difficult group of patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and pH monitoring are poorly sensitive for diagnosing reflux in this group of patients. Instead it is recommended that in those without warning symptoms, an empiric trial of proton-pump inhibitors be the initial approach to diagnosing and treating the potential underlying cause of these extraesophageal symptoms.

  5. Dark matter: Observational manifestation and experimental searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Bolotin, Yu. L.; Boyarsky, A. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Babyk, Iu. V.; Iakubovskyi, D. A.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Sergeev, S. G

    2015-08-01

    This monograph is the third issue of a three volume edition under the general title "Dark Energy and Dark Matter in the Universe". The authors discuss the astrophysical direct and indirect manifestation and properties of dark matter in galaxies, galaxy clusters and groups; the different mechanisms of energy exchange between dark energy and dark matter that expand the capabilities of the Standard Cosmological Model; the experimental search for dark matter particle candidates (including the sterile neutrinos, solar axions,weakly-interacting massive particles, and superheavy dark matter particles) using space, ground-based, and underground observatories.

  6. Finite element modeling of hyper-viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve ultrastructures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Tao; Chen, Yu-Hsing; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-07-16

    The mechanical characteristics of ultrastructures of rat sciatic nerves were investigated through animal experiments and finite element analyses. A custom-designed dynamic testing apparatus was used to conduct in vitro transverse compression experiments on the nerves. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to record the cross-sectional images of nerve during the dynamic testing. Two-dimensional finite element models of the nerves were built based on their OCT images. A hyper-viscoelastic model was employed to describe the elastic and stress relaxation response of each ultrastructure of the nerve, namely the endoneurium, the perineurium and the epineurium. The first-order Ogden model was employed to describe the elasticity of each ultrastructure and a generalized Maxwell model for the relaxation. The inverse finite element analysis was used to estimate the material parameters of the ultrastructures. The results show the instantaneous shear modulus of the ultrastructures in decreasing order is perineurium, endoneurium, and epineurium. The FE model combined with the first-order Ogden model and the second-order Prony series is good enough for describing the compress-and-hold response of the nerve ultrastructures. The integration of OCT and the nonlinear finite element modeling may be applicable to study the viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve down to the ultrastructural level.

  7. [Ebola: characterization, history and cutaneous manifestations].

    PubMed

    Kolbach, Marianne; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Vial-Letelier, Verónica

    2015-11-01

    Ebola virus (EV) is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Fruits bats are its natural reservoir, the transmission to humans is across wild animals (especially primates) and the propagation in human populations is through bodily fluid contact. The actual outbreak started in December 2013 and crossed continental borders. Up to now, there are 17,145 suspected and confirmed cases with 6,070 deaths, resulting a total case fatality rate of 35%. Clinical manifestations can be divided in 3 phases. In phase I, symptoms are similar to flu, which may appear in a range of 2 to 21 days. In phase II which occurs in over 50% of cases, visceral symptoms and mucocutaneous manifestations appear within 4 and 5 days of the onset of symptoms. The main symptoms are a macular or maculopapular non-pruritic rash, desquamation and mucosal involvement of eyes, mouth and pharynx. In phase III, recovery or death occurs. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, epidemiological suspicion and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The treatment is supportive. If there is a suspected case, it should be notified immediately and all relevant safety measures should be instituted.

  8. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient’s paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto’s encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27672526

  9. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  10. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ali S; Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-07-05

    Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient's paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto's encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids.

  11. [Psychiatric manifestations by prions. A narrative review].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Robles, Daniel; García Maldonado, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form. In humans, the illness has been classified as idiopathic, inherited and acquired through exposure to exogenous material containing abnormal prions. The most prominent neurological manifestation of prion diseases is the emergence of a rapidly progressive dementia, mioclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia and also extra pyramidal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms occur in early stages of the illness and can contribute to timely diagnosis of this syndrome. Psychiatric symptoms have traditionally been grouped in three categories: affective symptoms, impaired motor function and psychotic symptoms. Such events usually occur during the prodromal period prior to the neurological manifestations and consists in the presence of social isolation, onset of delusions, irritability/aggression, visual hallucinations, anxiety and depression, and less frequent first-rank symptoms among others. Definite diagnosis requires post mortem examination. The possibility that a large number of cases may occur in the next years or that many cases have not been considered with this diagnosis is a fact. In our opinion, psychiatrists should be aware of symptoms of this disease. The main objective of this research consisted of assessing the correlation between this disturbance and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and particularly if this psychiatric manifestations integrate a clinical picture suggestive for the diagnosis of these diseases, but firstly reviewed taxonomic

  12. 14 CFR 121.693 - Load manifest: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Load manifest: All certificate holders. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.693 Load manifest: All certificate holders. The load manifest must contain the following information concerning...

  13. Oral osteomyelitis: pre-AIDS manifestation or strange coincidence?

    PubMed

    Harel-Raviv, M; Gorsky, M; Lust, I; Raviv, E

    1996-01-01

    A bizarre and unexplained localized osteomyelitis was discovered in the mandible of an otherwise apparently healthy 36-year-old man. This strange oral manifestation was followed 2 years later by a diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, which indicated full-blown AIDS. Could osteomyelitis of the mandible be an alarming oral manifestation of AIDS before the disease is manifested in other ways?

  14. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for... paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, an air cargo manifest need not be filed or retained aboard the... air express or freight shall be manifested as other air express or freight. (e) Accompanied baggage...

  15. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  16. 76 FR 36480 - Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule AGENCY... proposing a minor change to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste manifest regulations that affects those entities that print the hazardous waste manifest form in accordance with...

  17. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  18. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Ito, Eri; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Masuda, Natsumi; Qi, Wang-Mei; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine.

  19. Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects of liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced alterations. Experimental evidence of mitochondrial division.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, O. R.; Roatta de Conti, L. L.; Bolaños, L. P.; Stoppani, A. O.

    1978-01-01

    To study the morphologic and biochemical changes occuring in liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced injury, rats fed a 6-month high-alcohol regimen plus a nutritionally adequate diet which did not induce fatty liver were compared with isocalorically fed controls. After this period the alcohol-fed animals displayed striking ultrastructural changes of liver mitochondria and a decreased respiratory activity with succinate or malate-glutamate as substrate. On the contrary, the respiratory rate with I-glycerophosphate was 50% increased. Regression changes were studied after alcohol was withdrawn from the diet. Enlarged mitochondria rapidly disappeared (in 24 hours), although a few megamitochondria were still present after 8 days of abstinence. A similar recovery was observed for the functional alterations. At the end of the experimental period, only a slight decrease of the maximal respiratory rate using malate-glutamate as a substrate was noted. The ultrastructural findings and the morphometric data suggest that the way in which mitochondrial normalization takes place is based on partition of these organelles. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 13 PMID:623205

  20. Convergent evolution of eye ultrastructure and divergent evolution of vision-mediated predatory behaviour in jumping spiders.

    PubMed

    Su, K F; Meier, R; Jackson, R R; Harland, D P; Li, D

    2007-07-01

    All jumping spiders have unique, complex eyes with exceptional spatial acuity and some of the most elaborate vision-guided predatory strategies ever documented for any animal of their size. However, it is only recently that phylogenetic techniques have been used to reconstruct the relationships and key evolutionary events within the Salticidae. Here, we used data for 35 species and six genes (4.8 kb) for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships between Spartaeinae, Lyssomaninae and Salticoida. We document a remarkable case of morphological convergence of eye ultrastructure in two clades with divergent predatory behaviour. We, furthermore, find evidence for a stepwise, gradual evolution of a complex predatory strategy. Divergent predatory behaviour ranges from cursorial hunting to building prey-catching webs and araneophagy with web invasion and aggressive mimicry. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry evolved once from an ancestral spartaeine that was already araneophagic and had no difficulty entering webs due to glue immunity. Web invasion and aggressive mimicry was lost once, in Paracyrba, which has replaced one highly specialized predation strategy with another (hunting mosquitoes). In contrast to the evolution of divergent behaviour, eyes with similarly high spatial acuity and ultrastructural design evolved convergently in the Salticoida and in Portia.

  1. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  2. The effect of high n-3 fatty acids diets on the ultrastructural development of Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Danforth, H D; Allen, P C; Levander, O A

    1997-01-01

    A study of development of Eimeria tenella in chickens fed high n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) diets showed ultrastructural degeneration of both asexual and sexual parasite stages. Abnormal shedding of asexual and sexual parasite developmental stages into the cecal lumen was also observed. Ultrastructural degeneration was characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, chromatin condensation within the nucleus, a lack of parasitophorous vacuole delineation, and, in some cases, a complete loss of parasite ultrastructural organization. The results of this study indicate that diets high in n-3FA may be useful in the control of avian coccidia.

  3. Studies on the ultrastructure of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after treatment with some detergents and solvents.

    PubMed

    Cherepova, N; Baykousheva, S; Veljanov, D

    1977-06-01

    The ultrastructural changes in 3 strains Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with different virulence after treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and petroleum ether were studied. The ultrafine sections after treatment with SLS show heavy destructive changes, concerning the cell wall, the cytoplasmic membrane and the inner structure of the cell. It was established that the same cells Y. pseudotuberculosis after cultivation on a medium with glycerol show a tendency to recover their ultrastructure. The cells treated with petroleum ether did not exhibit any notable ultrastructural changes.

  4. How effectively does a clinostat mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity on plant cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Columella cells of seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Bear Hybrid grown in the microgravity of orbital flight allocate significantly larger relative-volumes to hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, and significantly smaller relative-volumes to dictyosomes, plastids, and starch than do columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. The ultrastructure of columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g and on a rotating clinostat is not significantly different. However, the ultrastructure of cells exposed to these treatments differs significantly from that of seedlings grown in microgravity. These results indicate that the actions of a rotating clinostat do not mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in columella cells of Z. mays.

  5. The SAPHO syndrome revisited with an emphasis on spinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonio; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Casale, Roberto; Magarelli, Nicola; Semprini, Alessia; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome includes a group of chronic, relapsing, inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders with similar manifestations, in particular synovitis, hyperostosis, and osteitis, which may or may not be associated with neutrophilic skin eruptions such as palmoplantar pustulosis and acne conglobata. The syndrome occurs at any age, can involve any skeletal site, and its imaging appearances are variable, depending on the stage/age of the lesion and imaging method. The diagnosis is difficult if there is no skin disease. Awareness of the imaging appearances, especially in the spine, may help the radiologist in avoiding misdiagnosis (e.g., infection, tumor) and unnecessary invasive procedures, while facilitating early diagnosis and selection of an effective treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the radiological appearances of SAPHO syndrome, focusing on the magnetic resonance imaging findings of vertebral involvement, and present relevant clinical and pathological features that assist early diagnosis.

  6. Manifestations of two-dimensional electron gas in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Sharia, Onise; Tsyshevsky, Roman

    2017-03-01

    The existence of two-dimensional electron gas in molecular materials has not been reported or discussed. Intriguing properties of two-dimensional electron gas observed on interfaces of polar and nonpolar oxides spurred oxide electronics and advanced nanotechnology. Here we discover how an electrostatic instability occurs on polar surfaces of molecular crystals and explore its manifestations, chemical degradation of surfaces, charge separation, electrical conductivity, optical band-gap closure and surface metallization. A thin layer of polar surface of a dielectric molecular crystal becomes metallic due to interactions of polar molecules. Our findings are illustrated with two polymorphs of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals, the polar δ-phase and nonpolar β-phase. Our theory offers an explanation to a relative stability of the β-phase versus the explosive reactivity of δ-phase and to the experimentally observed difference in conductivity of these crystals. We predict that the electrostatic instability takes place on all polar molecular materials.

  7. [Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Chico, Ricardo; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    Complications due to cocaine are a public health problem. The typical cutaneous disease is leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or thrombotic vasculopathy affecting mainly the ears. No intense systemic involvement is usually present, but there may be several cutaneous, mucosal and systemic manifestations. Other findings associated as arthralgia, neutropaenia or agranulocytosis, low titer positive antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibody positivity and neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against multiple antigens help the diagnosis. This disease requires a clinical suspicion with a clinical history, a complete physical examination and a broad differential diagnosis for an early and correct diagnosis. The course is usually self-limited. In most cases the only treatment is to discontinue the use of cocaine associated with symptomatic treatment, no proven benefit of systemic corticosteroids.

  8. Pediatric carbamazepine suspension overdose-clinical manifestations and toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberto; Wiley, James F

    2005-04-01

    Two toddlers ingested unknown quantities of their older sibling's carbamazepine suspension and rapidly manifested central nervous depression requiring intubation in 1 patient. Coma was the primary clinical finding throughout their care with no anticholinergic syndrome, seizures, or dysrhythmia. Both patients recovered without sequelae within 24 hours. Initial carbamazepine concentrations were 36.6 and 22.7 mg/L. The elimination rates (zero-order kinetic) were approximately 1.4 and 0.75 mg/L per hour. We provide the first toxicokinetic data for carbamazepine suspension overdose in children. We confirm that the oral absorption of suspension carbamazepine is rapid necessitating prompt referral to a health care facility for this exposure.

  9. Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Raquel A.; Oliveira, Thalita E.S.; Alcântara, Brígida K.; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Alice F.; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses. PMID:27315157

  10. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography.

  11. Effects of water turbulence on variations in cell ultrastructure and metabolism of amino acids in the submersed macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John.

    PubMed

    Atapaththu, K S S; Miyagi, A; Atsuzawa, K; Kaneko, Y; Kawai-Yamada, M; Asaeda, T

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between macrophytes and water movement are not yet fully understood, and the causes responsible for the metabolic and ultrastructural variations in plant cells as a consequence of turbulence are largely unknown. In the present study, growth, metabolism and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in the aquatic macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, after exposure to turbulence for 30 days. The turbulence was generated with a vertically oscillating horizontal grid. The turbulence reduced plant growth, plasmolysed leaf cells and strengthened cell walls, and plants exposed to turbulence accumulated starch granules in stem chloroplasts. The size of the starch granules increased with the magnitude of the turbulence. Using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), analysis of the metabolome found metabolite accumulation in response to the turbulence. Asparagine was the dominant amino acid that was concentrated in stressed plants, and organic acids such as citrate, ascorbate, oxalate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) also accumulated in response to turbulence. These results indicate that turbulence caused severe stress that affected plant growth, cell ultrastructure and some metabolic functions of E. nuttallii. Our findings offer insights to explain the effects of water movement on the functions of aquatic plants.

  12. Viscoelastic and ultrastructural characteristics of whole blood and plasma in Alzheimer-type dementia, and the possible role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

    PubMed

    Bester, Janette; Soma, Prashilla; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-11-03

    Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Patients typically present with neuro- and systemic inflammation and iron dysregulation, associated with oxidative damage that reflects in hypercoagulability. Hypercoagulability is closely associated with increased fibrinogen and in AD patients fibrinogen has been implicated in the development of neuroinflammation and memory deficits. There is still no clear reason precisely why (a) this hypercoagulable state, (b) iron dysregulation and (c) increased fibrinogen could together lead to the loss of neuronal structure and cognitive function. Here we suggest an alternative hypothesis based on previous ultrastructural evidence of the presence of a (dormant) blood microbiome in AD. Furthermore, we argue that bacterial cell wall components, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative strains, might be the cause of the continuing and low-grade inflammation, characteristic of AD. Here, we follow an integrated approach, by studying the viscoelastic and ultrastructural properties of AD plasma and whole blood by using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography (TEG®) and the Global Thrombosis Test (GTT®). Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence and close proximity of microbes to erythrocytes. TEG® analysis showed a hypercoagulable state in AD. TEG® results where LPS was added to naive blood showed the same trends as were found with the AD patients, while the GTT® results (where only platelet activity is measured), were not affected by the added LPS, suggesting that LPS does not directly impact platelet function. Our findings reinforce the importance of further investigating the role of LPS in AD.

  13. Rapid decalcification of temporal bones with preservation of ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Madden, V J; Henson, M M

    1997-09-01

    Decalcification of temporal bones, especially from primates, has routinely required long periods of time and has been a major deterrent to many types of morphological studies. In this investigation, temporal bones from the monkey, Macaca fuscata, were decalcified with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in a microwave oven. To isolate effects of microwaves on decalcification, tissue was fixed and embedded using routine methods; only decalcification was carried out in the microwave oven. The procedure is described in detail. Instead of months, decalcification was complete in two working days. Control procedures included decalcification at room temperature and use of a regular oven at a temperature equal to that reached in the microwave. The ultrastructure of cochlear tissue was equal to or better than that obtained with routine decalcification.

  14. Sperm ultrastructure of the hydrothermal vent octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis.

    PubMed

    Roura, A; Guerra, A; González, A F; Pascual, S

    2010-08-01

    Sperm ultrastructure of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa of this species have the shortest head observed so far in octopodids. The acrosome possesses a helix with six gyres. The rod-shaped nucleus is short and wide in relation with other octopodids. Noteworthy features along the nucleus are the regularly disposed dense bands of cytoplasm, which have not been observed before in octopodids. The nuclear fossa is very short and wavy. Mitochondrial sheath has 10 elongated mitochondria running parallel to the axoneme-coarse fibers complex. Sperm morphology of V. hydrothermalis resembles that of Enteroctopus dofleini, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship.

  15. An Ultrastructural Analysis of Nocardia During Experimental Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, Blaine L.

    1973-01-01

    Several strains of Nocardia that varied from virulent to avirulent were injected intraperitoneally into young mice. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of the resultant infections revealed that the bacteria and the lesions they induced were different depending upon the strain of organism used. Further, the morphological and tinctorial characteristics of the bacteria grown in vitro changes during growth in vivo. These observations strongly suggested that chemical and physical alterations occurred in the cell envelope of the Nocardia when grown in mice. Electron microscopy confirmed that significant structural modification occurred, especially in the cell envelope, when the nocardial cells established themselves within the host tissue. It was shown that the least virulent strain exhibited the most dramatic changes whereas the most virulent organism appeared to be affected the least. Images PMID:4584055

  16. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of an enterolith composed of deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Miyashima, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Takahiro; Murata, Toshihiro; Miyabe, Yoshio; Kawai, Yoshinari; Urata, Haruo; Shiraha, Hidenori; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-12-01

    A 67-year-old Japanese man underwent enterotomy because of enterolith ileus. Component analysis by infrared spectroscopy revealed that the enterolith was composed of a high concentration of deoxycholic acid. We further analyzed and compared the ultrastructure of the enterolith and a commercially available powdered form of deoxycholic acid by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the ratios of carbon and oxygen in the enterolith were equal to those in the deoxycholic acid powder. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed rectangular prism-shaped particles on the surface of the enterolith. This structure was similar to that of the deoxycholic acid powder. The surgically removed enterolith had a twisted and coiled appearance. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of this unique form are discussed.

  18. Mesocestoides lineatus (Goeze, 1782) (Mesocestoididae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Conn, David Bruce

    2007-06-01

    Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of Mesocestoides lineatus are described by means of transmission electron microscopy, including cytochemical analysis for glycogen. Materials were obtained from a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) after experimental infection with tetrathyridia metacestodes obtained from naturally infected lizards (Anolis carolinensis) from Louisiana. Spermiogenesis in M. lineatus is characterized by the orthogonal growth of a free flagellum, a flagellar rotation, and a proximodistal fusion. The zone of differentiation contains 2 centrioles associated with striated rootlets and a reduced intercentriolar body. The mature spermatozoon of M. lineatus lacks a mitochondrion, and it is characterized by the presence of (1) a single, spiraled, crested body 150 nm thick; (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes; (3) a parallel and reduced row of submembranous cortical microtubules; (4) a spiraled cordon of glycogen granules; and (5) a spiraled nucleus encircling the axoneme.

  19. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  20. Ultrastructure of autophagy in plant cells: a review.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Papini, Alessio

    2013-12-01

    Just as with yeasts and animal cells, plant cells show several types of autophagy. Microautophagy is the uptake of cellular constituents by the vacuolar membrane. Although microautophagy seems frequent in plants it is not yet fully proven to occur. Macroautophagy occurs farther away from the vacuole. In plants it is performed by autolysosomes, which are considerably different from the autophagosomes found in yeasts and animal cells, as in plants these organelles contain hydrolases from the onset of their formation. Another type of autophagy in plant cells (called mega-autophagy or mega-autolysis) is the massive degradation of the cell at the end of one type of programmed cell death (PCD). Furthermore, evidence has been found for autophagy during degradation of specific proteins, and during the internal degeneration of chloroplasts. This paper gives a brief overview of the present knowledge on the ultrastructure of autophagic processes in plants.

  1. Desmograptus. micronematodes, a silurian dendroid graptolite, and its ultrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, K.M.; Bates, D.E.B.; Kluessendorf, Joanne; Loydell, David K.; Mikulic, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Desmograptus micronematodes from Thornton quarry, Cook County, Illinois, USA, remarkably preserved in relief and encased in pyrite, is described. The internal details of the thecae, and of the stolon system, examined using the SEM, allow the reconstruction of the growth of a stipe. The stolons and stolonal nodes are formed of a dense crassal fabric, and are surrounded by a loose fabric of three-dimensional fibrils. The nodes have a complex structure of three boxes with proximal and distal nozzles. The base of a bitheca, and the base of each autothecal cup, has a central nozzle surrounded by a unique honeycomb fabric. The ultrastructure of the cortical fibrils, with their clockwise striations, is similar to that in Dendrograptus, and may be universal in the graptolites. The nodes of the stolon system appear identical to those of Acanthograptus and other dendroids, but differ from those of the extant hemichordate Rhabdopleura, which have only a diaphragm, and lack box structures. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  2. Ultrastructural studies on pollen embryogenesis in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Barnabas, B; Fransz, P F; Schel, J H

    1987-06-01

    Maize anthers have been induced on modified N6 medium to produce embryoids. Different stages from the cultures were sampled and prepared for microscopical examination. The microspores at the onset of culture were in an early developmental stage, with the nucleus and numerous organelles centred in the middle, surrounded by many small vacuoles with a lipid content. The binuclear pollen grains contained small vesicles and much starch. The partially condensed vegetative nucleus indicated participation of the vegetative component in the formation of multicellular pollen grains (MPGs). Several MPGs have been observed which differed in morphology. We suggest, on the basis of these ultrastructural observations, that in maize mainly the vegetative cell contributes to the MPG which further develops directly into embryoids.

  3. The morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2017-03-02

    The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen.

  4. Rat limb unloading - Soleus histochemistry, ultrastructure, and electromyography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Sowa, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hindlimb unloading on rat-soleus histochemisty, ultrastructure, and electromyogram (EMG) activity were investigated. It was found that, after 14 days of tail suspension, the area of type I and type IIa muscle fibers decreased by 63 and 47 percent, respectively, mainly due to the degradation of subsarcolemmal mitochondria and myofibrils. After 10 days, 3 percent of type IIa fibers exhibited segmental necrosis. After four days, video monitoring revealed abnormal plantar flexion of the hindfeet, which shortened the soleus working range. The EMG activity shifted from tonic to phasic, and aggregate activity decreased drastically after only seven days. The results indictate that the pathological changes in the soleus resulted from unloaded contractions, reduced use, compromised blood flow, and shortened working length.

  5. Growing cartilage after IR laser radiation-ultrastructural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez, A.; Vidal, Lourdes; Mendez, Luis I.; Parrado, C.; Perez de Vargas, I.

    1994-02-01

    The ultrastructural alterations of the chondrocytes in the growing cartilage after radiation by IR laser at a dose of 2 J/cm2 are described. Twenty albino Wistar rats have been used. The radiation was carried out on the left knee of the animals. Consequently, the animals were killed, and as soon as the pieces had been obtained they were subjected to the conventional techniques of fixation and inclusion for electron microscopy. Their ER is scarcely developed with disrupted and dilated cisternae noting few secretory vesicles in relation to the control animals. Likewise, degenerative phenomena in the mitochondria membranes and the endomembrane system were observed, in the shape of myelin. In the chondrocytes of the contralateral knee, few alterations were noted in relation to the controls.

  6. Ultrastructural observations reveal the presence of channels between cork cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Pereira, Helena

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of phellem cells of Quercus suber L. (cork oak) and Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were analyzed using electron transmission microscopy to determine the presence or absence of plasmodesmata (PD). Different types of Q. suber cork samples were studied: one year shoots; virgin cork (first periderm), reproduction cork (traumatic periderm), and wet cork. The channel structures of PD were found in all the samples crossing adjacent cell walls through the suberin layer of the secondary wall. Calotropis phellem also showed PD crossing the cell walls of adjacent cells but in fewer numbers compared to Q. suber. In one year stems of cork oak, it was possible to follow the physiologically active PD with ribosomic accumulation next to the aperture of the channel seen in the phellogen cells to the completely obstructed channels in the dead cells that characterize the phellem tissue.

  7. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Wang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jun; Gu, Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  8. Ultrastructural diagnostic markers of the urinary bladder precancer.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, A M

    1989-03-01

    A morphological analysis of 346 biopsy specimens from 140 patients with chronic cystitis permits one to evaluate the proliferative forms of the disease, the cases with atypical hyperplasia of the urothelium or metaplasia of the squamous cells with acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the group at risk, belonging to bladder precancer. The early ultrastructural signs of urothelial atypia are determined, among them the thickening of the glycocalyx layer (up to 30-60 nm) irregularly covering the entire surface of atypical cells, the disappearance of vesicular apparatus and AUM, the widening of the intercellular spaces. It was found that the squamous epithelium, formed by atypical cytodifferentiation of urothelium, is inadequate for performing the barrier function inherent in normal urothelium.

  9. Extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Semeraro, Stefano; Papa, Alfredo; Roberto, Italia; Scaldaferri, Franco; Fedeli, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can be really considered to be systemic diseases since they are often associated with extraintestinal manifestations, complications, and other autoimmune disorders. Indeed, physicians who care for patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the two major forms of IBD, face a new clinical challenge every day, worsened by the very frequent rate of extraintestinal complications. The goal of this review is to provide an overview and an update on the extraintestinal complications occurring in IBD. Indeed, this paper highlights how virtually almost every organ system can be involved, principally eyes, skin, joints, kidneys, liver and biliary tracts, and vasculature (or vascular system) are the most common sites of systemic IBD and their involvement is dependent on different mechanisms. PMID:16437620

  10. Uncommon manifestations of neuroborreliosis in children.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Birnbacher, Robert; Koch, Johannes; Strobl, Robert; Rostásy, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne spirochetal infection which affects the skin, joints, heart and nervous system. Children with a neuroborreliosis usually present with a facial nerve palsy or aseptic meningitis, but the spectrum also includes other rare manifestations. We report four unusual cases of childhood neuroborreliosis and show that seizures with regional leptomeningeal enhancement, acute transverse myelitis, meningoradiculitis with pain and paraesthesia and cranial nerve palsies other than facial nerve palsy can be the leading symptoms of children with neuroborreliosis. All children had serological evidence of an acute infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, a pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid and a complete response to antibiotic treatment. An intrathecal synthesis of IgG antibodies was detected in three children. Thus, diagnostic work up in children with unusual neurological symptoms should include cerebrospinal fluid studies with determination of the white blood cell count and calculation of the antibody index against B. burgdorferi.

  11. [Orthostatic hypotension: an unusual manifestation of pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Acosta, Pamela; Valdés, Gloria

    2003-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma, though an uncommon cause of hypertension, can be a lethal condition. Because of this it is mandatory to diagnose it or rule it out in presence of suggestive symptoms. Typical symptoms are palpitations, sweating, severe headaches and hypertension. However, there are other suggestive symptoms of this dangerous endocrine entity, one of which is the orthostatic hypotension. We report the case of a 65 years old female patient with long standing hypertension in whom the pheochromocytoma was suspected after episodes of orthostatic hypotension. Although this manifestation was described almost fifty years ago, its frequency and pathophysiology has not yet been well established and fully elucidated. Moreover, it has meaningful implications in relation to preoperatory management and the timing of surgery.

  12. Gingival hypertrophy: a solitary manifestation of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ryan; Byers, Karin; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2008-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with rapid onset hypertrophy of both the upper and lower gingiva. A detailed history and a diet nearly void of fruits and vegetables raised the suspicion of a possible deficiency of vitamin C. An estimation of the serum ascorbic acid level confirmed our suspicions (<0.12 mg/dL; normal range, 0.4-1.0 mg/dL) and a diagnosis of scurvy was confirmed. A course of 1000 mg/d of ascorbic acid was initiated that caused a dramatic resolution of the gingival lesions. Gingival hypertrophy has a large differential diagnosis; however, it is also known to be an extremely rare manifestation of scurvy. A high index of suspicion for scurvy is relevant given its low prevalence in developed nations and how easily remediable the disease can be, even when it presents in a severe form.

  13. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices.

  14. [Chronic obstructive lung disease. Systemic manifestations].

    PubMed

    Grassi, Vittorio; Carminati, Luisa; Cossi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Tantucci, Claudio

    2003-05-01

    Chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD) are a complex disease state which not rarely can be associated with significant systemic manifestations. These alterations, though recognized since long time, are currently under extensive research, due to the increasing appreciation of their relevant negative role in the prognosis and health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) of the COPD patients. The most clinically important are the decrease in body weight with loss of skeletal muscle mass (cachexia), osteoporosis, hypercapnia-induced peripheral edema, neuro-psychiatric disorders, such as oxygen-related cognitive impairment and depression, excessive polycytaemia and sleep disorders. Chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and chronic hypoxia are believed as the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of systemic effects seen in COPD. Their adequate control with nutritional support, change of life-style and targeted pharmacological treatment is able to improve the prognosis and Hr-QoL among these COPD patients.

  15. Vascular Manifestations of von Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fye, Kenneth H.; Jacobs, Richard P.; Roe, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    A casual relationship between von Recklinghausen's disease, or neurofibromatosis, and arteriolar abnormalities has been reported in the European literature. A patient was seen who had biopsy-proved neurofibromatosis and renovascular hypertension and retroperitoneal bleeding. An arteriographic study showed multiple small aneurysms throughout the coeliac axis, the superior mesenteric artery and in several small intrarenal vessels. Renal vein renin levels were elevated particularly in the right renal vein, supporting the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Both the aneurysms seen in angiographic studies and the retroperitoneal hemorrhage are probably vascular manifestations of von Recklinghausen's disease. Support for this conclusion is enhanced by the absence of clinical, laboratory or histologic data supporting the only tenable differential diagnosis, periarteritis nodosa. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:803743

  16. [Uncommon clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Hayani, K; Dandashli, A; Weisshaar, E

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common dermatoses of the tropics. A major focus of this disease is the Syrian city of Aleppo, after which it was named in many textbooks ("Aleppo boil"). The first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported from Aleppo particularly more than 100 years ago. Syria is one of the most affected countries worldwide. This disease used to be well documented until the onset of the war in Syria in 2012, which is also supported by the numbers of the World Health Organisation (WHO), and Aleppo used to be the most affected Syrian city. Since 2012, the documentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria is no longer possible. An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis has been detected especially in the besieged regions due to missing prevention measures against the sandflies and a lack of medical care. A short summary of the epidemiologic situation in Syria as well as outstanding and uncommon clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo are presented.

  17. Hereditary angioedema: imaging manifestations and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Gakhal, Mandip S; Marcotte, Gregory V

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a genetic disorder typically related to insufficient or dysfunctional C1-esterase inhibitor. Patients present with episodic swelling of various body parts, such as the face, neck, bowel, genitals, and extremities. Acute or severe symptoms can lead to patients presenting to the emergency room, particularly when the neck and abdominopelvic regions are affected, which is often accompanied by radiologic imaging evaluation. Patients with hereditary angioedema can pose a diagnostic challenge for emergency department physicians and radiologists at initial presentation, and the correct diagnosis may be missed or delayed, due to lack of clinical awareness of the disease or lack of its consideration in the radiologic differential diagnosis. Timely diagnosis of hereditary angioedema and rapid initiation of appropriate therapy can avoid potentially life-threatening complications. This article focuses on the spectrum of common and characteristic acute imaging manifestations of hereditary angioedema and provides an update on important recent developments in its clinical management and treatment.

  18. Clinical manifestations of choanal atresia in infancy.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, F; Steiner, M; Rosati, D; Madonna, L; Colarossi, G

    1988-03-01

    The clinical features of 41 infants with various types of nasal obstruction were reviewed to study the correlation between the degree of nasal obstruction and clinical manifestations. Twenty-one subjects had bilateral choanal atresia/stenosis; 12 had unilateral choanal atresia/stenosis, and eight who were referred with suspected choanal atresia had a simple inflammatory nasal obstruction. Patients with bilateral choanal obstruction and patients with unilateral choanal obstruction or rhinitis showed no differences in clinical picture or in referral age. Many infants with either unilateral or bilateral choanal obstruction had one or more symptoms not fully relieved after surgical repair, although the choanae were widely patent. At long-term follow-up the surviving patients showed spontaneous recovery and good nasal respiration. Overall, five patients died. Since the common syndrome appeared to be related to a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, we conclude that any type of nasal obstruction may exacerbate or precipitate an underlying maturational autonomic disturbance.

  19. Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms are examples of variable extraintestinal manifestations of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These complications of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) seem to be underrecognized by both pulmonary physicians and gastroenterologists. The objective of the present review was to gather and summarize information on this particular matter, on the basis of available up-to-date literature. Tracheobronchial involvement is the most prevalent respiratory presentation, whereas IBD-related interstitial lung disease is less frequent. Latent and asymptomatic pulmonary involvement is not unusual. Differential diagnosis should always consider infections (mainly tuberculosis) and drug-induced lung pathology. The common link between intestinal disease and lung pathology is unknown, but many hypotheses have been proposed. It is speculated that environmental pollution, common immunological mechanisms and predisposing genetic factors may play a role. PMID:26788078

  20. [Clinical manifestations of epilepsy in hereditary schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Dvirskiĭ, A E; Shevtsov, A G

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of hereditary loading with schizophrenia on the clinical characteristics of epilepsy. In the population sample of epileptic patients (n = 3489), hereditary loading with schizophrenia was revealed in 4.7% of the patients, among whom loading with both schizophrenia and epilepsy was recorded in 0.6% of the cases. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy were compared in 143 patients loaded with schizophrenia and in 158 patients without hereditary loading with mental diseases. It has been established that in epileptic patients, the factor of hereditary loading with schizophrenia exerts a modifying effect on the premorbid characteristics, increasing the rate of schizoepileptoid, schizoid, and astheno-neurotic++ personality traits, and contributes to a favorable course of the disease. The data obtained standpoint of the previously advanced ++clinico-genetic concept of combined psychoses.

  1. [The chest CT findings and pathologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideo

    2009-08-01

    The past research of the radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan was based on morphological pathology of the untreated patient autopsy. I would like to show the chest CT scan of tuberculosis diseases with caseous granuloma at its exudative reaction, proliferative reaction, productive reaction, cirrhotic reaction until self cure. This progress reflects the normal cell mediated immunological responses. Also I would like to show the cavitation of granuloma, which results from liquefaction of caseous materials during the course and results in the formation of the source of infection. And finally I would like to show the morphological differences of acinous lesion, acino-nodular lesion and caseous lobular pneumonia. These differences reflect the amount of bacilli disseminated in the peripheral parts under the lobules. In this study, I do not show old age cases and HIV positive cases, who do not form typical granuloma due to the decreased cell mediated immnunity and whose X ray findings are atypical.

  2. Ultrastructural studies of the parotid glands in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Donath, K; Seifert, G

    1975-01-01

    30 parotid biopsies of patients with sialadenosis--a symmetrical, painless, non-inflammatory, recurrent parotid swelling--were studied by electron microscopy. The patients suffered from different diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, hypertension and other affections. Parotid biopsies from 25 patients with slight parotitis or with oral cancer were used as controls. Morphometric studies reveal that the parotid swelling is caused by an enlargement of acinar cells. In controls the average diameters of the acinar cells are 30 to 40 mu. In sialadenosis the diameters are enlarged to 50 to 70 mu, in some cases to a maximum of 100 mu. Histologically the cytoplasm of the enlarged acinar cells shows either a granular pattern due to a numerical increase in secretory granules or a vacuolar transformation. Ultrastructurally the vacuolar transformed acinar cells also contain an increased number of granules with less electron density than the surrounding cytoplasm. Three types of sialadenosis can be distinguished with regard to the electron density of the acinar granules: a) a dark granular type, b) a pale granular type and c) a mixed granular type. The mixed granular type probably develops from the dark granular form. Alterations leading to the destruction of the myoepithelial cells were observed in all three types of sialadenosis with minimal changes in the dark granular type. Degenerative alterations of the autonomic nervous system are evident in all three groups with most pronounced changes in the pale granular type of sialadenosis. The ultrastructural alterations are interpreted as a disturbance of secretion, probably primarily caused by the degeneration of the autonomic nervous system. The alteration of the autonomic nervous system is suggested to be the common pathogenetic principle in all types of human sialadenosis occurring with different basic diseases. The enlargement of the acinar cells is the result of an intracellular disturbance in the secretory

  3. Ultrastructure of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2015-11-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model system for forage grass and cereal grain species. Here, we report B. distachyon pollen development at the ultrastructural level. The process of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in B. distachyon follows the typical angiosperm pollen development sequence. Pronounced evaginations of the nuclear envelope are observed prior to meiosis, indicating active nucleocytoplasmic exchange processes. The microspore mother cells undergo meiosis and subsequent cytokinesis, forming isobilateral tetrads. Following dissolution of the callose wall and release of free and vacuolated microspores, mitotic divisions lead to the formation of mature, three-celled pollen grains. In B. distachyon, pollen wall formation begins at the tetrad stage by the formation of the exine template (primexine). The exine is tectate-columellate, comprising a foot layer and endexine. Development of the tectum and the foot layer is complete by the free microspore stage of development, with the tectum formed discontinuously. The endexine initiates in the free microspore stage but becomes compressed in mature grains. The intine layer is deposited after mitosis and comprises three layers during the mature pollen stage of development. Pore development initiates during early free microspore development stage and Brachypodium pollen has a single germination pore consisting of a slightly raised annulus surrounding a central operculum. The tapetum is of the secretory type with loss of the tapetal cell walls beginning at about the time of microsporocyte meiosis. This is the first report on ultrastructure of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in B. distachyon. In general, Brachypodium microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis conform to a typical grass pollen development pattern.

  4. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  5. Thoracic manifestations of Behçet disease at CT.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Nurith; Lieberman, Sivan; Chajek-Shaul, Tova; Bar-Ziv, Jacob; Shaham, Dorith

    2004-01-01

    Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, ocular manifestations, and additional clinical manifestations in multiple organ systems. Behçet disease involving the chest can manifest as a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Although conventional chest radiography is commonly used for initial assessment, spiral computed tomography can demonstrate the entire spectrum of thoracic manifestations of Behçet disease, including abnormalities of the vessel lumen and wall, perivascular tissues, lung parenchyma, pleura, and mediastinal structures. Aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries, with or without thrombosis, are a typical manifestation of Behçet disease. Other manifestations include thrombosis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, infarction, and inflammation. Familiarity with these manifestations can be useful in the diagnosis of Behçet disease, helping to determine the cause of symptoms in patients who present with hemoptysis and guide the choice of appropriate therapy.

  6. Microscopic polyangiitis accompanied by pleuritis as the only pulmonary manifestation of occupational silica exposure.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Hideki; Sano, Hiroko; Osamura, Kou; Kujime, Kosei; Hara, Kei; Hisada, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old man, who had worked for processing quartz-containing stones for more than 50 years, complained of low-grade fever and arthralgia. Mediastinal lymph nodes were markedly swollen on chest computed tomography. Pathological findings of the lymph node were compatible with silicosis, with a high titer of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). During follow-up with prednisolone treatment, pleuritis and uveitis developed as manifestations of vasculitis. Thus, he was diagnosed with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis with occupational silica exposure, possibly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This case is rare, because pleuritis was the only pulmonary manifestation, without interstitial pneumonia, alveolar hemorrhage or glomerulonephritis.

  7. A hemorrhagic pineal cyst with a bacterial meningitis-like manifestation and benign outcome.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kanji; Omodaka, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Rie; Kodaira, Minori

    2013-01-01

    Pineal cysts are a common incidental finding in imaging studies, and the majority of such cysts are asymptomatic. However, hemorrhaging pineal cysts, which are considered to be rare, are often associated with severe symptoms. We herein describe the case of a 58-year-old patient with the novel manifestation of a bleeding pineal cyst, who had a benign outcome without any surgical treatment. Although the clinical manifestations resembled those of bacterial meningitis, magnetic resonance images suggested chemical meningitis caused by an intracystic hemorrhage and rupture of the pineal cyst.

  8. The effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the ultrastructure of the liver cells of mole rats.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Saban; Türker, Hüseyin; Güven, Turan; Yel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the ultrastructural changes in the liver cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon) exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Thirteen mole rats used in this study were caught from nature. They were divided into four groups. The first group was separated as a control and was not given any radiation. The rest were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The electron microscopic examinations revealed that significant ultrastructural changes occurred in the liver tissue. These changes were the reduction in cytoplasmic organelles, dilatation in rough endoplasmic reticulum, impairment of nucleus membrane, and broadened and vacuolated mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Also, UVC radiation caused significant changes in liver enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gama-glutamiltransferase values. After long-term exposure to radiation, some excessive ultrastructural changes occurred. These results indicated that longer exposure to UVR would cause more ultrastructural effects on the liver cells and liver enzymes.

  9. Ultrastructural features of spermatozoa and their phylogenetic application in Zaprionus (Diptera, Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Rego, Letícia do Nascimento Andrade; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Zaprionus consists of approximately 60 species of drosophilids that are native to the Afrotropical region. The phylogenetic position of Zaprionus within the Drosophilidae family is still unresolved. In the present study, ultrastructural features of spermatozoa of 6 species of Zaprionus as well as the species Drosophila willistoni and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were analyzed. The ultrastructure revealed that the species have the same flagellar ultrastructure. Two mitochondrial derivatives, one larger than the other, close to the axoneme were present, primarily in D. willistoni (subgenus Sophophora). Except for Z. davidi and Z. tuberculatus, the analyzed species had paracrystalline material in both mitochondrial derivatives. Moreover, the testes showed 64 spermatozoa per bundle in all of the species. In the cluster analysis, 6 Zaprionus species were grouped closely, but there were some incongruent positions in the cladogram. The results indicated that sperm ultrastructure is an important tool for elucidating the phylogeny and taxonomy of insects. PMID:26963134

  10. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  11. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  12. [Relationship between the ultrastructural characteristic of coal dust and its toxicity].

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Cui, J; Tian, Y; Zhang, Y

    2000-07-01

    To study the relationship between the ultrastructural characteristic of coal dust and its toxicity, we compared two types of coal dusts which damaged alveolar macrophages(AMs) concerning with the coal dusts ultrastructural characteristic by using microscopy and biochemical techniques. The results showed that coal dusts damaged not only AMs plasma and lysosomal enzymes but also in ultrastructure. The coal dust in Nanpiao mine had a sharp form, fragile texture and a structure putting in order. It was concluded that: (1) the toxicity of coal dust in Nanpiao mine was higher than in Kailuan mine and which was related to the ultrastructural feature of the coal dusts; (2) the AMs injury degree by coal dusts was more and more serious with the duration of exposure to coal dusts.

  13. Finding Benefit from Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Benjamin A.; Altmaier, Elizabeth; Garcia, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Being diagnosed with and treated for cancer is a traumatic experience. Many cancer patients undergoing treatment manifest psychological distress and physical impairment. But this experience may also serve as a stimulus for positive growth. A growing body of literature addresses the possibility of positive growth through difficult events, a concept…

  14. Altered brain mechanisms of emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, Marianne J U; Warren, Jason D; Henley, Susie M D; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard S; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2012-04-01

    , right pallidum, right thalamus, cerebellum, middle frontal, middle occipital, right superior and left inferior temporal gyri, and left superior parietal lobule. The modulated happiness network included postcentral gyri, left caudate, right cingulate cortex, right superior and inferior parietal lobules, and right superior frontal, middle temporal, middle occipital and precentral gyri. These effects were not driven merely by striatal dysfunction. We did not find equivalent associations between brain structure and emotion recognition, and the pre-manifest Huntington's disease cohort did not have a behavioural deficit in out-of-scanner emotion recognition relative to controls. In addition, we found increased neural activity in the pre-manifest subjects in response to all three emotions in frontal regions, predominantly in the middle frontal gyri. Overall, these findings suggest that pathophysiological effects of Huntington's disease may precede the development of overt clinical symptoms and detectable cerebral atrophy.

  15. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  16. Ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Pollaci) Graham and Luttrell.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, L T; Bishop, D S; Hooper, G R

    1979-01-01

    Substrate specificity tests were used to identify the presence of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Poll.) Graham and Luttrell, an ascomycete which causes leaf spot in alfalfa. Cytochemical localization of monophenol monooxygenase (laccase) as well as the ultrastructures of the two strains were investigated. Laccase was observed in the outer layers of the cell walls of both strains. The ultrastructures of vegetative hyphae of both strains were typical of those found in most ascomycetes. Images PMID:104971

  17. Correlation of Serotype-Specific Dengue Virus Infection with Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Eric S.; Marks, Morgan A.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fiestas, Victor; Suarez, Luis; Vargas, Jorge; Aguayo, Nicolas; Madrid, Cesar; Vimos, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity throughout the world. Although prior research has focused on the association of specific DENV serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) with the development of severe outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, relatively little work has correlated other clinical manifestations with a particular DENV serotype. The goal of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of non-hemorrhagic clinical manifestations of DENV infection by serotype. Methodology and Principal Findings Between the years 2005–2010, individuals with febrile disease from Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay were enrolled in an outpatient passive surveillance study. Detailed information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, as well as demographic information, was collected. DENV infection was confirmed in patient sera with polyclonal antibodies in a culture-based immunofluorescence assay, and the infecting serotype was determined by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. Differences in the prevalence of individual and organ-system manifestations were compared across DENV serotypes. One thousand seven hundred and sixteen individuals were identified as being infected with DENV-1 (39.8%), DENV-2 (4.3%), DENV-3 (41.5%), or DENV-4 (14.4%). When all four DENV serotypes were compared with each other, individuals infected with DENV-3 had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal manifestations, and individuals infected with DENV-4 had a higher prevalence of respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. Conclusions/Significance Specific clinical manifestations, as well as groups of clinical manifestations, are often overrepresented by an individual DENV serotype. PMID:22563516

  18. Connection between classroom abuse and manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents' self-statements in questionnaires about childhood abuse and by the scales of manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism. The frequency analysis has shown that various forms of emotional abuse are more common in schools than physical abuse, and that they are reaching disturbing proportions. For example, more than half of the participants in the study reported facing intimidation and threats in school, and over a third of them have been yelled at. Although less commonplace, physical abuse in school can by no means be ignored. Those students who suffer from frequent physical abuse are more dissatisfied with school (r=0.174, p<0.05), display more aggressiveness (r=0.441, p<0.001), and are more often boys (r=0.324, p<0.01). Those students who are frequently emotionally abused are more anxious (r=0.281, p<0.01), dissatisfied with school (r=0.237, p<0.01), and display more manifest aggressiveness (r=398, p<0.01). The discriminant analysis has shown that the bullied students can be differentiated from their non-abused schoolmates as they are manifestly more anxious and aggressive, regardless of whether they suffer physical or emotional abuse. Instances of different forms of emotional and physical classroom abuse have increased alarmingly. Such traumatic experiences affect children's health and functioning in school, as well as in their private lives. The interdisciplinary studies of this phenomenon and the education of all those who work with young people emerge as the top priority in the prevention of this kind

  19. Unveiling unusual features of formation of septal partition and constriction in mycobacteria--an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Srinivasan; Anand, Deepak; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural functions of the electron-dense glycopeptidolipid-containing outermost layer (OL), the arabinogalactan-mycolic acid-containing electron-transparent layer (ETL), and the electron-dense peptidoglycan layer (PGL) of the mycobacterial cell wall in septal growth and constriction are not clear. Therefore, using transmission electron microscopy, we studied the participation of the three layers in septal growth and constriction in the fast-growing saprophytic species Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing pathogenic species Mycobacterium xenopi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in order to document the processes in a comprehensive and comparative manner and to find out whether the processes are conserved across different mycobacterial species. A complete septal partition is formed first by the fresh synthesis of the septal PGL (S-PGL) and septal ETL (S-ETL) from the envelope PGL (E-PGL) in M. smegmatis and M. xenopi. The S-ETL is not continuous with the envelope ETL (E-ETL) due to the presence of the E-PGL between them. The E-PGL disappears, and the S-ETL becomes continuous with the E-ETL, when the OL begins to grow and invaginate into the S-ETL for constriction. However, in M. tuberculosis, the S-PGL and S-ETL grow from the E-PGL and E-ETL, respectively, without a separation between the E-ETL and S-ETL by the E-PGL, in contrast to the process in M. smegmatis and M. xenopi. Subsequent growth and invagination of the OL into the S-ETL of the septal partition initiates and completes septal constriction in M. tuberculosis. A model for the conserved sequential process of mycobacterial septation, in which the formation of a complete septal partition is followed by constriction, is presented. The probable physiological significance of the process is discussed. The ultrastructural features of septation and constriction in mycobacteria are unusually different from those in the well-studied organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

  20. First ultrastructural observations on gastritis caused by Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europeaus).

    PubMed

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, T; Farshid, A A; Naem, S

    2015-10-01

    Ultrastructural changes of gastritis due to infection with Physaloptera clausa in 12 fresh carcasses of euthanized European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) collected from different part of Urmia, Iran, in which they were highly populated with this animal, six females and six males were subjected to detail necropsy with special reference to the stomach. Macroscopic changes of stomach were recorded and some of the worms collected. Based on number of parasites present in the stomach, they were divided into light infection, mild infection, and severe infection. Parasites were collected, and worms identification of the species was confirmed on the basis of light microscope examination with reference to keys. Tissues fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and processed and plastic embedded; ultrathin sections of 60-70 nm were cut and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate; electron microscopic observations showed that, in light infection some changes were observed in gastric cells such as dilatation and vesiculation of the endoplasmic reticulum, large numbers of lipid granules, mitochondrial swelling, nuclear chromatin margination, and some nucleus showed washed out appearance. Other cells showed some alterations in mitochondria, dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, loss of both free and bound ribosomes, vesiculation in cytoplasm, and increase Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles. The inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and predominantly eosinophils were identified. In moderate infection, the cellular pattern of gastric mucosa replaced with inflammatory cells. The marked increase of macrophages and other inflammatory cell was observed. A particular finding in our study was the presence of globule leukocyte in the moderate stage. Moreover, scant formation and distribution of collagen fibers as well as fibroblasts were also noted. In severe infection, the most obvious observation was marked distribution

  1. Giant-cell arteritis without cranial manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Lambert, Marc; Liozon, Eric; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Ollivier, Yann; Ly, Kim; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is challenging in the absence of cardinal cranial symptoms/signs. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and disease course of GCA patients without cranial symptoms, and to compare them to those of patients with typical cranial presentation. In this retrospective multicenter study, we enrolled patients with GCA who satisfied at least 3 of the 5 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with contributory vascular biopsy other than temporal artery biopsy or with demonstration of large-vessel involvement; underwent iconographic evaluation of large arterial vessels (aortic CT scan or a positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan or cardiac echography combined with a large-vessel Doppler) at diagnosis. We divided the cohort into 2 groups, distinguishing between patients without cranial symptoms/signs (i.e., headaches, clinical temporal artery anomaly, jaw claudication, ophthalmologic symptoms) and those with cranial symptoms/signs. In the entire cohort of 143 patients, all of whom underwent vascular biopsy and vascular imaging, we detected 31 (22%) patients with no cranial symptoms/signs. In the latter, diagnosis was biopsy proven in an arterial sample in 23 cases (74% of patients, on a temporal site in 20 cases and on an extratemporal site in 3). One-third of these 31 patients displayed extracranial symptoms/signs whereas the remaining two-thirds presented only with constitutional symptoms and/or inflammatory laboratory test results. Compared to the 112 patients with cardinal cranial clinical symptoms/signs, patients without cranial manifestations displayed lower levels of inflammatory laboratory parameters (C-reactive level: 68 [9–250] mg/L vs 120 [3–120] mg/L; P < 0.01), highest rate of aorta and aortic branch involvement identified (19/31 (61%) vs 42/112 (38%); P = 0.02) and also

  2. Retinal Ultrastructure of Murine Models of Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Hema L.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent form of irreversible blindness worldwide in the elderly population. The pathology of dry AMD consists of degeneration of photoreceptors and the RPE, lipofuscin (A2E) accumulation, and drusen formation. Mice have been widely used for generating models that simulate human AMD features for investigating the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of the disease. Although the mouse has no macula, focal atrophy of photorecptors and RPE, lipofuscin accumulation, and increased A2E can develop in aged mouse eyes. However, drusen are rarely seen in mice because of their simpler Bruch’s membrane and different process of lipofuscin extrusion compared with humans. Thus, analyzing basal deposits at the ultrastructural level and understanding the ultrastructural pathologic differences between various mouse AMD models are critical to comprehending the significance of research findings and response to possible therapeutic options for dry AMD. Based on the multifactorial pathogenesis of AMD, murine dry AMD models can be classified into three groups. First, genetically engineered mice that target genes related to juvenile macular dystrophies are the most common models, and they include abcr−/− (Stargardt disease), transgenic ELOVL4 (Stargardt-3 dominant inheritary disease), Efemp1R345W/R345W (Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy), and Timp3S156C/S156C (Sorsby fundus dystrophy) mice. Other murine models target genes relevant to AMD, including inflammatory genes such as Cfh−/−, Ccl2−/−, Ccr2−/−, Cx3cr1−/−, and Ccl2−/−/cx3cr1−/−, oxidative stress associated genes such as Sod1−/− and Sod2 knockdown, metabolic pathway genes such as neprilysin −/− (amyloid β), transgenic mcd/mcd (cathepsin D), Cp−/−/Heph−/Y (ferroxidase ceruloplasmin/hepaestin, iron metabolism), and transgenic ApoE4 on high fat and high cholesterol diet (lipid metabolism). Second, mice have also been immunologically

  3. Neurological Manifestations of Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhotani, Ashjan; Shirah, Bader

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an immune-mediated chorioretinal disease that causes acute visual symptoms with characteristic ophthalmoscopic findings. Neurological complications are rarely reported in the literature. Here we report two new cases of APMPPE that presented with neurological manifestations, one of which was associated with peripheral neuropathy, which has not been described before. Methods A retrospective database review of all patients with a diagnosis of APMPPE was performed. Clinical, ophthalmological, and neurological data were analyzed, and only cases of APMPPE with neurological complications were included. A literature review of several databases was also performed, and previous case reports were reviewed and analyzed in detail. Results In total, 56 cases of APMPPE-associated neurological complications were included in the analyses: 54 from the literature and 2 from our own practice. The most common complication was cerebral vasculitis, which affected 28 patients (50%), followed by headaches in 15 patients (26.8%). The other complications include sixth-cranial-nerve palsy, transient hearing loss, meningoencephalitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and viral meningitis. Conclusions This report adds to the literature of a novel association of APMPPE with peripheral neuropathy, and comprehensively reviews the neurological manifestations of this disease. A high level of suspicion should be applied when dealing with a case of APMPPE. We recommend applying detailed clinical neurological examinations and magnetic resonance imaging to APMPPE patients, and then early steroid treatment if the examination is positive or even suspicious. Early treatment with steroids and long-term treatment with immunosuppressive azathioprine with interval neurological evaluations will contribute positively to the outcomes and avoid fatal complications, namely strokes. PMID:27819416

  4. Ultrastructural Alteration of Plant Plasma Membranes Induced by Auxin and Calcium Ions 1

    PubMed Central

    Morré, D. James; Bracker, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in isolated and in situ plasma membranes of etiolated soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max L. cv. Wayne) were induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), other auxins, and calcium chloride. Fixed and embedded preparations were stained by a phosphotungstate-chromate procedure to identify and accentuate plasma membrane. Measurements were on micrographs obtained with an electron optical system calibrated and corrected for reproducible and accurate size measurements. Plasma membranes treated for 20 minutes with 1 μm IAA were 10 to 15% thinner than controls. The response to IAA was rapid, reproducible, auxin-specific, temperature-dependent, and reversible. Comparable responses were obtained with isolated and in situ membranes. Membranes treated with 0.5 m calcium chloride for 20 minutes were 15 to 20% thicker than controls. Multiple cycles of alternating calcium and IAA treatments yielded membranes with dimensions that reflected the last treatment of the series. The findings show a direct response of plasma membranes to growth regulating agents and provide evidence for a cell-free response of isolated plasma membranes to a hormone. Images PMID:16659714

  5. Segmental mediolytic arteritis. A clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Slavin, R E; Cafferty, L; Cartwright, J

    1989-07-01

    We describe the histopathologic and ultrastructural changes in two cases of segmental mediolytic arteritis (SMA) and summarize the clinical and pathologic findings in previous reports. SMA is initiated by the transformation of the arterial smooth-muscle cytoplasmic contents into a maze of dilated vacuoles containing edema-like fluid. With vacuolar rupture, the smooth-muscle cells are disrupted and the mediolytic process completed. Mediolysis is accompanied by fibrin deposition and hemorrhages at the adventitio-medial junction and within the media. Inflammation is inconstant and limited to the periadventitial tissues. Transmural mediolysis leads to the formation of arterial wall gaps--defects in the vascular wall bridged by a serofibrinous layer. The serosal and intramural arteries and arterioles of the jejunum and the epicardial coronary arteries were the targets of SMA in this report. SMA occurs in two clinical settings: (a) in abdominal muscular arteries and arterioles of predominantly elderly patients presenting either with ischemic bowel disease or shock, and (b) in the coronary arteries of neonates in conditions associated with severe hypoxemia. We conclude that SMA is the result of an inappropriate vasospastic response expressed in a splanchnic vascular bed undergoing vasoconstriction as a response to shock or severe hypoxemia.

  6. Differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma: a multimodal approach based on ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, C.W.; Bonsib, S.; Moran, C. )

    1992-05-01

    Most compensations for asbestos-related deaths secondary to cancer center around mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma is a common and troublesome one, necessitating the correlation between clinical history, radiographic findings, and pathologic examination of tissues and cells. We describe a multimodal approach based on the use of routine and special stains, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy for distinguishing between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. Once a malignant diagnosis is arrived at by careful pathological examination, the tumor is classified as mesothelioma if mesothelial cells are identified as the constituent cells of the neoplasm. Mesothelial cells are recognized by (1) their main ultrastructural features: slender and elongated microvilli, abundant intermediate filaments, and lacking secretory granules; and (2) their characteristic immunocytochemical reactivity: positivity for cytokeratin, EMA, and vimentin, and negativity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), B72-3, Leu-M1, and other gland-cell markers. A variety of methods have been attempted in an effort to distinguish between reactive and malignant mesothelial cells. In practice, however, such distinction depends more on experience and expertise than in any fool-proof ancillary tests. A number of these tests are discussed along with the illustration of classical and unusual examples of mesothelioma and other pleural tumors.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Low-Dose Statins in the Retinal Ultrastructure of Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Navarro, Judith; Aldea, Pilar; de Hoz, Rosa; Salazar, Juan J; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Gallego, Beatriz I; Triviño, Alberto; Tejerina, Teresa; Ramírez, José M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pleiotropic effects to statins, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative retinal changes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits after a low-dosage statin treatment. For this purpose, New Zealand rabbits were split into three groups: control (G0; n = 10), fed a standard diet; hypercholesterolemic (G1; n = 8), fed a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 months; and statins (G2; n = 8), fed a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 months, together with the administration of statin (pravastatin or fluvastatin sodium) at a dose of 2 mg / kg / day each diet. The retinas were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (glial fibrillary acidic protein). The retinal thickness of nuclear and plexiform layers were quantified in semi-thin sections. The results revealed that the low-statin-treated rabbits in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group showed: i) a more preserved structure in all retinal layers; ii) a significant reduction in retinal thickness; iii) a decrease in cell death in the nuclear-and ganglion-cell layers; iv) a reduction of hydropic degeneration in the plexiform and nerve-fiber layers; v) a preservation of astrocytes and of the retinal area occupied by them; and vi) a better-preserved retinal vascular structure. Our findings indicate that low doses of statins can prevent retinal degeneration, acting on retinal macroglia, neurons and retinal vessels, despite that hypercholesterolemia remained unchanged. Thus, the pleiotropic effects of the statins may help safeguard the retinal ultrastructure.

  8. Ultrastructural changes of corpora cavernosa in men with erectile dysfunction and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Lo Forti, Bruno; Savica, Vincenzo; Favazzi, Pietro; Magaudda, Ludovico; Cohen, Arthur H

    2004-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and often distressing side effect of renal failure. Uremic men of different ages report a high variety of sexual problems, including sexual hormonal pattern alterations, reduced or loss of libido, infertility, and impotence, thereby influencing their well-being. The pathogenic mechanisms include physiologic, psychologic, and organic causes. To determine the contribution of morphologic factors to impotence we studied the ultrastructure of the corpora cavernosa in 20 patients with end-stage renal disease who were treated with chronic dialysis and compared the findings with 6 individuals with no clinical history of impotence. Our results indicated that in male uremic patients with sexual disturbances there were major changes in smooth muscle cells. This was characterized by reduction of dense bodies in the cytoplasm, thick basement membranes, and increased interstitial collagen fibers with resultant reduction of cell-to-cell contact. In addition, there was thickening and lamination of basement membranes of endothelial cells and increased accumulation of collagen between nerve fibers. These alterations were more evident in patients with longer time on dialysis and were independent of type of primary renal disease. We hypothesize that ED in dialysis patients is not related to the primary disease but to the uremic state.

  9. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on the surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of broiler chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mashhadani, E.H.; Beck, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    The surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of 7-week-old broiler chicks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more accurate understanding of structural changes due to atmospheric ammonia (NH/sub 3/). In the first experiment, four broilers were randomly assigned to each of four chambers, and exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 7 days. Chickens exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ exhibited a large number of mucus-secreting cells that were not seen in the other treatments. Ciliary loss from the tracheal epithelium was not a consistent finding in either the exposed or the control groups. There was no evidence of goblet cell disappearance due to ammonia treatment. In the second experiment, four broilers were randomly allocated to each of four chambers and exposed to 0, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 4 days. There was an increase in the thickness of the atrial walls and a shrinking of air capillaries with increasing NH/sub 3/ concentration; in birds exposed to 75 and 100 ppm NH/sub 3/, wall thickness was one to two times greater than in the control birds. There were no observable differences in gross appearance of lungs and tracheas between control and exposed groups except for hemorrhagic spots on one of the lungs exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/.

  10. Ultrastructural studies of the myotendonous junction of selenium-deficient ducklings.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeny, P. R.; Brown, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    An ultrastructural study was made of the changes occurring within the gastrocnemius insertion of normal and selenium-deficient ducklings from 1 to 12 days of age. The cytologic characteristics of the fibroblasts, vessels, collagen, and muscle cells are described. Those exposed to the selenium deficiency showed major alterations of all components. The fibroblasts showed changes ranging from collapsed cisternae and degenerating mitochondria to rupture. The capillary endothelium was abnormal, as was the smooth muscle of arteriolar walls. The collagen sizes were altered, and the muscle cell termini showed major pathologic changes. The above alterations occurred within 4 days of exposure of the deficiency. The muscle cells of the body portion of the gastrocnemius showed no alterations until Day 8. The observations present evidence that indicates that connective-tissue-vascular abnormalities precede myopathic changes in nutritionally induced dystrophy. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to the etiology of nutritionally induced dystrophy. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7406022

  11. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  12. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis)

    PubMed Central

    Eroh, Guy D.; Clayton, Fred C.; Florell, Scott R.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Campbell, Michael S.; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively. PMID:28170433

  13. Ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum with reference to ionic transport.

    PubMed

    Jarial, M S; Wilkins, J H

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been examined using conventional transmission electron microscopy to elucidate its role in ionic transport. Four cell types are identified in the gill filament and primary gill bar epithelium. These are granular, ciliated, Leydig and basal cells. A fifth cell type, the flat mitochondria-rich cell is only found in the gill bar epithelium. The predominant granular cells display microvilli at their surface and their cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, vesicles and PAS+ secretory granules that are extruded at the surface, which along with secretions from the Leydig cells form a mucous coat. The granular cells are joined apically by junctional complexes consisting of zonulae occludens, zonulae adherens and desmosomes. The lateral membranes of granular cells enclose large intercellular spaces that are closed at the apical ends but remain open at the basal ends adjoining capillaries. In AgNO3-treated axolotl, the gills become darkly stained, the silver grains penetrate apical membranes and appear in the cytoplasm, accumulating near the lateral membranes and also enter the intercellular spaces. These findings are consistent with the dual role of the gill epithelium in mucus production and active ionic transport.

  14. [Relation of ultrastructural changes of articular cartilage and the arthroscopic classification in osteoarthritic knee].

    PubMed

    Chai, B F

    1992-01-01

    This paper reported the ultrastructural changes found in the diseased articular cartilages of 43 osteoarthritic knee joints, which were assessed according to the "Arthroscopic classification of the articular cartilage". The electron microscopic findings and the arthroscopic classification of the articular lesions were correlated. The lesioned articular cartilage revealed two categories of pathological changes. 1. The changes on the part of the articular chondrocytes comprised (1) The nucleus showed pyknosis and karyorrhexis. (2) The cytoplasm exhibited fat droplets, glycogen granules, and/or microfilaments. Lysosomes also emerged frequently. The mitochondria swelled and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum dilated and became vesiculated. At the same time there was detachment of cell processes or of the cytoplasmic membrane. The chondrocyte underwent necrosis, contracted and eventually disintegrated into lipid debris. These changes increased in extent and degree with the lesion and the severity went parallel with the sequence of the "Arthroscopic stage classification". 2. The changes on the part of the matrix included appearance of electron-dense lipid debris and numerous, coarse and banded collagen fibrils. They resided both in the pericellular matrix and in the general matrix. Sometimes fibroblast-like cells made their appearance in the matrix. These cells also revealed degenerative changes. All these changes went parallel with the sequence of the "Arthroscopic grade classification".

  15. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    PubMed

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  16. Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N

    2009-06-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the cell has an architectural editing function that checks whether protein structure and three-dimensional assembly have occurred properly prior to export of newly synthesized material out of the cell. If these have been faulty, the material is retained within the rER as an inclusion body. Inclusion bodies have been identified previously in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in chondrodysplasias and osteogenesis imperfecta. Inclusion bodies in intervertebral disc cells, however, have only recently been recognized. Our objectives were to use transmission electron microscopy to analyze more fully inclusion bodies in the annulus pulposus and to study the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells containing inclusion bodies. ECM frequently encapsulated cells with inclusion bodies, and commonly contained prominent banded aggregates of Type VI collagen. Inclusion body material had several morphologies, including relatively smooth, homogeneous material, or a rougher, less homogeneous feature. Such findings expand our knowledge of the fine structure of the human disc cell and ECM during disc degeneration, and indicate the potential utility of ultrastructural identification of discs with intracellular inclusion bodies as a screening method for molecular studies directed toward identification of defective gene products in degenerating discs.

  17. The Ultra-Structural Similarities between Cryptosporidium parvum and the Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Using a transmission electron microscopy-based approach, this study details the striking similarities between Cryptosporidium parvum and the gregarines during in vitro axenic development at high ultra-structural resolution. C. parvum zoites displayed three unusual regions within uninucleated parasites: epimerite-like, protomerite-like, and the cell body; these regions exhibited a high degree of morphological similarity to gregarine-like trophozoites. The presence of a mucron-like bulging structure at the side of the free ovoid gregarine-like zoites was observed after 2 h of cultivation. An irregular pattern of epicytic-like folds were found to cover the surface of the parasites 24 h postcultivation. Some extracellular stages were paired in laterocaudal or side-side syzygy, with the presence of a fusion zone between some of these zoites. The present findings are in agreement with phylogenetic studies that have proposed a sister relationship with gregarines. Cryptosporidium appears to exhibit tremendous variety in cell structure depending on the surrounding environment, thereby mimicking the "primitive" gregarines in terms of the co-evolution strategy between the parasites and their environments. Given this degree of similarity, different aspects of the evolutionary biology of Cryptosporidium need to be examined, considering the knowledge gained from the study of gregarines.

  18. How oxymonads lost their groove: an ultrastructural comparison of Monocercomonoides and excavate taxa.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alastair G B; Radek, Renate; Dacks, Joel B; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2002-01-01

    Despite being amongst the more familiar groups of heterotrophic flagellates, the evolutionary affinities of oxymonads remain poorly understood. A re-interpretation of the cytoskeleton of the oxymonad Monocercomonoides hausmanni suggests that this organism has a similar ultrastructural organisation to members of the informal assemblage 'excavate taxa'. The preaxostyle, 'R1' root, and 'R2' root of M. hausmanni are proposed to be homologous to the right, left, and anterior roots respectively of excavate taxa. The 'paracrystalline' portion of the preaxostyle, previously treated as unique to oxymonads, is proposed to be homologous to the I fibre of excavate taxa. Other non-microtubular fibres are identified that have both positional and substructural similarity to the distinctive B and C fibres of excavate taxa. A homologue to the 'singlet root', otherwise distinctive for excavate taxa, is also proposed. The preaxostyle and C fibre homologue in Monocercomonoides are most similar to the homologous structures in Trimastix. suggesting a particularly close relationship. This supports and extends recent molecular phylogenetic findings that Trimastix and oxymonads form a clade. We conclude that oxymonads have an excavate ancestry, and that the 'excavate taxa' sensu stricto form a paraphyletic assemblage.

  19. Ultrastructural lesions of the liver in human peliosis. A report of 12 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Zafrani, E. S.; Cazier, A.; Baudelot, A. M.; Feldmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrastructural lesions of the liver were studied in 12 patients with peliosis hepatis. This vascular lesion consisted of cavities filled with red blood cells and sometimes lined with an endothelial barrier; the cavities were due to cystic dilatation of the space of Disse and/or sinusoidal lumen. The passage of red blood cells through the endothelial barrier was occasionally demonstrated. Other striking alterations included the presence of numerous blebs on the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes and the existence of multiple cellular layers lining the sinusoids. Perisinusoidal fibrosis appeared on follow-up biopsies in 3 patients. There was no major abnormality of the hepatocytes or of the hepatic venules. These findings suggest that alterations of the sinusoidal barrier might constitute the primary event in peliosis, although secondary changes to increased pressure and hypoxia within the lobules cannot be excluded. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6696047

  20. Ultrastructural changes in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells acutely exposed to colloidal iron.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Mark L; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Taylor, Matthew C; Koina, Mark E; Maxwell, Lesley; Francis, Douglas; Jain, Sanjiv; McLean, Allan J

    2003-07-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells form an important interface between the vascular system, represented by the sinusoids, and the space of Disse that surrounds the hepatocyte microvilli. This study aimed to assess the light microscopic and ultrastructural effects of acute exposure of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells to colloidal iron by injection of rats with iron polymaltose. Eight minutes after a single intravenous injection of iron polymaltose sinusoidal endothelial cells showed defenestration, and thickening and layering as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Kupffer cells and stellate cells appeared activated. These changes were not observed in control animals, experiments using equivalent doses of maltose, or experiments using colloidal carbon except for Kupffer cell activation due to colloidal carbon. No significant light microscopic changes were seen in study or control animals. The findings indicate that acute exposure to colloidal iron causes changes in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, stellate cells and Kupffer cells. This may be the result of a direct toxic effect of iron or increased production of reactive oxygen species. These observations suggest a possible mechanism for defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells in ageing and in disease states.