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Sample records for mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced

  1. Ovis aries CR4 is involved in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Dassanayake, Rohana P

    2010-06-15

    Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease of domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) and cattle (BO). M. haemolytica is a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract in ruminants, but during stress and viral infection it breaches the host innate mucosal defense and descents into lungs causing fibrinous pleuropneumonia. Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by M. haemolytica is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes. Earlier, we and others have shown that DS and BO LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) can mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis. It is not clear whether CR4 (CD11c/CD18), which is involved in chemotaxis, phagocytosis and regulates host immune response can also mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis in ruminants. The host innate immune response to M. haemolytica is poorly understood and the involvement of CR4 in M. haemolytica pathogenesis is one of the most understudied. This problem is further compounded by the lack of cd11c genes from any ruminant species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to clone cd11c and determine whether CR4 can serve as a receptor for Lkt. In this direction we cloned two alleles of cd11c gene from leukocytes isolated from DS blood by RT-PCR. Transfectants developed expressing functional DS CR4 were found to be cytotoxic to Lkt from four different isolates of M. haemolytica. This is the first report confirming the ability of a recombinant ovine CR4 to bind to M. haemolytica Lkt and mediate concentration-dependent lysis of host cells, thus, confirming their role in M. haemolytica pathogenesis. This is a critical step in understanding host innate immunity and the management of pneumonia in sheep. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-expression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac-1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in incre...

  3. Mannheimia haemolytica vegetative endocarditis in a Suffolk wether

    PubMed Central

    LaHue, Nathaniel; Parish, Steven

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week-old Suffolk wether was diagnosed with bacterial endocarditis associated with Mannheimia haemolytica. The wether had shown signs of lethargy, inappetance, fever, and a grade 5 of 6 holosystolic murmur. Mannheimia haemolytica was cultured from blood premortem and the valvular lesion postmortem. PMID:25969581

  4. Precise gene editing paves the way for derivation of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-resistant cattle.

    PubMed

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Tibary, Ahmed; Beever, Jonathan E; Kasinathan, Poothapillai; Brown, Wendy C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-11-15

    Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by signal peptidase once the nascent proteins reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we reported that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, is not cleaved and hence remains intact on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the surface of ruminant leukocytes. Leukotoxin secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica binds to the intact signal peptide and causes cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes, resulting in acute inflammation and lung tissue damage. We also demonstrated that site-directed mutagenesis leading to substitution of cleavage-inhibiting glutamine (Q), at amino acid position 5 upstream of the signal peptide cleavage site, with cleavage-inducing glycine (G) results in the cleavage of the signal peptide and abrogation of leukotoxin-induced cytolysis of target cells. In this proof-of-principle study, we used precise gene editing to induce Q(‒5)G substitution in both alleles of CD18 in bovine fetal fibroblast cells. The gene-edited fibroblasts were used for somatic nuclear transfer and cloning to produce a bovine fetus homozygous for the Q(‒5)G substitution. The leukocyte population of this engineered ruminant expressed CD18 without the signal peptide. More importantly, these leukocytes were absolutely resistant to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis. This report demonstrates the feasibility of developing lines of cattle genetically resistant to M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia, which inflicts an economic loss of over $1 billion to the US cattle industry alone.

  5. Precise gene editing paves the way for derivation of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-resistant cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Tibary, Ahmed; Beever, Jonathan E.; Kasinathan, Poothapillai; Brown, Wendy C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by signal peptidase once the nascent proteins reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we reported that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, is not cleaved and hence remains intact on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the surface of ruminant leukocytes. Leukotoxin secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica binds to the intact signal peptide and causes cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes, resulting in acute inflammation and lung tissue damage. We also demonstrated that site-directed mutagenesis leading to substitution of cleavage-inhibiting glutamine (Q), at amino acid position 5 upstream of the signal peptide cleavage site, with cleavage-inducing glycine (G) results in the cleavage of the signal peptide and abrogation of leukotoxin-induced cytolysis of target cells. In this proof-of-principle study, we used precise gene editing to induce Q(‒5)G substitution in both alleles of CD18 in bovine fetal fibroblast cells. The gene-edited fibroblasts were used for somatic nuclear transfer and cloning to produce a bovine fetus homozygous for the Q(‒5)G substitution. The leukocyte population of this engineered ruminant expressed CD18 without the signal peptide. More importantly, these leukocytes were absolutely resistant to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis. This report demonstrates the feasibility of developing lines of cattle genetically resistant to M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia, which inflicts an economic loss of over $1 billion to the US cattle industry alone. PMID:27799556

  6. Genome Sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica Serotype 1 Strain 16041065 BH

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Confer, Anthony W.; Hansen, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the genome sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 strain 16041065 BH, which was recently isolated from a Midwestern calf that died due to Mannheimia haemolytica–induced pneumonia. This genome comprised a total of 2.7 Mb, with an N50 of 122 kb, and maintained hemolytic activity when grown on blood heart infusion agar supplemented with 5% sheep’s blood. PMID:28385859

  7. Defective bacterial clearance is responsible for the enhanced lung pathology characteristic of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Potter, Kathleen A; Knowles, Donald P; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-12-15

    The molecular and cellular basis for the enhanced lung pathology and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadenesis), in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries), is not clear. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of BHS are four- to eight-fold more susceptible to M. haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis, which is likely to reduce the number of functional phagocytes in the lung. We hypothesized that enhanced lung pathology is due to defective clearance of M. haemolytica from the lungs of BHS. To test this hypothesis, M. haemolytica (1 × 10(7) colony forming units [cfu]) were inoculated intra-tracheally into three groups each of BHS and DS, which were euthanized and necropsied at 4, 12, and 18 h post-inoculation (hpi). Bacterial and leukocyte counts were performed on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected at necropsy. BALF from BHS euthanized at 4 and 12 hpi contained a significantly higher number of M. haemolytica than that from DS. More importantly, DS did not have any bacteria in BALF at 18 hpi, while the BHS still had significant numbers. As expected, the BHS did exhibit more extensive lung lesions at 12 and 18 hpi when compared to DS. At 18 hpi, necrotic PMNs were observed in the lesional lung tissues of BHS, but not DS. Furthermore, BALF from BHS had significantly lower titers of antibodies to Lkt and surface antigens of M. haemolytica, than that of DS. These findings suggest that the enhanced pathology in BHS lungs is due to defective clearance of M. haemolytica from the lungs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia Vaccine Protects Bighorn Sheep against Mannheimia haemolytica Challenge ▿

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Shewen, Patricia E.; Barrington, George M.; Knowles, Donald P.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS) to Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. Although both species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx, DS carry mostly leukotoxin (Lkt)-positive strains while BHS carry Lkt-negative strains. Consequently, antibodies to surface antigens and Lkt are present at much higher titers in DS than in BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated immunization of BHS with multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine will protect them upon M. haemolytica challenge. Four BHS were vaccinated with a culture supernatant vaccine prepared from M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 and Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T10 on days 0, 21, 35, 49, and 77. Four other BHS were used as nonvaccinated controls. On the day of challenge, 12 days after the last immunization, the mean serum titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens against M. haemolytica were 1:160 and 1:4,000, respectively. Following intranasal challenge with M. haemolytica A2 (1 × 105 CFU), all four control BHS died within 48 h. Necropsy revealed acute fibrinonecrotic pneumonia characteristic of M. haemolytica infection. None of the vaccinated BHS died during the 8 weeks postchallenge observation period. Radiography at 3 weeks postchallenge revealed no lung lesions in two vaccinated BHS and mild lesions in the other two, which resolved by 8 weeks postchallenge. These results indicate that if BHS can be induced to develop high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens, they are likely to survive M. haemolytica challenge which is likely to reduce the BHS population decline due to pneumonia. PMID:21832104

  9. A multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine protects bighorn sheep against Mannheimia haemolytica challenge.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shewen, Patricia E; Barrington, George M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-10-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS) to Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. Although both species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx, DS carry mostly leukotoxin (Lkt)-positive strains while BHS carry Lkt-negative strains. Consequently, antibodies to surface antigens and Lkt are present at much higher titers in DS than in BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated immunization of BHS with multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine will protect them upon M. haemolytica challenge. Four BHS were vaccinated with a culture supernatant vaccine prepared from M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 and Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T10 on days 0, 21, 35, 49, and 77. Four other BHS were used as nonvaccinated controls. On the day of challenge, 12 days after the last immunization, the mean serum titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens against M. haemolytica were 1:160 and 1:4,000, respectively. Following intranasal challenge with M. haemolytica A2 (1 × 10(5) CFU), all four control BHS died within 48 h. Necropsy revealed acute fibrinonecrotic pneumonia characteristic of M. haemolytica infection. None of the vaccinated BHS died during the 8 weeks postchallenge observation period. Radiography at 3 weeks postchallenge revealed no lung lesions in two vaccinated BHS and mild lesions in the other two, which resolved by 8 weeks postchallenge. These results indicate that if BHS can be induced to develop high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens, they are likely to survive M. haemolytica challenge which is likely to reduce the BHS population decline due to pneumonia.

  10. Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Fenninger, Judith C.; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is able to cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal hosts, including fowl cholera in birds, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, and snuffles in rabbits. Together with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida also represents a major bacterial causative agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is one of the most important causes for economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industry. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, this study characterized the immunogenicity of P. multocida and M. haemolytica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) upon intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that OMVs derived from P. multocida or M. haemolytica are able to induce robust humoral and mucosal immune responses against the respective donor strain. In addition, also significant cross-immunogenic potential was observed for both OMV types. Colonization studies showed that a potential protective immune response against P. multocida is not only achieved by immunization with P. multocida OMVs, but also by immunization with OMVs derived from M. haemolytica. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that M. haemolytica OMVs induce a more complex immune response compared to P. multocida OMVs. The outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpH, and P6 were identified as the three major immunogenic proteins of P. multocida OMVs. Amongst others, the serotype 1-specific antigen, an uncharacterized outer membrane protein, as well as the outer membrane proteins P2 and OmpA were found to be the most important antigens of M. haemolytica OMVs. These findings are useful for the future development of broad-spectrum OMV based vaccines against BRD and other infections caused by P. multocida or M. haemolytica. PMID:23731905

  11. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boukahil, Ismail; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2015-01-30

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the primary bacterial agent in the bovine respiratory disease complex. It is thought that M. haemolytica colonizes the tonsillar crypts of cattle as a commensal and subsequently descends into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacterial species persist in the host as biofilms. There is limited information about the ability of M. haemolytica to form biofilms. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model for M. haemolytica biofilm formation. We found that M. haemolytica required at least 36 h to form robust biofilms on plastic in vitro when incubated in RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium at 37 °C, with maximal biofilm formation being evident at 48 h. Biofilm formation was inhibited by adding the monosaccharides d(+) galactose and d(+) mannose to the growth medium. Addition of antibodies to the M. haemolytica surface protein OmpA also reduced biofilm formation. Upon evaluating the macromolecules within the biofilm extracellular polymeric substance we found it contained 9.7 μg/cm(2) of protein, 0.81 μg/cm(2) of total carbohydrate, and 0.47 μg/cm(2) of extracellular DNA. Furthermore, proteinase K treatment significantly decreased biofilms (P<0.05) while α-amylase and micrococcal nuclease decreased biofilms to a lesser extent. M. haemolytica biofilm cells were more resistant than planktonic cells to the antibiotics florfenicol, gentamicin, and tulathromycin. These results provide evidence that M. haemolytica can form biofilms, which could contribute to its ability to persist as a commensal in the bovine upper respiratory tract.

  12. Bibersteinia trehalosi inhibits the growth of mannheimia haemolytica by a proximity-dependent mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from BHS ...

  13. Bibersteinia trehalosi Inhibits the Growth of Mannheimia haemolytica by a Proximity-Dependent Mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and occasionally Pasteurella multocida have been isola...

  14. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  15. Proximity-dependent inhibition of growth of mannheimia haemolytica by pasteurella multocida.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia trehalosi have been identified in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis). Of these pathogens, M. haemolytica has been shown to consistently cause fatal pneumonia in BHS under experimental conditions. However, M. hae...

  16. Identification of the pan and core genomes for Mannheimia haemolytica genotypes 1 and 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica normally populates the upper respiratory tract of cattle and is recognized as a major cause of bovine respiratory disease. Recently, two major genotypes (1 and 2) of M. haemolytica were identified from whole genome sequencing and analyses of 1,145 North American isolates. On...

  17. Mannheimia haemolytica A1-induced fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a naturally-infected Holstein-Friesian calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic bacterium that is widely recognized among the bovine respiratory disease complex as the predominant pathogen associated with pleuropneumonia in cattle. Among the characterized M. haemolytica serotypes, A1 is the major cause of severe pulmonary lesions in ca...

  18. Identification of a mannheimia haemolytica genetic subtype that causes bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a serious health and economic problem that costs the United States cattle industry over a billion dollars annually. Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial component of BRDC. An opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica resides within the upper respira...

  19. A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants. Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. haemolytica genomes was used to identify unique genes associa...

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Cook, Shaun R.; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P.; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2–8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the

  1. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (P<0.0001) with monoclonal antibody BAQ30A and was higher (P<0.0002) as well with monoclonal antibody HUH80A on domestic sheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  2. Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi Serotypes Isolated from Merino Breed Lambs in Extremadura (Southwestern Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sara; Galapero, Javier; Gómez, Luis; Pérez, Carlos J; Cid, Dolores; Martín, M Carmen; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Rey, Joaquín

    2016-12-01

    Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease in ruminants. Because of its economic significance, several methods have been developed to study the pathogenicity and epidemiology of M. haemolytica. In this study, bacterial isolates of M. haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi identified from the lungs of sheep were serotyped by means of indirect haemagglutination. Of the 598 lungs studied, 34 isolates were identified and serotyped. In decreasing order, M. haemolytica serotypes were: not typable (50 %), A1 (17.65 %), A7 (11.76 %), A6 (5.88 %), and A12, A2, A5 and A9 (each representing 2.94 %). The only B. trehalosi serotype was T4 (2.94 %). Serotypes A1, A6 and A7 of M. haemolytica were the most commonly isolated from pneumonic sheep producing greater changes in the lungs and having important implications for sheep production.

  3. Genome Sequence of a Spontaneous Nonhemolytic Mutant of Mannheimia haemolytica 16041065 GH

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Confer, Anthony W.; Hansen, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence of a spontaneous nonhemolytic mutant of Mannheimia haemolytica 16041065 GH. This mutant arose during routine passage and was devoid of hemolytic activity on standard blood agars. This genome sequence had a total size of 2.7 Mb with an N50 of 117 kb. PMID:28385858

  4. Genome sequences of serotype A6 Mannheimia haemolytica isolates D174 and D38 recovered from bovine pneumonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D174 and D38)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  5. Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 strains D153 and D193 from bovine pneumonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D171 and D35)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  6. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica in beef calves via nasopharyngeal culture and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; Mosier, Derek A; Larson, Robert L; Murray, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD); unfortunately, very little is known about M. haemolytica transmission dynamics among cattle. Identifying potential variation in M. haemolytica populations over time and induction of nasopharyngeal colonization and subsequent shedding are 2 areas where knowledge is lacking. In our study, 2 separate loads of 20 mixed-origin, male calves were purchased through an order buyer on different dates. Deep nasopharyngeal cultures (NPC) were performed on all calves on arrival and, if M. haemolytica-negative, a second screening culture was obtained. Calves that were negative on 2 initial NPCs (NEG; n = 4) were subsequently challenged with a previously isolated field strain of M. haemolytica in both the upper and lower respiratory tract, individually housed, and then monitored for M. haemolytica shedding via NPCs at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days postchallenge. Naturally M. haemolytica-positive calves (2 per load) were kept for additional daily cultures (POS; n = 4). Individual calf M. haemolytica status for both the POS and NEG groups was inconsistent between study days. Additionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed on isolates from the positive cultures showed that the NEG calves did not shed the M. haemolytica challenge strain, but rather 2 distinct clusters of M. haemolytica were shared among POS and NEG calves regardless of their initial status. Although sample sizes were small, these findings illustrate how variable the results of a single nasopharyngeal swab can be and the challenges of using an individual culture to truly represent animal M. haemolytica status.

  7. LKTA and PlpE small fragments fusion protein protect against Mannheimia haemolytica challenge.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; González-Castillo, Celia; de Obeso-Fernández del Valle, Álvaro; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex is a major cause of economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industries. Mannheimia haemolytica is considered the most important pathogen associated with this disease. Vaccines against M. haemolytica have been prepared and used for many decades, but traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection and their use has often exacerbated disease in vaccinated animals. Thus, the BRD complex continues to exert a strong adverse effect on the health and wellbeing of stocker and feeder cattle. Therefore, generation of recombinant proteins has been helpful in formulating enhanced vaccines against M. haemolytica, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, we formulated a vaccine preparation enriched with recombinant small fragments of leukotoxin A (LKTA) and outer-membrane lipoprotein (PlpE) proteins, and demonstrated its ability to generate high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep, which protected against M. haemolytica bacterial challenge in mice.

  8. Mannheimia haemolytica and Its Leukotoxin Cause Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation by Bovine Neutrophils▿

    PubMed Central

    Aulik, Nicole A.; Hellenbrand, Katrina M.; Klos, Heather; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important member of the bovine respiratory disease complex, which is characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration into the alveoli and fibrin deposition. Recently several authors have reported that human neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are protein-studded DNA matrices capable of trapping and killing pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that the leukotoxin (LKT) of M. haemolytica causes NET formation by bovine neutrophils in a CD18-dependent manner. Using an unacylated, noncytotoxic pro-LKT produced by an ΔlktC mutant of M. haemolytica, we show that binding of unacylated pro-LKT stimulates NET formation despite a lack of cytotoxicity. Inhibition of LKT binding to the CD18 chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on bovine neutrophils reduced NET formation in response to LKT or M. haemolytica cells. Further investigation revealed that NETs formed in response to M. haemolytica are capable of trapping and killing a portion of the bacterial cells. NET formation was confirmed by confocal microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Prior exposure of bovine neutrophils to LKT enhanced subsequent trapping and killing of M. haemolytica cells in bovine NETs. Understanding NET formation in response to M. haemolytica and its LKT provides a new perspective on how neutrophils contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease. PMID:20823211

  9. Mannheimia haemolytica A1-induced fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a naturally-infected Holstein-Friesian calf.

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, S; Nemeth, N; Rech, R; Briggs, R; Sanchez, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic bacterium that is widely recognized among the bovine respiratory disease complex as the predominant pathogen causing broncho- and pleuropneumonia in cattle. Among the characterized M. haemolytica serotypes, A1 is the major cause of severe pulmonary lesions in cattle. This report describes post-mortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian calf with fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis and fibrinonecrotizing, haemorrhagic broncho- and pleuropneumonia, from which M. haemolytica and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) were isolated. Microscopical evaluation showed expansion of the brainstem and cerebellar leptomeninges by neutrophils and fibrin, associated with gram-negative coccobacilli. Occasional blood vessels within the midbrain and cerebellum contained fibrin thrombi. Bacterial culture of cerebellum and lung yielded M. haemolytica with unusually high haemolytic activity. The isolates were confirmed as serotype A1 by rapid plate agglutination. Lung tissue was positive for BVDV by polymerase chain reaction. The broncho- and pleuropneumonia in this calf were consistent with typical mannheimiosis due to serotype A1; however, extrapulmonary infections due to M. haemolytica, as seen in this case, are rarely reported. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a natural BVDV and M. haemolytica co-infection associated with fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a calf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mannheimia haemolytica and Its Leukotoxin Cause Macrophage Extracellular Trap Formation by Bovine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Aulik, Nicole A.; Hellenbrand, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Human and bovine neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are protein-studded DNA matrices capable of extracellular trapping and killing of pathogens. Recently, we reported that bovine neutrophils release NETs in response to the important respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica and its leukotoxin (LKT). Here, we demonstrate macrophage extracellular trap (MET) formation by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to M. haemolytica or its LKT. Both native fully active LKT and noncytolytic pro-LKT (produced by an lktC mutant of M. haemolytica) stimulated MET formation. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed a network of DNA fibrils with colocalized histones in extracellular traps released from bovine macrophages. Formation of METs required NADPH oxidase activity, as previously demonstrated for NET formation. METs formed in response to LKT trapped and killed a portion of the M. haemolytica cells. Bovine alveolar macrophages, but not peripheral blood monocytes, also formed METs in response to M. haemolytica cells. MET formation was not restricted to bovine macrophages. We also observed MET formation by the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and by human THP-1 cell-derived macrophages, in response to Escherichia coli hemolysin. The latter is a member of the repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxin family related to the M. haemolytica leukotoxin. This study demonstrates that macrophages, like neutrophils, can form extracellular traps in response to bacterial pathogens and their exotoxins. PMID:22354029

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica Strain Mh10517, Isolated from Sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kidanemariam Gelaw, Awoke; Bihon, Wubetu; Faranani, Ramagoma; Mafofo, Joseph; Rees, Jasper; Madoroba, Evelyn

    2015-04-09

    Respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is a major concern in the cattle and small stock industry worldwide. This problem arises due to the interaction of numerous contributing factors, including physical stresses associated with weaning, shipment, inclement weather, and overcrowding coupled with viral and bacterial infections. The whole genome of M. haemolytica strain Mh10517 was analyzed using an Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform. The genome size is 2.67 Mb with 2,879 predicted gene sequences. The availability of this genome sequence will advance studies on various aspects of the biology of M. haemolytica in Africa and the world at large. Copyright © 2015 Kidanemariam Gelaw et al.

  12. Identification of immunodominant proteins from Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni by an immunoproteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Angel H.; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni are frequently isolated from diseased cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). They compromise animal lung function and the immune responses generated are not sufficient to limit infection. Identification of specific immunogenic antigens for vaccine development represents a great challenge. Immunogenic proteins were identified by immunoproteomic approach with sera from cattle immunized with a commercial cellular vaccine of M. haemolytica and H. somni. Proteins of M. haemolytica were identified as solute ABC transporter, iron-binding protein, and hypothetical protein of capsular biosynthesis. Histophilus somni proteins correspond to porin, amino acid ABC transporter, hypothetical outer membrane protein, cysteine synthase, and outer membrane protein P6. Although these antigens share strong similarities with other proteins from animal pathogens, the ABC system proteins have been associated with virulence and these proteins could be considered as potential vaccine candidates for BRD. PMID:26424916

  13. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-04

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle.

  14. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential susceptibility of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin is not due to differential expression of cell surface CD18

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica) than are domestic sheep (DS). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is accepted as the critical virulence factor for BHS, based on the fact that Lkt-deletion mutants do not cause death of BHS. Al...

  16. Probiotic bacteria inhibit the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; Subramanian, S; Timsit, E; Alexander, T W

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the potential of probiotic bacteria to inhibit growth and cell adhesion of the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemoltyica serotype 1. The inhibitory effects of nine probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains) against M. haemolytica were evaluated using a spot-on-lawn method. Probiotic strains were then tested for their adherence to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells and the ability to displace and compete against M. haemolytica on BBE. Except for S. thermophilus, all probiotic strains inhibited the growth of M. haemolytica, with zones of inhibition ranging between 12 and 19 mm. Lactobacillus strains and Lactococcus lactis displayed greater (P < 0·05) BBE adhesion compared with M. heamolytica (8·3%) and other probiotics (<2·2%). Strains of P. polymyxa and L. acidophilus caused the greatest reduction in M. haemolytica adherence, through both displacement and competition, compared with other probiotics. The results of this study suggest that probiotics may have the potential to colonize the bovine respiratory tract, and exert antagonistic effects against M. haemolytica serotype 1. A common method to control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlots is through mass medication with antibiotics upon cattle entry (i.e. metaphylaxis). Increasingly, antimicrobial resistance in BRD bacterial pathogens has been observed in feedlots, which may have important implications for cattle health. In this study, probiotic strains were shown to adhere to bovine respiratory cells and inhibit the BRD pathogen M. haemolytica serotype 1 through competition and displacement. Probiotics may therefore offer a mitigation strategy to reduce BRD bacterial pathogens, in place of metaphylactic antimicrobials. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  17. Complete closed genome sequences of a Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 leukotoxin deletion mutant and its wild type parent strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). It secretes a leukotoxin that binds to CD18 on leukocyte membranes and causes acute inflammation and lung injury characteristic of BRDC. We report the complete closed genome sequences of a leu...

  18. Defective bacterial clearance is responsible for the enhanced lung pathology characteristic of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The molecular and cellular basis for the enhanced lung pathology and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadenesis), in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries), is not clear. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of BHS are four- to eight-fold more susceptibl...

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica antigens in goats with natural pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yener, Z; Ilhan, F; Ilhan, Z; Saglam, Y S

    2009-04-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to ruminants throughout the world. Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important etiological agent of pneumonia in cattle, sheep, and goats. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of M.haemolytica antigens using immunohistochemistry labelling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues in pneumonic lungs of goats slaughtered at abattoir, and then to compare these immunohistochemistry results with the results of bacterial isolation. For these objectives, a total of 1505 goat lungs slaughtered in slaughterhouse were grossly examined and pneumonia was detected in 74 cases (4.91%). Of these, with the exception of verminous pneumonia observed in 32 cases, on 42 pneumonic lungs immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) procedure using polyclonal antibodies to detect M.haemolytica antigens. Pneumonic lesions were more frequently encountered in cranioventral lobes than caudal lobes, and characterized by irregular lobular foci of atelectasis or lobar pneumonia. The presence of M.haemolytica antigens was detected in 19 (45%) out of 42 pneumonic lungs. Bacterial antigens were found most frequently in the cytoplasm of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, in the swirling degenerating leukocytes in the alveoli, and in the degenerating leukocytes in the area of coagulation necrosis, less frequently in the epithelial cells of bronchial glands, and lymphoid cells. Conclusionly, immunohistochemical detection of M.haemolytica antigens in pneumonic lungs appear to be more reliable compared to bacterial isolation.

  20. A three-way comparative genomic analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mannhemia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. They transform from a benign commensal to a deadly pathogen, during stress such as viral infection and transportation to feedlots and cause acute pleuropneumonia commonly known as shipping fever. The U.S beef industry alone loses more than one billion dollars annually due to shipping fever. Despite its enormous economic importance there are no specific and accurate genetic markers, which will aid in understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of M. haemolytica at molecular level and assist in devising an effective control strategy. Description During our comparative genomic sequence analysis of three Mannheimia haemolytica isolates, we identified a number of genes that are unique to each strain. These genes are "high value targets" for future studies that attempt to correlate the variable gene pool with phenotype. We also identified a number of high confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms (hcSNPs) spread throughout the genome and focused on non-synonymous SNPs in known virulence genes. These SNPs will be used to design new hcSNP arrays to study variation across strains, and will potentially aid in understanding gene regulation and the mode of action of various virulence factors. Conclusions During our analysis we identified previously unknown possible type III secretion effector proteins, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated sequences (Cas). The presence of CRISPR regions is indicative of likely co-evolution with an associated phage. If proven functional, the presence of a type III secretion system in M. haemolytica will help us re-evaluate our approach to study host-pathogen interactions. We also identified various adhesins containing immuno-dominant domains, which may interfere with host-innate immunity and which could potentially serve as effective vaccine

  1. Transfection of non-susceptible cells with Ovis aries recombinant lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 renders susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important etiological agent of pneumonia in domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by this organism is the principal virulence factor responsible for the acute inflammation and lung injury characteristic of M. haemolytica caused disease. Previously, w...

  2. Differences in susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica-associated mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Fragkou, Ilectra A; Skoufos, John; Cripps, Peter J; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Papaioannou, Nikos; Boscos, Costas M; Tzora, Athina; Fthenakis, George C

    2007-08-01

    We used a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate to study differences in susceptibility to experimental mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep. The isolate was deposited into the teat duct of Karagouniko (K, n=8) or Frisarta (F, n=8) ewes. The animals were monitored by means of clinical, bacteriological, cytological and pathological methods. K ewes did not develop any systemic or mammary clinical signs, whilst F ewes became ill and developed acute clinical mastitis 12 h later (P<0.001). Bacteria were isolated from 34/48 samples from K ewes and from 46/46 samples from F ewes. Positive California mastitis test (CMT) results were 17/24 samples from K ewes and 23/23 samples from F ewes; leucocytes were seen in Giemsa-stained films. Total pathology score summed over all group K ewes was 41 (maximum possible: 128); Man. haemolytica was isolated from 12/24 tissue samples. Total pathology score summed over all group F ewes was 93; Man. haemolytica was isolated from 24/24 tissue samples. Hyperplastic lymphoid nodules consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells with germinal activity were characteristically present at the border between teat duct-teat cistern of group K ewes; no such structures were observed in teats of group F ewes. The results identified differences in susceptibility/resistance to a mastitis pathogen among animals of the two breeds. Defence mechanisms of the teat appeared to be inadequate against the invading organisms; as lymphoid nodules have been considered important defensive mechanisms of the ovine teat, their observed lack in Frisarta ewes might have predisposed them to development of mastitis.

  3. New interpretive criteria for danofloxacin antibacterial susceptibility testing against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael T; Papich, Mark G; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent approved for use in veterinary medicine to treat and control bovine respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida. Susceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint (≤0.25 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≥22 mm) values for danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida were first approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2003. However, intermediate and resistant breakpoint values were not established because only susceptible wild-type populations were evident at the time of breakpoint approvals. Since then, nonsusceptible isolates of M. haemolytica and P. multocida have been identified. We report danofloxacin intermediate MIC breakpoint (0.5 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (18-21 mm), as well as danofloxacin-resistant MIC breakpoint (≥1 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≤17 mm), based on scattergram plots of MIC values versus disk zone diameters and calculated error-bound rates using M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates recovered from bovine respiratory disease in North America in 2004-2014. These newly established intermediate and resistant clinical breakpoint values have been endorsed by CLSI and can be used for interpreting results from antibacterial susceptibility testing of danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolated from bovine respiratory disease.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from cattle with bovine pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Ken; Kohmoto, Mariko; Mikami, Osamu; Uchida, Ikuo

    2009-10-20

    Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of quinolone-resistant Mannheimia haemolytica was conducted. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 229 M. haemolytica isolates which were obtained from cattle with bovine respiratory disease during the period 1984-2006, was determined using 14 antimicrobial agents. Of the 229 isolates, 114 (49.8%) were resistant to at least one agent and resistance rates ranged from 4.8% to 31.4%. Resistance rates for dihydrostreptomycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin, thiamphenicol, kanamycin chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, and danofloxacin were 31.4%, 20.5%, 18.3%, 19.2%, 16.6%, 10.9%, 11.4%, 10.5%, 17.0%, 4.8% and 4.8%, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes of nalidixic acid-resistant M. haemolytica were determined. All nalidixic acid-resistant strains possessed at least one amino acid substitution in each of the GyrA and ParC fragments investigated. These results suggest that M. haemolytica require at least one amino acid substitution in both GyrA and ParC in order to attain significant levels of resistance to quinolones. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates belonged to serotype 6, and their genotype by PFGE analysis was identical. This result indicates that fluoroquinolone-resistant M. haemolytica strains have clonally expanded.

  5. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Klima, Cassidy L.; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  6. Biochemical Characterization of a Polysialyltransferase from Mannheimia haemolytica A2 and Comparison to Other Bacterial Polysialyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Lindhout, Theresa; Bainbridge, Cynthia R.; Costain, Will J.; Gilbert, Michel; Wakarchuk, Warren W.

    2013-01-01

    Polysialic acids are bioactive carbohydrates found in eukaryotes and some bacterial pathogens. The bacterial polysialyltransferases (PSTs), which catalyze the synthesis of polysialic acid capsules, have previously been identified in select strains of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis and are classified in the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database as glycosyltransferase family GT-38. In this study using DNA sequence analysis and functional characterization we have identified a novel polysialyltransferase from the bovine/ovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A2 (PSTMh). The enzyme was expressed in recombinant form as a soluble maltose-binding-protein fusion in parallel with the related PSTs from E. coli K1 and N. meningitidis group B in order to perform a side-by-side comparison. Biochemical properties including solubility, acceptor preference, reaction pH optima, thermostability, kinetics, and product chain length for the enzymes were compared using a synthetic fluorescent acceptor molecule. PSTMh exhibited biochemical properties that make it an attractive candidate for chemi-enzymatic synthesis applications of polysialic acid. The activity of PSTMh was examined on a model glycoprotein and the surface of a neuroprogenitor cell line where the results supported its development for use in applications to therapeutic protein modification and cell surface glycan remodelling to enable cell migration at implantation sites to promote wound healing. The three PSTs examined here demonstrated different properties that would each be useful to therapeutic applications. PMID:23922842

  7. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Danofloxacin Administered by Two Dosing Regimens in Calves Infected with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sarasola, Patxi; Lees, Peter; Shojaee AliAbadi, Fariborz; McKellar, Quintin A.; Donachie, William; Marr, Kate A.; Sunderland, Simon J.; Rowan, Tim G.

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin in calves with induced Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica pneumonia were evaluated. Calves received either saline as an intravenous (IV) bolus or danofloxacin (0.738 mg/kg of body weight) administered as either a single IV bolus or a 36-h continuous IV infusion. Blood samples and bronchial secretions were collected before and at predetermined times over 48 h following the start of treatment. Calves were assessed clinically throughout, and lung consolidation was assessed at necropsy. Bronchial secretions and lung tissue were cultured for M. haemolytica. Bolus administration of danofloxacin produced a high maximum drug concentration-to-MIC ratio (Cmax:MIC) of 14.5 and a time period of 9.1 h when plasma danofloxacin concentrations exceeded the MIC (T>MIC). Following danofloxacin infusion, the Cmax:MIC was low (2.3), with a long T>MIC (33.3 h). The area under the curve-to-MIC ratios were 43.3 and 49.1 for the bolus and infusion administrations, respectively. The single bolus of danofloxacin was more effective than the same dose administered by continuous infusion, as indicated by a significantly lower (P < 0.05) number of animals with M. haemolytica in bronchial secretions after treatment and lower rectal temperatures in the 24 h after the start of treatment. Thus, danofloxacin exhibited concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity in cattle with respiratory disease caused by M. haemolytica. PMID:12183261

  8. Complete closed genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes A1 and A6 isolated from cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannhemimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. M. haemolytica is commonly associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial, multifactorial disease. We present the first two complete closed genomes of this species using a...

  9. Genomic signatures of Mannheimia haemolytica that associate with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, an integrative conjugative element, and antibiotic resistance genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system ...

  10. Mucosal and parenteral vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle with a modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutant of Mannheimia haemolytica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new temperature-conditional shuttle vector, pBB80C, was constructed and utilized to generate an in-frame deletion in the leukotoxin structural gene of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1. Culture supernatants from the mutant contained no detectable cytotoxicity to BL-3 lymphocyte targets, and contai...

  11. Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity in two related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Frances Cassirer, E; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2009-02-02

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in both bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). Under experimental conditions, co-pasturing of BHS and DS results in fatal pneumonia in BHS. It is conceivable that certain serotypes of M. haemolytica carried by DS are non-pathogenic to them, but lethal for BHS. M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 are carried by DS in the nasopharynx. However, it is the serotype A2 that predominantly causes pneumonia in DS. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity to BHS and DS, and to determine whether leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by this organism is its primary virulence factor. Three groups each of BHS and DS were intra-tracheally administered either 1 x 10(9)cfu of serotype A1 wild-type (lktA-Wt group), Lkt-deletion mutant of serotype A1-(lktA-Mt group), or saline (control group), respectively. In the lktA-Wt groups, all four BHS died within 48h while none of the DS died during the 2-week study period. In the lktA-Mt groups, none of the BHS or DS died. In the control groups, one DS died due to an unrelated cause. Necropsy and histopathological findings revealed that death of BHS in the lktA-Wt group was due to bilateral, fibrinohemorrhagic pneumonia. Although the A1-Mt-inoculated BHS were clinically normal, on necropsy, lungs of two BHS showed varying degrees of mild chronic pneumonia. These results indicate that M. haemolytica serotype A1 is non-pathogenic to DS, but highly lethal to BHS, and that Lkt is the primary virulence factor of M. haemolytica.

  12. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Alexander, Trevor W; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), bla ROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the bla ROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and

  13. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), blaROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the blaROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and gcp

  14. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influence metabolic responses in post-weaned Holstein calves challenged with bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose of M...

  15. Differential susceptibility of bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis)and domestic sheep (Ovis Aries) neutrophils to Mannheimia Haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to differential expression of cell surface CD18

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than domestic sheep (DS). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrop...

  16. Serum Headspace Analysis With An Electronic Nose And Comparison With Clinical Signs Following Experimental Infection Of Cattle With Mannheimia Haemolytica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Henri; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark; Reinhold, Petra

    2009-05-01

    Electronic noses (e-noses) have been widely used for medical applications or in the food industry. However, little is known about their utility for early disease detection in animals. In this study, 20 calves were experimentally infected with Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Blood serum was collected from 7 days before infection to 5 days after infection and headspace of sera was analysed using the ST214 (Scensive Tech. Ltd., Leeds, UK) e-nose. Differences between pre- and post infection status were investigated and a temporal profile of sensor responses was compared with body temperature over the course of infection. A similar profile for sensor responses and body temperature indicated the e-nose was detecting a genuine physiological response following infection.

  17. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  18. Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bey, Russell F; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E

    2014-03-27

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species.

  19. Acylation Enhances, but Is Not Required for, the Cytotoxic Activity of Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin in Bighorn Sheep.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sai A; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Munske, Gerhard R; Raghavan, Bindu; Kugadas, Abirami; Bavanthasivam, Jegarubee; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2015-10-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in domestic and wild ruminants. Leukotoxin (Lkt) is the most important virulence factor of the bacterium. It is encoded within the four-gene lktCABD operon: lktA encodes the structural protoxin, and lktC encodes a trans-acylase that adds fatty acid chains to internal lysine residues in the protoxin, which is then secreted from the cell by a type 1 secretion system apparatus encoded by lktB and lktD. It has been reported that LktC-mediated acylation is necessary for the biological effects of the toxin. However, an LktC mutant that we developed previously was only partially attenuated in its virulence for cattle. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of LktC-mediated acylation in Lkt-induced cytotoxicity. We performed this study in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) (BHS), since they are highly susceptible to M. haemolytica infection. The LktC mutant caused fatal pneumonia in 40% of inoculated BHS. On necropsy, a large number of necrotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were observed in the lungs. Lkt from the mutant was cytotoxic to BHS PMNs in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometric analysis of mutant Lkt-treated PMNs revealed the induction of necrosis. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of pores and blebs on mutant-Lkt-treated PMNs. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the mutant secreted an unacylated Lkt. Taken together, these results suggest that acylation is not necessary for the cytotoxic activity of M. haemolytica Lkt but that it enhances the potency of the toxin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Acylation Enhances, but Is Not Required for, the Cytotoxic Activity of Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin in Bighorn Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Sai A.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Munske, Gerhard R.; Raghavan, Bindu; Kugadas, Abirami; Bavanthasivam, Jegarubee; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in domestic and wild ruminants. Leukotoxin (Lkt) is the most important virulence factor of the bacterium. It is encoded within the four-gene lktCABD operon: lktA encodes the structural protoxin, and lktC encodes a trans-acylase that adds fatty acid chains to internal lysine residues in the protoxin, which is then secreted from the cell by a type 1 secretion system apparatus encoded by lktB and lktD. It has been reported that LktC-mediated acylation is necessary for the biological effects of the toxin. However, an LktC mutant that we developed previously was only partially attenuated in its virulence for cattle. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of LktC-mediated acylation in Lkt-induced cytotoxicity. We performed this study in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) (BHS), since they are highly susceptible to M. haemolytica infection. The LktC mutant caused fatal pneumonia in 40% of inoculated BHS. On necropsy, a large number of necrotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were observed in the lungs. Lkt from the mutant was cytotoxic to BHS PMNs in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometric analysis of mutant Lkt-treated PMNs revealed the induction of necrosis. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of pores and blebs on mutant-Lkt-treated PMNs. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the mutant secreted an unacylated Lkt. Taken together, these results suggest that acylation is not necessary for the cytotoxic activity of M. haemolytica Lkt but that it enhances the potency of the toxin. PMID:26216418

  1. Genomic signatures of Mannheimia haemolytica that associate with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, an integrative conjugative element, and antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Clawson, Michael L; Murray, Robert W; Sweeney, Michael T; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Capik, Sarah F; Larson, Robert L; Lubbers, Brian V; White, Brad J; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Schuller, Gennie; Dickey, Aaron M; Harhay, Gregory P; Heaton, Michael P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Bono, James L; Smith, Timothy P L

    2016-11-29

    Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system was developed for M. haemolytica from the genome sequences of 1133 North American isolates, and used to identify genetic differences between isolates from the lungs and upper respiratory tract of cattle with and without clinical signs of respiratory disease. A total of 26,081 nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized after quality control filtering of 48,403 putative polymorphisms. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide polymorphism genotypes split M. haemolytica into two major genotypes (1 and 2) that each were further divided into multiple subtypes. Multiple polymorphisms were identified with alleles that tagged genotypes 1 or 2, and their respective subtypes. Only genotype 2 M. haemolytica associated with the lungs of diseased cattle and the sequence of a particular integrative and conjugative element (ICE). Additionally, isolates belonging to one subtype of genotype 2 (2b), had the majority of antibiotic resistance genes detected in this study, which were assorted into seven combinations that ranged from 1 to 12 resistance genes. Typing of diverse M. haemolytica by nucleotide polymorphism genotypes successfully identified associations with diseased cattle lungs, ICE sequence, and antibiotic resistance genes. Management of cattle by their carriage of M. haemolytica could be an effective intervention strategy to reduce the prevalence of respiratory disease and supplemental needs for antibiotic treatments in North American herds.

  2. Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic levels and temperature on growth kinetics and outer membrane protein expression in Mannheimia haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of 2 veterinary antibiotic preparations, chlortetracycline (CTC) and chlortetracycline-sulfamethazine (CTC + SMZ), on growth kinetics and outer membrane protein expression in Mannheimia haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus at normal and febrile body temperatures. Sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of both antibiotics reduced the growth rates of M. haemolytica and H. somnus. Growth of both species was not inhibited when grown at 41°C compared to 37°C. There was no detectable consistent effect of antibiotic or temperature on outer membrane protein expression for either species. Our study indicates that sub-MIC levels of CTC and CTC + SMZ markedly impair growth of clinical M. haemolytica and H. somnus isolates, potentially allowing more effective host clearance during infection. PMID:15745216

  3. A Three-way Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Paulraj; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; McDermott, Jason E.; Bumgarner, Roger E.

    2010-10-04

    Mannhemia haemolytica is a Gram- negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. They transform from a benign commensal to a deadly pathogen during stress such as viral infection and transportation to feedlots, and cause acute pleuropneumonia commonly known as shipping fever. The U.S beef industry alone loses more than one billion dollars annually to shipping fever and despite its enormous economic importance there are no specific and accurate genetic markers, which would aid in understanding M. haemolytica pathogenesis and epidemiology at molecular level and assist in devising an effective control strategy.

  4. Rapid typing of Mannheimia haemolytica major genotypes 1 and 2 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Loy, John Dustin; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    Genotype 2M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate genotype 2 strains in veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

  5. Rapid typing of Mannheimia haemolytica major genotypes 1 and 2 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genotype 2 M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate ge...

  6. Effect of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia on behavior and physiologic responses of calves during high ambient environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Theurer, M E; Anderson, D E; White, B J; Miesner, M D; Mosier, D A; Coetzee, J F; Lakritz, J; Amrine, D E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pneumonia during conditions of high (maximum ≥ 32°C) ambient temperatures on physiological and behavioral responses of calves. Eighteen black beef heifers averaging 240 kg were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 1) pneumonia induced by bronchoselective endoscopic inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH; n = 10) and 2) noninoculated controls (CN; n = 8). Nasal passage and rectal temperatures were measured every 2 h for 24 h after challenge and then twice daily for 9 d. Accelerometers, pedometers, and positioning devices monitored cattle behavior within the pen for 9 d after challenge. Blood samples were collected on trial d 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 9 and were analyzed to determine the concentration of substance P, cortisol, haptoglobin, and metalloproteinase. All calves in the MH group were euthanized and necropsied on trial d 9. All MH calves became clinically ill postchallenge. A treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) was evident for nasal and rectal temperatures, behavior, weight, and blood analysis. Rectal temperatures in MH were higher (P < 0.01) than CN during the period from 6 to 24 h after challenge. Conversely, nasal passage temperatures were less in MH calves compared with CN at 12 to 22 h after challenge. Calves in MH spent less time at the grain bunk, less time at the hay feeder, and more time lying down during the early pneumonia period compared with CN calves. Also, MH calves had significantly greater concentrations of blood biomarkers of pain (substance P) on d 0.5 (P < 0.01); stress (cortisol) on d 0.5 and 1 (P < 0.01); haptoglobin on d 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7 (P < 0.01); and metalloproteinase on d 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.01) compared with CN calves. At necropsy, all MH calves had right cranioventral bronchopneumonia (median lung lesions = 6.8%). Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia caused significantly more changes in behavior and increased biomarkers during high (maximum

  7. Pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) correlation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Delis, G A; Koutsoviti-Papadopoulou, M; Siarkou, V I; Kounenis, G; Batzias, G C

    2010-12-01

    Silicone-made tissue cages were implanted in sheep. Blood serum (SBS) and tissue cage fluid (TCF) samples were collected after amoxicillin intravenous and intramuscular administrations, at the dose of 15 mg/kg. Amoxicillin pharmacodynamics were studied in an artificial culture medium, SBS and TCF with use of a Mannheimia haemolytica and a Pasteurella multocida strain. A concentration-independent antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin was confirmed for levels higher than 0.79-1.75×MIC. This result favored the use of the percentage of the 24 h dosing interval during which drug levels remain above MIC as the appropriate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index. The subsequent correlation revealed that intravenous administration could be considered effective against "deep" infections caused by bacteria with MICs<1 μg/mL or "shallow" infections caused by bacteria with MICs<0.1 μg/mL. Intramuscular administration could be safely considered effective against both "deep" and "shallow" infections when the MICs of the targeted pathogens are lower than 1 μg/mL.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2016-08-15

    The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate.

  9. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  10. Comparison of passively transferred antibodies in bighorn and domestic lambs reveals one factor in differential susceptibility of these species to Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P; Call, Douglas R; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-07-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia.

  11. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  12. Pulmonary lesions and clinical disease response to Mannheimia haemolytica challenge 10 days following administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin.

    PubMed

    Amrine, D E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Mosier, D A

    2014-01-01

    This clinical trial evaluated the impact of metaphylactic antimicrobial administration 10 d before experimental inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) to mitigate pulmonary lesions. Thirty-three crossbreed heifers were procured as a single group and were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 blocks and to treatment, tildipirosin (ZUP; 4 mg/kg) or tulathromycin (DRX; 2.5 mg/kg) or saline (SAL; 1 mL/45.5 kg), within block on arrival at Kansas State University. All trial procedures were staggered by 7-d intervals for each block, resulting in all animals within a block receiving treatment, challenge, and necropsy on the same dates. Heifers within each block received an endoscopic MH challenge 10 d following treatment administration (d 0) and were housed in individual indoor stalls for 3 d postchallenge. Clinical illness scores (CIS), respiration quality scores, appetite scores, and injection site reactions were recorded on all animals from d 0 through d 13. Rectal temperatures were measured once daily on all animals from d 8 through d 13. Heifers were necropsied, and lung lesions were evaluated on d 13. Lung lesion data were evaluated using nonparametric methods (Kruskall-Wallis), and standard least squares models were used to evaluate the remaining variables. The pulmonary lesion scores (percentage of affected lung) ranged from 3.3% to 39.8% for all heifers with 92% (11/12) of ZUP-treated heifers having <10% lesions. Tildipirosin-treated heifers had lower (P < 0.05) lung lesion scores when compared with DRX- and SAL-treated heifers. Lung weight expressed as a percentage of BW was lower (P < 0.05) in ZUP heifers compared to DRX- and SAL-treated heifers. The probability of receiving abnormal CIS, appetite scores, and respiratory scores was lower (P < 0.05) in ZUP-treated heifers compared to DRX- and SAL-treated animals. This study showed that heifers treated with tildipirosin 10 d before MH challenge have less pulmonary damage and fewer clinical signs of illness compared

  13. Rumen temperature change monitored with remote rumen temperature boluses after challenges with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Rose-Dye, T K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Fulton, R W; Confer, A W; Richards, C J

    2011-04-01

    Remote rumen temperature monitoring is a potential method for early disease detection in beef cattle. This experiment was conducted to determine if remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses could detect a temperature change in steers exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and challenged with a common bovine respiratory disease pathogen, Mannheimia haemolytica (MH). Twenty-four Angus crossbred steers (BW = 313 ± 31 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) no challenge (control); 2) challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV; 3) bacterial challenge with MH; and 4) viral challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV followed by bacterial challenge with MH (BVDV + MH). Remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses programmed to transmit temperature every minute were placed in the rumen before the time of exposure to steers persistently infected with BVDV. Rectal temperatures were taken before MH challenge (0) and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h after MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were recorded 3 d before (-72 h; period of BVDV exposure) through 14 d after (336 h) MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a first-order autoregressive covariance structure for repeated measures. A treatment × day interaction was observed for average daily rumen temperature (P < 0.01). A treatment difference (P < 0.01) was observed on d 0, when MH-challenged steers had greater rumen temperatures than steers not challenged with MH. There was no BVDV × day interaction (P > 0.01). Rumen temperatures averaged every 2 h resulted in a BVDV × hour interaction (P < 0.01) and an MH × hour interaction (P < 0.01). The BVDV × hour differences occurred at h -18 to -14, 40 to 46, 110, 122, and 144 to 146 (P < 0.01). The MH × hour difference occurred at h 4 to 24 (P < 0.01). Maximum rumen temperature was increased (P

  14. Impact of Timing and Dosage of a Fluoroquinolone Treatment on the Microbiological, Pathological, and Clinical Outcomes of Calves Challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica

    PubMed Central

    Lhermie, Guillaume; Ferran, Aude A.; Assié, Sébastien; Cassard, Hervé; El Garch, Farid; Schneider, Marc; Woerhlé, Frédérique; Pacalin, Diane; Delverdier, Maxence; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Meyer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.107 CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in four groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON), 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2–4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2), 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35–39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10). In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5–4 and 5.5–6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24 h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia. PMID:26973615

  15. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, Caroline N.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P.; Call, Douglas R.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia. PMID:21613459

  16. Transfection of non-susceptible cells with Ovis aries recombinant lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 renders susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2007-11-15

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important etiological agent of pneumonia in domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by this organism is the principal virulence factor responsible for the acute inflammation and lung injury characteristic of M. haemolytica caused disease. Previously, we have shown that the leukocyte-specific integrins, beta(2) integrins, serve as the receptor for Lkt. Although it is certain that CD18, the beta subunit of beta(2) integrins, mediates Lkt-induced cytolysis of leukocytes, it is not clear whether CD18 of all three beta(2) integrins, LFA-1, Mac-1 and CR4, mediates Lkt-induced cytolysis of DS leukocytes. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which express all three beta(2) integrins, are the leukocyte subset that is most susceptible to Lkt, we hypothesized that all three beta(2) integrins serve as the receptor for Lkt. The objective of this study was to determine whether DS LFA-1 serves as a receptor for M. haemolytica Lkt. We cloned the cDNA for DS CD11a, the alpha subunit of LFA-1, and co-transfected it along with the previously cloned cDNA for DS CD18, into a Lkt-non-suceptible cell line. Transfectants stably expressing DS LFA-1 were bound by Lkt. More importantly, Lkt lysed the DS LFA-1 transfectants in a concentration-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of Lkt with a Lkt-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), or pre-incubation of transfectants with MAbs specific for DS CD11a or CD18, inhibited Lkt-induced cytolysis of the transfectants. Exposure of LFA-1 transfectants to low concentrations of Lkt resulted in elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together, these results indicate that DS LFA-1 serves as a receptor for M. haemolytica Lkt.

  17. Comparative minimum inhibitory and mutant prevention drug concentrations of enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, tilmicosin and tulathromycin against bovine clinical isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, J M; Borsos, S; Blondeau, L D; Blondeau, B J J; Hesje, C E

    2012-11-09

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the most prevalent cause of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and this disease accounts for 75% of morbidity, 50-70% of feedlot deaths and is estimated to cost up to $1 billion dollars annually in the USA. Antimicrobial therapy is essential for reducing morbidity, mortality and impacting on the financial burden of this disease. Due to the concern of increasing antimicrobial resistance, investigation of antibacterial agents for their potential for selecting for resistance is of paramount importance. A novel in vitro measurement called the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) defines the antimicrobial drug concentration necessary to block the growth of the least susceptible cells present in high density (≥10(7) colony forming units/ml) bacterial populations such as those seen in acute infection. We compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MPC values for 5 antimicrobial agents (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, tulathromycin) against 285 M. haemolytica clinical isolates. The MIC(90)/MPC(90) values for each agent respectively were as follows: 0.016/2, 0.125/1, 2/≥16, 8/≥32, 2/8. Dosing to achieve MPC concentrations (where possible) may serve to reduce the selection of bacterial subpopulations with reduced antimicrobial susceptibility. The rank order of potency based on MIC(90) values was ceftiofur > enrofloxacin > florfenicol = tulathromycin > tilmicosin. The rank order of potency based on MPC(90) values was enrofloxacin > ceftiofur > tulathromycin > florfenicol ≥ tilmicosin.

  18. Expression of a modified Mannheimia haemolytica GS60 outer membrane lipoprotein in transgenic alfalfa for the development of an edible vaccine against bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond W H; Cornelisse, Mette; Ziauddin, Asma; Slack, Penelope J; Hodgins, Douglas C; Strommer, Judith N; Shewen, Patricia E; Lo, Reggie Y C

    2008-06-01

    The GS60 antigen is one of the protective antigens of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. GS60 contains conserved domains belonging to the LppC family of bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins. A high antibody titer to GS60 has been shown to be significantly correlated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis. Calves vaccinated with a commercial vaccine (Presponse) and demonstrating protection against M. haemolytica A1 produced antibodies directed against GS60. Alfalfa was chosen as the platform for an edible vaccine. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to mediate the transformation of alfalfa with sequences encoding a slightly shortened derivative of the GS60 antigen (GS60(54)). Stable transgenic alfalfa lines were recovered and production of GS60(54) was examined by Western immunoblot analysis. The antigen is stable in dried transgenic plant material stored at ambient temperature for more than a year. The plant-produced GS60(54) protein was shown to be immunogenic when injected into rabbits. Feeding of the dried transgenic alfalfa expressing the GS60(54) to rabbits is capable of inducing seroconversion, suggesting that GS60(54) could be an effective oral antigen for stimulating mucosal immune responses.

  19. Serial evaluation of physiologic, pathological, and behavioral changes related to disease progression of experimentally induced Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in postweaned calves.

    PubMed

    Hanzlicek, Gregg A; White, Brad J; Mosier, Derek; Renter, David G; Anderson, David E

    2010-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of physiologic, behavioral, and pathological changes as objective indicators of early respiratory disease in calves with Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. 14 crossbred beef steers. Disease was experimentally induced in healthy calves through endoscopic pulmonary inoculation of M haemolytica. Calves were necropsied on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 after inoculation. Physical examination variables (rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiration characteristics), clinical illness score, and degree of activity were assessed 3 times daily beginning 4 days prior to inoculation and continuing throughout the study. Twice before inoculation and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9, arterial blood gas measurements, serum biochemical analyses, and CBCs were performed. Pedometers and accelerometers were used to monitor cattle behavior and activity throughout the trial. All calves became clinically ill after inoculation and had gross and histopathologic signs of bronchopneumonia. No variable was a reliable indicator of disease progression as judged by percentage of pulmonary involvement. However, activity as measured by total steps taken in a 24-hour period was lower after versus before disease induction. This single-pathogen challenge model successfully yielded clinical signs and pathological effects consistent with naturally acquired respiratory disease. Routine laboratory variables and subjective measures were not reliable indicators of lung involvement or the progression of pneumonia. However, activity, objectively measured with pedometers and accelerometers, appeared to be a promising indicator for early recognition of bovine respiratory disease.

  20. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Jodi L.; Rusk, Rachel A.; Guerra-Maupome, Mariana; Briggs, Robert E.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC. PMID:26942409

  1. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in post-weaned Holstein calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose o...

  2. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of amoxicillin for the calf pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Illambas, J; Potter, T; Lacroix, M; Rycroft, A; Toutain, P-L

    2015-10-01

    The antimicrobial properties of amoxicillin were determined for the bovine respiratory tract pathogens, Mannheima haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves were established. Pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modelling of the time-kill data, based on the sigmoidal Emax equation, generated parameters for three levels of efficacy, namely bacteriostatic, bactericidal (3log10 reduction) and 4log10 reduction in bacterial counts. For these levels, mean AUC(0-24 h) /MIC serum values for M. haemolytica were 29.1, 57.3 and 71.5 h, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 28.1, 44.9 and 59.5 h. Amoxicillin PK was determined in calf serum, inflamed (exudate) and noninflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids, after intramuscular administration of a depot formulation at a dosage of 15 mg/kg. Mean residence times were 16.5 (serum), 29.6 (exudate) and 29.0 h (transudate). Based on serum MICs, integration of in vivo PK and in vitro PD data established maximum concentration (Cmax )/MIC ratios of 13.9:1 and 25.2:1, area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ )/MIC ratios of 179 and 325 h and T>MIC of 40.3 and 57.6 h for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations for a 90% target attainment rate predicted single dose to achieve bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions over 48 h of 17.7 and 28.3 mg/kg (M. haemolytica) and 17.7 and 34.9 mg/kg (P. multocida).

  3. Distribution of ceftiofur into Mannheimia haemolytica-infected tissue chambers and lung after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension.

    PubMed

    Washburn, K; Johnson, R; Clarke, C; Anderson, K

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of ceftiofur- and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites (DCA) into sterile and infected tissue chambers, lung tissue and disposition of DCA in plasma across four different sacrifice days postdosing. Twelve healthy calves were utilized following implantation with tissue chambers in the paralumbar fossa. Tissue chambers in each calf were randomly inoculated with either Mannheimia haemolytica or sterile PBS. All calves were dosed with ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS) subcutaneously in the ear pinna. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 3 to be sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 postdosing. Prior to euthanasia, plasma and tissue chamber fluid were collected, and immediately following euthanasia, lung tissue samples were obtained from four different anatomical sites DCA concentration analysis. Results of our study found that, in general, DCA concentrations followed a rank order of plasma > infected tissue chamber fluid > noninfected tissue chamber fluid > lung tissue. Data also indicated DCA concentrations remained above the therapeutic threshold of 0.2 microg/mL for plasma and chamber fluid and 0.2 microg/g for lung tissue for at least 7 days post-treatment.

  4. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture.

  5. Penetration of ceftiofur into sterile vs. Mannheimia haemolytica-infected tissue chambers in beef calves after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension in the ear pinna.

    PubMed

    Washburn, K; Johnson, R; Clarke, C R; Anderson, K; Lucas, M; Bryson, W; Robinson, J; Dame, K; Hubbard, V; Callahan, K; Robb, E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of Mannheimia haemolytica infection on the penetration of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites into tissue chambers was studied in cattle after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS). Four tissue chambers were implanted subcutaneously in each of 12 calves. Approximately 45 days after implantation, two chambers were inoculated with M. haemolytica (10(6) colony-forming units per chamber) while the remaining two chambers were inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, CCFA-SS was administered subcutaneously in the middle third of the caudal ear pinna of each calf. Chamber fluid and blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 10 days following dosing and analyzed for ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites in plasma and tissue chamber fluid remained above a threshold of 0.2 microg/mL for at least 8 days. Infected tissue chamber fluid concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were significantly higher than those in non-infected tissue chamber fluid, which correlated with significantly higher total protein concentration in infected tissue chambers. These results indicate that single subcutaneous administration of CCFA-SS at 6.6 mg/kg can be expected to provide effective therapy of susceptible bacterial infections for a period of at least 1 week.

  6. Effect of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica infection on acute-phase proteins and some mineral levels in colostrum-breast milk-fed or colostrum-breast milk-deprived sheep.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, P A; Ozpinar, A

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of acute-phase proteins and minerals as indicators for the reactivity in 1-year-old sheep. A total of 26 Chios breed sheep were fed colostrum-breast milk (control, n = 15)or were deprived afterseparation from their mother immediately after birth(experimental, n = 11). Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 was inoculated intratracheally and blood samples were taken in vacuumed sera on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22. Antibiotic treatment was initiated after blood sampling on day 22, and blood samples were taken on days 1, 4 and 7 after the treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, zinc, iron and calcium, which are the indicators of immune function and infectious diseases were analysed. No significant difference between the control and trial groups before and after the infection was determined. However, serum CRP, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen levels were increased in the course of the infection. These levels were restored to normal following treatment.

  7. The upper respiratory tract is a natural reservoir of haemolytic Mannheimia species associated with ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2015-12-31

    Lamb suckling has been suggested to be an important way of infecting a ewe's udder with different bacteria, including Mannheimia haemolytica. To test the potential role of lambs in transferring Mannheimia species to the ewe's udder, the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of isolates obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs were compared with those obtained from cases of mastitis. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect nasopharyngeal samples from 50 ewes and 36 lambs from three flocks. M. haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida as well as haemolytic Mannheimia ruminalis-like organisms were detected in the upper respiratory tract of lambs and ewes. Comparison of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates suggested that the M. haemolytica isolates obtained from different milk samples from ewes with mastitis were more clonal than those obtained from the nasal swabs. However, some nasal isolates within both Mannheimia species had restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns identical to those obtained from milk samples from ewes with mastitis, indicating that lambs may have a role in transferring these organisms to the udder. More clonality was observed between the M. glucosida isolates than between M. haemolytica isolates.

  8. Sequence diversity, cytotoxicity and antigenic similarities of the leukotoxin of isolates of Mannheimia species from mastitis in domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Barber, Stuart R; Allen, Joanne L; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Markham, Philip F

    2014-11-07

    Species within the genus Mannheimia are among the most important causes of ovine mastitis. Isolates of these species can express leukotoxin A (LktA), a primary virulence factor of these bacteria. To examine the significance of variation in the LktA, the sequences of the lktA genes in a panel of isolates from cases of ovine mastitis were compared. The cross-neutralising capacities of rat antisera raised against LktA of one Mannheimia glucosida, one haemolytic Mannheimia ruminalis, and two Mannheimia haemolytica isolates were also examined to assess the effect that variation in the lktA gene can have on protective immunity against leukotoxins with differing sequences. The lktA nucleotide distance between the M. haemolytica isolates was greater than between the M. glucosida isolates, with the M. haemolytica isolates divisible into two groups based on their lktA sequences. Comparison of the topology of phylogenetic trees of 16S rDNA and lktA sequences revealed differences in the relationships between some isolates, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Cross neutralisation data obtained with monospecific anti-LktA rat sera were used to derive antigenic similarity coefficients for LktA from the four Mannheimia species isolates. Similarity coefficients indicated that LktA of the two M. haemolytica isolates were least similar, while LktA from M. glucosida was most similar to those for one of the M. haemolytica isolates and the haemolytic M. ruminalis isolate. The results suggested that vaccination with the M. glucosida leukotoxin would generate the greatest cross-protection against ovine mastitis caused by Mannheimia species with these alleles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunization of bighorn sheep against mannheimia haemolytica with a bovine herpesvirus 1-vectored vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pneumonia has significantly contributed to the drastic decline of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) population in North America. Pneumonia outbreaks in BHS herds can incur mortalities up to 90%. Transplantation of healthy BHS into habitats that suffered pneumonia outbreaks has failed to restore B...

  10. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of th...

  11. Human Wound Infection with Mannheimia glucosida following Lamb Bite

    PubMed Central

    Omaleki, Lida; Turni, Conny; Barber, Stuart Richard; Francis, Michelle J.; Graham, Maryza

    2015-01-01

    Mannheimia spp. are veterinary pathogens that can cause mastitis and pneumonia in domestic cattle and sheep. While Mannheimia glucosida can be found as normal flora in oral and respiratory mucosa in sheep, there have been no reported cases of human infection with this organism. PMID:26202121

  12. The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine lung explants.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, I W; Fallding, M H; Shewen, P E; Yager, J A

    1990-01-01

    Bovine lung explants were used in a study designed to compare the pathogenic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica type 1, a nonpathogenic organism Neisseria subflava, or the crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica on alveolar macrophages and lung parenchymal cells. Concentrated, purified peripheral blood neutrophil suspensions were added with the bacteria to some explants. Duplicate pairs of cultures from each treatment group were fixed at regular intervals up to 24 hours after seeding and morphological changes were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Pasteurella haemolytica caused deterioration of alveolar macrophages within one hour but did not affect parenchymal cells for more than 12 hours. Neisseria subflava did not affect alveolar macrophages initially, but caused an accelerated deterioration after four hours. After 24 hours, bacterial overgrowth caused similar deterioration of all cells in explants seeded with either bacterium. Alveolar macrophages phagocytosed large numbers of N. subflava but rarely ingested P. haemolytica. Added neutrophils did not have any discernible effect on any of the explants and did not potentiate bacterial effects. Addition of crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica to the culture medium significantly accelerated alveolar macrophage deterioration without apparent effect on parenchymal cell survival. These results support the hypothesis that the severe tissue destruction of fulminant pneumonic pasteurellosis is not a direct result of bacterial infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2306666

  13. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, M; Sharma, B; Petras, S F; Reese, C P; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M

    1995-01-01

    Two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 that do not produce leukotoxin were isolated. Following mutagenesis, colonies were screened with antiserum by a filter assay for absence of the secreted leukotoxin. The two mutants both appeared to produce normal amounts of other antigens, as judged by reactivity with polyclonal serum from an animal with pasteurellosis, and were not altered in beta-hemolytic activity as seen on blood agar plates. There was no evidence of either cell-associated or secreted leukotoxin protein when Western blots (immunoblots) were carried out with the polyclonal serum or with a monoclonal antibody directed against the leukotoxin. Southern blots revealed that both mutants show the wild-type restriction pattern at the leukotoxin locus, although the strain with the lktA2 mutation showed differences in other regions of the chromosome on analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strain with the lktA2 mutation grew more slowly than did the wild-type strain, while the strain with the lktA1 mutation was indistinguishable from the wild-type strain in its growth properties. The strain with the lktA1 mutation should be valuable in determining the role of the leukotoxin in virulence as well as in identifying other virulence factors of P. haemolytica. PMID:7868223

  14. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  15. Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Brogden, K A; Lehmkuhl, H D; Cutlip, R C

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory infections which commonly occur in sheep and goats often result from adverse physical and physiological stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. Inevitably, Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia occurs as a result of these interactions. In this review, we present recent advances in research on the complex etiology of pneumonia involving P. haemolytica. Initially stress, induced by factors such as heat, overcrowding, exposure to inclement weather, poor ventilation, handling and transport is a major predisposing factor. Respiratory viruses including parainfluenza 3 (PI-3) virus, adenovirus type 6 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and to a lesser extent bovine adenovirus type 2, ovine adenovirus types 1 and 5, and reovirus type 1 cause respiratory infections and pneumonia. More importantly these viruses also dramatically increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. Primary infection of the lower respiratory tract, with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Bordetella parapertussis can increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. It is possible that initial infections with viral or primary bacterial agents break down the antimicrobial barrier consisting of beta defensins and anionic peptides found in epithelial cells, resident and inflammatory cells, and serous and mucous secretions of the respiratory tract. Loss of barrier integrity may release P. haemolytica from its usual commensal status. Once in the lung, P. haemolytica becomes opportunistic. To grow and colonize, P. haemolytica uses extracellular products like O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, neuraminidase and RTX leukotoxin, as well as cell-associated products such as capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, proteins involved in iron acquisition and a periplasmic superoxide dismutase. In lambs and kids, pneumonic pasteurellosis can be acute, characterized by fever, listlessness, poor

  16. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica from grass, drinking water, and straw bedding used by sheep.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R

    1997-11-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from three of 18 grass samples and four of 18 water samples collected from two grazing fields occupied by sheep. This microorganism was also isolated from three of nine straw bedding samples collected from a pen housing ewes affected by mastitis caused by P. haemolytica. The same ewes developed scabbed papilloma-like lesions on the teat and udder skin. These lesions were colonized by P. haemolytica of various serotypes. Colder, wetter weather seems to prolong the survival of P. haemolytica in the environment of sheep. Survival of virulent strains of P. haemolytica in the environment could accumulatively increase the bacterial count, contributing to their transmission from animal to animal. The preference of P. haemolytica for colder, wetter conditions was confirmed in the laboratory where this microorganism survived longer in distilled water, phosphate-buffered saline, Todd-Hewitt broth, and ewe's milk kept at 4 degrees C.

  17. Antigenic and virulence properties of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Petras, S F; Chidambaram, M; Illyes, E F; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M; Reese, C P

    1995-01-01

    Antigenic properties of two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica, strains 59B0071 and 59B0072, that do not produce detectable leukotoxin were investigated. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with a number of polyclonal sera from animals recovering from pasteurellosis revealed that both mutants secreted a variety of antigens that were also present in cultures of several wild-type strains. These antigens ranged from about 100 to 15 kDa. Mutant strain 59B0071 was found to be totally deficient in leukotoxin, as judged not only by Western blotting but also by cytotoxicity assays with bovine lymphoma (BL-3) cells or bovine polymorphonuclear cells as targets. The mutant strain 59B0071 had normal levels of a secreted sialylglycoprotease, however. When strains were tested for virulence in goat and cattle challenge experiments, a reduction in mortality and lung lesions was observed with the mutant 59B0071 in comparison with results obtained with wild-type strains. These results are consistent with an important role for leukotoxin in P. haemolytica virulence and suggest that leukotoxin-negative mutants may be useful tools in the investigation of other virulence properties involved in P. haemolytica infections. PMID:7868224

  18. Pasteurella haemolytica antigens associated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, D A; Simons, K R; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J; Clinkenbeard, K D

    1989-01-01

    Antigens associated with whole Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A serotype 1, a capsular carbohydrate-protein extract of the organism, and P. haemolytica leukotoxin were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antigens of the electrophoresed preparations were detected by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with sera from cattle which were either nonvaccinated or vaccinated with live or killed P. haemolytica vaccines and had variable degrees of resistance to experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis. Distinct, easily recognizable antigens of these preparations were identified, and the antibody responses to these antigens were quantified by densitometry. To determine their importance to disease resistance, we then compared antibody responses with experimental lesion scores. Antibody reactivity to surface antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and present in two or more of the preparations were detected at 86, 66, 51, 49, 34, 31, and 16 kilodaltons (kDa). Of these, antibody responses to antigens at 86, 49, and 31 kDa appeared most important based on their concentration and significance levels. Antibody reactivity to leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and common with important surface antigens were detected at 86, 66, and 49 kDa. Antibody responses to unique leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance were present at 92 and 58 kDa. Images PMID:2917783

  19. Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D C; Jolley, W L; Purdy, C W

    1993-01-01

    Neuraminidases produced by 16 strains of Pasteurella haemolytica (serotypes 1 to 16) were characterized by molecular weight, antigenic identity, and substrate specificity. After growth in a chemically defined medium, stage I (lyophilized) culture supernatants were assayed for activity with N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase produced by P. haemolytica serotype A1 (Ph A1) was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified Ph A1 neuraminidase was used to immunize rabbits, and the resultant antiserum reduced the activity of Ph A1 neuraminidase by 46%. This antiserum also reduced the activity of neuraminidase produced by the other serotypes by between 15 and 66%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. Fifteen of the 16 serotypes examined produced a neuraminidase with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 to 200,000. One serotype (serotype 11) produced no material with neuraminidase activity. In addition, all 15 high-molecular-weight neuraminidases showed similar substrate specificities. That is, they were all most active against N-acetylneuramin lactose and least active against bovine submaxillary mucin. On the basis of these results, it appears that the high-molecular-weight neuraminidases produced by the different P. haemolytica serotypes are quite similar. PMID:8406865

  20. Efficacy of recombinant leukotoxin in protection against pneumonic challenge with live Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, J A; Shewen, P E; Lo, R Y

    1991-01-01

    The recombinant leukotoxin (rLKT) of the bacterium Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was examined for its ability to protect cattle from experimental challenge with logarithmic-phase P. haemolytica. Six different vaccines were utilized in the experiment: P. haemolytica culture supernatant, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with rLKT, rLKT alone, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with Escherichia coli supernatant not containing LKT, E. coli supernatant alone, and phosphate-buffered saline. rLKT alone showed no protective capacity against development of clinical signs of respiratory disease or against development of postmortem lung lesions after experimental challenge. It was, however, shown to enhance the efficacy of the culture supernatant vaccine and decrease clinical signs and pneumonic lesions. The complexity of protective immunity in this disease is emphasized in this study, and, although LKT is an important virulence factor of the organism, an immune response to LKT alone does not protect animals against disease. PMID:1987075

  1. Secretion and expression of the Pasteurella haemolytica Leukotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Highlander, S K; Engler, M J; Weinstock, G M

    1990-01-01

    The Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin gene cluster (lktCABD) is homologous to the Escherichia coli hemolysin locus (hlyCABD). Since the cloned leukotoxin (LktA) is not secreted from E. coli cells, a heteroplasmid complementation system was developed that permits secretion of the leukotoxin from cells expressing the hemolysin transport proteins HlyB and HlyD. We observed that the secreted leukotoxin protein had weak hemolytic activity when activated by either the HlyC or LktC proteins and that LktC expressed in E. coli could confer weak hemolytic activity upon hemolysin. Thus, it appears that the accessory proteins of the leukotoxin and hemolysin gene clusters are functionally similar, although their expression in E. coli is not equivalent. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the P. haemolytica leukotoxin gene cluster revealed a major 3.5-kilobase transcript that includes the lktC and lktA genes. The start site for this transcript mapped to a cytosine residue 30 nucleotides upstream from the putative start of lktC; a similar initiation site was observed in E. coli, although adjacent cytosine and adenine residues were also utilized. The 3.5-kilobase transcript terminated near the rho-independent terminator structure between lktA and lktB, but transcription may continue, via antitermination or de novo transcription initiation, into the downstream lktB and lktD genes. We propose that the lack of LktB and LktD function in E. coli is a result, at least in part, of poor lktBD transcription and suggest that a P. haemolytica-specific regulator is required for optimal expression of the leukotoxin genes. Images PMID:2185213

  2. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1).

    PubMed

    Richards, A B; Renshaw, H W; Sneed, L W

    1985-05-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates.

  3. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  4. Influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisia fermentation product on the pathophysiological response to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in Holstein steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product prototype (Prototype) on the pathophysiological response during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Holstein steer calves (126.5±6.11kg; N=16) were completely rando...

  5. Bovine gamma delta T cells contribute to exacerbated IL-17 production in response to co-infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovi...

  6. Proteolysis of sialoglycoprotein by Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxic culture supernatant.

    PubMed Central

    Otulakowski, G L; Shewen, P E; Udoh, A E; Mellors, A; Wilkie, B N

    1983-01-01

    Proteolytic enzyme activity releasing sialo glycopeptides from 3H-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts was detected in cytotoxic (leukotoxic) culture supernatants from 9 of 12 Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes. Microcrystalline cellulose thin-layer chromatograms of radioactive water-soluble products showed the following two radioactive peaks: a high-mobility minor peak (Rf, 0.54 to 0.74), identified as sialic acid, and a low-mobility major peak (Rf, 0.18 to 0.21), partially characterized as a trichloroacetic acid-soluble, sialic acid-rich fragment with a molecular weight of greater than 3,500, not extractable by chloroform. The sialic acid content of this fragment after treatment with Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase was estimated to be 7.2 X 10(-2) mumol mg-1. The presence of neuraminidase as a separate activity in some culture supernatants was confirmed. It is considered to be responsible for the observed release of free sialic acid. Preliminary studies with the crude enzyme showed that it has a broad pH optimum around pH 7.0 and that activity is not affected by inhibitors of trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, thio and serine enzymes, nor by an inhibitor of neuraminidase, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Activity was, however, inhibited by o-phenanthroline at a high concentration after prolonged treatment. The enzyme hydrolyzed glycophorin at a rate four times higher than the rate for casein. Free glycophorin inhibited the enzyme-induced release of radioactive products from 3H-labeled ghosts. It is speculated that the novel enzyme is a neutral protease, probably metal-dependent, with specificity for sialoglycopeptides. The possible relationship of this protease to the previously reported host species-specific leukotoxicity of P. haemolytica and its potential role in virulence is discussed. PMID:6352504

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Lytic Properties of Bacteriophages Specific for M. haemolytica Strains

    PubMed Central

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Stęgierska, Diana; Dec, Marta; Dudzic, Anna; Puchalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study The objective of this study was isolation and morphological characterization of temperate bacteriophages obtained from M. haemolytica strains and evaluation of their lytic properties in vitro against M. haemolytica isolated from the respiratory tract of calves. Material and Methods The material for the study consisted of the reference strain M. haemolytica serotype 1 (ATCC®) BAA-410™, reference serotypes A1, A2, A5, A6, A7, A9 and A11, and wild-type isolates of M. haemolytica. Bacteriophages were induced from an overnight bacterial starter culture of all examined M. haemolytica strains treated with mitomycin C. The lytic properties and host ranges were determined by plaque assays. The morphology of the bacteriophages was examined in negative-stained smears with 5% uranyl acetate solution using a transmission electron microscope. The genetic analysis of the bacteriophages was followed by restriction analysis of bacteriophage DNA. This was followed by analysis of genetic material by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Eight bacteriophages were obtained, like typical of the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Most of the bacteriophages exhibited lytic properties against the M. haemolytica strains. Restriction analysis revealed similarities to the P2-like phage obtained from the strain M. haemolytica BAA-410. The most similar profiles were observed in the case of bacteriophages φA1 and φA5. All of the bacteriophages obtained were characterized by the presence of additional fragments in the restriction profiles with respect to the P2-like reference phage. In the analysis of PCR products for the P2-like reference phage phi-MhaA1-PHL101 (DQ426904) and the phages of the M. haemolytica serotypes, a 734-bp phage PCR product was obtained. The primers were programmed in Primer-Blast software using the structure of the sequence DQ426904 of reference phage PHL101. Conclusions The results obtained indicate the need for further research aimed

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Lytic Properties of Bacteriophages Specific for M. haemolytica Strains.

    PubMed

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Stęgierska, Diana; Dec, Marta; Dudzic, Anna; Puchalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was isolation and morphological characterization of temperate bacteriophages obtained from M. haemolytica strains and evaluation of their lytic properties in vitro against M. haemolytica isolated from the respiratory tract of calves. The material for the study consisted of the reference strain M. haemolytica serotype 1 (ATCC®) BAA-410™, reference serotypes A1, A2, A5, A6, A7, A9 and A11, and wild-type isolates of M. haemolytica. Bacteriophages were induced from an overnight bacterial starter culture of all examined M. haemolytica strains treated with mitomycin C. The lytic properties and host ranges were determined by plaque assays. The morphology of the bacteriophages was examined in negative-stained smears with 5% uranyl acetate solution using a transmission electron microscope. The genetic analysis of the bacteriophages was followed by restriction analysis of bacteriophage DNA. This was followed by analysis of genetic material by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight bacteriophages were obtained, like typical of the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Most of the bacteriophages exhibited lytic properties against the M. haemolytica strains. Restriction analysis revealed similarities to the P2-like phage obtained from the strain M. haemolytica BAA-410. The most similar profiles were observed in the case of bacteriophages φA1 and φA5. All of the bacteriophages obtained were characterized by the presence of additional fragments in the restriction profiles with respect to the P2-like reference phage. In the analysis of PCR products for the P2-like reference phage phi-MhaA1-PHL101 (DQ426904) and the phages of the M. haemolytica serotypes, a 734-bp phage PCR product was obtained. The primers were programmed in Primer-Blast software using the structure of the sequence DQ426904 of reference phage PHL101. The results obtained indicate the need for further research aimed at isolating and characterizing bacteriophages

  9. In vivo production of neuraminidase by Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in goats after transthoracic challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D C; Purdy, C W

    1994-01-01

    Nine goats were injected transthoracically with Pasteurella haemolytica A1 to determine if an extracellular bacterial enzyme, neuraminidase, was produced in vivo during infection with this organism. The principal group of goats (n = 9) each received 1 ml of 7.25 x 10(5) live P. haemolytica A1 cells in polyacrylate beads transthoracically in the left lung on days 0 and 21. Six goats were used as negative controls and received 0.3 g of polyacrylate beads subcutaneously in the right flank on days 0 and 21. Serum was obtained from all animals on days -4, 3, 7, 14, 21, 24, and 32. Preimmune serum from all animals showed no detectable antibody to P. haemolytica A1 neuraminidase in an enzyme neutralization assay. None of the sera from the negative control animals possessed a significant antibody concentration in response to the P. haemolytica A1 neuraminidase. On day 32, serum samples from the nine infected animals possessed enzyme neutralizing activity that ranged from 62% to 100%. Anti-neuraminidase antibody could be detected as early as day 14 by the enzyme neutralization assay. These data demonstrate that the enzyme neuraminidase is produced in vivo during an active P. haemolytica A1 lobar infection. PMID:7927740

  10. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

    1994-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  11. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  12. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  13. The pulmonary clearance of Pasteurella haemolytica in calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea or Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, A; Maxie, M G; Savan, M; Ruhnke, H L; Thomson, R G; Barnum, D A; Geissinger, H D

    1982-01-01

    Based on current literature which commonly associates bovine virus diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis with "pneumonic pasteurellosis," an investigation was conducted into the effect of these two pathogens on the capacity of bovine lung to clear inhaled Pasteurella haemolytica. There was no significant effect (p less than 0.05) of either bovine virus diarrhea virus or M. bovis on the mean clearance rate of P. haemolytica, nor did the time interval of three, five or seven days between the first inoculation and exposure to P. haemolytica and adversely affect the lung clearance rates. However, it was found that the left lungs and a higher bacterial retention (p less than 0.05) than the right lungs. PMID:7127194

  14. Cloning of a serotype-specific antigen from Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rayos, C; Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Beveridge, T J

    1986-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids coding for a soluble (or surface) antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 were identified. Two plasmids, both containing the same 5.4 kilobase pairs of insert DNA, were recovered independently by screening a clone band of P. haemolytica A1 genomic DNA in Escherichia coli for the expression of P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens (R. Y. C. Lo and L.A. Cameron, Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64:73-76, 1986). E. coli cells carrying the plasmids were found to be agglutinated by an antiserum raised against the P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens. Analysis of the E. coli clones by electron microscopy revealed patches of amorphous material on the surface of the cells which were not present on the controls. Further characterization with protein A-colloidal gold labeled both these patches and the outer membranes of these cloned cells pretreated with the specific antiserum. These results indicated that the cloned antigen was expressed on the surface of the E. coli cells. The cloned antigen was found to be specific for serotype 1 when tested by slide agglutination against a collection of P. haemolytica typing antisera. Southern blot hybridization, using the cloned DNA as a probe, labeled the genomic DNA from P. haemolytica serotype 1 as well as the cross-agglutinating serotypes 2 and 7, but not DNA from the non-cross-agglutinating serotypes 3 and 4 and Pasteurella multocida. These results demonstrated that serotype specificity could be attributed to the particular antigenic determinants in the genome of the organism. Images PMID:3527985

  15. Ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, K A

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. This study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. To demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees C and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees C. P. haemolytica type A1 strains 82-25 and L101, a P. haemolytica type 2 strain, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible and Pasteurella multocida, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not susceptible to killing by ovine pulmonary surfactant and normal serum. No bacteria incubated with bovine pulmonary surfactant were killed by normal serum. Although the species origin of pulmonary surfactant was selective, the species origin of serum was not. P. haemolytica incubated with ovine pulmonary surfactant was killed by fetal calf serum, gnotobiotic calf serum, pooled normal sheep serum, pooled normal rabbit serum, and pooled guinea pig serum. Ultrastructurally, killed P. haemolytica suspensions contained dead cells and cells distorted with vacuoles between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cytoplasm. The mechanism of killing did not correlate with concentrations of complement or lysozyme or titers of residual antibody in either the pulmonary surfactant or the serum, and killing was reduced by preincubation of surfactant with P. haemolytica lipopolysaccharide. Preliminary characterization of both surfactant and serum implicate a low-molecular-weight proteinaceous component in the surfactant and serum albumin in the serum. This mechanism may help clear certain gram-negative bacteria from the lungs of sheep as a part of the pulmonary innate defense system. Images PMID:1452351

  16. Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 contains the gene for a noncapsular serotype 1-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, C T; Maheswaran, S K; Murtaugh, M P

    1995-01-01

    An ssa1-homologous genomic fragment cloned from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 (ST2) enabled transformation of Escherichia coli DH5 alpha to a serotype 1 (ST1) phenotype through expression of the ST1-specific antigen (Ssa1). The Ssa1 protein expressed by ssa1-transformed E. coli was susceptible to heat and protease treatment and was distinct from P. haemolytica ST1-specific capsular polysaccharide. Electrophoretic analysis of in vitro-translated proteins, as well as the predicted amino acid sequence, demonstrated that Ssa1 proteins encoded from either ST1- or ST2-derived ssa1 genes were essentially identical. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of ssa1 genes derived from P. haemolytica ST1 and ST2 revealed greater than 99% homology. Amino acid sequence homology of the predicted products of ST1- and ST2-derived ssa1 genes was greater than 98%. Northern (RNA) blot studies revealed that the presence of an increased level of ssa1 transcript in P. haemolytica ST1 grown as surface-adherent cultures on solid medium was correlated with a serologically detectable Ssa1 protein. Expression of the ssa1 transcript in ST1 was similarly upregulated by a high iron concentration in the growth medium. PMID:7890392

  17. Molecular studies of Ssa1, a serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, R Y; Strathdee, C A; Shewen, P E; Cooney, B J

    1991-01-01

    A serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 encoded on the recombinant plasmid pSSA1 is characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the insert DNA in pSSA1 identified the gene ssaI, which codes for a protein of approximately 100 kDa. In vivo labeling of pSSA1-encoded protein in Escherichia coli maxicells showed the expression of a 100-kDa protein from the insert DNA on the recombinant plasmid. Northern blot and primer extension analyses were used to identify the mRNA transcript in P. haemolytica A1 and the putative promoter of ssaI. The antigen (designated Ssa1) could be localized to the outer membrane of P. haemolytica A1 and E. coli clones carrying pSSA1. A rabbit serum against Ssa1 was produced by using whole cells of E. coli expressing Ssa1 on the surface as the immunogen, demonstrating that Ssa1 is immunogenic in rabbits. The results from colony immunoblot analysis with calf serum from animals that were resistant to P. haemolytica A1-induced pneumonia suggest indirectly that Ssa1 is also immunogenic in the animals. Images PMID:1840576

  18. Effect of simulated stress on susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils to Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kraabel, B J; Miller, M W

    1997-07-01

    We examined the effects of simulated stress on susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) neutrophils to Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin in a blocked, crossover experiment. Ten captive-raised bighorn sheep were sampled 10 hr after separate administrations of long-acting adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) gel and normal saline (control). We then compared in vitro leukotoxin-dependent neutrophil death rates after exposure to culture supernatants from four unique P. haemolytica isolates (one from domestic and three from bighorn sheep). Simulated stress effects were evidenced by elevated (P = 0.002) mean plasma cortisol concentrations, more neutrophils (P = 0.037), and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils (P < or = 0.043) in ACTH-treated bighorn sheep. Maximum leukotoxin-dependent neutrophil death rates were > or = 61% for three of four P. haemolytica isolates tested. For all three cytotoxic isolates, neutrophil death rates at 150 micrograms/50 microliters supernatant were about 1.13 times higher (P = 0.0001) after bighorns received ACTH; for two of these, overall neutrophil death rates were higher (P < or = 0.001) in ACTH-treated bighorn sheep. Although variable leukotoxin production among P. haemolytica strains appeared principally responsible for differences in leukotoxin-dependent neutrophil death rates, susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils to leukotoxin was increased by prior exposure to elevated plasma cortisol concentrations. It follows that if similar processes occur in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in vivo, they could contribute to greater susceptibility of stressed bighorn sheep to pneumonic pasteurellosis.

  19. A Quantitative Flurometric Assay for the Measurement of Antibody to Pasteurella haemolytica in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Confer, A.W.; Fox, J.C.; Newman, P.R.; Lawson, G.W.; Corstvet, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid, simple fluorometric method is described for measuring antibody to Pasteurella haemolytica in sera of cattle. Various antigen preparations were compared for the test including live, formalin-killed and phenol-killed P. haemolytica. A preparation composed of formalin-killed organisms from a 22 hour culture gave consistent results and was used in the studies. The test was reproduciable with percent coefficients of variation for fluorescent signal unit values on ten or more replicate samples ranging from 5.7 to 28.0. Sera from calves vaccinated by aerosol exposure to live P. haemolytica had up to a five-fold increase in antibody titer as measured by the flurometric method test during a 21 day period. Fluorometric method titers were comparable to those obtained by the indirect bacterial agglutination test. There was no seroconversion to P. haemolytica in calves vaccinated by aerosol exposure of P. multocida. The major advantages of the fluorometric method test over conventional methods are that the assay does not require serial dilutions of serum samples and thus limits time and effort to determine antibody titers. PMID:6339016

  20. Udder orf infection and its role in ovine clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R

    1997-04-01

    During an experimental study of ovine subclinical mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, an outbreak of contagious ecthyma occurred among ewes unvaccinated against parapox virus. The same group of ewes developed a high rate (43.7%) of clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica. The rate of clinical mastitis among ewes vaccinated against parapox virus was very low (3.7%) suggesting that the presence of orf in the unvaccinated ewes was contributing to the high rate of clinical mastitis. An examination of the iron, sodium, potassium and albumin concentration of milk collected from 16 unvaccinated and nine randomly selected vaccinated ewes before experimental infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci or their uninfected control mammary glands indicated significant differences in the iron (p < 0.0001) and sodium (p = 0.01) concentration. Increased iron concentration in the milk may have assisted in the development of udder infection caused by P. haemolytica as iron is easily utilised by this bacterium.

  1. Tracheal versus pulmonary deposition and clearance of inhaled Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, L M; López, A; Merino-Moncada, M; Martínez-Burnes, J; Mondragón, I

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to do a comparative study on the deposition and clearance of inhaled bacteria between the lungs and tracheae of mice exposed to aerosols of bacteria. Two hundred and eighty-eight mice were divided into four groups (n = 72) and exposed to aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus in four replicates. The numbers of bacteria were determined in the trachea and lungs of mice sacrificed 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours postexposure. Results indicated that bacterial deposition was greater in lungs than in tracheae. No significant (p greater than 0.05) difference was observed between P. haemolytica and S. aureus clearance rates. Although bacteria were rapidly eliminated from the whole respiratory tract, bacterial clearance was significantly (p less than 0.002) faster in tracheae than lungs. A significant (p less than 0.05) replicate effect was also observed. PMID:4041977

  2. Sialoglycoprotease of Pasteurella haemolytica A1: detection of antisialoglycoprotease antibodies in sera of calves.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E; Cladman, W M; Conlon, J A; Mellors, A; Lo, R Y

    1994-01-01

    Log phase culture supernate from Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 1 contains a proteolytic enzyme specific for O-sialoglycoproteins. Using two methods, Western immunoblotting and enzyme neutralization assay, it was demonstrated that certain bovine sera from two previous P. haemolytica A1 vaccination and challenge trials contained antibodies (Ab) (isotypes IgG1 and IgG2 on Western immunoblot) to the sialoglycoprotease (Gcp). In these trials, selected calves were vaccinated twice with either the commercial culture supernate vaccine Presponse or given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). One trial was conducted during spring, P. haem XIX, and the other during the winter, P. haem XXI. Although there was no clear evidence for induction of anti-Gcp in response to vaccination, several calves seroconverted following intrapulmonary challenge with live P. haemolytica A1. This is the first report of anti-Gcp Ab in bovine sera. The results indicated that the Gcp is immunogenic and that the bacterium produces the enzyme in vivo. Further, animals with an anti-Gcp response had less pneumonia at necropsy, suggesting the Gcp may induce protective immunity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8004547

  3. Attempted protection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from pneumonia using a nonlethal cytotoxic strain of Pasteurella haemolytica, biotype A, serotype.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M

    1996-04-01

    Between February and April, 1994, we tested the hypothesis that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) inoculated with a cytotoxic isolate of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 11 (A11) could withstand challenge inoculation with a cytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin known to cause lethal pneumonia in bighorn sheep. On experimental day O, two bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with 6 x 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) of a cytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica A11 (group 1); two bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with 6 x 10(9) cfu of a noncytotoxic P. haemolytica A11 (group 2), and two control bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with a similar volume of brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (group 3). After inoculation, all bighorn sheep remained healthy. On experimental day 16, group 1 bighorn sheep each were given the same intratracheal inoculation as on day O, and groups 2 and 3 bighorn sheep each were inoculated with BHI broth at the same volume as group 1. All bighorn sheep remained healthy following inoculations. On experimental day 42, bighorn sheep in groups 1 and 3 each were challenged with an intratracheal inoculation of 6 x 10(9) cfu of P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin known to be lethal in bighorn sheep. Group 2 sheep each were inoculated intratracheally with BHI broth at the same volume as groups 1 and 3. The four bighorn sheep in groups 1 and 3 that received the challenge inoculation died from acute bronchopneumonia within 72 hours after challenge inoculation, and cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from the four dead bighorn sheep. Both cytotoxic or noncytotoxic strains of P. haemolytica A11 were not lethal and did not cause pneumonia in the experimentally inoculated bighorn sheep. However, previous inoculation with cytotoxic P. haemolytica A11 did not protect the bighorn sheep against later experimental challenge inoculation with a known lethal strain of cytotoxic P

  4. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  5. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica... for use. For treatment of sheep respiratory disease (sheep pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia...

  6. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bacterial respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica... for use. For treatment of sheep respiratory disease (sheep pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia...

  7. Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Strathdee, C A; Greer, C N

    1985-01-01

    A clone bank of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was constructed by partial digestion of the genomic DNA with Sau3A and ligation of 5- to 10-kilobase-pair fragments into the BamHI site of the plasmid vector pBR322. After transformation into Escherichia coli K-12, a total of 4 X 10(3) recombinant clones was obtained. These were screened for the production of P. haemolytica soluble antigens by a colony enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blot method with a rabbit antiserum raised against the soluble antigens. The clones producing P. haemolytica soluble antigens were then analyzed for the production of the leukotoxin by a cytotoxicity assay with cells from a bovine leukemia-derived B-lymphocyte cell line as the target cells. Positive clones were identified, and subsequent restriction analysis of the recombinant plasmids showed that the same 6.3 kilobase pairs of insert DNA was cloned in either of the two orientations into the plasmid vector pBR322. One of the clones was selected for further characterization of the leukotoxin as produced in E. coli. Tests for heat lability and target cell species specificity with canine, porcine, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes indicated that the activity of the cloned leukotoxin was identical to that of the P. haemolytica leukotoxin. Furthermore, the E. coli-produced leukotoxin was also neutralized by bovine or rabbit antiserum known to have antitoxic activity. When cellular proteins from the E. coli clones were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis, a 100,000-dalton protein was identified which corresponded to one of the soluble antigens found in the leukotoxic culture supernatant of P. haemolytica. These results demonstrated that the gene(s) for the P. haemolytica leukotoxin have been cloned and that the leukotoxin was expressed in E. coli. Images PMID:3905610

  8. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella... respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida, and... for use. For treatment of sheep respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with M. haemolytica and P...

  9. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella... respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida, and... for use. For treatment of sheep respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with M. haemolytica and P...

  10. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella... respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida, and... for use. For treatment of sheep respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with M. haemolytica and P...

  11. Influence of β2-Integrin Adhesion Molecule Expression and Pulmonary Infection with Pasteurella haemolytica on Cytokine Gene Expression in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haa-Yung; Kehrli, Marcus E.; Brogden, Kim A.; Gallup, Jack M.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    β2-Integrins are leukocyte adhesion molecules composed of alpha (CD11a, -b, -c, or -d) and beta (CD18) subunit heterodimers. Genetic CD18 deficiency results in impaired neutrophil egress into tissues that varies between conducting airways and alveoli of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether CD18 deficiency in cattle affects proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) expression in pulmonary tissue after respiratory infection with Pasteurella haemolytica. Cattle were infected with P. haemolytica via fiberoptic deposition of organisms into the posterior part of the right cranial lung lobe. Animals were euthanized at 2 or 4 h postinoculation (p.i.), and tissues were collected to assess PIC gene expression using antisense RNA probes specific for bovine interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) along with the β-actin (β-Act) housekeeping gene. Expression of PIC was induced at 2 h p.i. in P. haemolytica-infected cattle and continued to 4 h p.i. At 2 h p.i., induction of gene expression and increase of cells that expressed PIC were observed both in CD18+ and CD18− cattle after inoculation of P. haemolytica. The induction of gene expression with P. haemolytica inoculation was more prominent in CD18− cattle than in CD18+ cattle by comparison to pyrogen-free saline (PFS)-inoculated control animals. At 4 h p.i., however, the induction of PIC, especially IL-1α, IL-6, and IFN-γ, in the lungs of CD18+ cattle inoculated with P. haemolytica was greater than that in lungs of the CD18− cattle. IFN-γ and TNF-α genes were not increased in P. haemolytica-inoculated CD18− cattle lungs compared to the PFS-inoculated control lungs at 4 h p.i. In PFS-inoculated lungs, we generally observed a higher percentage of cells and higher level of gene expression in the lungs of CD18− cattle than in the lungs of CD18+ cattle, especially at 4 h p.i. The rate of neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of CD18− cattle at

  12. Neuraminidase production by a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 strain associated with bovine pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D C; Unbehagen, P J; Purdy, C W

    1993-01-01

    The properties of an extracellular neuroaminidase produced by a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 strain (isolated from a case of bovine pneumonia) during growth in a defined medium were examined in this investigation. This enzyme, isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. haemolytica A1, was active against N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase production paralleled bacterial growth in a defined medium and was maximal in the stationary phase of growth. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. These procedures yielded an enzyme preparation that possessed a specific activity of 100.62 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. The Km value for this enzyme with human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein as the substrate was 1.1 mg/ml, and the enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.5. The P. haemolytica A1 neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 as estimated by gel filtration and approximately 170,000 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was stable at 4 degrees C for 3 h. At 37 degrees C for 3 h, 25% of enzymatic activity was lost. Approximately 55% of the enzyme activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C, with greater than 70% of the enzyme activity being destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of > or = 65 degrees C. Images PMID:8418046

  13. Hematological changes in calves exposed to a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and crude leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Bowersock, T L; Walker, R D; Maddux, J M; Fenner, D; Moore, R N

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if culture supernatants of Pasteurella haemolytica containing crude leukotoxin and lipopolysaccharide (CLCL) causes disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) when injected into calves. The effect of intraduodenal (ID) exposure followed by a subsequent subcutaneous (SC) inoculation of either heat-treated or untreated CLCL was evaluated. The relative contribution of the crude leukotoxin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the virulence of P. haemolytica was evaluated. One group of calves received an ID inoculation of CLCL followed two weeks later by a SC inoculation of CLCL; one group received an ID inoculation of tissue culture medium followed two weeks later by a SC inoculation of CLCL; and a third group received an ID inoculation of CLCL followed two weeks later by a SC inoculation of heat-treated CLCL. Hematological parameters used to evaluate DIC included white cell count, platelet count, neutrophil number, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, one stage prothrombin time (OSPT), activated partial thromboplastin time, body temperature and clinical signs. Each parameter was measured in calves at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h following the SC inoculation of CLCL. Each group had significant changes over time in all parameters except body temperature. Calves that received a SC inoculation of heat-treated CLCL had smaller changes in all parameters except OSPT compared to the other groups. Results suggest that the LPS and leukotoxin of P. haemolytica exert additive effects on the coagulation cascade and number of peripheral leukocytes, and that the ID inoculation of CLCL does not affect the response of calves to a SC inoculation of toxin. PMID:2249175

  14. Isolation of an ovine pulmonary surfactant-associated anionic peptide bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Brogden, K A; De Lucca, A J; Bland, J; Elliott, S

    1996-01-09

    Ovine pulmonary surfactant is bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica when surfactant and bacteria mixtures are incubated with normal ovine serum. To isolate this component, surfactant (1 mg/ml) was centrifuged at 100,000 x gav, and the supernatant was fractionated by HPLC. Fractions were eluted with acetonitrile (10-100%)/0.1% trifluoracetic acid and tested for bactericidal activity. Amino acid and sequence analysis of three bactericidal fractions showed that fraction 2 contained H-GDDDDDD-OH, fraction 3 contained H-DDDDDDD-OH, and fraction 6 contained H-GADDDDD-OH. Peptides in 0.14 M NaCl/10 microM ZnCl2 (zinc saline solution) induced killing of P. haemolytica and other bacteria comparable to defensins and beta-defensins [minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)50 range, 0.01-0.06 mM] but not in 0.14 M NaCl/10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2/0.5 mM CaCl2/0.15 mM MgCl2 (MBC50 range, 2.8-11.5 mM). Bactericidal activity resided in the core aspartate hexapeptide homopolymeric region, and MBC50 values of aspartate dipeptide-to-heptapeptide homopolymers were inversely proportional to the number of aspartate residues in the peptide. P. haemolytica incubated with H-DDDDDD-OH in zinc saline solution was killed within 30 min. Ultrastructurally, cells contained flocculated intracellular constituents. In contrast to cationic defensins and beta-defensins, surfactant-associated anionic peptides are smaller in size, opposite in charge, and are bactericidal in zinc saline solution. They are members of another class of peptide antibiotics containing aspartate, which when present in pulmonary secretions may help clear bacteria as a part of the innate pulmonary defense system.

  15. Isolation of an ovine pulmonary surfactant-associated anionic peptide bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, K A; De Lucca, A J; Bland, J; Elliott, S

    1996-01-01

    Ovine pulmonary surfactant is bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica when surfactant and bacteria mixtures are incubated with normal ovine serum. To isolate this component, surfactant (1 mg/ml) was centrifuged at 100,000 x gav, and the supernatant was fractionated by HPLC. Fractions were eluted with acetonitrile (10-100%)/0.1% trifluoracetic acid and tested for bactericidal activity. Amino acid and sequence analysis of three bactericidal fractions showed that fraction 2 contained H-GDDDDDD-OH, fraction 3 contained H-DDDDDDD-OH, and fraction 6 contained H-GADDDDD-OH. Peptides in 0.14 M NaCl/10 microM ZnCl2 (zinc saline solution) induced killing of P. haemolytica and other bacteria comparable to defensins and beta-defensins [minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)50 range, 0.01-0.06 mM] but not in 0.14 M NaCl/10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2/0.5 mM CaCl2/0.15 mM MgCl2 (MBC50 range, 2.8-11.5 mM). Bactericidal activity resided in the core aspartate hexapeptide homopolymeric region, and MBC50 values of aspartate dipeptide-to-heptapeptide homopolymers were inversely proportional to the number of aspartate residues in the peptide. P. haemolytica incubated with H-DDDDDD-OH in zinc saline solution was killed within 30 min. Ultrastructurally, cells contained flocculated intracellular constituents. In contrast to cationic defensins and beta-defensins, surfactant-associated anionic peptides are smaller in size, opposite in charge, and are bactericidal in zinc saline solution. They are members of another class of peptide antibiotics containing aspartate, which when present in pulmonary secretions may help clear bacteria as a part of the innate pulmonary defense system. PMID:8552650

  16. Pulmonary lesions induced by Pasteurella haemolytica in neutrophil sufficient and neutrophil deficient calves.

    PubMed Central

    Breider, M A; Walker, R D; Hopkins, F M; Schultz, T W; Bowersock, T L

    1988-01-01

    The role of neutrophils in the development of peracute lung lesions of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis was investigated. Eight calves were divided into two groups of four calves each. Group I was treated with intravenous phosphate-buffered saline and served as the neutrophil sufficient calves. Group II was treated with intravenous hydroxyurea which produced a state of neutropenia. When peripheral blood neutrophil numbers dropped below 300 cells/microL in group II, all calves were challenged with an intrabronchial bolus of Pasteurella haemolytica in the log phase of growth. An acute inflammatory process occurred in both groups of calves indicated by a rise in body temperature. While pulmonary lesions occurred in both groups by six hours postinoculation, they varied in pathological characteristics. Pulmonary lesions in the neutrophil sufficient calves consisted of fibrinopurulent alveolitis-bronchiolitis with associated alveolar septal necrosis, interlobular edema, and intravascular thrombi. The neutrophil deficient calves had extensive intra-alveolar edema, interlobular edema, intraalveolar hemorrhage, atelectasis, and focal areas of alveolar septal necrosis. These results show that P. haemolytica can induce severe pulmonary tissue damage through both neutrophil dependent and neutrophil independent mechanisms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3370555

  17. Conservation of Expression and N-Terminal Sequences of the Pasteurella haemolytica 31-Kilodalton and Pasteurella trehalosi 29-Kilodalton Periplasmic Iron-Regulated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Frank, Glynn H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the conservation of expression of a 31-kDa iron-regulated protein by serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi associated with pasteurellosis of cattle and sheep. A polyclonal antibody prepared against the purified 31-kDa periplasmic iron-regulated protein from P. haemolytica serotype A1 showed that all P. haemolytica serotypes expressed similar 31-kDa proteins with identical N-terminal sequences, whereas P. trehalosi serotypes expressed immunologically different 29-kDa proteins with a different N-terminal sequence. Antibody to the 31-kDa iron-regulated protein was a useful tool to distinguish similarities and differences of the iron-regulated proteins of P. haemolytica and P. trehalosi. PMID:10391874

  18. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period influences the pathophysiological responses to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in post-weaned Holstein calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) influences the pathophysiological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Thirty Holstein calves (1 day of age) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with preweaned PO...

  19. Metabolic engineering of Mannheimia succiniciproducens for succinic acid production based on elementary mode analysis with clustering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Jun; Ahn, Jung Ho; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-02-01

    Mannheimia succiniciproducens, a capnophilic gram-negative rumen bacterium, has been employed for the efficient production of succinic acid. Although M. succiniciproducens metabolism was previously studied using a genome-scale metabolic model, more metabolic characteristics are to be understood. To this end, elementary mode analysis accompanied with clustering ('EMC' analysis) is used to gain further insights on metabolic characteristics of M. succiniciproducens allowing efficient succinic acid production. Elementary modes (EMs) generated from the central carbon metabolic network of M. succiniciproducens are clustered to systematically analyze succinic acid production routes. Based on the results of EMC analysis, zwf gene is identified as a novel overexpression target for the improved succinic acid production. This gene is overexpressed in a previously constructed succinic acid-overproducing M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain. Heterologous NADPH-dependent mdh is later intuitively selected for overexpression to synergistically improve succinic acid production by utilizing abundant NADPH pool mediated by the overexpressed zwf. The LPK7 strains co-expressing mdh alone and both zwf and mdh genes are subjected to fed-batch fermentation to better examine their succinic acid production performances. Strategies of EMC analysis will be useful for further metabolic engineering of M. succiniciproducens and other microorganisms to improve production of succinic acid and other chemicals of interest. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Iron acquisition in Pasteurella haemolytica: expression and identification of a bovine-specific transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnariwo, J A; Schryvers, A B

    1990-01-01

    Seven type 1 field isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica were screened for their ability to use different transferrins as a source of iron for growth. All seven strains were capable of using bovine but not human, porcine, avian, or equine transferrin. A screening assay failed to detect siderophore production in any of the strains tested. Iron-deficient cells from these strains expressed a binding activity, specific for bovine transferrin, that was regulated by the level of iron in the medium. Inhibition of expression by translation and transcription inhibitors suggested that iron regulation was occurring at the gene level. Affinity isolation of receptor proteins from all seven strains with biotinylated bovine transferrin identified a 100-kilodalton iron-regulated outer membrane protein as the bovine transferrin receptor. Iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of 71 and 77 kilodaltons were isolated along with the 100-kilodalton protein when less stringent washing procedures were employed in the affinity isolation procedure. Images PMID:2365453

  1. Simple visual assay for determination of Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin neutralizing antibody titers in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, M J; Confer, A W; Kreps, J A

    1985-01-01

    A simple visual assay is described for determining the capacity of bovine serum to neutralize the cytotoxin produced by Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. The test was reproducible from day to day with different target cell populations and cytotoxin preparations. Cytotoxin neutralization titers obtained by the visual assay were comparable to those determined by the trypan blue exclusion and 51Cr-release methods. The visual assay was used to measure neutralization titers of bovine sera obtained from vaccination experiments and fractions of purified serum obtained by gel filtration. The major advantages of the visual assay over other assays are that it is rapid, inexpensive, and does not use radioisotopes. It also does not require specialized equipment, making it adaptable to most laboratories. Images PMID:3905853

  2. The effect of the intra-mammary inoculation of lactating ewes with Pasteurella haemolytica isolates from different sources.

    PubMed

    Watkins, G H; Jones, J E

    1992-01-01

    Lactating Welsh Mountain ewes were inoculated, 3 weeks after lambing, with between 1000 and 10,000 colony forming units of a number of isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica. Isolates from severe, acute mastitis in a ewe, from ovine and bovine pneumonic lesions and from the nasal cavity of healthy lambs, all gave rise to severe, acute mastitis that was clinically indistinguishable from that seen naturally. Two isolates from the milk of ewes with subclinical mastitis did not cause clinical disease after inoculation and, in most ewes, were immediately eliminated. These results suggest that a variety of strains of P. haemolytica are capable of causing severe mastitis in sheep, regardless of their origin, and that there are strains of lower pathogenicity for the mammary gland which are not capable of causing clinical mastitis.

  3. Restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping differentiate Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 isolates from cattle within a feedlot.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G L; Robinson, L C; Burrows, G E

    1993-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 isolates were collected from cattle within a feedlot during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease. Genetic heterogeneity among the isolates was examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), ribotyping, and analysis of plasmid content. The susceptibilities of isolates to several antibiotics were also examined. Five different REA patterns and three different ribotypes were observed among the isolates. Fifty percent of the isolates had an identical REA type, ribotype, and plasmid profile. Examination of the plasmid content of the isolates revealed that most (73%) carry a single plasmid which encodes beta-lactamase, 13.5% carry two plasmids, and 13.5% carry no plasmid. The data reveal the presence of genetic differences among isolates of P. haemolytica A1, associated with shipping fever pneumonia within a closed feedlot, and suggest that a combination of REA, ribotyping, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic susceptibility determination will be useful in analyzing the molecular epidemiology of this disease. Images PMID:7691872

  4. Use of DNA analysis of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T isolates to monitor transmission in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, M D; Ward, A C; Hunter, D L; Wesley, I V

    1993-01-01

    Pneumonia has been identified as a major cause of poor lamb survival in indigenous herds of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in central Idaho. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from five adult Rocky Mountain bighorn ewes captured from a free-ranging herd in central Idaho. The lambs from two of these ewes delivered by cesarean section were free of P. haemolytica until 40 days of age and after repeated contact with their dams. The lambs subsequently developed signs of pneumonia, and P. haemolytica was isolated from nasal, pharyngeal, and transtracheal wash samples from each lamb. All P. haemolytica biotype T isolates from the ewes and lambs, as well as those from a 9-month-old lamb of the same herd from which samples for culture were obtained 2 years earlier, were subjected to HaeIII restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping. Two ribotypes and seven REA patterns were visually distinguishable by these procedures. Similarity coefficients (SAB) of 0.09 to 0.95 were calculated for the seven REA patterns. The REA patterns of the isolates from the lambs were identical (SAB = 1.0). The isolates from the lambs also had SAB values of 1.0, which was indicative of identity with one of the seven isolates cultured from the ewes at the time of capture and with the organism isolated from the 9-month-old lamb. These procedures have the discriminatory capabilities necessary to monitor the transmission of specific strains of bacteria within and between animal populations. Images PMID:8385150

  5. Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2007-12-01

    There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production.

  6. Effects of modified Cary and Blair medium on recovery of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) pharyngeal swabs.

    PubMed

    Wild, M A; Miller, M W

    1994-01-01

    Modified Cary and Blair transport medium (MCB) was evaluated for recovery of Pasteurella spp. from pharyngeal swabs of healthy Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). In experiment one, three pharyngeal swabs were collected from each of 25 bighorns. Pasteurella haemolytica was recovered from 21 of 25 swabs tested almost immediately and from 16 of 25 swabs held in MCB medium at about 22 C for 24 hr before testing (P > 0.10). Recovery of P. haemolytica decreased (P < 0.005) to 1 of 25 when swabs were held in MCB medium at about 22 C for 48 hr before testing. In experiment two, four pharyngeal swabs were collected from each of ten bighorns and held in MCB medium at about 5 C for < or = 5, 24, 48, or 72 hr prior to testing. Recovery was unaffected by storage at 5 C; P. haemolytica was isolated from all 40 of these samples. All Pasteurella spp. isolates were nonhemolytic P. haemolytica. In experiment one, most isolates were serotype 4; in experiment two, serotype 3 was most common. We propose that MCB medium is effective for transporting bighorn sheep pharyngeal swabs for P. haemolytica screening because it imposes minimal or no effect on recovery when held < or = 24 hr at 22 C or < or = 72 hr at 5 C.

  7. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  8. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3196974

  9. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 glycoprotease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, K M; Lo, R Y; Mellors, A

    1991-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 secretes a glycoprotease which is specific for O-sialoglycoproteins such as glycophorin A. The gene encoding the glycoprotease enzyme has been cloned in the recombinant plasmid pH1, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The gene (designated gcp) codes for a protein of 35.2 kDa, and an active enzyme protein of this molecular mass can be observed in Escherichia coli clones carrying pPH1. In vivo labeling of plasmid-encoded proteins in E. coli maxicells demonstrated the expression of a 35-kDa protein from pPH1. The amino-terminal sequence of the heterologously expressed protein corresponds to that predicted from the nucleotide sequence. The glycoprotease is a neutral metalloprotease, and the predicted amino acid sequence of the glycoprotease contains a putative zinc-binding site. The gene shows no significant homology with the genes for other proteases of procaryotic or eucaryotic origin. However, there is substantial homology between gcp and an E. coli gene, orfX, whose product is believed to function in the regulation of macromolecule biosynthesis. Images PMID:1885539

  10. Pneumonia in Calves Produced with Aerosols of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Pasteurella haemolytica

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Langford, E. V.

    1978-01-01

    In each of 11 experiments, four calves were exposed first to an aerosol of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1, virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and second to an aerosol of Pasteurella haemolytica. The interval between aerosols was three to five days. In two other experiments, calves were exposed only to a bacterial aerosol. Climate was controlled for all experiments from the day of viral exposure and for eight of the experiments it was also controlled for four to six days before the first aerosol. The concentration of infectious doses of virus in the aerosols and the number of bacteria in the aerosols of each calf were determined. Macroscopically recognizable rhinitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and pneumonia of lobar distribution in 42 lobes from 11 calves were seen in five experiments in which bacterial aerosol followed the viral aerosol by at least four days. One calf died with marked respiratory disease in each of four experiments within four days of exposure to the bacterial aerosol. Production of pneumonia was dependent on an interval between aerosols of at least four days but not on the condition of controlled climate on the environmental chamber either before or after the viral aerosol nor on the period of habituation allowed calves of some experiments. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:210912

  11. Thermomonas haemolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a gamma-proteobacterium from kaolin slurry.

    PubMed

    Busse, H J; Kämpfer, P; Moore, E R B; Nuutinen, J; Tsitko, I V; Denner, E B M; Vauterin, L; Valens, M; Rosselló-Mora, R; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2002-03-01

    Four aerobic, gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from kaolin slurry used in the production of paper were subjected to a polyphasic analysis and characterization to determine their taxonomic position. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of the four strains revealed that they represent a new lineage within the gamma-Proteobacteria, related to the genera Xanthomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Luteimonas, Xylella and Rhodanobacter. Analysis of the quinone system, the polyamines, the fatty acids and the polar lipids revealed a combination of characteristics that is unique and not described for the phylogenetic relatives. The four strains contain a ubiquinone Q-8, spermidine as the major polyamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant polar lipids, and a fatty acid profile with predominantly iso-branched fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be within the narrow range 67.1-68.7 mol%. Determination of DNA relatedness, as well as riboprint band patterns and amplified fragment length polymorphism profiles, clearly demonstrated that the four strains are members of a single species. Antibiotic-susceptibility patterns were identical for the four strains. Although showing a high degree of similarites in physiological and biochemical patterns, each of the four strains could be distinguished from the others on the basis of a few biochemical characteristics. On the basis of the estimates of phylogenetic relationships derived from the 16S rDNA sequence analyses, the observed chemotaxonomic characteristics and other phenotypic traits, a new genus, Thermomonas gen. nov., and species, Thermomonas haemolytica sp. nov., are proposed for the strains A50-7-3T (= DSM 13605T = LMG 19653T), B 50-7-1 (= DSM 13598 = LMG 19655), D50-7-1 (= DSM 13610 = LMG 19656) and B50-8-1 (= DSM 13599 = LMG 19654), with strain A50-7-3T as the type strain.

  12. Tilmicosin Induces Apoptosis in Bovine Peripheral Neutrophils in the Presence or in the Absence of Pasteurella haemolytica and Promotes Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Alex C.; Lee, Wilson D.; Murrin, Katherine A.; Morck, Douglas W.; Merrill, John K.; Dick, Paul; Buret, Andre G.

    2000-01-01

    Pathogen virulence factors and inflammation are responsible for tissue injury associated with respiratory failure in bacterial pneumonia, as seen in the bovine lung infected with Pasteurella haemolytica. Tilmicosin is a macrolide antibiotic used for the treatment of bovine bacterial pneumonia. Recent evidence suggests that tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may have anti-inflammatory effects. Using bovine leukocytes, we sought to define whether live P. haemolytica affected tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis, assessed the proapoptotic effects of tilmicosin in comparison with other drugs, and characterized its impact on phagocytic uptake of neutrophils by macrophages. Induction of apoptosis in the presence or absence of P. haemolytica was assessed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for apoptotic nucleosomes. In addition, fluorescent annexin-V staining identified externalized phosphatidylserine in neutrophils treated with tilmicosin, penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone. Neutrophil membrane integrity was assessed by using propidium iodide and trypan blue exclusion. As phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages contributes to the resolution of inflammation, phagocytosis of tilmicosin-treated neutrophils by esterase-positive cultured bovine macrophages was assessed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Unlike bovine neutrophils treated with penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone, neutrophils exposed to tilmicosin became apoptotic, regardless of the presence or absence of P. haemolytica. Tilmicosin-treated apoptotic neutrophils were phagocytosed at a significantly greater rate by bovine macrophages than were control neutrophils. In conclusion, tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis occurs regardless of the presence or absence of live P. haemolytica, exhibits at least some degree of drug specificity, and promotes phagocytic clearance of the dying inflammatory cells. PMID

  13. Pasteurella haemolytica ultraviolet-irradiated vaccine by parenteral and aerosol routes compared in the goat model.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Cooley, J D; Straus, D C

    1998-08-01

    Positive control 1 (PC1) (n = 9) goats were injected transthoracically into the left lung with live Pasteurella haemolytica biovar A, serovar 1 (PhA1) in polyacrylate (PA) beads on days 0 and 21. Positive control 2 (PC2) (n = 6) goats were nebulized with live PhA1 and PA beads on days 0 and 21. Negative control (NC) goats (n = 6) were each injected transthoracically into the left lung with PA beads alone on days 0 and 21. Four groups (n = 6) were administered PA beads mixed with ultraviolet (UV) killed PhA1 on days 0 and 21. The treatment doses of bacteria for these groups were principal group 1 (PR1) injected into the left lung (7.7 x 10(10) cfu); PR2, 7.7 x 10(10) UV-killed PhA1 injected subcutaneously (SC); PR3, 7.7 x 10(10) UV-killed PhA1 injected SC only on day 21; PR4, nebulized with PA beads mixed with 5.6 x 10(10) cfu of UV-killed PhA1; and PR5, nebulized with PA beads mixed with 5 x 10(8) cfu of UV-killed PhA1. All goats were challenged transthoracically in the right lung with 1 x 10(8) cfu of live PhA1 on day 42 and necropsied on day 46. The sizes of consolidated lung lesions at the challenge site were used as a measure of immunity. The data show that the introduction of live PhA1 into the lungs of goats, either by injection or aerosolization, offers excellent protection against a subsequent homologous challenge. The data also demonstrate that two transthoracic injections (21 days apart) of UV-killed PhA1 (PR1), and subcutaneous injection of UV-killed PhA1(PR2) also offer excellent protection against a subsequent homologous live PhA1 challenge. One SC injection of UV-killed PhA1 (PR3) appears to offer only partial protection against a subsequent homologous live PhA1 challenge. Inhalation of UV-killed PhA1 mixed with PA beads (PR4 and PR5) induced no protection in goats against a subsequent live PhA1 transthoracic challenge.

  14. Capsular polysaccharide vaccine for Group B Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli K1, and Pasteurella haemolytica A2.

    PubMed

    Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel; Xie, Guilin; Hanson, Lars Å; Åke-Hanson, Lars; Miller, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed the literature that is the basis for our proposal that (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac conjugates will be safe and effective vaccines for Group B meningococci (GBMs), Escherichia coli K1, and Pasteurella haemolytica A2. Although (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac is a virulence factor and a protective antigen of these three pathogens, it is also a component of normal tissues (neural cell adhesion molecule). Natural, anti-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac present in most adults, vaccine-induced antibodies, and even high levels of spontaneously appearing monoclonal anti-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac did not cause autoimmunity. Although it is not possible to prove a null hypothesis, there are no epidemiologic, serologic, immunologic, or clinical data to indicate that (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac antibodies will induce pathology or an autoimmune disease. No increased pathology caused by these antibodies was found, even in neonates and infants of mothers recovered from GBM meningitis. The lack of pathology mediated by anti-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac may be explained by different presentations of (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac on bacterial and mammalian cells and by the unusual physicochemical properties of anti-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac. Based on clinical and experimental data collected over 30 y and because (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac is an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen for GBM, E. coli K1, and P. haemolytica A2, protein conjugates of it are easy to prepare using inexpensive and plentiful ingredients, and they would be compatible with routinely administered infant vaccines, clinical studies of these conjugates should proceed.

  15. Characterization of the Arc two-component signal transduction system of the capnophilic rumen bacterium Mannheimia succiniciproducens.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Seok; Jung, Young Ryul; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Kang, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sang Yup; Chavez-Canales, Maria; Georgellis, Dimitris; Kwon, Ohsuk

    2008-07-01

    The ArcB/A two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli modulates the expression of numerous operons in response to redox conditions of growth. We demonstrate that the putative arcA and arcB genes of Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E, a capnophilic (CO2-loving) rumen bacterium, encode functional proteins that specify a two-component system. The Arc proteins of the two bacterial species sufficiently resemble each other that they can participate in heterologous transphosphorylation in vitro, and the arcA and arcB genes of M. succiniciproducens confer toluidine blue resistance to E. coli arcA and arcB mutants. However, neither the quinone analogs (ubiquinone 0 and menadione) nor the cytosolic effectors (d-lactate, acetate, and pyruvate) affect the net phosphorylation of M. succiniciproducens ArcB. Our results indicate that different types of signaling molecules and distinct modes of kinase regulation are used by the ArcB proteins of E. coli and M. succiniciproducens.

  16. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin induces cytosol acidification in LFA-1 expressing immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Balashova, Nataliya; Dhingra, Anuradha; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Lally, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Studies have suggested that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA) kills human LFA-1(CD11a/CD18)-bearing immune cells through a lysosomal-mediated mechanism. Lysosomes are membrane-bound cellular organelles that contain an array of acid hydrolases that are capable of breaking down biomolecules. The lysosomal membrane bilayer confines the pH-sensitive enzymes within an optimal acidic (pH 4.8) environment thereby protecting the slightly basic cytosol (pH 6.8–7.5). In the current study, we have probed the effect of LtxA-induced cytolysis on lysosomal integrity in two different K562 erythroleukemia cell lines. K562-puro/LFA-1 cells were stably transfected with CD11a and CD18 cDNA to express LFA-1 on the cell surface while K562-puro, which does not express LFA-1, served as a control. Following treatment with 100 ng/ml LtxA cells were analyzed by live cell imaging in conjunction with time-lapse confocal microscopy and by flow cytometry. Using a pH sensitive indicator (pHrodo®, Life Technologies) we demonstrated that the toxin causes a decrease in the intracellular pH in K562-puro/LFA-1 cells noticeable within the first 15 min of treatment. This process correlated with the disappearance of lysosomes in the cytosol as determined by both acridine orange and LysoTracker® Red DND-99 (Life Technologies) staining. These changes were not observed in K562-puro cells or when heat inactivated toxin was added to K562-puro/LFA-1. Our results suggest that LtxA induces lysosomal damage, cytosol acidification, which is followed by cell death in K562-puro/LFA-1 cells. PMID:26361372

  17. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin induces cytosol acidification in LFA-1 expressing immune cells.

    PubMed

    Balashova, N; Dhingra, A; Boesze-Battaglia, K; Lally, E T

    2016-02-01

    Studies have suggested that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA) kills human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18)-bearing immune cells through a lysosomal-mediated mechanism. Lysosomes are membrane-bound cellular organelles that contain an array of acid hydrolases that are capable of breaking down biomolecules. The lysosomal membrane bilayer confines the pH-sensitive enzymes within an optimal acidic (pH 4.8) environment thereby protecting the slightly basic cytosol (pH 6.8-7.5). In the current study, we have probed the effect of LtxA-induced cytolysis on lysosomal integrity in two different K562 erythroleukemia cell lines. K562-puro/LFA-1 cells were stably transfected with CD11a and CD18 cDNA to express LFA-1 on the cell surface while K562-puro, which does not express LFA-1, served as a control. Following treatment with 100 ng ml(-1) LtxA cells were analyzed by live cell imaging in conjunction with time-lapse confocal microscopy and by flow cytometry. Using a pH-sensitive indicator (pHrodo(®)) we demonstrated that the toxin causes a decrease in the intracellular pH in K562-puro/LFA-1 cells that is noticeable within the first 15 min of treatment. This process correlated with the disappearance of lysosomes in the cytosol as determined by both acridine orange and LysoTracker(®) Red DND-99 staining. These changes were not observed in K562-puro cells or when heat inactivated toxin was added to K562-puro/LFA-1. Our results suggest that LtxA induces lysosomal damage, cytosol acidification, which is followed by cell death in K562-puro/LFA-1 cells.

  18. Complete closed genome sequences of three Bibersteinia trehalosi nasopharyngeal isolates from cattle with shipping fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bibersteinia trehalosi is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. B. trehalosi is closely related to Mannheimia haemolytica, and is often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present three complete clos...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2460 - Tildipirosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle; and for the control of respiratory disease in beef and non...

  20. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass me...

  1. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Examine the culture results, gamithromycin susceptibility, predictive values, and agreement of pooled bilateral nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) for identification of Mannheimia haemolytica genotypes, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in calves treat...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of... the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, P...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of... the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, P...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of... the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, P...

  5. 21 CFR 522.955 - Florfenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... injection. (2) Indications for use. For control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of... the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, P...

  7. Purification, characterization and immunological properties of the capsular polysaccharide of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype T15: its identity with the K62 (K2ab) capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup H.

    PubMed

    Adlam, C; Knights, J M; Mugridge, A; Lindon, J C; Williams, J M; Beesley, J E

    1985-08-01

    Capsular polysaccharide from two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype T15 was purified and characterized by chemical analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The polymer, a teichoic acid, proved to be very similar in structure to the capsular polysaccharide of P. haemolytica serotype T4 and identical to the previously described K62 (K2ab) capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli, and the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype H, i.e. ----(2-glycerol-3)----(phosphate)----(4-alpha-D-galactopyranose -1)---- with partial O-acetylation on the galactose residues. Electron microscopy with Protein A-gold labelled antisera showed that the polysaccharide was peripherally located on the surface of all three organisms. Chemical removal of O-acetyl groups from the polysaccharide yielded a structure identical to that previously described for E. coli K2 (K2a). Both O-acetylated and de-O-acetylated P. haemolytica T15 polymers, when absorbed on to sheep erythrocytes in passive haemagglutination assays, yielded identical antibody titres with sera raised against P. haemolytica T15, E. coli K2 or N. meningitidis H whole cells. De-O-acetylation of the Pasteurella polysaccharide influenced its precipitability with immune sera, but this could not be related to the absence of O-acetyl groups because the non-acetylated E. coli K2 polymer readily precipitated with a line of 'identity' with the acetylated P. haemolytica T15 polymer.

  8. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  9. In silico analysis of the effects of H2 and CO2 on the metabolism of a capnophilic bacterium Mannheimia succiniciproducens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Sang Yup

    2009-11-01

    This study presents an in-depth study on the physiological behavior of Mannheimia succiniciproducens, a capnophilic bacterium and an efficient succinic acid producer, under varying gas conditions as H(2) and CO(2) play important roles in the production of succinic acid. Constraints-based flux analysis of the genome-scale metabolic model of M. succiniciproducens was performed to estimate the production patterns of several organic acids in response to varying H(2), CO(2), and glucose uptake rates. Results from controlled cultivations performed previously and constraints-based flux analyses of M. succiniciproducens in this study revealed that there is an optimal range of CO(2) level in the medium for enhancing cell growth and succinic acid production at a given glucose uptake rate. Furthermore, the uptake rates of H(2) and CO(2) from the medium have a direct relationship with each other, significantly influencing the rates of cell growth and succinic acid production. Predictions made in this study quantitatively describe the physiological changes of the cell in response to varying H(2), CO(2), and glucose uptake rates, which consequently allow us to identify the feasible physiological states of the cell with respect to cell growth rate and succinic acid production rate.

  10. Serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J W; Viel, L; Bateman, K G; Nagy, E; Røsendal, S; Shewen, P E

    1992-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. Sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) by virus neutralization, and to Pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (PhIA) and cytotoxin neutralization (PhCN) tests. There was minimal evidence of serological activity to BHV1. Serological activity to the other agents occurred commonly and the prevalence of acute titers and their mean values was similar in case and control groups. Mean convalescent PI3 and P. haemolytica (PhIA) titers were higher in controls than cases (p < 0.01) but, otherwise, convalescent titers did not differ between groups. The incidence of seroconversion was similar in both groups for all agents except for PI3 virus which was more frequent in controls than cases (p < 0.0001). There was a positive association between PhIA and CN seroconversion and isolation of P. haemolytica from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (p < 0.1). The measure of agreement (kappa) between seroconversion with the P. haemolytica PhIA and PhCN tests was 0.51. Bacteriological and cytological evaluations of the respiratory tract were made using BAL. No associations were evident between serological titers and pulmonary cytology. A multivariate logistic analysis was used to evaluate associations between disease status and serological, bacteriological and cytological data. Cases were positively associated with the presence of neutrophils and Pasteurella multocida in BAL fluid and negatively associated with PI3 virus and PhIA seroconversion. PMID:1335831

  11. Responses to aggregating agents after cleavage of GPIb of human platelets by the O-sialoglycoprotein endoprotease from Pasteurella haemolytica- potential surrogates for Bernard-Soulier platelets?

    PubMed

    Kinlough-Rathbone, R L; Perry, D W; Rand, M L; Packham, M A

    2000-07-15

    Most proteolytic enzymes that cleave glycoprotein lb (GPlb) also cleave other glycoproteins or receptors on the surface of platelets. We have used an O-sialoglycoprotein endoprotease from Pasteurella haemolytica that selectively cleaves the heavily O-glycosylated GPlb, but does not cleave N-linked glycoproteins or unglycosylated proteins. Isolated, [14C]serotonin-labeled platelets in Tyrode-albumin solution were incubated with 10 microg/mL endoprotease for 60 minutes at 37 degrees C. These platelets did not release [14C]serotonin, had no detectable GPIb, and were unresponsive to ristocetin/von Willebrand factor. Compared with control platelets, aggregation and release of [14C]serotonin by the endoprotease-pretreated platelets were inhibited in response to low concentrations of thrombin, SFLLRN (the PAR-1-activating peptide), collagen, and U46619 (a thromboxane A(2) mimetic); aggregates were smaller in size. The presence of fibrinogen overcame the inhibition of responses induced by SFLLRN, collagen, and U46619. With fibrinogen, primary ADP-induced aggregation was scarcely affected by pretreatment with the endoprotease. Thus, the PAR-1 receptor for thrombin, and receptors for collagen, thromboxane A(2), fibrinogen (GPIIb/IIIa), and ADP appear to function normally on the endoprotease-pretreated platelets. Since only GPIb is cleaved by the endoprotease, these platelets seem to provide potential surrogates for Bernard-Soulier syndrome platelets for further studies of platelet functions in this condition.

  12. 21 CFR 522.2460 - Tildipirosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2460... respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus...

  13. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in... the neck. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. (ii) Limitations. Treatment should be continued 24 to 48 hours following remission of disease... advanced cases of other indicated diseases. (C) 9 mg/lb BW intramuscularly or subcutaneously as single...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. (ii) Limitations. Treatment should be continued 24 to 48 hours following remission of disease... advanced cases of other indicated diseases. (C) 9 mg/lb BW intramuscularly or subcutaneously as single...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... a single subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of ovine respiratory...

  18. 21 CFR 522.812 - Enrofloxacin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... therapy: For treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), administer 7.5 to 12.5 mg/kg of body weight (3... respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni... of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... a single subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of ovine respiratory...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. (ii) Limitations. Treatment should be continued 24 to 48 hours following remission of disease... advanced cases of other indicated diseases. (C) 9 mg/lb BW intramuscularly or subcutaneously as single...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... a single subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of ovine respiratory...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... a single subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of ovine respiratory...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. (ii) Limitations. Treatment should be continued 24 to 48 hours following remission of disease... advanced cases of other indicated diseases. (C) 9 mg/lb BW intramuscularly or subcutaneously as single...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. (ii) Limitations. Treatment should be continued 24 to 48 hours following remission of disease... advanced cases of other indicated diseases. (C) 9 mg/lb BW intramuscularly or subcutaneously as single...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... a single subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment of ovine respiratory...

  6. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: Sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and M...

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a resu...

  8. Pathogens of Bovine Respiratory Disease in North American Feedlots Conferring Multidrug Resistance via Integrative Conjugative Elements

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hendrick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

  9. Pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Booker, Calvin W; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD.

  10. Methodological comparisons for antimicrobial resistance surveillance in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to objectively compare methodological approaches that might be utilized in designing an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance program in beef feedlot cattle. Specifically, four separate comparisons were made to investigate their potential impact on estimates for prevalence of AMR. These included investigating potential differences between 2 different susceptibility testing methods (broth microdilution and disc diffusion), between 2 different target bacteria (non-type-specific E. coli [NTSEC] and Mannheimia haemolytica), between 2 strategies for sampling feces (individual samples collected per rectum and pooled samples collected from the pen floor), and between 2 strategies for determining which cattle to sample (cattle that were culture-positive for Mannheimia haemolytica and those that were culture-negative). Results Comparing two susceptibility testing methods demonstrated differences in the likelihood of detecting resistance between automated disk diffusion (BioMIC®) and broth microdilution (Sensititre®) for both E. coli and M. haemolytica. Differences were also detected when comparing resistance between two bacterial organisms within the same cattle; there was a higher likelihood of detecting resistance in E. coli than in M. haemolytica. Differences in resistance prevalence were not detected when using individual animal or composite pen sampling strategies. No differences in resistance prevalences were detected in E. coli recovered from cattle that were culture-positive for M. haemolytica compared to those that were culture-negative, suggesting that sampling strategies which targeted recovery of E. coli from M. haemolytica-positive cattle would not provide biased results. Conclusions We found that for general purposes, the susceptibility test selected for AMR surveillance must be carefully chosen considering the purpose of the surveillance since the ability to detect resistance appears to vary between these tests

  11. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome by Tildipirosin Compared with Other Veterinary Macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis on the ribosome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.23 ± 0.01 μM) and compared it with the established veterinary macrolides tylosin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. Mutation and methylation at key rRNA nucleotides revealed differences in the interactions of these macrolides within their common ribosomal binding site. PMID:22926570

  12. Inhibition of protein synthesis on the ribosome by tildipirosin compared with other veterinary macrolides.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis on the ribosome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.23 ± 0.01 μM) and compared it with the established veterinary macrolides tylosin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. Mutation and methylation at key rRNA nucleotides revealed differences in the interactions of these macrolides within their common ribosomal binding site.

  13. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark. PMID:17204146

  14. Molecular cloning of interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and comparison with those of other species.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Caroline N; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-11-15

    The susceptibility to, and pathology induced by, Mannheimia haemolytica infection in bighorn sheep (BHS) and domestic sheep (DS) are distinctly different. Bighorn sheep are particularly susceptible to pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica, and the pneumonic lesions in infected BHS are more severe than those in DS. The molecular basis for this disparity has not been elucidated. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases of humans and animals. It is possible that the enhanced pathology observed in the pneumonic lungs of M. haemolytica-infected BHS, in comparison to that of DS, is due to comparatively higher levels of proinflammatory cytokine expression in BHS. As the first step towards elucidating this concept, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of BHS. The cDNA of BHS IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α consists of 801, 306, and 705 base pairs encoding 266, 101, and 234 amino acids, respectively. The availability of cDNA encoding IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α of BHS should facilitate the elucidation of the role of these cytokines in the differential pathology induced by M. haemolytica infection in BHS and DS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons

    PubMed Central

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (n = 36) or multiple coinfections (n = 28). Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) (n = 29), Caryospora sp. (n = 16), Serratospiculum seurati infestation (n = 14), cestodiasis (n = 6), bumblefoot (n = 5), trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (n = 5), trichomoniasis (n = 4), Babesia shortti (n = 4), Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica (n = 4), interstitial hepatitis (n = 4), Escherichia coli (n = 3), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (n = 2). Compared with a control group of 2000 diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis. PMID:21754937

  16. Etiologic agents and diseases found associated with clinical aspergillosis in falcons.

    PubMed

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (n = 36) or multiple coinfections (n = 28). Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) (n = 29), Caryospora sp. (n = 16), Serratospiculum seurati infestation (n = 14), cestodiasis (n = 6), bumblefoot (n = 5), trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (n = 5), trichomoniasis (n = 4), Babesia shortti (n = 4), Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica (n = 4), interstitial hepatitis (n = 4), Escherichia coli (n = 3), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (n = 2). Compared with a control group of 2000 diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis.

  17. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with respiratory system infection following challenge, including but not limited to lacrimation... vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged by the respiratory route with a (virulent) pneumonia... lesion scores cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved...

  18. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consistent with respiratory system infection following challenge, including but not limited to lacrimation... vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged by the respiratory route with a (virulent) pneumonia... lesion scores cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved...

  19. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consistent with respiratory system infection following challenge, including but not limited to lacrimation... vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged by the respiratory route with a (virulent) pneumonia... lesion scores cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved...

  20. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent with respiratory system infection following challenge, including but not limited to lacrimation... vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged by the respiratory route with a (virulent) pneumonia... lesion scores cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved...

  1. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consistent with respiratory system infection following challenge, including but not limited to lacrimation... vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged by the respiratory route with a (virulent) pneumonia... lesion scores cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved...

  2. Comparison of antemortem antimicrobial treatment regimens to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of postmortem lung isolates from feedlot cattle with bronchopneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Love, Brenda C; Krehbiel, Clint R; Johnson, Nicholas J; Step, Douglas L

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed to compare the treatment regimens in feedlot cattle that died with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) to the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the microorganisms isolated from lungs. Forty-three cattle submitted by the Willard Sparks Beef Research Center (WSBRC) to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for postmortem examination during 2007 had bronchopneumonia (acute = 16, subacute = 5, or chronic = 22). Lungs from cattle were cultured aerobically (40 cattle) and for Mycoplasma spp. (34 cattle). Susceptibility panels were performed. At least 1 BRD pathogen (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, or Arcanobacterium pyogenes) was isolated from 39 cattle, and 77% (30/39) had multiple organisms recovered. Mycoplasmal infections were common (25/34) and a major component of mixed infections (24/25). The majority (60%) of the M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and H. somni isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Most of the H. somni isolates (67%) were susceptible to tilmicosin (Ti), enrofloxacin (En), ceftiofur (Ce), and florfenicol, despite extensive treatment with Ti, En, and Ce (75% of isolates were from cattle that received each antimicrobial once). Most of the M. haemolytica (65%) and P. multocida (79%) isolates were susceptible to En and Ce, despite antemortem treatment of cattle with these antimicrobials. Hence, the current study reports a discrepancy between the antemortem treatment of clinical BRD and the susceptibility patterns of the bacteria isolated from lungs postmortem. Based on these findings, factors other than antimicrobial resistance are playing a role in the death of feedlot cattle with BRD.

  3. Comparative nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; Waters, W R; Rudolph, K M; Drew, M L

    2006-01-01

    Bighorn sheep are more susceptible to respiratory infection by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep. In response to bacterial challenge, macrophages produce a number of molecules that play key roles in the inflammatory response, including highly reactive nitrogen intermediates such as nitric oxide (NO). Supernatants from monocyte-derived macrophages cultured with M. haemolytica LPS were assayed for nitric oxide activity via measurement of the NO metabolite, nitrite. In response to LPS stimulation, bighorn sheep macrophages secreted significantly higher levels of NO compared to levels for non-stimulated macrophages. In contrast, levels of NO produced by domestic sheep macrophages in response to M. haemolytica LPS did not differ from levels detected in non-stimulated cell cultures. Nitrite levels detected in supernatants of LPS-stimulated bighorn macrophage cultures treated with an inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, were similar to that observed in non-stimulated cultures indicating a role for the iNOS pathway.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important.

  5. Mastitis in sheep--The last 10 years and the future of research.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Mavrogianni, V S; Petridis, I G; Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bacterial mastitis is a significant welfare and financial problem in sheep flocks. This paper reviews the recently published literature, including publications that highlight the significance and virulence factors of the causal agents, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Mannheimia haemolytica, the primary causes of the disease. Research has also contributed to the understanding of risk factors, including genetic susceptibility of animals to infections, supporting future strategies for sustainable disease control. Pathogenetic mechanisms, including the role of the local defenses in the teat, have also been described and can assist formulation of strategies that induce local immune responses in the teat of ewes. Further to well-established diagnostic techniques, i.e., bacteriological tests and somatic cell counting, advanced methodologies, e.g., proteomics technologies, will likely contribute to more rapid and accurate diagnostics, in turn enhancing mastitis control efforts.

  6. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  7. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  8. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  9. Antigenic secreted proteins from Haemophilus paragallinarum. A 110-kDa putative RTX protein.

    PubMed

    Mena-Rojas, Erika; Vázquez Cruz, Candelario; Vaca Pacheco, Sergio; García González, Octavio; Pérez-Márquez, Víctor M; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Ibarra-Caballero, Jorge; de la Garza, Mireya; Zenteno, Edgar; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2004-03-12

    Haemophilus paragallinarum is the causal agent of infectious coryza, an economically important disease for the poultry industry. This bacterium secreted proteins of 25-110 kDa during its growth in brain heart infusion, tryptic soy broth, or Luria-Bertani glucose phosphate media, all lacking serum. Some of these proteins were recognized by sera from chickens experimentally infected with H. paragallinarum. A 110-kDa protein was recognized by a serum pool from convalescent-phase pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and also by a rabbit polyclonal serum against Apx I as well as a rabbit serum against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, suggesting the presence of an RTX-like protein in H. paragallinarum. H. paragallinarum secreted proteins could be important immunogens in the control of infectious coryza.

  10. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  11. Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin J; Blackburn, Paul; Elliott, Mark; Patterson, Tony I A P; Ellison, Sean; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Ball, Hywel J

    2014-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Pathogens, patterns of pneumonia, and epidemiologic risk factors associated with respiratory disease in recently weaned cattle in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murray, Gerard M; More, Simon J; Sammin, Dónal; Casey, Mìcheàl J; McElroy, Máire C; O'Neill, Rónan G; Byrne, William J; Earley, Bernadette; Clegg, Tracy A; Ball, Hywel; Bell, Colin J; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently. The various morphologic patterns of pulmonary lesions suggest the involvement of variable combinations of initiating and compounding infectious agents that hindered any simple classification of the etiopathogenesis of the pneumonias. Dual infections were detected in 58% of lungs, with Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni most frequently recorded in concert. M. haemolytica (43%) was the most frequently detected respiratory pathogen; H. somni was also shown to be frequently implicated in pneumonia in this age group of cattle. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (16% each) were the viral agents detected most frequently. Potential respiratory pathogens (particularly Pasteurella multocida, BPIV-3, and H. somni) were frequently detected (64%) in lungs that had neither gross nor histologic pulmonary lesions, raising questions regarding their role in the pathogenesis of BRD. The breadth of respiratory pathogens detected in bovine lungs by various detection methods highlights the diagnostic value of parallel analyses in respiratory disease postmortem investigation.

  13. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  14. Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) Pasteurellaceae isolates from diagnostic submissions to the Caine Veterinary Teaching Center (1990-2004).

    PubMed

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Ward, Alton C S; Drew, Mark L; Chapman, Phillip L

    2011-06-02

    A retrospective study of Pasteurellaceae isolated from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) was conducted. The aim was to identify Pasteurellaceae present in animals that were clinically healthy and others with evidence of respiratory disease. The bacteria had been isolated from samples submitted to the University of Idaho Caine Veterinary Teaching Center as part of disease diagnostic testing. The 844 isolates identified mainly three species of Pasteurellaceae: Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Pasteurella (Bibersteinia) trehalosi. A total of 114 biovariants were identified among these three species. Individual biovariants were identified 1-180 times. Two of those (M. haemolytica 1 and P. (B.) trehalosi 2) constituted 36% of the isolates, and were the only biovariants sufficiently numerous to account for >7% of the total isolates. Samples were primarily submitted from sheep with signs of respiratory disease. Eighty percent of biovariants were identified most often in animals with signs of respiratory disease, but 26% of biovariants were isolated from both sheep with respiratory disease and apparently healthy sheep. P. multocida constituted 4.7% of isolates, and were exclusively associated with animals with respiratory disease. The ability of isolates to produce beta-hemolysis on culture media was not associated with animals with respiratory disease (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.50-1.19). The inference of this study is limited due to the retrospective study design. However, it is the first study that provides an extensive baseline list of biovariants associated with respiratory disease in domestic sheep.

  15. Molecular versus conventional culture for detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens in poultry.

    PubMed

    Ammar, A M; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Abd El Wanis, S; Bakry, N R

    2016-02-29

    Acute respiratory tract infections are leading causes of morbidity in poultry farms allover the world. Six pathogens; Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were involved in respiratory infections in poultry. Herein, conventional identification procedures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied for detection of the most common respiratory bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens of poultry obtained from 53 Egyptian farms with various respiratory problems and the results were compared statistically. The analyzed data demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of the most recovered microorganisms (P<0.05) by PCR comparing to classical culture procedures. Further, multiplex PCR could detect E. coli, M. gallisepticum, S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa in a single reaction, however, M. haemolytica was reported in a uinplex system. According to PCR results, the most commonly recorded bacterial pathogens in examined poultry farms were E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa (54.71% each), followed by M. haemolylica (35.85%) and M. gallisepticum (20.75%). In conclusion, PCR assay offered an effective alternative to traditional typing methods for the identification and simultaneous detection of the most clinically relevant respiratory pathogens in poultry.

  16. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  17. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael T; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; Lemay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs.

  18. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Michael T.; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; LeMay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. PMID:23785362

  19. Diversity of bacterial species in the nasal cavity of sheep in the highlands of Ethiopia and first report of Histophilus somni in the country.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Biruk; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Tefera, Genene

    2013-06-01

    A study was conducted to isolate bacterial species/pathogens from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy and pneumonic sheep. Nasal swabs were collected aseptically, transported in tryptose soya broth and incubated for 24 h. Then, each swab was streaked onto chocolate and blood agar for culture. Bacterial species were identified following standard bacteriological procedures. Accordingly, a total of 1,556 bacteria were isolated from 960 nasal swabs collected from three different highland areas of Ethiopia, namely Debre Berhan, Asella, and Gimba. In Debre Berhan, 140 Mannheimia haemolytica, 81 Histophilus somni, 57 Staphylococcus species, and 52 Bibersteinia trehalosi were isolated. While from Gimba M. haemolytica, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and H. somni were isolated at rates of 25.2, 15.9, 11.4, and 5.9 %, respectively, of the total 647 bacterial species. In Asella from 352 bacterial species isolated, 93 (26.4 %) were M. haemolytica, 48 (13.6 %) were Staphylococcus species, 26 (7.4 %) were B. trehalosi, and 17 (4.8 %) H. somni were recognized. Further identification and characterization using BIOLOG identification system Enterococcus avium and Sphingomonas sanguinis were identified at 100 % probability, while, H. somni and Actinobacillus lignerisii were suggested by the system. The study showed that a variety of bacterial species colonize the nasal cavity of the Ethiopian highland sheep with variable proportion between healthy and pneumonic ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of H. somni, an important pathogen in cattle, from the respiratory tract of a ruminant species in the country.

  20. Role of Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Evermann, James F; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2013-02-22

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study, two groups of four BHS each were intra-tracheally administered with leukotoxin-positive (Group I) or leukotoxin-negative (Group II) B. trehalosi. All four animals in Group I developed severe pneumonia, and two of them died within 3 days. The other two animals showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. Animals in Group II neither died nor showed gross pneumonic lesions on necropsy, suggesting that leukotoxin-positive, but not leukotoxin-negative, B. trehalosi can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the second study, two other groups of four BHS (Groups III and IV) were intra-nasally administered with a mixture of RSV and PI-3. Four days later, RSV/PI-3-inoculated Group IV and another group of four BHS (Group V, positive control) were intra-nasally administered with Mannheimia haemolytica, the pathogen that consistently causes fatal pneumonia in BHS. All four animals in group III developed pneumonia, but did not die during the study period. However all four animals in Group IV, and three animals in Group V developed severe pneumonia and died within two days of M. haemolytica inoculation. The fourth animal in Group V showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. These findings suggest that RSV/PI-3 can cause non-fatal pneumonia, but are not necessary predisposing agents for M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia of BHS.

  1. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, William H.; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E.; Killion, Halcyon J.; Wood, Mary E.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Paterson, J. Terrill; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Almberg, Emily S.; White, P. J.; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from at least 30

  2. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements.

    PubMed

    Butler, Carson J; Edwards, William H; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Wood, Mary E; McWhirter, Douglas E; Paterson, J Terrill; Proffitt, Kelly M; Almberg, Emily S; White, P J; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from at least 30

  3. Microbial diversity and dynamics during the production of May bryndza cheese.

    PubMed

    Pangallo, Domenico; Saková, Nikoleta; Koreňová, Janka; Puškárová, Andrea; Kraková, Lucia; Valík, Lubomír; Kuchta, Tomáš

    2014-01-17

    Diversity and dynamics of microbial cultures were studied during the production of May bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese produced from unpasteurized ewes' milk. Quantitative culture-based data were obtained for lactobacilli, lactococci, total mesophilic aerobic counts, coliforms, E. coli, staphylococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, fungi and Geotrichum spp. in ewes' milk, curd produced from it and ripened for 0 - 10 days, and in bryndza cheese produced from the curd, in three consecutive batches. Diversity of prokaryotes and eukaryotes in selected stages of the production was studied by non-culture approach based on amplification of 16S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region, coupled to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The culture-based data demonstrated an overall trend of growth of the microbial population contributing to lactic acid production and to ripening of the cheese, lactobacilli, lactococci and Geotrichum spp. growing up to densities of 10(8) CFU/g, 10(9) CFU/g and 10(5) CFU/g, respectively, in all three consecutive batches of bryndza cheese. The diversity of bacteria encompassed Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae, Acinetobacter sp., Acinetobacter johnsonii, Citrobacter braakii, Clostridium bartlettii, Corynebacterium callunae, Corynebacterium maris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus pallens, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus haemolyticus, Hafnia alvei, Kluyvera cryocrescens, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus garvieae, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, "Leuconostoc garlicum", Mannheimia glucosida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pseudomonas sp., Ps. fluorescens, "Ps. reactans", Raoultella ornithinolytica, R. terrigena, "Rothia arfidiae", Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. felis, Staph. pasteuri, Staph. sciuri, Staph. xylosus, Streptococcus parauberis, Str. thermophilus and Variovorax

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid following subcutaneous administration of a single dose to sheep.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Garcia, Sarai; Angelos, John A; Rowe, Joan D; Byrne, Barbara A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Van Liew, Dana B; Tell, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following SC administration of a single dose to sheep. 9 healthy adult female Suffolk-crossbred sheep. Each sheep was administered 6.6 mg of CCFA/kg, SC, in the cervical region once. Serial blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals for 14 days. Serum concentration of ceftiofur free-acid equivalents (CFAE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. Pharmacokinetics for CCFA following SC administration in sheep was best described with a 1-compartment model. Mean ± SD area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, peak serum concentration, and time to peak serum concentration were 206.6 ± 24.8 μ•h/mL, 2.4 ± 0.5 μg/mL, and 23.1 ± 10.1 h, respectively. Serum CFAE concentrations ≥ 1 μg/mL (the target serum CFAE concentration for treatment of disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida) were maintained for 2.6 to 4.9 days. No significant adverse reactions to CCFA administration were observed. Results indicated that adequate therapeutic serum concentrations of CFAE for treatment of disease caused by M haemolytica and P multocida were achieved in sheep following SC administration of a single dose (6.6 mg/kg) of CCFA. Thus, CCFA might be useful for the treatment of common respiratory tract pathogens in sheep.

  5. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotic-Induced Neutrophil Apoptosis: Tulathromycin Induces Caspase-3-Dependent Neutrophil Programmed Cell Death and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling and CXCL8 Transcription▿

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carrie D.; Beatty, Jennifer K.; Zvaigzne, Cheryl G.; Morck, Douglas W.; Lucas, Merlyn J.; Buret, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils is a central feature of the resolution of inflammation. Findings indicate that immuno-modulation and induction of neutrophil apoptosis by macrolide antibiotics generate anti-inflammatory benefits via mechanisms that remain obscure. Tulathromycin (TUL), a new antimicrobial agent for bovine respiratory disease, offers superior clinical efficacy for reasons not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the immuno-modulating effects of tulathromycin and, in this process, to establish tulathromycin as a new model for characterizing the novel anti-inflammatory properties of antibiotics. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from Holstein calves 3 and 24 h postinfection, challenged intratracheally with live Mannheimia haemolytica (2 × 107 CFU), and treated with vehicle or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that tulathromycin treatment significantly increased leukocyte apoptosis and reduced levels of proinflammatory leukotriene B4 in M. haemolytica-challenged calves. In vitro, tulathromycin concentration dependently induced apoptosis in freshly isolated bovine neutrophils from healthy steers in a capase-3-dependent manner but failed to induce apoptosis in bovine fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, as well as freshly isolated bovine blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. The proapoptotic effects of TUL were also, in part, drug specific; equimolar concentrations of penicillin G, oxytetracycline, and ceftiofur failed to cause apoptosis in bovine neutrophils. In addition, tulathromycin significantly reduced levels of phosphorylated IκBα, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and mRNA levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bovine neutrophils. The findings illustrate novel mechanisms through which

  7. Bacterial ghosts as novel advanced drug delivery systems: antiproliferative activity of loaded doxorubicin in human Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Susanne; Kohl, Gudrun; Lubitz, Werner

    2004-01-08

    Systemic application of anticancer drugs often causes severe toxic side effects. To reduce the undesired effects, advanced drug delivery systems are needed which are based on specific cell targeting vehicles. In this study, bacterial ghosts from Mannheimia haemolytica were used for site-specific delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Bacterial ghosts are non-denatured envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria with fully intact surface structures for specific attachment to mammalian cells. The in vitro release profile of DOX-ghosts demonstrated that the loaded drug was non-covalently associated with the bacterial ghosts and that the drug delivery vehicles themselves represent a slow release system. Adherence studies showed that the M. haemolytica ghosts more efficiently than E. coli ghosts targeted the Caco-2 cells and released the loaded DOX within the cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that the DOX-ghosts exhibited potent antiproliferative activities on Caco-2 cells as the DOX associated with ghosts was two magnitude of orders more cytotoxic than free DOX provided in the medium at the same concentrations. Notably, a significant reduction in the cell viability was measured with DOX-ghosts at low DOX concentrations, which had no inhibitory effect when applied as free DOX after incubation for 16 h or when applied at higher concentrations for only 10 min to the cells. As the higher antiproliferative effects of DOX on Caco-2 cells were mediated by the specific drug targeting properties of the bacterial ghosts, the bacterial ghost system represents a novel platform for advanced drug delivery.

  8. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P<0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Frances Cassirer, E; Highland, Margaret A; Wolff, Peregrine; Justice-Allen, Anne; Mansfield, Kristin; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William

    2013-02-01

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae have been proposed as primary causal agents. A multi-factorial "respiratory disease complex" has also been proposed as confirmation of causation has eluded investigators. In this paper we review the evidence for each of the candidate primary agents with regard to causal criteria including strength of association, temporality, plausibility, experimental evidence, and analogy. While we find some degree of biological plausibility for all agents and strong experimental evidence for M. haemolytica, we demonstrate that of the alternatives considered, M. ovipneumoniae is the best supported by all criteria and is therefore the most parsimonious explanation for the disease. The strong but somewhat controversial experimental evidence implicating disease transmission from domestic sheep is consistent with this finding. Based on epidemiologic and microbiologic data, we propose that healthy bighorn sheep populations are naïve to M. ovipneumoniae, and that its introduction to susceptible bighorn sheep populations results in epizootic polymicrobial bacterial pneumonia often followed by chronic infection in recovered adults. If this hypothesized model is correct, efforts to control this disease by development or application of vectored vaccines to Pasteurellaceae are unlikely to provide significant benefits, whereas efforts to ensure segregation of healthy bighorn sheep populations from M. ovipneumoniae-infected reservoir hosts are crucial to prevention of new disease epizootics. It may also be possible to develop M. ovipneumoniae vaccines or other management strategies that could reduce the impact of this devastating disease in bighorn sheep. Copyright © 2012

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Concordance Between Antimicrobial Susceptibility Genotypes and Phenotypes of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Owen, Joseph R; Noyes, Noelle; Young, Amy E; Prince, Daniel J; Blanchard, Patricia C; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Aly, Sharif S; Davis, Jessica H; O'Rourke, Sean M; Abdo, Zaid; Belk, Keith; Miller, Michael R; Morley, Paul; Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2017-09-07

    Extended laboratory culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing timelines hinder rapid species identification and susceptibility profiling of bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, the most prevalent cause of cattle mortality in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing offers a culture-independent alternative to current bacterial identification methods, but requires a library of bacterial reference genomes for comparison. To contribute new bacterial genome assemblies and evaluate genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial resistance genotypes, whole-genome sequencing was performed on bovine respiratory disease-associated bacterial isolates (Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida) from dairy and beef cattle. One hundred genomically distinct assemblies were added to the NCBI database, doubling the available genomic sequences for these four species. Computer-based methods identified 11 predicted antimicrobial resistance genes in three species, with none being detected in M. bovis While computer-based analysis can identify antibiotic resistance genes within whole-genome sequences (genotype), it may not predict the actual antimicrobial resistance observed in a living organism (phenotype). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 64 H. somni, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates had an overall concordance rate between genotype and phenotypic resistance to the associated class of antimicrobials of 72.7% (P < 0.001), showing substantial discordance. Concordance rates varied greatly among different antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance gene, and bacterial species combinations. This suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes are needed to complement genomically predicted antibiotic resistance gene genotypes to better understand how the presence of antibiotic resistance genes within a given bacterial species could potentially impact optimal bovine respiratory disease treatment

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott T; Cassirer, E Frances; Weiser, Glen C; Safaee, Shirin

    2007-01-01

    Wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. There is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. We used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. Members of the Pasteurellaceae cause an array of deadly illnesses including bacterial pneumonia known as "pasteurellosis", a particularly devastating disease for bighorn sheep. A phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two RNA genes (16S ribosomal RNA and RNAse P RNA) revealed remarkable evolutionary diversity among Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica bacteria isolated from sheep and goats. Several phylotypes appeared to associate with particular host species, though we found numerous instances of apparent cross-transmission among species and populations. Statistical analyses revealed that host species, geographic locale and biovariant classification, but not virulence, correlated strongly with Pasteurellaceae phylogeny. Sheep host species correlated with P. trehalosi isolates phylogeny (PTP test; P=0.002), but not with the phylogeny of M. haemolytica isolates, suggesting that P. trehalosi bacteria may be more host specific. With regards to populations within species, we also discovered a strong correlation between geographic locale and isolate phylogeny in the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (PTP test; P=0.001). We also investigated the potential for HGT of the leukotoxin A (lktA) gene, which produces a toxin that plays an integral role in causing disease. Comparative analysis of the combined RNA gene phylogeny and the lktA phylogenies revealed considerable incongruence between the phylogenies, suggestive of HGT. Furthermore, we found identical lktA alleles in unrelated bacterial species, some of which had been isolated

  13. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  14. X-ray crystallographic structure of a bacterial polysialyltransferase provides insight into the biosynthesis of capsular polysialic acid.

    PubMed

    Lizak, Christian; Worrall, Liam J; Baumann, Lars; Pfleiderer, Moritz M; Volkers, Gesa; Sun, Tianjun; Sim, Lyann; Wakarchuk, Warren; Withers, Stephen G; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2017-07-19

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a homopolymeric saccharide that is associated with some neuroinvasive pathogens and is found on selective cell types in their eukaryotic host. The presence of a polySia capsule on these bacterial pathogens helps with resistance to phagocytosis, cationic microbial peptides and bactericidal antibody production. The biosynthesis of bacterial polySia is catalysed by a single polysialyltransferase (PST) transferring sialic acid from a nucleotide-activated donor to a lipid-linked acceptor oligosaccharide. Here we present the X-ray structure of the bacterial PST from Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2, thereby defining the architecture of this class of enzymes representing the GT38 family. The structure reveals a prominent electropositive groove between the two Rossmann-like domains forming the GT-B fold that is suitable for binding of polySia chain products. Complex structures of PST with a sugar donor analogue and an acceptor mimetic combined with kinetic studies of PST active site mutants provide insight into the principles of substrate binding and catalysis. Our results are the basis for a molecular understanding of polySia biosynthesis in bacteria and might assist the production of polysialylated therapeutic reagents and the development of novel antibiotics.

  15. Biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard; Morck, Douglas W.; Buret, Andre G.; Read, Ronald R.

    2002-01-01

    The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) was used to form bacterial biofilms of selected veterinary gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from cattle, sheep, pigs, chicken, and turkeys. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim-sulfadoxine for gram-positive and -negative bacteria were determined. Bacterial biofilms were readily formed on the CBD under selected conditions. The biofilms consisted of microcolonies encased in extracellular polysaccharide material. Biofilms composed of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacterium renale, or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were not killed by the antibiotics tested but as planktonic bacteria they were sensitive at low concentrations. Biofilm and planktonic Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus suis were sensitive to penicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline. Planktonic Escherichia coli were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/ sulfadoxine. Enrofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli growing as a biofilm. Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates growing as planktonic populations were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfadoxine, but as a biofilm, these bacteria were only sensitive to enrofloxacin. Planktonic and biofilm Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica had similar antibiotic sensitivity profiles and were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. The CBD provides a valuable new technology that can be used to select antibiotics that are able to kill bacteria growing as biofilms. PMID:11989739

  16. The importance of interleukin-8 as a neutrophil chemoattractant in the lungs of cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, J L; Middleton, D M; Gordon, J R

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), an in vitro and in vivo neutrophil chemoattractant, is expressed at high levels in the lesions observed in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Because of the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis, we investigated the relative importance of IL-8 as a neutrophil chemoattractant in this disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was harvested from calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-1 and challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica. Neutrophil chemotactic activity was measured in pneumonic BAL fluid samples treated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to ovine IL-8, and compared to the activity in samples treated with an isotype-matched control antibody. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed at a dilution which induced a half-maximal response, and the concentrations of antibody were optimized in a preliminary experiment. Following incubation of replicate samples of diluted pneumonic bovine BAL fluid with 70 microg/mL of IL-8-neutralizing antibody or control antibody, the neutrophil chemotactic activities of the samples were determined using an in vitro microchemotaxis assay. Overall, pretreatment of BAL fluid samples with neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody reduced neutrophil chemotactic activity by 15% to 60%, compared to pretreatment with control antibody. This effect was highly significant (P < 0.001), and was present in 5 of 5 samples. These data indicate that IL-8 is an important neutrophil chemoattractant in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, but that mediators with actions redundant to those of IL-8 must also be present in the lesions. PMID:11768129

  17. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    PubMed

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

  18. The OmpA family of proteins: roles in bacterial pathogenesis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Confer, Anthony W; Ayalew, Sahlu

    2013-05-03

    The OmpA family of outer membrane proteins is a group of genetically related, heat-modifiable, surface-exposed, porin proteins that are in high-copy number in the outer membrane of mainly Gram-negative bacteria. OmpA proteins are characterized by an N-terminal domain that forms an eight-stranded, anti-parallel β barrel, which is embedded in the outer membrane. The C-terminal domain is globular and located in the periplasmic space. Escherichia coli OmpA is the best characterized of the proteins. Other well-characterized OmpA-equivalent proteins from pathogenic bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF, Haemophilus influenzae P5, Klebsiella pneumoniae OmpA, and Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP). OmpA from the veterinary pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus parasuis, Leptospira interrogans, and Pasteurella multocida have been studied to a lesser extent. Among many of the pathogenic bacteria, OmpA proteins have important pathogenic roles including bacterial adhesion, invasion, or intracellular survival as well as evasion of host defenses or stimulators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These pathogenic roles are most commonly associated with central nervous system, respiratory and urogenital diseases. Alternatively, OmpA family proteins can serve as targets of the immune system with immunogenicity related to surface-exposed loops of the molecule. In several cases, OmpA proteins are under evaluation as potential vaccine candidates.

  19. Development of a one-run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mai; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Okazaki-Terashima, Sachiko; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Sato, Reiichiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-03-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.

  20. Vaccination schedules in small ruminant farms.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, D; Ferrer, L M; Ramos, J J; González, J M; Ortín, A; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Development and implementation of health management plans is the cornerstone of profitable farms; prevention of microbial diseases by means of vaccination is an integral part of such a plan. In every production type and management system in small ruminants, microbial diseases have a major significance, hence their proper control must be based in good health management practices, including use of effective and safe vaccines. Development of various types of vaccines is evolving very quickly in recent years and the improvement of new type of vaccines offers prospects. The article reviews and discusses vaccination programs and latest advances in development of vaccines against diseases that cause major economic losses in small ruminants. Specifically, vaccination schedules for the following diseases are reviewed: bacterial abortion (abortion associated with Brucella melitensis, Campylobacter spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella abortus ovis or Salmonella brandenburg), caseous lymphadenitis, clostridial diseases, colibacillosis, contagious echtyma, epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis, footrot, mammary diseases (contagious agalactia, mastitis), paratuberculosis and respiratory diseases (respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or other Pasteurellaceae).

  1. Tulathromycin Exerts Proresolving Effects in Bovine Neutrophils by Inhibiting Phospholipases and Altering Leukotriene B4, Prostaglandin E2, and Lipoxin A4 Production

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carrie D.; Duquette, Stephanie C.; Renaux, Bernard S.; Feener, Troy D.; Morck, Douglas W.; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Lucas, Merlyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of neutrophils and proinflammatory mediators, such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4), is a classic marker of inflammatory disease. The clearance of apoptotic neutrophils, inhibition of proinflammatory signaling, and production of proresolving lipids (including lipoxins, such as lipoxin A4 [LXA4]) are imperative for resolving inflammation. Tulathromycin (TUL), a macrolide used to treat bovine respiratory disease, confers immunomodulatory benefits via mechanisms that remain unclear. We recently reported the anti-inflammatory properties of TUL in bovine phagocytes in vitro and in Mannheimia haemolytica-challenged calves. The findings demonstrated that this system offers a powerful model for investigating novel mechanisms of pharmacological immunomodulation. In the present study, we examined the effects of TUL in a nonbacterial model of pulmonary inflammation in vivo and characterized its effects on lipid signaling. In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from calves challenged with zymosan particles (50 mg), treatment with TUL (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) significantly reduced pulmonary levels of LTB4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In calcium ionophore (A23187)-stimulated bovine neutrophils, TUL inhibited phospholipase D (PLD), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, and the release of LTB4. In contrast, TUL promoted the secretion of LXA4 in resting and A23187-stimulated neutrophils, while levels of its precursor, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], were significantly lower. These findings indicate that TUL directly modulates lipid signaling by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and promoting the production of proresolving lipoxins. PMID:24820086

  2. Development of a one-run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex

    PubMed Central

    KISHIMOTO, Mai; TSUCHIAKA, Shinobu; RAHPAYA, Sayed Samim; HASEBE, Ayako; OTSU, Keiko; SUGIMURA, Satoshi; KOBAYASHI, Suguru; KOMATSU, Natsumi; NAGAI, Makoto; OMATSU, Tsutomu; NAOI, Yuki; SANO, Kaori; OKAZAKI-TERASHIMA, Sachiko; OBA, Mami; KATAYAMA, Yukie; SATO, Reiichiro; ASAI, Tetsuo; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets. PMID:28070089

  3. Treatment of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in juvenile calves with a single administration of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation.

    PubMed

    Thiry, J; González-Martín, J V; Elvira, L; Pagot, E; Voisin, F; Lequeux, G; Weingarten, A; de Haas, V

    2014-04-26

    The efficacy and safety of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation in the treatment of respiratory disease was evaluated in calves less than six weeks of age, compared with a positive control group treated with a well-established florfenicol formulation. A total of 210 calves, selected from nine sites in Belgium, France and Spain, showing severe signs of respiratory disease, were randomly assigned to treatment with either florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine (Resflor; MSD Animal Health) or florfenicol (Nuflor; MSD Animal Health), both administered subcutaneously once. Animals were clinically observed daily for 10 days following treatment initiation. The predominant respiratory pathogens were Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni. All isolates were subject to in vitro sensitivity testing and found susceptible to florfenicol. In both groups, rectal temperature dropped and clinical index (depression and respiratory signs) significantly improved after treatment. Specifically, for the change in rectal temperature from pretreatment to six hours post-treatment, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation was found significantly superior to florfenicol. Moreover, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation alleviated the clinical signs of disease more rapidly, and was demonstrated to be non-inferior to florfenicol on days 4 and 10. The use of the product combining florfenicol and flunixin in calves is safe and efficacious in the treatment of outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.

  4. Isolation of an adenovirus and an adeno-associated virus from goat kids with enteritis.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik J; Haskell, Scott R R; Frank, Rodney K; Lehmkuhl, Howard D; Hobbs, Lea Ann; Warg, Janet V; Landgraf, John G; Wünschmann, Arno

    2004-09-01

    A dairy goat operation in Minnesota experienced a sudden, markedly increased mortality among its neonatal goats. Approximately 60 of 130 kids (46%) died. The animals had diarrhea and dyspnea of 1-2 days duration before death. Necropsy of 4 goat kids revealed marked, acute, catarrhal enteritis and fibrinous pleuropneumonia. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from the lungs. Basophilic inclusion bodies filling the entire nucleus were present in enterocytes of the ileum of 3 goats. Adenoviral particles were detected in the feces by electron microscopy and adenovirus was subsequently isolated from the intestinal content together with a parvo-like virus (dependovirus). Morphology, physicochemical characteristics, and neutralization tests indicated that the adenovirus resembled ovine adenovirus-2 (OAdV-2). However, the PstI restriction endonuclease pattern produced by the goat adenovirus was distinct from that of OAdV-2. This is the first report of enteritis in goats with an adenovirus antigenically related to OAdV-2 and with a parvo-like dependovirus.

  5. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Actinobacillus seminis that is present in microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Actinobacillus seminis is a gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family that is involved in ovine epididymitis. Looking for a protein specific to this species, we determined the protein profile of subcellular fractions of A. seminis (American Type Culture Collection number 15768): proteins from the outer membrane (OMPs), inner membrane (IMPs), and cytoplasm (CPs). These profiles provide the first data, to our knowledge, regarding subcellular fractions of A. seminis. In the OMP fraction, we identified a protein with a molecular mass of 75 kDa that proved to be immunogenic and apparently specific for A. seminis. This conclusion was based on the reaction of hyperimmune serum of rabbits inoculated with whole cells of A. seminis that was tested against sonicated complete cells of reference strains and field isolates of Brucella ovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. No protein of these bacteria cross-reacted with the 75-kDa protein of A. seminis. Furthermore, when each type of hyperimmune serum was tested against the sonicated cells and each of the subcellular fractions of A. seminis, it did not recognize the A. seminis 75-kDa protein. We also isolated and identified this protein in microvesicles released to the culture supernatant. The results suggest that the 75-kDa protein could be used to establish a diagnostic test specific for ovine epididymitis caused by A. seminis. PMID:16548331

  6. Safety, bioavailability and mechanism of action of nitric oxide to control Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in calves entering a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Regev-Shoshani, G; Vimalanathan, S; Prema, D; Church, J S; Reudink, M W; Nation, N; Miller, C C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDc), a multi-factorial disease, negatively impacts the cattle industry. Nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring molecule, may have utility controlling incidence of BRDc. Safety, bioavailability, toxicology and tolerance/stress of administering NO to cattle is evaluated herein. Thirteen, crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled commercial weaned beef calves were treated multiple times intranasally over a 4 week period with either a nitric oxide releasing solution (treatment) or saline (control). Exhaled NO, methemoglobin percent (MetHg) and serum nitrites demonstrated biological availability as a result of treatment. Cortisol levels, tissue nitrites, behavior and gross and macroscopic pathology of organs were all normal. Moreover, preliminary in vitro studies using Mannheimia haemolytica, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Bovine Parainfluenza-3 and Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus, suggest a potential explanation for the previously demonstrated efficacy for BRDc. These data confirm the bioavailability, safety and lack of residual of NO treatment to cattle, along with the bactericidal and virucidal effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; McGill, J L; Pillatzki, A E; Palmer, M V; Ackermann, M R

    2014-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by organisms such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, resulting in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to bovine respiratory disease complex, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from bovine respiratory disease have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. Human and bovine RSV are closely related viruses with similarities in histopathologic lesions and mechanisms of immune modulation induced following infection. Therefore, where appropriate, we provide comparisons between RSV infections in humans and cattle. This review article discusses key aspects of RSV infection of cattle, including epidemiology and strain variability, clinical signs and diagnosis, experimental infection, gross and microscopic lesions, innate and adaptive immune responses, and vaccination strategies.

  8. Histophilus somni causes extracellular trap formation by bovine neutrophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Katrina M; Forsythe, Katelyn M; Rivera-Rivas, Jose J; Czuprynski, Charles J; Aulik, Nicole A

    2013-01-01

    Histophilus somni (formerly Haemophilus somnus) is a Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacillus that causes respiratory, reproductive, cardiac and neuronal diseases in cattle. H. somni is a member of the bovine respiratory disease complex that causes severe bronchopneumonia in cattle. Previously, it has been reported that bovine neutrophils and macrophages have limited ability to phagocytose and kill H. somni. Recently, it was discovered that bovine neutrophils and macrophages produce extracellular traps in response to Mannheimia haemolytica, another member of the bovine respiratory disease complex. In this study, we demonstrate that H. somni also causes extracellular trap production by bovine neutrophils in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which did not coincide with the release of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker for necrosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps were produced in response to outer membrane vesicles, but not lipooligosacchride alone. Using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, we observed H. somni cells trapped within a web-like structure. Further analyses demonstrated that bovine neutrophils trapped and killed H. somni in a DNA-dependent manner. Treatment of DNA extracellular traps with DNase I freed H. somni cells and diminished bacterial death. Treatment of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages with H. somni cells also caused macrophage extracellular trap formation. These findings suggest that extracellular traps may play a role in the host response to H. somni infection in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  10. Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep following experimental exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.

  11. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Norimine, Junzo; Brown, Wendy C; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-15

    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a result of PMN lysis and degranulation. It is conceivable that PMNs of BHS exhibit decreased quantity and/or activity of SERPIN B1 which results in enhanced tissue injury and decreased bacterial clearance in pneumonic lungs of BHS. The objective of this study was to clone and express SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS, and develop antibodies to facilitate quantification of SERPIN B1. The 1,134bp cDNA of SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS exhibits 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. The amino acid sequence of ovine (BHS/DS) SERPIN B1 displays 69%, 71%, 74%, 78% and 80% identity with that of rats, dogs, mice, humans and horses, respectively. Ovine SERPIN B1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to develop polyclonal antibodies in mice. Western blot analysis revealed the specificity of these antibodies for ovine rSERPIN B1. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CD11b of Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries: molecular cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2007-10-15

    Leukotoxin (Lkt) is the primary virulence factor secreted by Mannheimia haemolytica which causes pneumonia in ruminants. Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta subunit of beta(2) integrins, mediates Lkt-induced cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes. CD18 associates with four distinct alpha subunits giving rise to four beta(2) integrins, CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1), CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), CD11c/CD18 (CR4), and CD11d/CD18. It is not known whether all the beta(2) integrins serve as a receptor for Lkt. Since PMNs are the leukocyte subset that is most susceptible to Lkt, and Mac-1 expression on PMNs exceeds that of other beta(2) integrins, it is of interest to determine whether Mac-1 serves as a receptor for Lkt which necessitates the cloning of CD11b and CD18. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD11b of Ovis canadensis (bighorn sheep) and Ovis aries (domestic sheep). CD11b cDNA is 3455 nucleotides long encoding a polypeptide of 1152 amino acids. CD11b polypeptides from these two species exhibit 99% identity with each other, and 92% with that of cattle, and 70-80% with that of the non-ruminants analyzed.

  14. Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Donachie, Willie; Macaldowie, Colin; Keefe, Greg

    2004-07-01

    Milk samples from 50 sheep on a single Scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. Samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (SCC) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. A total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. Statistical analysis on complete SCC and culture data showed no association between SCC and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were present. Only 3.6% of the samples were simultaneously positive for high count (> 10 colonies from 0.01 mL of milk) of any one bacterial species and high SCC (> 1 x 10(6)/mL). The bacteria recovered were: Staphylococcus equorum (19 times), S. xylosus (7 times), S. simulans (6 times), Streptococcus uberis (3 times) and other streptococci (4 times), Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (2 times), Staphylococcus aureus (1 time), S. capitis (1 time), and Enterococcus faecium (1 time). There was an association between the test day and SCC, with higher SCC values in the first 2 wk. In addition, significantly higher SCC values were found in the oldest animals compared to the other age groups.

  15. Molecular signatures (conserved indels) in protein sequences that are specific for the order Pasteurellales and distinguish two of its main clades.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Hafiz Sohail; Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-01-01

    The members of the order Pasteurellales are currently distinguished primarily on the basis of their branching in the rRNA trees and no convincing biochemical or molecular markers are known that distinguish them from all other bacteria. The genome sequences for 20 Pasteurellaceae species/strains are now publicly available. We report here detailed analyses of protein sequences from these genomes to identify conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for either all Pasteurellales or its major clades. We describe more than 23 CSIs in widely distributed genes/proteins that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Pasteurellaceae species/strains but are not found in any other bacteria. Twenty-one additional CSIs are also specific for the Pasteurellales except in some of these cases homologues were not detected in a few species or the CSI was also present in an isolated non-Pasteurellaceae species. The sequenced Pasteurellaceae species formed two distinct clades in a phylogenetic tree based upon concatenated sequences for 10 conserved proteins. The first of these clades consisting of Aggregatibacter, Pasteurella, Actinobacillus succinogenes, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus somnus was also independently supported by 13 uniquely shared CSIs that are not present in other Pasteurellaceae species or other bacteria. Another clade consisting of the remaining Pasteurellaceae species (viz. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus minor, Haemophilus ducryi, Mannheimia haemolytica and Haemophilus parasuis) was also strongly and independently supported by nine CSIs that are uniquely present in these bacteria. The order Pasteurellales is presently made up of a single family, Pasteurellaceae, that encompasses all of its genera. In this context, our identification of two distinct clades within the Pasteurellales, which are supported by both phylogenetic analyses and by multiple highly specific molecular markers, strongly argues for and

  16. The effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on respiratory vaccine responsiveness in calves.

    PubMed

    Krump, L; Hamilton, C M; Sekiya, M; O'Neill, R; Mulcahy, G

    2014-03-17

    Fasciola hepatica is a common parasite in cattle, and bovine fasciolosis causes significant production losses, as well as being a zoonotic disease of global importance. F. hepatica has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects and the aim of this research was to establish whether F. hepatica infection influences the response to vaccination against respiratory pathogens in calves. A total of 48 calves were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. The experimental group was infected with F. hepatica, while the other group was used as a control. At week 2 and 6 after infection calves from both groups were administered a vaccine containing inactivated PI-3, BRSV and Mannheimia haemolytica, pathogens commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease. Blood samples were taken weekly over 12 weeks to measure specific antibodies against all vaccine antigens and against F. hepatica, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes for PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. Faecal samples were examined for F. hepatica eggs and routine haematology and liver enzyme biochemistry were performed and cytokine production in vitro measured. Liver enzymes (GGT and GLDH) and eosinophils were significantly higher in the experimental group, whereas neutrophil numbers were higher in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of vaccine-specific total responses to PI-3, BRSV and M. haemolytica. IgG1 levels were higher in comparison to IgG2 levels in both PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. IL-4 levels from stimulated and unstimulated PBMC were significantly higher in the control group. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in PBMC from the control group when cultured in medium only. No significant differences were noted in the levels of other cytokines measured. In this work, no effect of early F. hepatica infection on the antibody responses to a range of respiratory vaccine antigens in calves was shown. However, differences in cytokine responsiveness of

  17. Risk factors and impacts of clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial meat-producing sheep flocks in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Julie; Dubreuil, Pascal; Higgins, Robert; Bélanger, Denise

    2008-11-17

    We conducted a prospective observational study on clinical and subclinical mastitis in 30 commercial meat-producing sheep flocks from 2 regions of the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 2,792 ewes selected in late gestation were followed from lambing to weaning of lambs. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the total lactation period (average of 58 days) ranged among flocks from 0 to 6.6%, with a median of 1.2%. The most frequently isolated bacteria from the cases of clinical mastitis, in pure or mixed culture, were Mannheimia haemolytica (26%), Staphylococcus aureus (23%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%). Incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in ewes that gave birth to 3 or more lambs and from the Estrie region, and was associated with an increase in ewe mortality, an increase in lamb mortality at the litter level, and a decrease in lamb's weaning weight for lambs born in multiple litter size or from ewes >or=4 years old. Among 354 selected ewes with clinically normal udder at the end of lactation, 28.8% had potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from milk. The most prevalent bacteria were S. aureus (9.3%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.3%). The risk of having a positive culture in at least one half was different between the two regions. Prevalence of ewes (n=261) with California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive result in at least one half was 24.1 and 14.9% using a cut-off of >or=1+ and >or=2+, respectively. Prevalence of culture-positive udder halves was 11.7% for CMT-negative compared with 53.6% for CMT 3+ halves. CMT status was positively associated with the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci, M. haemolytica, S. aureus, and various Streptococcus species, but not with other isolated bacteria. Additionally, prevalence of CMT-positive halves was higher in ewes from the Estrie region, aged of >or=4 years versus 1 year, having clinical mastitis previously detected in the lactation and/or with low body condition score. Lamb

  18. Deciphering upper respiratory tract microbiota complexity in healthy calves and calves that develop respiratory disease using shotgun metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Natália C; Lima, Svetlana F; Teixeira, Andre G; Ganda, Erika K; Oikonomou, Georgios; Gregory, Lilian; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2017-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disorder responsible for severe economic losses in dairy and feedlot herds. Advances in next-generation sequencing mean that microbial communities in clinical samples, including non-culturable bacteria, can be characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the microbiota of the upper respiratory tract of healthy calves and calves with BRD using whole-genome sequencing (shotgun metagenomics). We performed deep nasopharyngeal swabs on 16 Holstein heifer calves (10 healthy and 6 diagnosed with BRD during the study) at 14 and 28 d of life in 1 dairy herd near Ithaca, New York. Total DNA was extracted, and whole-genome sequencing was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Samples included 5 predominant phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Tenericutes. At the genus level, we observed differences between groups for Pseudomonas spp. At the species level, Mannheimia haemolytica was the most abundant bacterium detected. We detected significant differences between groups of calves in the relative abundance of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Pasteurella multocida was among the 20 most abundant species, and Moraxella catarrhalis, commonly associated with pneumonia in humans, was detected in all groups. Analysis of resistance to antibiotics and compounds profiling revealed differences in cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance. Further research to elucidate the role of Moraxella catarrhalis in BRD is warranted. Genes that were resistant to cobalt-zinc-cadmium, observed mostly in calves with BRD, might be associated with difficulties in antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.

    PubMed

    Murray, Gerard M; O'Neill, Rónan G; Lee, Alison M; McElroy, Máire C; More, Simon J; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans.

  20. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    PubMed

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.

  1. Mortality of live export cattle on long-haul voyages: pathologic changes and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; Barnes, Anne; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2014-03-01

    The cause of death in 215 cattle on 20 long-haul live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Russia, and China was investigated between 2010 and 2012 using gross, histologic, and/or molecular pathology techniques. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to detect nucleic acids from viruses and bacteria known to be associated with respiratory disease in cattle: Bovine coronavirus (Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Bovine parainfluenza virus 3, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. The most commonly diagnosed cause of death was respiratory disease (107/180, 59.4%), followed by lameness (n = 22, 12.2%), ketosis (n = 12, 6.7%), septicemia (n = 11, 6.1%), and enteric disease (n = 10, 5.6%). Two thirds (130/195) of animals from which lung samples were collected had histologic changes and/or positive qRT-PCR results indicative of infectious lung disease: 93 out of 130 (72%) had evidence of bacterial infection, 4 (3%) had viral infection, and 29 (22%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and for 4 (3%) the causative organism could not be identified. Bovine coronavirus was detected in up to 13% of cattle tested, and this finding is likely to have important implications for the management and treatment of respiratory disease in live export cattle. Results from the current study indicate that although overall mortality during live export voyages is low, further research into risk factors for developing respiratory disease is required.

  2. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Derek M.; Martin, Luke G.; Papich, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  3. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  4. Pasteurellaceae isolated from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from Idaho, Oregon, and Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Ward, Alton C S; Drew, Mark L; Chapman, Phillip L

    2012-07-01

    To elucidate the species and biovariants of Pasteurellaceae isolated from clinically normal bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) or bighorn sheep with evidence of respiratory disease. 675 Pasteurellaceae isolates from 290 free-ranging bighorn sheep in Idaho, Oregon and Wyoming. Nasal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were inoculated onto selective and nonselective blood agar media. Representatives of each colony type were classified via a biovariant scheme. The association of respective β-hemolytic isolates with respiratory disease was evaluated via χ(2) analyses. Bacterial isolates belonged to 4 species: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi. Within the latter 3 species, 112 subspecies, biotypes, and biovariants were identified. Bibersteinia trehalosi 2 and B trehalosi 2B constituted 345 of 675 (51%) isolates. Most (597/618 [97%]) isolates from adult sheep were from clinically normal animals, whereas most (47/57 [82%]) isolates from lambs were from animals with evidence of respiratory disease. Twenty-two Pasteurellaceae biovariants were isolated from sheep with respiratory disease; 17 of these biovariants were also isolated from clinically normal sheep. The ability of isolates to cause β-hemolysis on blood agar was associated with respiratory disease in adult bighorn sheep (OR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 6.07). Bighorn lambs appeared more susceptible to respiratory disease caused by Pasteurellaceae than did adult sheep. β-Hemolytic Pasteurellaceae isolates were more likely to be associated with respiratory disease than were non-β-hemolytic isolates in adult sheep. Identification of Pasteurellaceae with the greatest pathogenic potential will require studies to estimate the risk of disease from specific biovariants.

  5. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of oxytetracycline were investigated, when administered both alone and in the presence of carprofen, in healthy calves. The study comprised a four treatment, four sequences, and four period cross-over design and used a tissue cage model, which permitted the collection of serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). There were no clinically relevant differences in the PK profile of oxytetracycline when administered alone and when administered with carprofen. PK-PD integration was undertaken for a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytic (A1 76/1), by correlating in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill data with in vivo PK data obtained in the cross-over study. Based on in vitro susceptibility in cation adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth (CAMHB) and in vivo determined PK variables, ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) to MIC and time for which concentration exceeded MIC (T>MIC) were determined. The CAMHB MIC data satisfied integrated PK/PD relationships predicted to achieve efficacy for approximately 48 h after dosing; mean values for serum were 5.13 (Cmax/MIC), 49.3 h (T>MIC) and 126.6 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). Similar findings were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen, with PK-PD indices based on MIC determined in CAMHB. However, PK-PD integration of data, based on oxytetracycline MICs determined in the biological fluids, serum, exudate and transudate, suggest that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against the M. haemolytica strain A1 76/1; mean values for serum were 0.277 (Cmax/MIC), 0 h (T>MIC) and 6.84 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). The data suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of oxytetracycline may depend, at least in part, on actions other than direct inhibition of bacterial growth.

  6. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  7. Evaluation of health status of calves and the impact on feedlot performance: assessment of a retained ownership program for postweaning calves

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Cook, B. J.; Step, D. L.; Confer, Anthony W.; Saliki, J. T.; Payton, Mark E.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Welsh, R. D.; Blood, K. Shawn

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate animal health status at entry to a feedlot against feedlot performance and carcass value. There were 24 herds represented by 417 calves in a retained ownership program. The health status at entry was represented by the levels of serum antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1a, BVDV2), parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida, as well as by the presence of virus in nasal swabs and blood leukocytes and the presence of bacteria in nasal swabs. The presence or absence of viruses or bacteria at entry did not predict subsequent illness. However, there were predictors of illness severity (number of treatments) and performance parameters of feedlot performance. Herds with a low morbidity rate had higher levels of BVDV1a antibodies than herds with a high morbidity rate. On both an individual-animal and a herd-average basis, calves with low levels of antibody to BVDV1a and BVDV2 had increased total treatment costs. Also, for individual animals and the herd as a whole, low levels of antibody to P. multocida, BVDV1a, and BVDV2 were related to decreased net value to owner (carcass value minus total feedlot cost). Calves treated twice or more had lower levels of antibody to BVDV1a than those treated once or not at all. Differences in herd morbidity rate and treatment costs were more related to appropriate timing of vaccine (last dose at or near delivery of calf) or lack of a 2nd dose of killed vaccine. This was best illustrated by the levels of antibody to BVDV1a. The results of this study were used to formulate recommendations for the subsequent year. PMID:12146889

  8. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  9. Concordance in diagnostic testing for respiratory pathogens of bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Bonds, Michael D.; Brown, Daniel R.; Edwards, William H.; Weiser, Glen C.; Drew, Mark L.; Briggs, Robert E.; Fox, Karen A.; Miller, Michael W.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Besser, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic tests are essential for disease investigation and management. This is particularly true for diseases of free-ranging wildlife where sampling is logistically difficult precluding retesting. Clinical assays for wildlife diseases frequently vary among laboratories because of lack of appropriate standardized commercial kits. Results of diagnostic testing may also be called into question when investigators report different etiologies for disease outbreaks, despite similar clinical and pathologic findings. To evaluate reliability of diagnostic testing for respiratory pathogens of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we conducted a series of ring tests across 6 laboratories routinely involved in detection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Pasteurellaceae, lktA (the Pasteurellaceae gene encoding leukotoxin), and 3 reference laboratories. Consistency of results for replicate samples within laboratories was high (median agreement = 1.0). Agreement between laboratories was high for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of M. ovipneumoniae and culture isolation of Mannheimia spp. and Bibersteinia trehalosi(median agreement = 0.89–0.95, Kappa = 0.65–0.74), and lower for PCR detection of Mannheimiaspp. lktA (median agreement = 0.58, Kappa = 0.12). Most errors on defined status samples were false negatives, suggesting test sensitivity was a greater problem than specificity. However, tests for M. haemolytica and lktA yielded some false positive results. Despite differences in testing protocols, median agreement among laboratories and correct classification of controls for most agents was ≥0.80, meeting or exceeding the standard required by federal proficiency testing programs. This information is valuable for interpreting test results, laboratory quality assessments, and advancing diagnosis of respiratory disease in wild sheep. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Derek M; Martin, Luke G; Papich, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  11. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent. PMID:26121276

  12. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Rónan G.; Lee, Alison M.; McElroy, Máire C.; More, Simon J.; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans. PMID:28282443

  13. Epizootic Pneumonia of Bighorn Sheep following Experimental Exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:25302992

  14. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.

  15. Histophilosis as a Natural Disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Sondgeroth, K S

    2016-01-01

    Histophilus somni is responsible for sporadic disease worldwide in cattle and, to a lesser extent, in small ruminants, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and North American bison (Bison bison). The importance of H. somni diseases can be attributed to improved clinical and laboratory recognition, combined with the growth in intensive management practices for cattle. Although outbreaks of bovine histophilosis can occur year-round, in northern and southern hemispheres, it is most frequent in late fall and early winter. Weather, stress, dietary changes, and comingling of cattle are likely to be major triggers for outbreaks. The most frequent clinical expressions of histophilosis include undifferentiated fever, fibrinosuppurative pneumonia, encephalitis-leptomeningitis, necrotizing myocarditis, and diffuse pleuritis. Neurological disease occurs either as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) or as suppurative meningitis with ventriculitis. Acute myocarditis is characteristically necrotizing and generally involves one or both papillary muscles in the left ventricular myocardium. Biofilm-like aggregates of bacteria occur in capillaries and veins in myocardium, in the central nervous system, and on endocardial surfaces. H. somni is a component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. In our experience, it is most commonly diagnosed in subacute-to-chronic polymicrobial pulmonary infections in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Trueperella pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida, or Mycoplasma bovis. Other, less common forms of H. somni disease present as polyarthritis/tenosynovitis, abortion with placentitis and fetal septicemia, epididymitis-orchitis, and ocular infections. It is likely that H. somni is under-recognized clinically and diagnostically. Most state and provincial laboratories in North America rely on bacterial isolation to confirm infection. The use of more sensitive detection methods on field cases of histophilosis will help resolve the pathogenesis of H

  16. Effect of vaccination against pneumonia on the survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with carrier animals.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Bindu; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Haldorson, Gary J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-05-01

    Leukotoxin producing (lkt+) members of Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi are important pathogens of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis), causing fatal disease. Predisposing or concurrent infection with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae enhances the severity of the disease, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of vaccines against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae in preventing fatal pneumonia in BHS. In all of these studies, however, vaccinated animals were challenged experimentally, by direct inoculation of the pathogens, rather than by natural challenge. Moreover, none has investigated the efficacy of the vaccines under conditions of concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. We immunized three bighorn rams and one pregnant ewe with an experimental multivalent vaccine along with a commercial vaccine. The immunized animals were then commingled with two bighorn ewes known to be carriers of lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae, to simulate natural infection or disease transmission. All vaccinated animals remained healthy. We then inoculated the two carrier ewes with nasal washings from domestic sheep containing M. ovipneumoniae. Within a week, all animals developed mild to moderate signs of pneumonia. While the rams died within two-three months post-inoculation (p.i.), the vaccinated ewe and her lamb died five and eight months p.i., respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that vaccination of BHS against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae alone can protect them from natural challenge by these pathogens. However, it may not be adequate to protect them against pneumonia compounded by concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose determination and confirmation of a long-acting formulation of ceftiofur (ceftiofur crystalline free acid) administered subcutaneously for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B; Robb, E J; Chester, S T; Dame, K J; Boucher, J F; Alaniz, G R

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine and confirm an effective dose of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile oil suspension (CCFA-SS, 100 mg ceftiofur equivalents (CE)/mL], a long-acting single-administration ceftiofur formulation, for the treatment of the bacterial component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Study 1 was a dose determination study that used an intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica (Pasteurella haemolytica) challenge model to evaluate single-administration doses of CCFA-SS at 0.0, 1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4 or 5.5 mg CE/kg body weight (BW) for the treatment of BRD. Data from this study were used to select doses for field testing in three multi-location clinical studies. In Study 2, the efficacy of a single administration dose of CCFA-SS at 4.4 mg CE/kg BW was compared with a negative control for the treatment of naturally occurring BRD in feedlot cattle. Treatments were administered when uniform clinical signs of BRD were present. Study 3 used a design similar to Study 2, and compared single-administration doses of CCFA-SS at 3.0 or 4.4 mg CE/kg BW with the positive-control tilmicosin (Micotil(R) 300 Injection, Elanco Animal Health) at 10 mg/kg BW. Study 4 compared the efficacy of single doses of CCFA-SS of 1.1-8.8 mg CE/kg BW with tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW. A total of 1176 cattle were included in these clinical studies. In Study 1, a dose of 4.55 mg CE/kg BW was determined to be effective. This was rounded to 4.4 mg CE/kg for field testing. In Study 2, a single dose of CCFA-SS at 4.4 mg CE/kg BW had a higher treatment success rate on day 14 (61%) than negative controls (26%, P < 0.01). However, in Study 3 this dose was judged to be at the beginning of an efficacious dose range for the treatment of BRD when compared with tilmicosin. In Study 4, day 28 treatment success rates were higher for CCFA-SS at 4.4-8.8 CE/kg BW than for tilmicosin (P=0.002) or the noneffective CCFA-SS dose of 1.1 mg CE/kg BW (P < 0.001). Based on decision criteria for Study

  18. Metabolizable protein supply modulated the acute-phase response following vaccination of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Arthington, J D

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of MP supply, through RUP supplementation, on the acute-phase response of beef steers following vaccination. On d 0, Brangus-crossbred steers (n = 24; 173 ± 31 kg; 175 ± 16 d of age) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 isocaloric diets formulated to provide 85, 100, and 115% of the daily MP requirements of a beef steer gaining 0.66 kg of BW daily. Diets were limit-fed at 1.8% of BW (DM basis) and individually provided to steers once daily (0800 h) from d 0 to 29. Steers were weighed on d 0 and 29, following a 12-h period of feed and water withdrawal. On d 7, steers were vaccinated against Mannheimia haemolytica (OneShot, Pfizer), and blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 8, 10, 14, 21, and 30. Plasma metabolites were analyzed as repeated measures using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Final BW and ADG were similar (P ≥ 0.50) among treatments (mean = 184 ± 9 kg and 0.5 ± 0.08 kg/d, respectively). Effects of time were detected (P < 0.01) for plasma concentrations of all acute-phase proteins, which peaked between d 7 to 14, returning to baseline concentrations by d 29. Treatment effects were not detected (P ≥ 0.19) for plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein, albumin, fibrinogen, IGF-1 and serum amyloid-A. Plasma concentrations of total protein (TP) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing supply of MP (87.1, 89.6, and 90.1 ± 1.09 mg TP/mL and 6.1, 8.3, and 10.3 ± 0.41 mg PUN/dL for 85, 100, and 115% MP steers, respectively). From d 10 to 29, steers provided 115% MP had less (P < 0.001) plasma concentrations of ceruloplasmin than steers fed 85 and 100% MP, which had similar plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations. On d 14, plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were greatest (P ≤ 0.06) for steers fed 115% MP, intermediate for 100% MP, and least for 85% MP (0.98, 0.71 and 0.44 ± 0.099 mg/mL, respectively). On d 10, plasma concentrations of creatinine were greater (P = 0.01) for steers

  19. Dose determination and confirmation for ceftiofur crystalline-free acid administered in the posterior aspect of the ear for control and treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Beth; Robb, Edward J; Chester, S Theodore; Dame, Kenneth J; Moseley, W William; Bryson, W Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine and confirm the effective dosage rate of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS, 200 mg ceftiofur equivalents [CE]/ml), a long-acting ceftiofur formulation, for control and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). In each study, CCFA-SS was administered once by subcutaneous (SC) injection in the middle third of the posterior aspect of the ear. Study 1 was conducted using an intratracheal challenge with Mannheimia (formerly Pasteurella) haemolytica and dosages ranging from 0 to 8.8 mg CE/kg to select a dosage for further field testing. In Study 2, a single dose of CCFA-SS at 0.0, 4.4, or 6.6 mg CE/kg was administered when uniform clinical signs of BRD were present in feedlot cattle. Study 3 was conducted in several feedlots to evaluate the efficacy, practicality, and safety of CCFA-SS at 4.4 or 6.6 mg CE/kg compared with a placebo control or tilmicosin for preemptive control of BRD. In Study 1, the effective dose was determined to be 5.35 mg CE/kg; therefore, 4.4 and 6.6 mg CE/kg were selected as the dosages for further field testing. Administration of CCFA-SS at 4.4 or 6.6 mg CE/kg improved treatment success compared with negative controls (P < or =.05 for both doses) in Study 2. In Study 3, a single administration of 4.4 or 6.6 mg CE/kg was comparable to tilmicosin (P <.001) and was significantly better than placebo (P <.001) for the control of BRD. Using the ear as an administration site was acceptable under field conditions and was well tolerated by all animals. These studies demonstrated that a single administration of CCFA-SS by SC injection in the middle third of the posterior aspect of the ear at 4.4 or 6.6 mg CE/kg is effective, safe, and practical for preemptive control and treatment of the bacterial component of BRD in feedlot cattle. Administration in an inedible tissue results in a short withdrawal time and no injection-site trimming at slaughter.

  20. Prediction of respiratory disease and diarrhea in veal calves based on immunoglobulin levels and the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Bart; Alliët, Jeroen; Boone, Randy; Roelandt, Sophie; Valgaeren, Bonnie; Deprez, Piet

    2015-06-15

    Failure of passive transfer is a common problem in calves destined for veal production. At present it is unknown whether the risk for respiratory disease (BRD) or neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) in the veal herd is associated with total immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or on the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival. Therefore, the first objective of this prospective longitudinal cohort study was to determine associations between serum protein fractions as determined by routine electrophoresis (total protein, albumin, alpha-1 and -2 globulins, beta-globulins and Ig's) at arrival and BRD and NCD in the first 3 weeks of the production cycle. The second objective was to determine whether the serostatus (seropositive/seronegative) of seven respiratory pathogens (bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenzavirus-3, bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis) of these arrival serum samples could be associated with the risk of having BRD. The third objective was to determine which of the electrophoresis proteins and respiratory serostatuses were associated with average daily gain (ADG) in the study period. The study population consisted of 150 rosé veal calves housed in a single air-space. The study period ended at day 18 post arrival, when BRD incidence was judged to be too high to further postpone a group treatment. A Cox regression model was used to determine the effect of the studied protein fractions and antibodies on the time to BRD and NCD occurrence. The effect of the studied predictors on ADG was determined by linear regression. Calves with Ig levels under 7.5g/L had an increased BRD hazard (hazard ratio (HR)=1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0)). NCD was only positively associated with the alpha-2 globulin concentration. Calves with a negative serostatus for BCV (HR=1.7 (95% CI=1.0-2.8)) or BRSV (HR=2.0 (95% CI=1.0-3.9)) had an increased BRD hazard. Average

  1. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    performed by the BVL suggests substantially lower degrees of resistance in bacteria isolated from cattle (mastitis: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.; respiratory disease: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica) and pigs (respiratory disease: Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica) in comparison to data published for Germany so far. This includes results for substances that have given cause for frequent debate. Only rare cases of resistance to enrofloxacin (fluoroquinolone) could be detected, and only 3% of bacterial strains tested proved resistant to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, including substances prescribed in human medicine.

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Meunier, Danièle; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Wasyl, Dariusz; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2008-07-08

    The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003-2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002-2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species.A proficiency test (EQAS - external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales), Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin. More resistance

  3. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Meunier, Danièle; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Wasyl, Dariusz; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales), Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to tetracycline

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b: predominant BVDV subtype in calves with respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Briggs, Robert E.; Confer, Anthony W.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Purdy, C. W.; Loan, Raymond W.; Duff, Glenn C.; Payton, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    used in the virus neutralization test for antibodies in seroconverting calves' serum, BVDV1b titers were higher than BVDV1a titers. This study indicates that BVDV1 strains are involved in acute respiratory disease of calves with pneumonic Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida disease. The BVDV2 antibodies may be due to cross-reactions, as typing of the BVDV strains revealed BVDV1b or 1a but not BVDV2. The BVDV1b subtype has considerable implications, as, with 1 exception, all vaccines licensed in the United States contain BVDV1a, a strain with different antigenic properties. BVDV1b potentially could infect BVDV1a-vaccinated calves. PMID:12146890

  5. Transmission of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b to susceptible and vaccinated calves by exposure to persistently infected calves

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    of 2 of 7 calves that were dying with pulmonary lesions. Two of the calves dying with pneumonic lesions in the study had been BVDV1b viremic prior to death. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b was isolated from both calves that received the killed or MLV vaccines. There were cytopathic (CP) strains isolated from MLV vaccinated calves during the same time frame as the BVDV1b isolations. These viruses were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic sequencing, and most CP were confirmed as vaccinal origin. A BVDV2 NCP strain was found in only 1 OB calf, on multiple collections, and the calf seroconverted to BVDV2. This virus was not identical to the BVDV2 CP 296 vaccine strain. The use of subtyping is required to differentiate vaccinal strains from the field strains. This study detected 2 different vaccine strains, the BVDV1b in PI calves and infected contact calves, and a heterologous BVDV2 subtype brought in as an acutely infected calf. The MLV vaccination, with BVDV1a and BVDV2 components, administered 3 d prior to exposure to PI calves did not protect 100% against BVDV1b viremias or nasal shedding. There were other agents associated with the bovine respiratory disease signs and lesions in this study including Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma spp., PI-3V, BRSV, and BHV-1. PMID:16187545

  6. Nonspecific suppressive effect of bovine herpesvirus type 1 on bovine leukocyte functions.

    PubMed Central

    Filion, L G; McGuire, R L; Babiuk, L A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of bovine herpesvirus type 1 on the specific and nonspecific immune response of calves was examined. Animals with or without prior aerosol exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 were aerosol challenged with 10(8) PFU of virus. Blood and serum samples were taken before and after virus challenge for determining cell-mediated, humoral, and neutrophil responses. A significant depression of the blastogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin, P. haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida and of neutrophil chemotactic response was observed 4 to 7 days after challenge. However, the antibacterial activity of neutrophils was not significantly affected by virus exposure. Anti-bovine herpesvirus type 1 antibody responses were detected 11 days postchallenge. A significant elevation of the anti-P. haemolytica antibody response (day 0 versus day +11) was detected in animals previously exposed to P. haemolytica. PMID:6311742

  7. 21 CFR 522.956 - Florfenicol and flunixin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older, including dry dairy cows. Use in these cattle may cause.... (2) Indications for use. For treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia... pyrexia in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle. (3) Limitations. Animals intended for human...

  8. 21 CFR 522.812 - Enrofloxacin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section as follows: (i) Amount—(A) Single-dose therapy: For treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD...) Multiple-day therapy: For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia.... (ii) Indications for use—(A) For the treatment and control of swine respiratory disease (SRD...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See § 556.600 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use in cattle—(1...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class of...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See § 556.600 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use in cattle—(1...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class of...

  11. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See § 556.600 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use in cattle—(1...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class of...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See § 556.600 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use in cattle—(1...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class of...

  13. Marine Science Initiative at South Carolina State College: An Investigation of the Biosensing Parameters Regulating Bacterial and Larval Attachment on Substrata

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-12

    haemolytica/ P. ureae MSA Yellow........................... 0001.......... Pseudomonas speciesl Alcaligenes faecalis/ Pasteurella ureaef Moraxella specie sI...hydrophila 52 OSL: Colony Color ID Value Identity EMB Purple-Creamy ...................... 0031 .............. Alcaligenes faccalisi Pseudomonas species...Group 4E Alcaligenes -likef Group M-4f MORAXELLA-LIKE EMB Dark Blue ................................... 2171 .............. Pseudomonas aeruginosa/ P

  14. Clinical and Pathological Evaluation of Sulbactam/Ampicillin for Treatment of Experimental Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Glen A.; Potter, Andrew A.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sulbactam/ampicillin for treatment of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Twenty-one Hereford calves were experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-1 and an ampicillin-resistant strain of Pasteurella haemolytica, then treated for three days with either sulbactam/ampicillin, chloramphenicol, or a placebo. The treatments were evaluated by comparing clinical illness scores, total sick days, weight changes, mortality rates, and postmortem lung scores between treatment groups. Both antibiotics were highly effective in reducing respiratory disease in the experimentally infected calves. The clinical response to sulbactam/ampicillin treatment was comparable with that of chloramphenicol and was significantly improved compared with the response to the placebo treatment. These findings suggest that the efficacy of sulbactam/ampicillin may be comparable to that of chloramphenicol for treatment of pneumonic pasteurellosis involving ampicillin-resistant strains of P. haemolytica. PMID:17422967

  15. A numerical taxonomic study of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1985-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study of strains of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia, with some allied bacteria, showed 23 reasonably distinct groups. These fell into three major areas. Area A contained species of Actinobacillus and Pasteurella: A. suis, A. equuli, A. lignieresii, P. haemolytica biovar A, P. haemolytica biovar T, P. multocida, A. actinomycetemcomitans, 'P. bettii', 'A. seminis', P. ureae and P. aerogenes. Also included in A was a composite group of Pasteurella pneumotropica and P. gallinarum, together with unnamed groups referred to as 'BLG', 'Mair', 'Ross' and 'aer-2'. Area B contained species of Yersinia: Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. pestis and a group 'ent-b' similar to Y. enterocolitica. Area C contained non-fermenting strains: Y. philomiragia, Moraxella anatipestifer and a miscellaneous group 'past-b'. There were also a small number of unnamed single strains.

  16. Staphylococcal leukotoxins trigger free intracellular Ca(2+) rise in neurones, signalling through acidic stores and activation of store-operated channels.

    PubMed

    Jover, Emmanuel; Tawk, Mira Y; Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Poulain, Bernard; Prévost, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Headache, muscle aches and chest pain of mild to medium intensity are among the most common clinical symptoms in moderate Staphylococcus aureus infections, with severe infections usually associated with worsening pain symptoms. These nociceptive responses of the body raise the question of how bacterial infection impinges on the nervous system. Does S. aureus, or its released virulence factors, act directly on neurones? To address this issue, we evaluated the potential effects on neurones of certain bi-component leukotoxins, which are virulent factors released by the bacterium. The activity of four different leukotoxins was verified by measuring the release of glutamate from rat cerebellar granular neurones. The bi-component γ-haemolysin HlgC/HlgB was the most potent leukotoxin, initiating transient rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in cerebellar neurones and in primary sensory neurones from dorsal root ganglia, as probed with the Fura-2 Ca(2+) indicator dye. Using pharmacological antagonists of receptors and Ca(2+) channels, the variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were found independent of the activation of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels or glutamate receptors. Drugs targeting Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) or H(+)-ATPase and antagonists of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry complex blunted, or significantly reduced, the leukotoxin-induced elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). Moreover, activation of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 was also required to initiate the release of Ca(2+) from acidic stores. These findings suggest that, prior to forming a pore at the plasma membrane, leukotoxin HlgC/HlgB triggers a multistep process which initiates the release of Ca(2+) from lysosomes, modifies the steady-state level of reticular Ca(2+) stores and finally activates the Store-Operated Calcium Entry complex. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Staphylococcal leukotoxins trigger free intracellular Ca2+ rise in neurones, signalling through acidic stores and activation of store-operated channels

    PubMed Central

    Jover, Emmanuel; Tawk, Mira Y; Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Poulain, Bernard; Prévost, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Headache, muscle aches and chest pain of mild to medium intensity are among the most common clinical symptoms in moderate Staphylococcus aureus infections, with severe infections usually associated with worsening pain symptoms. These nociceptive responses of the body raise the question of how bacterial infection impinges on the nervous system. Does S. aureus, or its released virulence factors, act directly on neurones? To address this issue, we evaluated the potential effects on neurones of certain bi-component leukotoxins, which are virulent factors released by the bacterium. The activity of four different leukotoxins was verified by measuring the release of glutamate from rat cerebellar granular neurones. The bi-component γ-haemolysin HlgC/HlgB was the most potent leukotoxin, initiating transient rises in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cerebellar neurones and in primary sensory neurones from dorsal root ganglia, as probed with the Fura-2 Ca2+ indicator dye. Using pharmacological antagonists of receptors and Ca2+ channels, the variations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration were found independent of the activation of voltage-operatedCa2+ channels or glutamate receptors. Drugs targeting Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) or H+-ATPase and antagonists of the store-operated Ca2+ entry complex blunted, or significantly reduced, the leukotoxin-induced elevation in intracellular Ca2+. Moreover, activation of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 was also required to initiate the release of Ca2+ from acidic stores. These findings suggest that, prior to forming a pore at the plasma membrane, leukotoxin HlgC/HlgB triggers a multistep process which initiates the release of Ca2+ from lysosomes, modifies the steady-state level of reticular Ca2+ stores and finally activates the Store-Operated Calcium Entry complex. PMID:23152983

  18. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  19. Pasteurellaceae isolated from tonsillar samples of commercially-reared American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed Central

    Ward, A C; Dyer, N W; Fenwick, B W

    1999-01-01

    As commercial producers of American bison (Bison bison) become more numerous, concerns relative to bison health management increase. Since loss due to respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella and related Pasteurellaceae is a major concern for cattle producers, a study was conducted to determine what types of Pasteurellaceae are carried by bison to evaluate the potential of pneumonic pasteurellosis in bison herds where management practices are comparable to those used for cattle. Tonsillar biopsies, collected in May (n = 29) and August (n = 25) 1997 from 24- to 30-month-old bison bulls, at the time of slaughter were cultured for Pasteurellaceae. Pasteurella spp. were isolated from all the samples collected in May. These included isolates identified as P. haemolytica, trehalosi, testudinis, and multocida subsp. multocida a and multocida b. Actinobacillus spp. and Haemophilus somnus were also isolated from some samples. Pasteurella spp., haemolytica, trehalosi, and multocida subsp. multocida a, multocida b and septica, plus 2 nonspeciated indole-positive biotypes, U2 and U16, were isolated from the second group of tonsil samples. Most of these organisms, including P. haemolytica, P. multocida subsp., and H. somnus are associated with disease in domestic livestock and should be regarded as potential pathogens for bison, particularly in animals which become stressed by management practices commonly used with cattle such as herding, crowding, and shipping. Images Figure 1. PMID:10480456

  20. Electron microscopy of phages in serotypes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Olsen, I; Namork, E; Myhrvold, V

    1993-12-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinobacillus ureae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida strains were examined by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of bacteriophages. Phages were detected in serotype a (SUNY 75) and e (UOH 1705) and in the fresh clinical isolates UOH Q1243 and UOH Q1247 of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Phages were not found in serotype b, c and d strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, in the fresh clinical isolate UOH Q1244 of this species or in old strains (including reference strains) of related species from the Actinobacillus-Haemophilus-Pasteurella group.

  1. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  2. The antibacterial activities of aditoprim and its efficacy in the treatment of swine streptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Xu, Yamei; Zhu, Xudong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) has potential use as an antimicrobial agent in animals. However, its pharmacodynamic properties have not been systematically studied yet. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activities of ADP and its main metabolites were assayed, and the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of ADP for the treatment of swine streptococcosis was evaluated. It was shown that Salmonella and Streptococcus from swine, Escherichia coli and Salmonella from chickens, E. coli, Streptococcus, Mannheimia, Pasteurella from calves, Streptococcus and Mannheimia from sheep, and E. coli, Flavobacterium columnare, Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia ruckeri from fishes were highly susceptible to ADP. Haemophilus parasuis from swine, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas punctate, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus agalactiae from fishes, and Klebsiella from calves and sheep showed moderate susceptibility to ADP, whereas E. coli, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, Pasteurella, S. aureus, Clostridium perfringens from swine, S. aureus, C. perfringens from chickens, and S. aureus from calves were resistant to ADP. The main metabolites of ADP showed equal activity to that of their parent compound, and the prevention and therapeutic dosages of ADP recommended for swine streptococcosis were 10 and 20~40 mg/kg b.w., respectively. This study firstly showed that ADP had strong antibacterial activity and had potential to be used as a single drug in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:28145487

  3. The upper respiratory tract microbiome and its potential role in bovine respiratory disease and otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Svetlana F.; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo V.; Higgins, Catherine H.; Lima, Fabio S.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed. The URT of Holstein dairy calves aged 3 to 35 days revealed to host a highly diverse bacterial community. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Mannheimia, Moraxella, and Mycoplasma were significantly higher in diseased versus healthy animals, and the total bacterial load of newborn calves at day 3 was higher for animals that developed pneumonia than for healthy animals. Our results corroborate the existing knowledge that species of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma are important pathogens in pneumonia and otitis. Furthermore, they suggest that species of Moraxella can potentially cause the same disorders (pneumonia and otitis), and that high neonatal bacterial load is a key contributor to the development of pneumonia. PMID:27363739

  4. Multicausal etiology of the enteric syndrome in rabbits from Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Rubio, Virginia G; Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Martínez-Castañeda, José S; Romero-Núñez, Camilo

    Enteropathies in rabbits are difficult to diagnose; their etiology involves pathogens that act synergistically, causing damage to the intestine. The aim of the present study was isolate enteric pathogens from rabbits in Mexico. Using parasitological, bacteriological and molecular analyses, we screened 58 samples of the intestinal content of rabbits having a clinical history of enteric disease from the southeastern part of the State of Mexico. Out of the 58 samples analyzed, a total of 86 identifications were made, Eimeria spp. were found in 77.5%, followed by Aeromonas spp. in 15.5% and Escherichia coli in 8.6%, which were identified as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and the presence of the following agents was also confirmed: Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Mannheimia spp. and Rotavirus. The concurrent presence of Eimeria spp. with Aeromonas was frequent (15.5%); there was statistical significance for the presence of an association between the clinical profiles and Eimeria spp. (p=0.000), Mannheimia spp. (p=0.001), Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. (p=0.006). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Agarose soy casein digest medium for replacement of blood agar for potency determinations of live Pasteurella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rebers, P A; Christianson, G G; Laird, G A; Symanowski, J

    1989-01-01

    Blood agar, prepared with Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) soy agar and 5% defibrinated bovine blood, is used for testing the potency of live Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella haemolytica vaccines, but its potential for variation makes it undesirable to use in a standard assay method. Tests done with RPMI 1640 and Trypticase soy medium indicated that the benefits obtained by adding defibrinated blood to the Trypticase soy agar medium were more likely due to neutralization of toxic components than to the presence of transferrin or iron as growth factors. Reduction of toxic components in the Trypticase soy agar medium was accomplished by replacing agar with agarose and by autoclaving glucose as a separate solution to produce the replacement medium. The replacement medium was prepared by autoclaving three separate solutions--Trypticase soy broth without glucose; glucose; and agarose--cooling to 55 degrees C, and mixing and then pouring the mixtures into petri dishes. The growth obtained with this medium as judged by determination of the number of CFU and the colony sizes of P. multocida or P. haemolytica was equal to or better than those obtained with blood agar.

  6. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  7. [Bacterial resistance in bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of Swiss dairy calves].

    PubMed

    Pipoz, F; Perreten, V; Meylan, M

    2016-06-01

    Fifty-six E. coli, 37 P. multocida und 8 M. haemolytica were isolated from 157 nasal swabs taken from calves in 52 dairy herds. The antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms was determined by measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Of the 56 E. coli isolates, 55.3% exhibited resistance to tetracyclines, 55.3% to sulfonamides, 39.3% to beta-lactams, 30.3% to aminoglycosides, 8.9% to fluorochinolones and 3.5% to 3rd generation cephalosporins. The 3rd generation cephalosporin- resistant isolates contained the extended spectrum-beta-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-14 and came from 2 farms where the milk of cows under antimicrobial treatment was fed to the calves and mastitis was treated with cefquinome as first line therapy. Of the 37 P. multocida isolates, 48.6% exhibited resistance to tetracyclines, 16.2% to beta-lactams, and 5.4% each to macrolides, aminoglycosides and sulfonamides. The 8 M. haemolytica isolates showed no resistances against the tested antibiotics.

  8. Sharing of Pasteurella spp. between free-ranging bighorn sheep and feral goats.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen M; Hunter, David L; Foreyt, William J; Cassirer, E Frances; Rimler, Richard B; Ward, Alton C S

    2003-10-01

    Pasteurella spp. were isolated from feral goats and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area bordering Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (USA). Biovariant 1 Pasteurella haemolytica organisms were isolated from one goat and one of two bighorn sheep found in close association. Both isolates produced leukotoxin and had identical electrophoretic patterns of DNA fragments following cutting with restriction endonuclease HaeIII. Similarly Pasteurella multocida multocida a isolates cultured from the goat and one of the bighorn sheep had D type capsules, serotype 4 somatic antigens, produced dermonecrotoxin and had identical HaeIII electrophoretic profiles. A biovariant U(beta) P.haemolytica strain isolated from two other feral goats, not known to have been closely associated with bighorn sheep, did not produce leukotoxin but had biochemical utilization and HaeIII electrophoretic profiles identical to those of isolates from bighorn sheep. It was concluded that identical Pasteurella strains were shared by the goats and bighorn sheep. Although the direction of transmission could not be established, evidence suggests transmission of strains from goats to bighorn sheep. Goats may serve as a reservoir of Pasteurella strains that may be virulent in bighorn sheep; therefore, goats in bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to prevent contact with bighorn sheep. Bighorn sheep which have nose-to-nose contact with goats should be removed from the habitat.

  9. Cytolysins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, M A; Briaire, J; Jansen, R; Smith, H E; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L

    1991-01-01

    Cytolysin I (ClyI) and cytolysin II (ClyII), which are present in the culture supernatant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9, are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pig pleuropneumonia. The purpose of this study was to clone and characterize the genetic determinants of these cytolysins. Cloning was accomplished by the screening of DNA libraries for the presence of cytolytic activity and for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to leukotoxin DNA of Pasteurella haemolytica. Both genetic determinants were found to be members of the RTX cytotoxin family. The ClyII determinant was characterized in more detail. It appeared that ClyII more closely resembled the leukotoxin of P. haemolytica than the alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli. The ClyII amino acid sequence was identical to a hemolysin gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5; this finding indicates that the latter gene also codes for ClyII and not for ClyI, as has previously been suggested. The genetic organization of the ClyII determinant differed from the genetic organization of other RTX determinants. Genes responsible for secretion of ClyII were not contiguous with the toxin gene. Instead, secretion genes were present elsewhere in the genome. These secretion genes, however, belong to the ClyI operon. This indicates that the secretion genes of the ClyI operon are responsible for secretion of ClyI and ClyII. Images PMID:1937809

  10. Treatment of experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis of young calves with tilmicosin.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Merrill, J K; Gard, M S; Olson, M E; Nation, P N

    1997-01-01

    Twenty four (24) healthy male Holstein calves (< 70 kg) were each experimentally infected by intrabronchial inoculation of 4.0 x 10(9) viable cells of Pasteurella haemolytica-AI (B122) at Time = 0 h. At 1 h following inoculation animals received either: 1) Sham treatment with sterile 0.85% saline SC (n = 12); or 2) a single injection of 10 mg tilmicosin per kg body weight (n = 12). Calves that were non-infected and tilmicosin-treated were also included for determining tilmicosin concentrations in serum and lung tissue at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h (n = 3-per time). In the infected calves, response to therapy was monitored clinically. Serum samples were collected for determination of tilmicosin concentrations using HPLC. Any animal becoming seriously ill was humanely killed. Complete necropsy examinations were performed on all animals and included gross pathologic changes, bacteriologic analysis, histopathology, and determination of pulmonary concentrations of tilmicosin. Tilmicosin treated animals responded significantly better to therapy than saline-treated control calves. Clinical assessment of calves during the study indicated that tilmicosin-treated calves had significantly improved by T = 8 h compared to satine-treated animals (P < 0.05). At necropsy tilmicosin-treated calves had significantly less severe gross and histological lesions (P < 0.05) of the pulmonary tissue. Of the 12 saline-treated calves, 92% (11/12) had Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 in lung tissue, while of the tilmicosin-treated calves 0% (0/12) cultured positive for P. haemolytica. Mean (+/- standard error) serum tilmicosin concentrations in infected calves peaked at 1 h post-injection (1.10 +/- 0.06 micrograms/mL) and rapidly decreased to 0.20 +/- 0.03 microgram/mL, well below the MIC of 0.50 microgram/mL for P. haemolytica-A1 (B122), by 12 h. These serum concentrations were very similar to serum concentrations of tilmicosin in non-infected tilmicosin-treated calves. Lung tissue

  11. Antibiotic disposition in experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis: gentamicin and tylosin.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, G E; Barto, P B; Martin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effects of severe respiratory disease on the disposition of antibiotics were evaluated using two drugs chosen because of their widely differing solubility characteristics. The experiments were carried out in series, using five calves for each drug. The drugs were given to seven week old calves before and after induction of pneumonia by bilateral intrapulmonary administration of 3 mL of 5 X 10(7) colony forming units of Pasteurella haemolytica. Following inoculation, the calves developed clinical signs of pneumonia and were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg) or tylosin (10 mg/kg) 48, 60 and 72 hours after Pasteurella administration. There was a statistically significant decrease in distribution rate but not elimination rate of gentamicin. For tylosin, there was a significant increase in elimination rate. These results indicate the kinetics of tylosin but not gentamicin are sufficiently altered as to support a need for increased frequency of administration with severe respiratory disease in calves. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3756673

  12. Intranasal immunization of mice against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Babiuk, L A; Stockdale, P H

    1981-01-01

    A potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) extract of Pasteurella multocida serotype III:A was shown to protect mice from an intranasal challenge with up to 300 50% lethal doses of P. multocida. In addition to preventing death, bacteria were rapidly cleared from the lungs of immunized mice so that by 72 to 96 h postchallenge no bacteria were present in the lungs of immunized mice, whereas up to 10(9) bacteria were present in lungs of nonimmunized mice. Immunization by the intranasal route was slightly better than that by the intramuscular route. Protection was considered specific, since immunization with P. multocida protected only against P. multocida and not against Salmonella agona. Furthermore, a similar KSCN extract from P. haemolytica did not protect against P. multocida challenge. A comparison of the KSCN extract with a Formalin-killed bacterin suggested that the KSCN extract may be superior to the bacterin. PMID:7216441

  13. Genomic fingerprinting of "Haemophilus somnus" isolates by using a random-amplified polymorphic DNA assay.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, L E; Silva, S V; Procunier, J D; Little, P B

    1993-01-01

    The random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was used to generate DNA fingerprints for 16 isolates of "Haemophilus somnus," and one isolate each of "Haemophilus agni," "Histophilus ovis," "Actinobacillus seminis," Pasteurella haemolytica, and Escherichia coli. The RAPD assay differentiated among "H. somnus" isolates, which shared similarity coefficients of 0.46 to 1.00 on the basis of pairwise comparisons of RAPD markers produced with nine random decamer primers. Three virulent encephalitic "H. somnus" isolates exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting a common clonal ancestry. The RAPD assay clearly distinguished between the "H. somnus"-"H. agni"-"H. ovis" group and the other bacterial species tested. The results of the present study suggest that DNA fingerprinting of "H. somnus" isolates by the RAPD assay could be valuable in revealing subspecific divisions within this largely unexplored species. Images PMID:8458944

  14. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  15. A review of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia and viral-bacterial synergism in respiratory disease of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D

    1982-01-01

    Unanswered questions on the etiology and prevention of shipping fever pneumonia have allowed this disease to remain one of the most costly to the North American cattle industry. Research in this area has indirected that while Pasteurella haemolytica and, to a lesser extent, P. multocida are involved in most cases, they seem to require additional factors to help initiate the disease process. Bovine herpes virus 1 has been shown experimentally to be one such factor. This review examines in some detail the topics of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever, and viral-bacterial interactions in the production of respiratory disease in various species. It deals with history, definitions, etiologies, clinical signs and lesions, and considers exposure levels, transmission and various pathogenetic mechanisms that are postulated or known to occur. PMID:6290011

  16. Gallibacterium anatis-secreted metalloproteases degrade chicken IgG.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, E; Vaca, S; Pérez-Méndez, A; Ibarra-Caballero, J; Pérez-Márquez, V; Tenorio, V R; Negrete-Abascal, E

    2005-10-01

    Gallibacterium anatis (previously named Pasteurella haemolytica-like) is considered a normal inhabitant of genital and upper respiratory tracts of healthy chickens, but it is also associated with different pathological conditions. Secreted metalloproteases from field and reference G. anatis cultures were obtained by methanol precipitation and were characterized. Proteins of molecular mass higher than 100 kDa showing proteolytic activity were observed in 10% polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with 1% bovine casein. They were active at alkaline pH, and inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Their activity was stable at 50 degrees C, but partially inhibited at 60 degrees C, and totally inhibited at higher temperatures. Secreted proteins were able to degrade chicken IgG after 24 h of incubation, and cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody against purified protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Secreted metalloproteases could play a role in infections caused by G. anatis.

  17. Focal bacterial meningitis following ascending bite wound infection leading to paraparesis in a captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Braun, Veronika; Eskens, Ulrich; Hartmann, Antje; Lang, Barbara; Kramer, Martin; Schmidt, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 15-yr-old captive female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a 2-wk history of progressive paraparesis and a 9-mo history of exudative skin lesion on the left thoracic wall. Magnetic resonance images showed a well-defined muscle infiltrating lesion ventrolateral to the seventh cervical to the third thoracic vertebra on the left side, which extended through the left intervertebral foramina C7 to T3 into the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord compression and displacement as well as inflammation of the spinal cord and nerves. This lesion surprisingly caused no forelimb deficits. Differential diagnoses included abscess formation or neoplasia. Pathologic examination revealed chronic focal purulent meningitis associated with widespread paraspinal fistulous inflammation originating from a chronic dermal ulcer. Mainly Escherichia coli var. haemolytica and Clostridium perfringens were identified as the underlying agents.

  18. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Márcia P; Bonatto, Diego; Bizani, Delmar; Henriques, João A P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2006-06-01

    A Bacillus strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain has high sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The antimicrobial substance was inhibitory to pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Pasteurella haemolytica. It was stable over a wide temperature range, but lost activity when the temperature reached 121 degrees C/15 min. Maximum activity was observed at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pH. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Except for iturins, other antimicrobial peptides have not been described for B. amyloliquefaciens. The identification of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the leukotoxin gene from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: homology to the alpha-hemolysin/leukotoxin gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Kraig, E; Dailey, T; Kolodrubetz, D

    1990-01-01

    The leukotoxin produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the etiology of localized juvenile periodontitis. To initiate a genetic analysis into the role of this protein in disease, we have cloned its gene, lktA. We now present the complete nucleotide sequence of the lktA gene from A. actinomycetemcomitans. When the deduced amino acid sequence of the leukotoxin protein was compared with those of other proteins, it was found to be homologous to the leukotoxin from Pasteurella haemolytica and to the alpha-hemolysins from Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Each alignment showed at least 42% identity. As in the other organisms, the lktA gene of A. actinomycetemcomitans was linked to another gene, lktC, which is thought to be involved in the activation of the leukotoxin. The predicted LktC protein was related to the leukotoxin/hemolysin C proteins from the other bacteria, since they shared a minimum of 49% amino acid identity. Surprisingly, although actinobacillus species are more closely related to pasteurellae than to members of the family Enterobacteriaciae, LktA and LktC from A. actinomycetemcomitans shared significantly greater sequence identity with the E. coli alpha-hemolysin proteins than with the P. haemolytica leukotoxin proteins. Despite the overall homology to the other leukotoxin/hemolysin proteins, the LktA protein from A. actinomycetemcomitans has several unique properties. Most strikingly, it is a very basic protein with a calculated pI of 9.7; the other toxins have estimated pIs around 6.2. The unusual features of the A. actinomycetemcomitans protein are discussed in light of the different species and target-cell specificities of the hemolysins and the leukotoxins. Images PMID:2318535

  20. Extracellular neuraminidase production by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain associated with bovine pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    White, D J; Jolley, W L; Purdy, C W; Straus, D C

    1995-01-01

    The properties of an extracellular neuraminidase produced by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain that was isolated in a case of bovine pneumonia were examined during growth in a defined medium. This enzyme (isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. multocida A:3) was active against N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Enzyme elaboration was correlated with the growth of the organism in a defined medium, with maximum quantities produced in the stationary phase. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified neuraminidase possessed a specific activity of 9.36 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against fetuin. The enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.0 and a Km of 0.03 mg/ml. The P. multocida A:3 neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 as estimated by gel filtration. The enzyme was stable at 4 and 37 degrees C for 3 h. Approximately 75% of the neuraminidase activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C. Greater than 90% of the enzyme activity was destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of > or = 65 degrees C. The P. multocida neuraminidase does not appear to be serologically related to the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 neuraminidase since antiserum prepared against the purified P. haemolytica enzyme did not neutralize the P. multocida enzyme. PMID:7729875

  1. The role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of fibrin deposition in bovine acute lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Car, B. D.; Suyemoto, M. M.; Neilsen, N. R.; Slauson, D. O.

    1991-01-01

    The peculiarly fibrinous nature of bovine acute lung injury due to infection with Pasteurella haemolytica A1 suggests an imbalance between leukocyte-directed procoagulant and profibrinolytic influences in the inflamed bovine lung. Calves with experimental pneumonia produced by intratracheal inoculation with P. haemolytica A1 developed acute locally extensive cranioventral fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) recovered by segmental lavage from affected lung lobes were 30 times more procoagulant than PAM obtained from unaffected lung lobes and 37-fold more procoagulant than PAM from control calf lungs. Unlike the enhancement of procoagulant activity, profibrinolytic activity (plasminogen activator amidolysis) of total lung leukocytes (PAM and plasminogen activator neutrophils [PMN]) was decreased 23 times in cells obtained from affected lung lobes and also was decreased four times in cells obtained from unaffected lobes of infected animals. This marked imbalance in cellular procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity probably contributes significantly to enhanced fibrin deposition and retarded fibrin removal. In addition, PAM from inflamed lungs were strongly positive for bovine tissue factor antigen as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Intensely tissue factor-positive PAM enmeshed in fibrinocellular exudates and positive alveolar walls were situated such that they were likely to have, in concert, initiated extrinsic activation of coagulation in the acutely inflamed lung. These data collectively suggest that enhanced PAM-directed procoagulant activity and diminished PAM- and PMN-directed profibrinolytic activity represent important modifications of local leukocyte function in bovine acute lung injury that are central to the pathogenesis of lesion development with extensive fibrin deposition and retarded fibrin removal. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2024707

  2. Differentiation among closely related organisms of the Actinobacillus-Haemophilus-Pasteurella group by means of lysozyme and EDTA.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, I; Brondz, I

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriolysis in Tris-maleate buffer (0.005 M, pH 7.2) supplemented with EDTA (0.01 M) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL, 1.0 microgram/ml) was set up to assist differentiation between the taxonomically closely related Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus. A. actinomycetemcomitans was more sensitive to lysis in this system than H. aphrophilus. The standard method for bacteriolysis separated the 10 tested strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans into two groups (I and II) based on their lysis patterns, whereas the 7 strains of H. aphrophilus examined were homogeneous. In group I of A. actinomycetemcomitans, EDTA displayed a considerable lytic effect, which was not increased by supplementation with HEWL. In group II, the lytic effect of EDTA was much less, but HEWL had a considerable supplementary lytic effect. When the turbidity of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29522) or H. aphrophilus (ATCC 33389) suspended in Tris buffer was monitored at close pH intervals (0.2) from pH 5.2 to 9.2, maximal lysis of ATCC 29522 occurred with EDTA at pH 8.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 7.6, while ATCC 33389 lysed with EDTA at pH 9.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 9.2. When other members of the family Pasteurellaceae (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Pasteurella ureae) were included for comparison, the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were the most rapidly lysed by EDTA. H. paraphrophilus was the least sensitive of the gram-negative strains tested, but not as resistant as Micrococcus luteus (control). M. luteus was the organism most sensitive to lysozyme, followed by P. ureae and the group II strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. paraphrophilus, and P. haemolytica were the least sensitive organisms. Images PMID:3935663

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  4. Microbiological and pathological examination of fatal calf pneumonia cases induced by bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Pálfi, Vilmos

    2010-09-01

    The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

  5. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of <10%, 13 adult female bighorn sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  6. Expression and activity of N-myristoyltransferase in lung inflammation of cattle and its role in neutrophil apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Anuraag; Suri, Sarabjeet S.; Mohr, Ryan; Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S.; Sharma, Rajendra K.; Singh, Baljit

    2009-01-01

    N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) attaches a 14 carbon fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine residue of proteins. NMT exists in two isoforms NMT1 and NMT2. Myristoylated proteins play critical roles in protein–protein interactions, cell signaling and oncogenesis. Although elevated expression of NMT1 has been described in colorectal carcinoma, its expression and roles in normal and inflamed lungs of the cattle are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the expression and activity of NMT in a bovine model of lung inflammation induced with Mannheimia hemolytica and in vitro in neutrophils and macrophages. Western blots revealed increased expression of NMT1 in lungs from infected animals compared to control animals. Total NMT activity was reduced in inflamed lungs compared to control animals (p < 0.05) along with increased expression of enolase, a putative inhibitor of NMT. NMT1 staining was observed in the septum, vascular endothelium and the epithelium in the lungs from control as well as infected calves. NMT1 expression was intense in neutrophils in the necrotic areas in the inflamed lungs. Immuno-electron microscopy localized NMT1 in cytoplasm and nuclei of endothelium, pulmonary intravascular macrophages and airway epithelium. Total NMT activity and NMT1 expression were increased in neutrophils and macrophages exposed to Escherichia coli LPS in vitro. NMT knockdown increased apoptosis in activated neutrophils. This is the first report demonstrating expression of NMT in normal and inflamed lungs and a novel role for NMT in regulation of neutrophil lifespan. PMID:19796608

  7. Integration host factor is required for replication of pYGK-derived plasmids in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María D; Demuth, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we show that integration host factor protein (IHF) is required for replication of pYGK plasmids in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. YGK plasmids were not replicated in A. actinomycetemcomitans strains lacking either the α- or β- subunit of IHF. However, the deletion mutants were complemented, and plasmid replication was restored when the promoter region and gene for either ihfA or ihfB was cloned into pYGK. We also identified two motifs that resemble the consensus IHF-binding site in a 813-bp fragment containing the pYGK origin of replication. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, purified IHFα-IHFβ protein complex was shown to bind to probes containing either of these motifs. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that plasmid replication is IHF-dependent in the family Pasteurellaceae. In addition, using site-direct mutagenesis, the XbaI and KpnI restriction sites in the suicide vector pJT1 were modified to generate plasmid pJT10. The introduction of these new unique sites in pJT10 facilitates the transfer of transcriptional or translational lacZ fusion constructs for the generation of single-copy chromosomal insertion of the reporter construct. Plasmid pJT10 and its derivatives will be useful for genetic studies in Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) and probably other genera of Pasteurellaceae, including Haemophilus, Pasteurella, and Mannheimia.

  8. Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella

    PubMed Central

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. PMID:25821780

  9. Phylogenomic and molecular demarcation of the core members of the polyphyletic pasteurellaceae genera actinobacillus, haemophilus, and pasteurella.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the "sensu stricto" members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the "sensu stricto" clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera.

  10. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP.

  11. Exploration of the arrest peptide sequence space reveals arrest-enhanced variants.

    PubMed

    Cymer, Florian; Hedman, Rickard; Ismail, Nurzian; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2015-04-17

    Translational arrest peptides (APs) are short stretches of polypeptides that induce translational stalling when synthesized on a ribosome. Mechanical pulling forces acting on the nascent chain can weaken or even abolish stalling. APs can therefore be used as in vivo force sensors, making it possible to measure the forces that act on a nascent chain during translation with single-residue resolution. It is also possible to score the relative strengths of APs by subjecting them to a given pulling force and ranking them according to stalling efficiency. Using the latter approach, we now report an extensive mutagenesis scan of a strong mutant variant of the Mannheimia succiniciproducens SecM AP and identify mutations that further increase the stalling efficiency. Combining three such mutations, we designed an AP that withstands the strongest pulling force we are able to generate at present. We further show that diproline stretches in a nascent protein act as very strong APs when translation is carried out in the absence of elongation factor P. Our findings highlight critical residues in APs, show that certain amino acid sequences induce very strong translational arrest and provide a toolbox of APs of varying strengths that can be used for in vivo force measurements.

  12. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  13. Classification, pathogenicity, and drug susceptibility of hemolytic gram-negative bacteria isolated from sick or dead chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y; Cheng, M C; Huang, K J; Tsai, W C

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen hemolytic gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the respiratory tracts of sick birds suffering from a long-lasting respiratory syndrome or from the bone marrow of dead birds distributed in the southern part of Taiwan. These were classified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10 isolates), Pseudomonas fluorescens (2 isolates), Pseudomonas stutzeri (1 isolate), Pasteurella haemolytica (1 isolate), and Proteus morganii (1 isolate). Each isolate was inoculated intraperitoneally into one group of ten 4-week-old male white leghorn chickens. Mortality and lesions were scored daily for 1 week. Three of the 10 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused 100% mortality. Six other isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the one isolate of Proteus morganii caused 50% mortality. The remaining isolates induced less than 30% mortality. The sole nonpathogenic sample was one isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens. When therapeutic levels of 22 antibiotics or sulfa drugs were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the 15 isolates, the most effective were apramycin (15/15), gentamicin (15/15), spectinomycin (13/15), oxytetracycline (8/15), and sulfachloropyrazine (7/15). The least effective were ampicillin, cloxacillin, and tiamulin, which were not effective against any of the isolates. The 14 other drugs were of very low (> 4/15) effectiveness. Most of the isolates studied were virulent for chickens and very resistant to currently used drugs.

  14. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O. K.; Payne, Harold R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease. PMID:27409794

  15. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease.

  16. Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodrubetz, D; Dailey, T; Ebersole, J; Kraig, E

    1989-01-01

    The leukotoxin produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the etiology of juvenile periodontitis. To initiate a genetic analysis of the role of this protein in disease, we have cloned the leukotoxin gene in Escherichia coli. Recombinant colonies carrying toxin gene sequences were isolated by screening a genomic A. actinomycetemcomitans library with a DNA probe for the leukotoxin gene from a related bacterium, Pasteurella haemolytica. To demonstrate that the cloned A. actinomycetemcomitans DNA contained a functional leukotoxin gene, protein extracts of E. coli containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans clone were tested directly for leukotoxic activity against human cell lines in chromium release assays. A construct containing the entire cloned region produced a functional toxin. No cytotoxicity was seen when extracts from cells containing plasmids with deletions in the putative coding region were used. Furthermore, the toxin produced by the cloned gene has the same target cell specificity as the leukotoxin extracted directly from A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results indicate that sequences encoding a functional leukotoxin have been cloned and are expressed in E. coli. Southern blot analysis of DNA from leukotoxin-producing (Lkt+) and non-leukotoxin-producing (Lkt-) strains indicated that the Lkt- strain also contained a copy of the gene. Images PMID:2707855

  17. Experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. I. Prevention of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, P H; Langford, E V; Darcel, C

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen three- to six-month old Hereford-cross calves were divided into three groups. The first group was inoculated with bovid herpersvirus 1 (Strain 108), the second with a commercial intranasal vaccine against bovid herpesvirus 1 and the third group acted as controls. At least three weeks after vaccination, all calves were weaned, placed in an environmental chamber at 25.0 degrees C (days) and -13.3 degrees C (nights) and challenged with an aerosol of bovid herpesvirus 1 followed four days later by an aerosol of Pasteurella haemolytica. All surviving calves were sacrificed four days after the second aerosol. None of the calves inoculated with bovid herpesvirus 1 virus or the commercial vaccine developed a generalized pneumonia, although there were one or two nodules (4--8 mm diameter) in two of the calves given the commercial vaccine. Four of the five control calves had extensive lobar pneumonia at necropsy, two of the five died from the disease. Details of the clinical, pathological, bacteriological, virological and some of the serological findings are reported. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:487247

  18. Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during the Ripening Process of Different Croatian Cheese Types Derived from Raw Ewe's Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  19. Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Shin, Jihoon; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    A sucrose utilization pathway was established in Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB11599 and R. eutropha 437-540 by introducing the Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E sacC gene that encodes β-fructofuranosidase. These engineered strains were examined for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)], respectively, from sucrose as a carbon source. It was found that β-fructofuranosidase excreted into the culture medium could hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose, which were efficiently used as carbon sources by recombinant R. eutropha strains. When R. eutropha NCIMB11599 expressing the sacC gene was cultured in nitrogen-free chemically defined medium containing 20 g/L of sucrose, a high P(3HB) content of 73.2 wt% could be obtained. In addition, R. eutropha 437-540 expressing the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene and the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene accumulated P(3HB-co-21.5 mol% LA) to a polymer content of 19.5 wt% from sucrose by the expression of the sacC gene and the Escherichia coli ldhA gene. The molecular weights of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-21.5 mol%LA) synthesized in R. eutropha using sucrose as a carbon source were 3.52 × 10(5) (Mn ) and 2.19 × 10(4) (Mn ), respectively. The engineered R. eutropha strains reported here will be useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sucrose, one of the most abundant and relatively inexpensive carbon sources.

  20. Changes in Metabolically Active Bacterial Community during Rumen Development, and Their Alteration by Rhubarb Root Powder Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuo; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Jiao, Jinzhen; Wang, Min; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tan, Zhiliang; Forster, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the initial establishment of metabolically active bacteria and subsequent evolution in four fractions: rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) through early weaning and supplementing rhubarb root powder in 7 different age groups (1, 10, 20, 38, 41, 50, and 60 d) during rumen development. Results of the 16S rRNA sequencing based on RNA isolated from the four fractions revealed that the potentially active bacterial microbiota in four fractions were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes regardless of different ages. An age-dependent increment of Chao 1 richness was observed in the fractions of RL and RE. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that samples in four fractions all clustered based on different age groups, and the structure of the bacterial community in RE was distinct from those in other three fractions. The abundances of Proteobacteria decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with age, while increases in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were noted. At the genus level, the abundance of the predominant genus Mannheimia in the Proteobacteria phylum decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 1 d, while the genera Quinella, Prevotella, Fretibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 group, and Atopobium underwent different manners of increases and dominated the bacterial microbiota across four fractions. Variations of the distributions of some specific bacterial genera across fractions were observed, and supplementation of rhubarb affected the relative abundance of various genera of bacteria. PMID:28223972

  1. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  2. Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli).

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E J; Veitch, A M; Kutz, S J; Bollinger, T K; Chirino-Trejo, J M; Elkin, B T; West, K H; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

    2007-04-01

    We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall's sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall's sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone's sheep and one naturally infected Dall's sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall's sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated.

  3. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (<10 cfu per 100 mL) whereas 97% brands exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permitted level. Thirty percent of brands exceeded the limit for presumptive fecal coliforms (FC) (0 cfu per 100 mL in accordance with WHO permitted levels, SLSI and the Sri Lanka Health Ministry requirement). Eighty percent of brands showed higher heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) which exceeded the WHO guidelines for bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-01-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μg/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μg-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤0.25 to ≥8.0 μg/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27025816

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-03-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μ g/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μ g-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤ 0.25 to ≥ 8.0 μ g/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. Detection of RTX toxin genes in gram-negative bacteria with a set of specific probes.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnert, P; Heyberger-Meyer, B; Burnens, A P; Nicolet, J; Frey, J

    1997-01-01

    The family of RTX (RTX representing repeats in the structural toxin) toxins is composed of several protein toxins with a characteristic nonapeptide glycine-rich repeat motif. Most of its members were shown to have cytolytic activity. By comparing the genetic relationships of the RTX toxin genes we established a set of 10 gene probes to be used for screening as-yet-unknown RTX toxin genes in bacterial species. The probes include parts of apxIA, apxIIA, and apxIIIA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, cyaA from Bordetella pertusis, frpA from Neisseria meningitidis, prtC from Erwinia chrysanthemi, hlyA and elyA from Escherichia coli, aaltA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and lktA from Pasteurella haemolytica. A panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic gram-negative bacteria were investigated for the presence of RTX toxin genes. The probes detected all known genes for RTX toxins. Moreover, we found potential RTX toxin genes in several pathogenic bacterial species for which no such toxins are known yet. This indicates that RTX or RTX-like toxins are widely distributed among pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. The probes generated by PCR and the hybridization method were optimized to allow broad-range screening for RTX toxin genes in one step. This included the binding of unlabelled probes to a nylon filter and subsequent hybridization of the filter with labelled genomic DNA of the strain to be tested. The method constitutes a powerful tool for the assessment of the potential pathogenicity of poorly characterized strains intended to be used in biotechnological applications. Moreover, it is useful for the detection of already-known or new RTX toxin genes in bacteria of medical importance. PMID:9172345

  7. Nucleotide sequence of the hemolysin I gene from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Meier, R; Gygi, D; Nicolet, J

    1991-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the structural protein of hemolysin I (HlyI) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 was analyzed. The nucleotide sequence shows a 3,072-bp reading frame encoding a protein of 1,023 amino acids with a calculated molecular size of 110.1 kDa. This corresponds to the HlyI protein, which has an apparent molecular size on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of 105 kDa. The structure of the protein derived from the DNA sequence shows three hydrophobic regions in the N-terminal part of the protein, 13 glycine-rich domains in the second half of the protein, and a hydrophilic C-terminal area, all of which are typical of the cytotoxins of the RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin family. The derived amino acid sequence of HlyI shows 42% homology with the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, 41% homology with the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica, and 56% homology with the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin. The 13 glycine-rich repeats and three hydrophobic areas of the HlyI sequence show more similarity to the E. coli alpha-hemolysin than to either the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 hemolysin or the leukotoxin (while the last two are more similar to each other). Two types of RTX hemolysins therefore seem to be present in A. pleuropneumoniae, one (HlyI) resembling the alpha-hemolysin and a second more closely related to the leukotoxin. Ca(2+)-binding experiments using HlyI and recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae prohemolysin (HlyIA) that was produced in E. coli shows that HlyI binds 45Ca2+, probably because of the 13 glycine-rich repeated domains. Activation of the prohemolysin is not required for Ca2+ binding. Images PMID:1879928

  8. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  9. A genomic perspective on the potential of Actinobacillus succinogenes for industrial succinate production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Succinate is produced petrochemically from maleic anhydride to satisfy a small specialty chemical market. If succinate could be produced fermentatively at a price competitive with that of maleic anhydride, though, it could replace maleic anhydride as the precursor of many bulk chemicals, transforming a multi-billion dollar petrochemical market into one based on renewable resources. Actinobacillus succinogenes naturally converts sugars and CO2 into high concentrations of succinic acid as part of a mixed-acid fermentation. Efforts are ongoing to maximize carbon flux to succinate to achieve an industrial process. Results Described here is the 2.3 Mb A. succinogenes genome sequence with emphasis on A. succinogenes's potential for genetic engineering, its metabolic attributes and capabilities, and its lack of pathogenicity. The genome sequence contains 1,690 DNA uptake signal sequence repeats and a nearly complete set of natural competence proteins, suggesting that A. succinogenes is capable of natural transformation. A. succinogenes lacks a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as a glyoxylate pathway, and it appears to be able to transport and degrade about twenty different carbohydrates. The genomes of A. succinogenes and its closest known relative, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, were compared for the presence of known Pasteurellaceae virulence factors. Both species appear to lack the virulence traits of toxin production, sialic acid and choline incorporation into lipopolysaccharide, and utilization of hemoglobin and transferrin as iron sources. Perspectives are also given on the conservation of A. succinogenes genomic features in other sequenced Pasteurellaceae. Conclusions Both A. succinogenes and M. succiniciproducens genome sequences lack many of the virulence genes used by their pathogenic Pasteurellaceae relatives. The lack of pathogenicity of these two succinogens is an exciting prospect, because comparisons with pathogenic Pasteurellaceae could

  10. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-01-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  11. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R W; Purdy, C W; Confer, A W; Saliki, J T; Loan, R W; Briggs, R E; Burge, L J

    2000-07-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in a group of stocker calves suffering from acute respiratory disease. The calves were assembled after purchase from Tennessee auctions and transported to western Texas. Of the 120 calves, 105 (87.5%) were treated for respiratory disease. Sixteen calves died during the study (13.3%). The calves received a modified live virus BHV-1 vaccine on day 0 of the study. During the study, approximately 5 wk in duration, sera from the cattle, collected at weekly intervals, were tested for BVDV by cell culture. Sera were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to BVDV types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The lungs from the 16 calves that died during the study were collected and examined by histopathology, and lung homogenates were inoculated onto cell cultures for virus isolation. There were no calves persistently infected with BVDV detected in the study, as no animals were viremic on day 0, nor were any animals viremic at the 2 subsequent serum collections. There were, however, 4 animals with BVDV type 1 noncytopathic (NCP) strains in the sera from subsequent collections. Viruses were isolated from 9 lungs: 7 with PI-3V, 1 with NCP BVDV type 1, and 1 with both BVHV-1 and BVDV. The predominant bacterial species isolated from these lungs was Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. There was serologic evidence of infection with BVDV types 1 and 2, PI-3V, and BRSV, as noted by seroconversion (> or = 4-fold rise in antibody titer) in day 0 to day 34 samples collected from the 104 survivors: 40/104 (38.5%) to BVDV type 1; 29/104 (27.9%) to BVDV type 2; 71/104 (68.3%) to PI-3V; and 81/104 (77.9%) to BRSV. In several cases, the BVDV type 2 antibody titers may have been due to crossreacting BVDV type 1 antibodies; however, in 7 calves the BVDV type 2 antibodies were higher, indicating BVDV type 2 infection. At the outset of