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Sample records for mansoni infected baboons

  1. Immunization of baboons with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Hall, J.E.

    1981-06-26

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70%) and egg excretion rates (82%). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control.

  2. Immunization of Baboons with Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stek, M.; Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Hall, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70 percent) and egg excretion rates (82 percent). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control.

  3. Immunization of mice and baboons with the recombinant Sm28GST affects both worm viability and fecundity after experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, D; Reid, G D; Sturrock, R F; Wolowczuk, I; Balloul, J M; Grezel, D; Pierce, R J; Otieno, M F; Guerret, S; Grimaud, J A

    1991-09-01

    A member of the glutathione S-transferase family, Sm28GST has previously demonstrated a good ability to protect rodents against experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni. In order to evaluate its efficacy in a model closer to man, two different protocols of immunization with recombinant Sm28GST were tested on baboons in a large-scale trial. Three injections in the presence of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant resulted in a significant 38% reduction in the adult worm burden together with a trend for a lower percentage of inflammatory tissue in the liver. Individual levels of protection, ranging from 0 to 80%, underlined the heterogeneity of the immune response to this purified molecule in outbred primates. On the other hand, two injections of Sm28GST in the presence of aluminium hydroxide and Bordetella pertussis reduced female schistosome fecundity by 33%, with a more pronounced effect (66%) on faecal egg output; there was also a trend, in this protocol, for decrease of the mean granuloma surface in the liver. Individual anti-Sm28GST IgG antibodies were apparently unrelated to levels of immunity, but there was partial evidence that cytophilic IgE might play a role in the immune mechanisms affecting worm viability, but not fecundity. In the mouse model, Sm28GST vaccination resulted in a lower hatching ability of tissue eggs recovered from immunized mice whereas passive transfer of specific anti-Sm28GST T-lymphocytes, one day before infection, significantly reduced the number of eggs in the liver of mice. We propose that different protocols of immunization with a recombinant molecule can impede Schistosoma mansoni worm viability and fecundity, but can also affect miracidium physiology, with important consequences for disease transmission and granuloma-derived pathology.

  4. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    PubMed

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L; Kariuki, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria. PMID:26883586

  5. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    PubMed

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L; Kariuki, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria.

  6. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Nyakundi, Ruth K.; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O.; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 105 Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria. PMID:26883586

  7. Expression of baboon endogenous virus in exogenously infected baboon cells.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, G; Foote, L; Heberling, R L; Kalter, S S

    1979-04-01

    Strains of low-passage, fetal diploid, baboon (Papio cynocephalus) fibroblasts were susceptible to exogenous infection with three independent isolates of baboon endogenous virus, as measured by an immunofluorescence assay specific for viral p28. Infectivity of the M7 strain of baboon endogenous virus for baboon cells of fetal skin muscle origin was equivalent to that for human and dog cells in that similar, linear, single-hit titration patterns were obtained. The assay for supernatant RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, however, showed that baboon cells produced only low levels of virus after infection compared with the production by heterologous cells. The results showed that baboon endogenous virus was capable of penetrating baboon cells and that viral genes were expressed in infected cells. Replication of complete infectious virus was restricted, however, indicating that in this primate system homologous cells differentially regulated the expression of viral genes.

  8. Immunopathology of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed Central

    Boros, D L

    1989-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic helminthic disease that affects about 100 million people in the tropics. The worms have a life span of 5 to 10 years, and they live in the mesenteric veins of the host. Lightly infected individuals are asymptomatic or manifest mild intestinal symptoms. Heavily infected individuals often develop severe morbidity with hepatosplenomegaly, sometimes with a fatal outcome. Morbidity is attributed to the strong humoral and T-cell-mediated host immune responses developed to a variety of parasite antigens and expressed as tissue inflammations. The immunopathology includes dermatitis, immune complex-mediated kidney disease, and, chiefly, T-cell-mediated granuloma formation and fibrosis around disseminated parasite eggs. This review describes the mechanisms of induction and expression of immunopathology in infected persons and experimental animals. Immunoregulatory mechanisms that modulate the enhanced immune responses and may ameliorate excessive morbidity are discussed. PMID:2504481

  9. Cross-species protection: Schistosoma mansoni Sm-p80 vaccine confers protection against Schistosoma haematobium in hamsters and baboons.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Souvik; Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Torben, Workineh; Alam, Mayeen U; Le, Loc; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-03-01

    The ability of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen, Sm-p80, to provide cross-species protection against Schistosoma haematobium challenge was evaluated in hamster and baboon models. Pronounced reduction in worm burden (48%) and in tissue egg load (64%) was observed in hamsters vaccinated with recombinant Sm-p80 admixed with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE). Similarly, in baboons, the Sm-p80/GLA-SE vaccine produced a 25% reduction in S. haematobium adult worms and decreased the egg load in the urinary bladder by 64%. A 40% and 53% reduction in fecal and urine egg output, respectively, was observed in vaccinated baboons. A balanced pro-inflammatory (Th17 and Th1) and Th2 type of response was generated after vaccination and appears indicative of augmented prophylactic efficacy. These data on cross-species protection coupled with the prophylactic, therapeutic and antifecundity efficacy against the homologous parasite, S. mansoni, reinforces Sm-p80 as a promising vaccine candidate. It is currently being prepared for GMP-compliant manufacture and for further pre-clinical development leading to human clinical trials. These results solidify the expectation that the Sm-p80 vaccine will provide relief for both the intestinal and the urinary schistosomiasis and thus will be greatly beneficial in reducing the overall burden of schistosomiasis.

  10. Maternal and Neonatal Vaccination Protects Newborn Baboons From Pertussis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Papin, James F.; Wolf, Roman F.; Zimmerman, Lindsey I.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The United States is experiencing a pertussis resurgence that resulted in a 60-year high of 48 000 cases in 2012. The majority of hospitalizations and deaths occur in infants too young to be vaccinated. Neonatal and maternal vaccination have been proposed to protect newborns until the first vaccination, currently recommended at 2 months of age. These interventions result in elevated anti–Bordetella pertussis titers, but there have been no studies demonstrating that these measures confer protection. Methods. Baboons were vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine at 2 days of age or at 2 and 28 days of age. To model maternal vaccination, adult female baboons primed with acellular pertussis vaccine were boosted in the third trimester of pregnancy. Neonatally vaccinated infants, infants born to vaccinated mothers, and naive infants born to unvaccinated mothers were infected with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Results. Naive infant baboons developed severe disease when challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Baboons receiving acellular pertussis vaccine and infants born to mothers vaccinated at the beginning of their third trimester were protected. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that neonatal vaccination and maternal vaccination confer protection in the baboon model and support further study of these strategies for protection of newborns from pertussis. PMID:24526741

  11. Schistosoma mansoni-like infection in Phayao Province, Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Attawibool, S; Bunnag, T; Thirachandra, S; Sinthuprama, K; Sornmani, S

    1983-12-01

    Schistosome ova were found in the serosa of colon mass of a 65-year old Thai woman from Dokkhumtai District, Phayao Province. On the basis of the shape and microscopic appearance of the ova, they probably belonged to those of Schistosoma mansoni complex. In follow-up study, no ova were found by faecal examinations and rectal biopsy. There are evidences suggesting the presence of two distinct mammalian strains in Thailand: Orientobilhorzia harinasutai, a schistosome of water buffalo in Southern region and Tricula bollingi schistosome, a rodent schistosome in Northern region. This case is believed to be the first human schistosome infection with mammalian strain of S. mansoni complex in Thailand.

  12. Efficacy of fenbendazole and milbemycin oxime for treating baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) infected with Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Mason V; Wolf, Roman F; Carey, David W; Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Briscoe, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of fenbendazole (FBZ) and milbemycin oxime (MO) in the treatment of baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) with naturally acquired Trichuris trichiura infection by comparing fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. We assigned 7 baboons, each singly housed and confirmed infected with T. trichiura, to treatment groups of FBZ (n=3) or MO (n=3), or as a control (n=1). All (100%) baboons that received FBZ stopped shedding T. trichiura eggs within 6 d of treatment, and fecal egg counts remained negative at 65 d after treatment. Although the number of T. trichiura eggs shed per gram of feces from 2 (67%) baboons decreased significantly after the second treatment with MO, this regimen never totally eliminated eggs of T. trichiura. The results of our study indicate that FBZ was more effective for treating baboons with T. trichiura than was MO.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON IMMUNOBLOT VERSUS PCR IN DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mousa A M; Mousa, Wahed Mohammed Ali; Abu-Sarea, Enas Yahia; Basyouni, Maha M A; Mohammed, Samah Sayed

    2016-04-01

    This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection. The study found that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. Thus, PCR diagnosed schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able to diagnose. PMID:27363045

  14. Natural infection of wild rodents by Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues e Silva, R; Machado e Silva, J R; Faerstein, N F; Lenzi, H L; Rey, L

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of the role of rodents as natural hosts of Schistosoma mansoni was studied at the Pamparrão Valley, Sumidouro, RJ, with monthly captures and examination of the animals. Twenty-three Nectomys squamipes and 9 Akodon arviculoides with a schistosomal infection rate of 56.5% and 22.2% respectively eliminated a great majority of viable eggs. With a strain isolated from one of the naturally infected N. squamipes, we infected 75% of simpatric Biomphalaria glabrata and in 100% of albino Mus musculus mice. The adult worms, isolated from N. squamipes after perfusion were located mainly in the liver (91.5%) and the mesenteric veins (8.5%). The male/female proportion was of 2:1. The eggs were distributed on small intestine segments (proximal, medial and distal portions) and the large intestine without any significant differences in egg concentration of these segments. In A. arviculoides, the few eggs eliminated by the stools were viable and there was little egg retention on intestinal segments. Considering the ease to complete S. mansoni biological cycle in the Nectomys/Biomphalaria/Nectomys system under laboratory conditions, probably the same is likely to occur in natural conditions. In support to this hypothesis there are also the facts that human mansonic schistosomiasis has a very low prevalence in Sumidouro and endemicity among the rodents has not changed even after repeated treatments of the local patients. Based on our experiments, we conclude that N. squamipes has become a natural host of S. mansoni and possibly may participate in keeping the cycle of schistosomiasis transmission at Pamparrão Valley. PMID:1343794

  15. A simian hemorrhagic fever virus isolate from persistently infected baboons efficiently induces hemorrhagic fever disease in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vatter, Heather A; Donaldson, Eric F; Huynh, Jeremy; Rawlings, Stephanie; Manoharan, Minsha; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Dickerson, Mary F; Lewis, Anne D; Colgin, Lois M A; Axthelm, Michael K; Pecotte, Jerilyn K; Baric, Ralph S; Wong, Scott W; Brinton, Margo A

    2015-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever virus is an arterivirus that naturally infects species of African nonhuman primates causing acute or persistent asymptomatic infections. Although it was previously estimated that 1% of baboons are SHFV-positive, more than 10% of wild-caught and captive-bred baboons tested were SHFV positive and the infections persisted for more than 10 years with detectable virus in the blood (100-1000 genomes/ml). The sequences of two baboon SHFV isolates that were amplified by a single passage in primary macaque macrophages had a high degree of identity to each other as well as to the genome of SHFV-LVR, a laboratory strain isolated in the 1960s. Infection of Japanese macaques with 100PFU of a baboon isolate consistently produced high level viremia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, elevated tissue factor levels and clinical signs indicating coagulation defects. The baboon virus isolate provides a reliable BSL2 model of viral hemorrhagic fever disease in macaques.

  16. Mechanism of anemia in Schistosoma mansoni-infected school children in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sara E; Muok, Erick M; Montgomery, Susan P; Odhiambo, Keziah; Mwinzi, Pauline M N; Secor, W Evan; Karanja, Diana M S

    2012-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanism of anemia associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection might provide useful information on how treatment programs are implemented to minimize schistosomiasis-associated morbidity and maximize treatment impact. We used a cross-sectional study with serum samples from 206 Kenyan school children to determine the mechanisms in S. mansoni-associated anemia. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results suggest that S. mansoni-infected persons are more likely (odds ratio = 3.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-10.1) to have levels of serum ferritin (> 100 ng/mL) that are associated with anemia of inflammation (AI) than S. mansoni-uninfected children. Our results suggest that AI is the most common form of anemia in S. mansoni infections. In contrast, the mechanism of anemia in S. mansoni-uninfected children was iron deficiency. Moreover, the prevalence of AI in the study participants demonstrated a significant trend with S. mansoni infection intensity (P < 0.001). Our results are consistent with those observed in S. japonicum-associated anemia.

  17. Use of an Sm-p80-based therapeutic vaccine to kill established adult schistosome parasites in chronically infected baboons.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Souvik; Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Torben, Workineh; Alam, Mayeen U; Le, Loc; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-06-15

    No vaccines are available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminthic disease schistosomiasis. Sm-p80, the large subunit of Schistosoma mansoni calpain, is a leading antigen candidate for a schistosomiasis vaccine. Prophylactic and antifecundity efficacies of Sm-p80 have been tested using a variety of vaccine approaches in both rodent and nonhuman primate models. However, the therapeutic efficacy of a Sm-p80-based vaccine had not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Sm-p80 by using 2 different strategies and 3 Sm-p80-based vaccine formulations in baboons. Vaccine formulations were able to decrease established adult worms by 10%-36%, reduce retention of eggs in tissues by 10%-57%, and decrease egg excretion in feces by 13%-33%, compared with control formulations. Marked differences were observed in B and T cell immune correlates between vaccinated and control animals. This is the first report of killing of established adult schistosome worms by a vaccine. In addition to distinct prophylactic efficacy of Sm-p80, this study adds to the evidence that Sm-p80 is a potentially important antigen with both substantial prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies. These data reinforce that Sm-p80 should be moved forward along the path toward human clinical trials.

  18. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Findings Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusion Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes. PMID:26513151

  19. Impact of gold nanoparticles on brain of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa S M; Wahab, Rizwan; Delic, Denis; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a condition characterized by high rates of morbidity and cognitive impairment. It afflicts many people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the brain of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Characterizations of GNPs were determined by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Three doses of GNPs (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg body weight) were used to treat animals after S. mansoni infection. The infection induced impairments in histological picture as a result of schistosome infection resulting in a disturbance in the content of the brain neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA). Also, the infection induced significant reduction in glutathione level; oppositely, the levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde were increased significantly. In addition, S. mansoni was able to disregulate the infected mice brain Cacnb4, Cabp4, Vdac3, Glrb, and Adam23 messenger RNA (mRNA). On the other hand, treatment of mice with GNPs could alleviate the histological impairments, the changes in the content of NE and DA, and the brain oxidative damage. Also, GNPs could regulate the gene expression due to S. mansoni infection. Generally, GNPs could decrease the neurooxidative stress and regulated the gene expression in the brain of infected mice. Consequently, our results revealed an anti-neuroschistosomal effect of GNPs in mice infected with S. mansoni. PMID:26122996

  20. Efficacy of a Gal-lectin subunit vaccine against experimental Entamoeba histolytica infection and colitis in baboons (Papio sp.).

    PubMed

    Abd Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Cary, David; Verweij, Jaco J; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2012-04-26

    To determine the efficacy of a Gal-lectin based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine, we developed a new experimental primate model of Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection. Release of xenic E. histolytica trophozoites (5×10(6)) into the small bowel of baboons (Papio sp.) resulted in a rapid intestinal anti-amebic antibody response and a brief infection; however, release of trophozoites directly into the cecum (5 baboons) elicited a sustained E. histolytica infection, as determined by quantitative fecal PCR, and an ulcerative, inflammatory colitis observed on colonoscopy and histopathology. In three controlled experiments, baboons received four immunizations at seven day intervals of 1600 μg of the vaccine/nostril, with Cholera toxin, 20 μg/nostril as adjuvant; vaccinated (n=6) and control baboons (n=6) baboons were then challenged via colonoscopy with xenic trophozoites (5×10(6)). During 90 days of follow up, 250 of 415 (60.24%) fecal samples in control baboons had a (+) PCR for E. histolytica, compared to only 36 of 423 (8.51%) samples from vaccinated baboons (P<0.001). All 6 vaccinated baboons were free of infection by the 51st day after challenge, 5 of 6 controls positive had (+) fecal PCRs for up to 126 days post-challenge (P=0.019). Inflammatory colitis developed in 4 of 6 control baboons post-challenge, with invasive E. histolytica trophozoites present in 2 of the 4 on histopathology. There was no evidence of inflammatory colitis or parasite invasion in any of the vaccinated baboons; there was a strong inverse correlation between positive ELISA OD value indicating the presence of intestinal anti-peptide IgA antibodies and baboons having a positive fecal PCR CT value, P<0.001. In conclusion, we developed a novel primate model of E. histolytica intestinal infection and demonstrated that a Gal-lectin-based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine was highly efficacious in preventing experimental E. histolytica infection and colitis in baboons.

  1. Increase of malaria attacks among children presenting concomitant infection by Schistosoma mansoni in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sokhna, Cheikh; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves; Mbaye, Pape A; Akiana, Jean; Camara, Pape; Diop, Mamadou; Ly, Abdoulaye; Druilhe, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. A recent study showed that mice co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi develop higher P. chabaudi parasitaemia and had a higher mortality rate. This important observation deserved to be further investigated among human populations. Malaria attacks were recorded in 512 children aged 6–15 years living in Richard Toll (Northern Senegal) among whom 336 were infected by S. mansoni, and 175 were not. The incidence rate of malaria attacks was significantly higher among S. mansoni-infected individuals, particularly those carrying the highest worm loads, as compared to uninfected subjects (26.6% versus 16,4 %). In contrast, the rate of malaria attacks was lower, without reaching significance, in medium grade S. mansoni infections. Thus, infection by S. mansoni affects susceptibility to malaria, but this can vary according to the intensity of parasite load. The immunological mechanisms underlying this dual effect need to be further explored. PMID:15544703

  2. Schistosoma mansoni, nematode infections, and progression to active tuberculosis among HIV-1-infected Ugandans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael; Miiro, George; Nkurunziza, Peter; Watera, Christine; Quigley, Maria A; Dunne, David W; Whitworth, James A G; Elliott, Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Rates of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are highest among people infected with HIV. Searching for additional risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan adults, we previously found that a type 2 cytokine bias and eosinophilia were associated with progression to active TB. A possible role for helminth infection was assessed in this study. We analyzed TB incidence in 462 members of this cohort who were screened for filarial infections, gastrointestinal nematodes, and schistosomiasis. Progression to TB was not associated with gastrointestinal nematodes (rate ratio [RR], 1.18; confidence intervals [CIs], 0.66-2.10) or Mansonella perstans (RR, 0.42; CI, 0.13-1.34). A weak association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and TB was found (RR, 1.42; CI, 0.86-2.34); after adjusting for potential explanatory variables and using more stringent diagnostic criteria, the association was strengthened (RR, 2.31; 1.00-5.33). This analysis suggests an effect of S. mansoni infection on progression to active TB among HIV-1-infected Ugandans. PMID:16687687

  3. Chemometric analysis of biofluids from mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The urinary metabolic fingerprint of a patent Schistosoma mansoni infection in the mouse has been characterized using spectroscopic methods. However, the temporal dynamics of metabolic alterations have not been studied at the systems level. Here, we investigated the systems metabolic changes in the mouse upon S. mansoni infection by modeling the sequence of metabolic events in urine, plasma and faecal water. Methods Ten female NMRI mice, aged 5 weeks, were infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae each. Ten age- and sex-matched mice remained uninfected and served as a control group. Urine, plasma and faecal samples were collected 1 day before, and on eight time points until day 73 post-infection. Biofluid samples were subjected to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Differences between S. mansoni-infected and uninfected control mice were found from day 41 onwards. One of the key metabolic signatures in urine and faecal extracts was an alteration in several gut bacteria-related metabolites, whereas the plasma reflected S. mansoni infection by changes in metabolites related to energy homeostasis, such as relatively higher levels of lipids and decreased levels of glucose. We identified 12 urinary biomarkers of S. mansoni infection, among which hippurate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and 2-oxoadipate were particularly robust with regard to disease progression. Thirteen plasma metabolites were found to differentiate infected from control mice, with the lipid components, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and glycerophosphorylcholine showing greatest consistency. Faecal extracts were highly variable in chemical composition and therefore only five metabolites were found discriminatory of infected mice, of which 5-aminovalerate was the most stable and showed a positive correlation with urinary PAG. Conclusions The composite metabolic signature of S. mansoni in the mouse derived from perturbations in urinary, faecal and

  4. Effect of bee venom or proplis on molecular and parasitological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Azza H; Hassab El-Nabi, Sobhy E; Bayomi, Asmaa E; Abdelaal, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the efficacy of Apis mellifera L bee venom (BV) or proplis (200 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days) on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. The results recorded reduction in the total worm burden, numbers of immature eggs and the ova count in hepatic tissue in BV (sting or injection) or proplis treated groups as compared to the infected group. Histological examination illustrated a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the diameter of hepatic granuloma in BV treated groups (272.78 and 266.9, respectively) and a significant decrease in proplis treated mice (229.35) compared with the infected group (260.67). Electrophoretic pattern of RNA showed a decrease in mean of maximal optical density in liver and intestine of S. mansoni infected mice treated with bee venom (sting or injection) as compared with infected group. Flow cytometry analyses of RNA or apoptotic percentage of worms recovered from BV sting (19 and 49 % respectively); BV injected (20.5 and 51.17 %, respectively) and proplis (35 and 23.93 %, respectively) groups were compared with S. mansoni infected group (37.87 and 39.21 %, respectively). It can be concluded that administration of bee venom or proplis are effective in case of S. mansoni infection. Although bee venom cause increase of granuloma diameter and this might be due to venom concentration and further studies are required to avoid such harmful effect. PMID:27413311

  5. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Ligabaw; Damte, Demekech; Tesfa, Habtie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (n = 346). The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (n = 372). Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed. PMID:24800058

  6. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  7. Immunostimulatory effects of extract of Pulicaria crispa before and after Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Maghraby, Amany S; Shalaby, Nagwa; Abd-Alla, Howida I; Ahmed, Samia A; Khaled, Hussein M; Bahgat, Mahmoud M

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of methanolic extract from Pulicaria crispa were investigated in mice before and after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were subjected for daily intra-peritoneal injection by the extract (33 ng/mouse) for 10 successive days followed by infecting every mouse with 100 S. mansoni cercariae. Treatment with the extract induced significant increase (p < 0.05) in sera-IL-2 before and after infection. Upon using soluble worm antigen preparation or cancer bladder homogenates as antigens in ELISA, the detected levels of IgG were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sera from treated-infected mice than untreated P. crispa infected mice. Using crude Escherichia coli lysate as an antigen in ELISA, it was detected a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IgG levels in sera from the extract-treated mice before and after infection.

  8. A simian hemorrhagic fever virus isolate from persistently infected baboons efficiently induces hemorrhagic fever disease in Japanese macaques

    PubMed Central

    Vatter, Heather A.; Donaldson, Eric F.; Huynh, Jeremy; Rawlings, Stephanie; Manoharan, Minsha; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Dickerson, Mary F.; Lewis, Anne D.; Colgin, Lois M.A.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Pecotte, Jerilyn K.; Baric, Ralph S.; Wong, Scott W.; Brinton, Margo A.

    2014-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever virus is an arterivirus that naturally infects species of African nonhuman primates causing acute or persistent asymptomatic infections. Although it was previously estimated that 1% of baboons are SHFV-positive, more than 10% of wild-caught and captive-bred baboons tested were SHFV positive and the infections persisted for more than 10 years with detectable virus in the blood (100–1000 genomes/ml). The sequences of two baboon SHFV isolates that were amplified by a single passage in primary macaque macrophages showed a very high degree of identity to each other as well as to the genome of SHFV-LVR, a laboratory strain isolated in the 1960s. Infection of Japanese macaques with 100 PFU of a baboon isolate consistently produced high level viremia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, elevated tissue factor levels and clinical signs indicating coagulation defects. The baboon virus isolate provides a reliable BSL2 model of viral hemorrhagic fever disease in macaques. PMID:25463617

  9. Evaluation of the treatment of human Schistosoma mansoni infection by the quantitative oogram technique*

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, J. Romeu; da Cunha, A. Sales; de Carvalho, D. Garcia; Cambraia, J. N. Santos

    1965-01-01

    Egg output is the only measure available for quantitative assessment of the activity of chemotherapeutic agents in Schistosoma mansoni infection. In the light of eight years' experience in the preparations of oograms, the authors suggest a simplified classification of S. mansoni eggs and certain improvements in the oogram technique by which quantitative data are obtained for comparison before and after treatment. Ten cases, taken from clinical trials on a variety of schistosomicidal compounds, are presented to illustrate the use of the quantitative oogram and the types of result obtained with active, partially active and inactive drugs. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:5323117

  10. Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp. infections in a free-ranging baboon colony.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Upadhayay, R; Sudimack, D; Nair, S; Leland, M; Williams, J T; Anderson, T J C

    2012-02-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys of parasites infecting a large free-living colony of baboons at the Southwest National Primate Research Center in San Antonio in October 2003 and April 2004, immediately before, and 6 mo after, treatment with ivermectin. Trichuris sp. was the predominant species present, infecting 79 and 69% of individual animals in the 2 surveys, with fecal egg counts (FEC) of up to 60,200 eggs per g (epg) (mean = 1,235 in October 2003 and 1,256 in April 2004). Prevalence remained fairly stable across age groups, and intensity was highest in animals <1 or >15 yr old, in contrast to patterns observed in humans, where school-age children show the heaviest infections. Strongyloides sp. was also identified, but the species identity remains uncertain. Small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences differed from published sequences of Strongyloides fuelleborni at multiple sites, but resided in a monophyletic group with other Strongyloides species with 92% bootstrap support. This may reflect a recent acquisition from a local host, or that the published sequence of S. fuelleborni is incorrect. Widespread infections with 2 nematode genera in a free-ranging baboon colony that are an important source of morbidity in human populations provide a useful model system for work on the epidemiology, control, pathology, and genetics of these parasites in a host species that is physiologically, immunologically, and genetically similar to humans.

  11. Epidemiological study on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sanja area, Amhara region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion The study has shown

  12. Efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M. L. A.; Coelho, P. M. Z.; Antunes, C. M. F.; Tavares, C. A. P.; da Cunha, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel, the two most clinically important schistosomicide drugs, and to compare the accuracy of faecal examination with the accuracy of oogram in testing for Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: In a triple-masked and randomized controlled trial, 106 patients infected with S. mansoni were randomly allocated to one of three statistically homogeneous groups. One group was given 60 mg/kg praziquantel per day for three consecutive days, another was given two daily doses of 10 mg/kg oxamniquine, and the placebo group received starch. Faecal examinations (days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 after treatment) and biopsy of rectal mucosa by quantitative oogram (days 30, 60, 120, and 180) were used for the initial diagnosis and for evaluating the degree of cure. The chi2 test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare variables in the three groups. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and the log-rank test were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. FINDINGS: The sensitivity of stool examinations ranged from 88.9% to 94.4% when patients presented with >5000 S. mansoni eggs per gram of tissue (oogram); when the number of eggs dropped to <1000 eggs per gram, sensitivity was reduced (range, 22.7-34.0%). When cure was evaluated by stool examination, oxamniquine and praziquantel had cure rates of 90.3% and 100%, respectively. However, when the oogram was used as an indicator of sensitivity, the oxamniquine cure rate dropped dramatically (to 42.4%), whereas the rate for praziquantel remained high, at 96.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Praziquantel was significantly more effective than oxamniquine in treating S. mansoni infection. The oogram was markedly more sensitive than stool examinations in detecting S. mansoni eggs and should be recommended for use in clinical trials with schistosomicides. PMID:12764515

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related to Schistosoma mansoni Infection: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Karla Sawada; Kikuchi, Luciana; Chagas, Aline Lopes; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Paranaguá-Vezozzo, Denise Cerqueira; Pfiffer, Túlio; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair José

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Schistosomiasis is a major chronic disease of humans in endemic regions, and infected individuals may develop a spectrum of pathology, including hepatic fibrosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and portal hypertension. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the fifth most common cancer in the world, and there is limited and controversial evidence suggesting that Schistosoma mansoni infection may be a possible risk factor for HCC. The aim of this study was to report a case series of patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection and to conduct a literature review on the topic. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2015, an institutional database was screened retrospectively to identify patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection at a single center in the Department of Gastroenterology of University of São Paulo School of Medicine and Hospital das Clínicas, Brazil. Results: Seven cases were included. The mean age of patients was 62.1±10.3 years; six (85.7%) were male and one (14.3%) was female. All cases had positive epidemiology, coming from endemic areas of S. mansoni infection in Brazil, and four (57.1%) had previous complications (upper gastrointestinal bleeding) related to portal hypertension or surgery intervention (splenectomy) performed more than 10 years before the HCC diagnosis. Nontumoral portal vein thrombosis was identified in five (71.4%) patients. All patients had negative serology for HCV, and four (57.1%) had positivity of HBVcore antibodies without evidence of viral replication. According to BCLC staging, one (14.3%) patient was BCLC A and received TACE instead of RFA because HCC size was >30 mm; three (42.8%) BCLC B patients received sorafenib instead of local regional treatment due to the presence of nontumoral TPV. During follow-up, all patients developed tumoral progression and died. Conclusions: It remains unclear if S. mansoni infection alone has carcinogenic potential. The available literature indicates that S. Mansoni, in the

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  15. Dyarrheal Syndrome in a Patient Co-Infected with Leishmania infantum and Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna R.; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Pedrosa, Moisés Salgado; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz; Rabello, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes an atypical clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis affecting the digestive tract and causing malabsorption syndrome in a patient without recognized immunosuppressive condition. After appropriate treatment for the classical visceral form of the disease, diarrhea persisted as the main symptom and massive infection by Leishmania was detected by histopathology analysis of the duodenal mucosa. Schistosoma mansoni coinfection was also confirmed and treated without impact on diarrhea. New course of amphotericin B finally led to complete improvement of diarrhea. Atypical visceral leishmaniasis involving the gastrointestinal tract is well recognized in HIV coinfection but very rare in immunocompetent patients. The factors determining the control or evolution of the Leishmania infection have not been completely identified. This case stresses the importance of atypical symptoms and the unusual location of visceral leishmaniasis, not only in immunodepressed patients, and raises the possible influence of chronic infection by S. mansoni reducing the immune response to Leishmania. PMID:23213338

  16. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  17. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death. PMID:20306689

  18. Factors Associated with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in an Endemic Area of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; Jabar, Rafael L.; Souza, Robson P.; Wells, Martin T.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Araújo, Maria Ilma; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of factors associated with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas might facilitate more effective schistosomiasis control. We conducted a cross-sectional study of persons resistant to schistosomiasis and found no association between socioeconomic status and resistance to infection. Mononuclear cells of resistant subjects produced higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and interferon-γ upon stimulation with soluble egg antigen (SEA) compared with infected persons. When stimulated with Sm21.6 or Sm22.6, levels of IL-10 were higher in cell culture of resistant persons. Levels of IgE against soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) and against interleukin-4–inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs (IPSE) and levels of IgG4 against SWAP, SEA, and Sm22.6 were lower in the resistant group compared with the susceptible group. Our data suggest that socioeconomic status could not fully explain resistance to S. mansoni infection observed in the studied area. However, a mixture of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and low levels of specific IgG4 against parasite antigens could be mediating resistance to infection. PMID:22302866

  19. Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Knight, Matty

    2012-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this apparent association between heat stress and snail susceptibility, we investigated the effect of temperature modulation in the resistant snail stock, BS-90. Here, we show that, incubated for up to 4 hrs at 32°C prior to infection, these resistant snails became susceptible to infection, i.e. shedding cercariae at 5 weeks post exposure (PE) while unstressed resistant snails, as expected, remained resistant. This suggests that susceptibility to infection by this resistant snail phenotype is temperature-sensitive (ts). Additionally, resistant snails treated with the Hsp 90 specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) after heat stress, were no longer susceptible to infection, retaining their resistant phenotype. Consistently, susceptible snail phenotypes treated with 100 mM GA before parasite exposure also remained uninfected. These results provide direct evidence for the induction of stress genes (heat shock proteins; Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and the reverse transcriptase [RT] domain of the nimbus non-LTR retrotransposon) in B. glabrata susceptibility to S. mansoni infection and characterize the resistant BS-90 snails as a temperature-sensitive phenotype. This study of reversing snail susceptibility phenotypes to S. mansoni provides an opportunity to directly track molecular pathway(s) that underlie the B. glabrata snail's ability to either sustain or destroy the S. mansoni parasite. PMID:22577362

  20. The bladder carcinoma secondary to schistosoma mansoni infection: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kiremit, Murat Can; Cakir, Asli; Arslan, Ferhat; Ormeci, Tugrul; Erkurt, Bulent; Albayrak, Selami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is a rare condition in Turkey but remains second most prevelant parasitic infestation worldwide. Presentation of case A 67-years old male patient admitted to a hospital with macroscopic hematuria. Bladder tumor was diagnosed and referred to our department for the treatment. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed and pathological examination revealed high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and Schistosoma mansoni eggs. The patient used praziquantel 40 mg orally for the treatment of Schistosomiasis and intravesical immunotherapy was applied 6 weeks along per week. Neither recurrence of tumor nor S. mansoni eggs in the urine were detected at the 18th month. Discussion In spite of well-known etiological relationships between Schistosoma haematobium and bladder cancer, there is very limited number of cases of bladder carcinoma secondary to S. mansoni infestation in the literature. All of the reported 5 cases were from the rural regions of Brazil. On the other hand, it was noticed that pathological examination had been reported in only one of these cases, and the diagnosis was leiomyoma. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, there is no data in the literature regarding the clinical course of the transitional cell carcinoma secondary to S. mansoni. Conclusion Regarding the increasing travels all around the world, clinicians should remember that Schistosoma infection is certainly a part of the differential diagnosis of bladder carcinoma, even if the patients are not from endemic regions. PMID:26125519

  1. Identification of Candidate Serum Biomarkers for Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice Using Multiple Proteomic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Kardoush, Manal I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is an important helminth infection of humans. There are few reliable diagnostic biomarkers for early infection, for recurrent infection or to document successful treatment. In this study, we compared serum protein profiles in uninfected and infected mice to identify disease stage-specific biomarkers. Methods Serum collected from CD1 mice infected with 50–200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were analyzed before infection and at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-infection using three mass spectrometric (MS) platforms. Results Using SELDI-TOF MS, 66 discriminating m/z peaks were detected between S. mansoni infected mice and healthy controls. Used in various combinations, these peaks could 1) reliably diagnose early-stage disease, 2) distinguish between acute and chronic infection and 3) diagnose S. mansoni infection regardless the parasite burden. The most important contributors to these diagnostic algorithms were peaks at 3.7, 13 and 46 kDa. Employing sample fractionation and differential gel electrophoresis, we analyzed gel slices either by MALDI-TOF MS or Velos Orbitrap MS. The former yielded eight differentially-expressed host proteins in the serum at different disease stages including transferrin and alpha 1- antitrypsin. The latter suggested the presence of a surprising number of parasite-origin proteins in the serum during both the acute (n = 200) and chronic (n = 105) stages. The Orbitrap platform also identified many differentially-expressed host-origin serum proteins during the acute and chronic stages (296 and 220 respectively). The presence of one of the schistosome proteins, glutathione S transferase (GST: 25 KDa), was confirmed by Western Blot. This study provides proof-of-principle for an approach that can yield a large number of novel candidate biomarkers for Schistosoma infection. PMID:27138990

  2. Efficacy of fenbendazole formulated in a commercial primate diet for treating specific pathogen-free baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) infected with Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Mason V; Wolf, Roman F; Clingenpeel, Lindsay C; Doan, Sandra K; Jones, Amy N; Gray, Kristene M

    2008-11-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a common intestinal nematode parasite of captive baboons. We evaluated the efficacy of fenbendazole formulated in a commercial primate diet (FBZ-PD) for treating specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) naturally infected with Trichuris trichiura. Twenty-nine baboons, housed indoors in 3 separate rooms, were fed FBZ-PD for 5 d, whereas 4 baboons housed in another isolated area served as untreated controls. The efficacy of FBZ-PD was measured as reduction in the number of T. trichiura eggs in host feces after treatment as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination. All baboons that received FBZ-PD stopped shedding T. trichiura eggs by 7 d after initiation of treatment, and remained negative until at least 119 d after treatment. However, eggs of T. trichiura were present in the feces of 3 (10.3%) experimental baboons at 154 d after treatment. Untreated control baboons shed T. trichiura eggs throughout the entire study. Our results indicate that FBZ-PD was efficacious for treating SPF baboons infected with T. trichiura.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Mauricio G; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A; Soares, Edson G; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Allegretti, Silmara M; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30-55%) and menthone (14-32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  5. Molecular approach for detecting early prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snail host.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Adel; Saleh, Ayman A; Mahdy, Soad; Abd El-Khalik, Dalia; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Salama, Marwa A

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S. mansoni fructose-1,6-bus phosphate aldolase (SMALDO). SMALDO gene was detected in the infected laboratory snails with 70, 85, and 100 % positivity at the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of infection, respectively. In contrast, the ordinary method was not sensitive enough in detection of early prepatent infection even after 7 days of infection which showed only 25 % positivity. By comparing the sensitivity of the three methods, it was found that the average sensitivity of shedding method compared to PCR was 23.8 % and the average sensitivity of crushing method compared to PCR was 46.4 % while the sensitivity of PCR was 100 %. We conclude that PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. This can help in detection of the areas and times of high transmission which in turn will be very beneficial in planning of the exact timing of the proper control strategy.

  6. Molecular approach for detecting early prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snail host.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Adel; Saleh, Ayman A; Mahdy, Soad; Abd El-Khalik, Dalia; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Salama, Marwa A

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S. mansoni fructose-1,6-bus phosphate aldolase (SMALDO). SMALDO gene was detected in the infected laboratory snails with 70, 85, and 100 % positivity at the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of infection, respectively. In contrast, the ordinary method was not sensitive enough in detection of early prepatent infection even after 7 days of infection which showed only 25 % positivity. By comparing the sensitivity of the three methods, it was found that the average sensitivity of shedding method compared to PCR was 23.8 % and the average sensitivity of crushing method compared to PCR was 46.4 % while the sensitivity of PCR was 100 %. We conclude that PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. This can help in detection of the areas and times of high transmission which in turn will be very beneficial in planning of the exact timing of the proper control strategy. PMID:27605788

  7. Susceptibility of rodents to infection with Schistosoma mansoni in Richard-Toll (Senegal).

    PubMed

    Sène, M; Duplantier, J M; Marchand, B; Hervé, J P

    1996-12-01

    The susceptibility of Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys huberti, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mus musculus was studied to assess the capacity of these rodents to transmit Schistosoma mansoni. The susceptibility was determined by the percentage of adult schistosomes recovered, the number of eggs per gramme of faeces, the viability of these eggs and the capacity of the rodents to maintain the life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni. The percentages of adult worms recovered were respectively 18%, 11.5%, 8.4% and 20.5% in A. niloticus, M. huberti, M. erythroleucus and M. musculus. After infection, they liberate in the environment viable eggs whose miracidia are infectious for the intermediate host (Biomphalaria pfeifferi). The mean egg load was 300 +/- 327.8 in A. niloticus; 664 +/- 673.5 in M. huberti; 240 +/- 304.8 in M. erythroleucus; 400 +/- 361.5 in M. musculus.

  8. Pattern of Schistosoma mansoni infection after intervention in Mwea irrigation scheme in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muthami, L N; Katsivo, M N; Kinoti, S N; Omondi, O; Karama, M; Karumba, P; Kingori, F; Kimani, S

    1995-02-01

    A longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection rate was carried out in an endemic area of Kenya, after intervention. Intervention measures applied involved chemotherapy, community mobilization to effect change in water contact habits and faecal disposal. This paper focuses on S. mansoni reinfection pattern over a two-year period. The age group 5-19 years showed an increasing trend of reinfection as compared to the 30-59 years age group. More than 50% in the 5-19 year age group had been reinfected by twelve months of follow-up. They were also responsible of 91% of all the egg-load and 83% of all the infections at the end of the study period. Since majority of the 5-19 year age group comprises school children, there is an urgent need of including issues related to schistosomiasis in the school curriculum especially in the endemic areas. PMID:7796762

  9. Impact of experimental duel infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinoccocus granulosus on hepatic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Hala S; Ali, Nehad M; Talaat, Roba M; Osman, Wesam M

    2007-12-01

    Experimental duel infection with S. mansoni and E. granulosus was induced in mice to determine their effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) level and accordingly on the sequences of histopathological lesions affecting the liver. The results showed that serum NO level was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice infected with both parasites (GI) in comparison to either S. mansoni (GIV) or E. granulosus (GV). The NO elevation on hepatic pathological lesions of both diseases showed a marked reduction of granuloma size with absence of concentric fibrosis in GI as early as 4 weeks of concomitant infection as compared to GIV. In spite of the significant increase of NO level when E. granulosus infection induced in late stages of schistosomisais (GsII & III), yet granuloma size was not suppressed. Also, there was absence or death of hydatid cyst in mice (GI) compared to E. granulosus (GV). So, the duel infection with the two parasites affected serum NO level and hepatic histopathology, by ameliorative or deteriorative effects, according to duration of infection with either. PMID:18431992

  10. Effect of Schistosoma mansoni Infection on Innate and HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1-Infected Ugandan Fisher Folk

    PubMed Central

    Asiki, Gershim; Abaasa, Andrew; Ssonko, Isaac; Harari, Alexandre; van Dam, Govert J.; Corstjens, Paul L.; Joloba, Moses; Ding, Song; Mpendo, Juliet; Nielsen, Leslie; Kamali, Anatoli; Elliott, Alison M.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Pala, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Uganda, fisher folk have HIV prevalence rates, about four times higher than the national average, and are often coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni. We hypothesized that innate immune responses and HIV-specific Th1 immune responses might be downmodulated in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV+/S. mansoni-negative individuals. We stimulated whole blood with innate receptor agonists and analyzed supernatant cytokines by Luminex. We evaluated HIV-specific responses by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α. We found that the plasma viral load and CD4 count were similar between the HIV+SM+ and HIV+SM− individuals. In addition, the TNF-α response to the imidazoquinoline compound CL097 and β-1, 3-glucan (curdlan), was significantly higher in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV only-infected individuals. The frequency of HIV-specific IFN-γ+IL-2–TNF-α− CD8 T cells and IFN-γ+IL-2–TNF-α+ CD4 T cells was significantly higher in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV only-infected individuals. These findings do not support the hypothesis that S. mansoni downmodulates innate or HIV-specific Th1 responses in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals. PMID:26864743

  11. Cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Fathy, Ghada Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Sara Abdel-Rahman; El-Shafei, Mahmoud Abdel-Atei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin. The study was conducted upon 100 mice that were divided into five groups; 20 each: uninfected control group, Schistosoma mansoni infected untreated mice (infected control), infected mice treated with praziquantel (PZQ), infected mice treated with silymarin and infected mice treated with both praziquantel and silymarin. 10 mice from each group were sacrificed at 10th and 18th weeks post infection respectively. Histopathological investigations were performed. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to evaluate changes of granuloma sizes and numbers. Serum levels of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and TGF-β1) were assessed in the sera of all groups by immunoassay. The measured levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1) were found to be significantly increased in infected mice compared to normal control. At the same time, treated groups with silymarin alone or combined with PZQ showed significant decrease in IL-4, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels compared to infected control. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in IFN-γ level observed in all treated groups compared to infected control. In addition, the histopathological examination of the liver in the group treated with PZQ showed a reduction in the number of livers eggs granuloma at all periods of sacrification compared with the infected untreated group. However, there was more decrease in granulomas diameter in both silymarin treated group or combined with PZQ at all periods of sacrification when compared to infected untreated group. In conclusion; treatment with silymarin combined with PZQ in murine schistosomiasis could reduce hepatic fibrosis by their action on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27605811

  12. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mbanzulu Makola, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4–74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  13. Evaluation of the anthelmintic effects of artesunate against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice using different treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    Shaohong, Lu; Kumagai, Takashi; Qinghua, Ai; Xiaolan, Yan; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Yabu, Yoshisada; Siwen, Li; Liyong, Wen; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Ohta, Nobuo

    2006-03-01

    The therapeutic effects of artesunate against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice were analyzed. Previous studies showed that artesunate is highly effective against S. japonicum infection, but the action of this drug against S. mansoni remained uncovered. The present study examines the optical conditions for artesunate against S. mansoni and evaluates the effects of inhibiting the sexual maturation of adult worms. Mice infected with S. mansoni were orally administered with artesunate according to different schedules. Four consecutive administrations of 300 mg/kg of artesunate at 2-week intervals conferred almost total protection without the development of pathological lesions in the liver. The significant reduction in the number of eggs produced by surviving worms and the status of egg maturation suggested that artesunate inhibits sexual maturation. Electron microscopy revealed that artesunate caused morphological damage, especially on the worm tegument. Artesunate was also very effective in iron-deficient mice. Furthermore, the efficacy of artesunate was equal to or better than that of artemether against S. japonicum infection. Considering that artemether is more toxic, artesunate is currently one of the most efficient drugs against immature S. mansoni.

  14. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Khonde Kumbu, R; Mbanzulu Makola, K; Bin, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4-74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  15. Bayesian risk maps for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm mono-infections in a setting where both parasites co-exist.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; McManus, Donald P; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of parasitic infections, including hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections with both parasites. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of mono-infections with either hookworm or S. mansoni in a setting where both parasites co-exist. School-based cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire surveys were carried out in 57 rural schools in the Man region, western Côte d'Ivoire. A single stool specimen was obtained from each schoolchild attending grades 3-5. Stool specimens were processed by the Kato-Katz technique and an ether concentration method and examined for the presence of hookworm and S. mansoni eggs. The combined results from the two diagnostic approaches were considered for the infection status of each child. Demographic data (i.e. age and sex) were obtained from readily available school registries. Each child's socio-economic status was estimated, using the questionnaire data following a household-based asset approach. Environmental data were extracted from satellite imagery. The different data sources were incorporated into a geographical information system. Finally, a Bayesian spatial multinomial regression model was constructed and the spatial patterns of S. mansoni and hookworm mono-infections were investigated using Bayesian kriging. Our approach facilitated the production of smooth risk maps for hookworm and S. mansoni mono-infections that can be utilized for targeting control interventions. We argue that in settings where S. mansoni and hookworm co-exist and control efforts are under way, there is a need for both mono- and co-infection risk maps to enhance the cost-effectiveness of control programmes.

  16. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  17. Risk Factors and Spatial Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among Primary School Children in Mbita District, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Sachiyo; Chadeka, Evans A.; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Mutungi, Faith; Justin, Yombo K. Dan; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Njenga, Sammy M.; Hashizume, Masahiro; Shimada, Masaaki; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8%) children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3%) had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%). High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors. Conclusions/Significance Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water. PMID:25058653

  18. Effect of Daucus carota var. boissieri extracts on immune response of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, N M; Maghraby, A S; el-Hagrassy, A M

    1999-01-01

    Isolation and structure elucidation was carried out of flavonoid constituents found in fractionated extracts of the seeds and green leaves of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae). The flavonoids are mainly apigenin, luteolin, their glycosidic precursors and 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. Fatty acids, hydrocarbons and sterols were identified by GLC. The effect of various carrot extracts on the immune responses of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was studied. The rate of reduction in worm infestation in mice injected with some fractions indicated a strong protection. Some extracts induced humoral immune response through raising the IgG level at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-infection as compared with infected control. The phenotypic analysis of the cellular immune response in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes was accomplished by direct immunofluorescence. The data showed that some extracts stimulated the blastogenesis of CD4(+)-T splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells.

  19. Effects of non-specific immunopotentiators in experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection. II. Corynebacterium parvum.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, K M; Coutinho, E M; Abath, F G; Montenegro, S M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of Corynebacterium parvum on host protection, tissue reaction and "in vivo" chemotaxis in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were studied. The C. parvum was given intraperitoneally using a dose of 0.7 mg, twice a week (for 4 weeks), thirty days before (prophylactic treatment) or after infection (curative treatment). The host protection was evaluated through the recovery of adult worms by liver perfusion and was lower in the prophylactic group as compared to the control group (p = 0.018), resulting in 44% protection. The "in vivo" leukocyte response in both prophylactic and curative groups was higher as compared to the infected/non treated group (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively). Tissue reactions were described in the experimental and control groups, but there were not remarkable differences among them. The possible biological implications and relevance of the findings for the defensive response of the host and control of schistosomiasis are discussed. PMID:9293078

  20. Potential immunomodulatory effects of plant lectins in Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Reis, Eliana A G; Athanazio, Daniel A; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente; Carmo, Theomira M A; Reis, Alice; Trocolli, Graziela; Croda, Julio; Harn, Donald; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2008-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding glycoproteins that can stimulate, in a non-antigen-specific fashion, lymphocytes, leading to proliferation and cytokine production. Some lectins are utilized as in vitro mitogenic lymphocyte stimulators and their use as immunomodulators against infectious diseases has been evaluated experimentally. In the experimental murine model, the immune response to schistosomiasis is Th1-like during the initial stage of infection, with a shift towards a Th2-like response after oviposition. We report the response of schistosomiasis patients' (n=37) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to stimulation by lectins, including newly isolated lectins from Brazilian flora, and by Schistosomamansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). Cytokine production upon lectin stimulation ex vivo was assessed in PBMC supernatants, collected at 24 and 72 h, by sandwich ELISA to IL-5, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In PBMC from infected patients all but one of the lectins induced a Th2-like cytokine response, characterized by elevated IL-5 production that was higher than that induced by SEA stimulation alone. Our results show that the Th2 environment present during schistosomiasis is not affected and that it may be further stimulated by the presence of lectins. PMID:18579103

  1. Preliminary trials with praziquantel in human infections due to Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Katz, N.; Rocha, R.S.; Chaves, A.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a programme of multicentre trials of the tolerance and therapeutic effect of praziquantel, clinical trials were carried out in Brazil in patients with active Schistosoma mansoni infections, each of whom had a minimum geometric mean egg output of 100 eggs per gram of faeces calculated from multiple pretreatment stool examinations. The first stage was a double-blind assessment of tolerance and efficacy of oral doses of 1 × 20, 2 × 20, or 3 × 20 mg of praziquantel per kg of body weight. Subsequently, single-blind trials explored the effects of 3 × 20 mg/kg at 4-hourly intervals, and a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Side effects increased in frequency as dosage increased. Nausea, epigastric pain, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness were all noted but their severity was mild or moderate and they disappeared in 48 hours. In general, monitoring laboratory tests showed little change. Following a stringent parasitological follow-up, 96% of 28 patients followed at 1 year after treatment with either 3 × 20 mg/kg or 1 × 50 mg/kg were cured. Praziquantel seems to be a very promising drug against S. mansoni and further clinical trials should be strongly encouraged. PMID:396054

  2. A Very High Infection Intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community Is Required for Association with Highly Prevalent Organ Related Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Madsen, Henry; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methodology and Principal Findings A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ±16, range 7–76 years). The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6–91.5). The geometric mean intensity (GMI) of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5–460.9) eggs per gram (epg) faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg) than females (132.6 epg) and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg). Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more

  3. The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of cane cutters on a sugar estate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.; Figenschou, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    In an attempt to justify future snail control on an irrigated sugar estate in Tanzania, the effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of apparently healthy cane cutters were investigated. The bonus earnings of cane cutters who were found to be infected with S. mansoni were compared, retrospectively, with earnings of uninfected cane cutters during the years 1968-69. For one 6-month period a more detailed study was made to correlate bonus earnings with actual output in tons of cane cut. It was found that in the four 6-month periods the mean bonus earnings of the uninfected cane cutters exceeded the mean bonus earnings of the infected men by 11.0%, 11.4%, 6.0%, and 13.7%, respectively. In all except the third period these differences were statistically significant. After treatment for S. mansoni infection, the workers were able to improve their earnings relative to both infected and uninfected workers. In a more detailed study of some of the workers during the third 6-month period, it was discovered that a 4% difference in bonus earnings represented a 1% difference in output. Taking into account the variations of bonus earnings it was estimated that the overall difference in productivity between infected and uninfected workers was 3-5%. PMID:4540675

  4. Myrrh and artesunate modulate some Th1 and Th2 cytokines secretion in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of artesunate and myrrh on S. mansoni infection and the levels of some Th1 and Th2 cytokines were evaluated in the present study. Six weeks after infection, a group of mice was treated with 4 mg/kg of artesunate and other group was treated with 10 mg/kg of myrrh for 3 successive days. Worm burden was reduced with a percentage of 53.7% and 58.78% after treatment with myrrh and artesunate respectively as well as the levels of IgG antibodies were significantly reduced compared with infected group. No obvious changes were observed in the level of interferon γ after treatment. After treatment with artesunate, interleukin 2 (IL-2) level was significantly decreased, while no significant difference was observed in myrrh-treated group compared with the infected group. On the other hand, the level of IL-10 was not significantly decreased after treatment with artesunate, but it was significantly increased after treatment with myrrh. However, IL-12 levels were significantly decreased after treatment with artesunate. The results demonstrated that, artesunate or myrrh treatment could give a level of protection against S. mansoni infection and modulate the levels of some Th1 and Th2 cytokines in mice infected with S. mansoni. PMID:27536198

  5. Schistosoma mansoni infection after three years of mass drug administration in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma mansoni was moderately-highly endemic in the northeast of Sierra Leone. The national neglected tropical disease control program started mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel (PZQ) in six districts in 2009 targeting primary school children only. The effort was scaled-up to seven districts in 2010 targeting school aged children (SAC) and at-risk adults. A cross-sectional sentinel site survey was conducted in 2012 after three rounds of MDA to evaluate the impact of the national program. Methods Twenty-six (26) sentinel sites were randomly selected from the baseline mapping survey sites stratified according to the baseline prevalence into high, moderate or low endemic category. Fifty (50) school children (25 males and 25 females) were randomly selected per site. Fresh stool samples were examined in the field using the Kato Katz technique. The results were compared with the baseline data. Results Program coverage of 94.8%, 77.1% and 81.7% was reported in 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Independent monitoring in 2011 showed program coverage of 83.9%, not significantly different from the reported result in the same year. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 16.3% (95% CI: 14.4-18.4%) and mean intensity was 18.98 epg (95% CI: 11.46-26.50 epg) in 2012, representing 67.2% and 85.9% reduction from the baseline respectively. The proportion of moderately and heavily infected children was 3.3% and 1.2%, a significant reduction from 18.2% and 8.8% at baseline respectively. Conclusions Sierra Leone has maintained effective MDA coverage with PZQ since 2009. Three rounds of MDA led to a significant reduction of S. mansoni infection in the country. In line with the significant progress made in controlling schistosomiasis, the national treatment strategy has been reviewed and MDA will be expanded to include school age children in low endemicity districts with the new national objective for the elimination of schistosomiasis. Sierra Leone is well

  6. Do intestinal parasites interfere with the seroepidemiologic surveillance of Schistosoma mansoni infection?

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón de Noya, B.; Colmenares, C.; Losada, S.; Fermin, Z.; Masroua, G.; Ruiz, L.; Soto, L.; Noya, O.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the known cross-reactivity of sera from patients with intestinal parasites to some Schistosoma mansoni antigens, field work was conducted in an area of Venezuela non-endemic for schistosomiasis using the routine immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) with soluble egg antigen (SEA). False positive reactions represented 15.3% of the total population as determined by SEA-ELISA. SEA-immunoblotting of the false positive sera indicated that protein fractions of 91 and 80 kDa appear to be responsible for cross-reactivity. Sera from hookworm infected individuals produced a higher frequency and intensity of cross-reaction than other sera. SEA-fractions of 105, 54, 46, 42, 32, 25 and 15 kDa were the most specific. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8666077

  7. Therapeutic effect of mefloquine on Schistosoma mansoni in experimental infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shady, Omaima Mohammed; Mohammed, Soheir Sayed; Attia, Samar Sayed; Yusuf, Hebat-Allah Salah; Helmy, Dina Omar

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis for its high efficacy. The present work was carried out on 160 mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect of mefloquine on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Mice were classified into 3 groups; group I (20 infected non-treated mice), group II included 60 infected mice which were further divided into group IIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel) and group IIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg/kg mefloquine and 500 mg/kg praziquantel), group III included 80 non-infected mice subdivided into group IIIn (20 non-treated mice), group IIIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel), group IIIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg mefloquine and 500 mg praziquantel). Mefloquine significantly reduced worm burden, tissue egg load, number of liver granulomas and increased the percent of dead ova within granulomas. Combination of mefloquine and praziquantel gave better curative effects than praziquantel or mefloquine given alone. PMID:27413290

  8. Effects of aestivation and starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    White, Meredith M; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    The effects of aestivation or starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni were determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. Infected-aestivated snails were maintained in a moist chamber at 24 +/- 1 C and a relative humidity of 98 +/- 1%. Infected-starved snails were maintained in artificial spring water (ASW) at 23 +/- 1 C without exogenous food. Infected snails (the controls) were maintained in ASW at 23 +/- 1 C and fed lettuce ad libitum. The 3 groups were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days, and then the lipids from the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) were extracted and analyzed by class. Infected-aestivated snails exhibited greater mortality rate and weight loss after 7 days than did the infected-starved snails. The steryl ester concentration in the infected-starved snails was significantly increased (P = 0.010) compared with the controls but not compared with infected-aestivated snails; the concentration of phosphatidylcholine in infected-aestivated snails was significantly decreased (P = 0.007) compared with the controls but not when compared with the infected-starved snails. Aestivation or starvation had a significant effect on the concentration of certain lipid classes in the DGG of B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni. PMID:17436935

  9. Increased FDG uptake of the bone marrow mimicking malignancy in a patient of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gao, Lei; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-07-01

    Secondary eosinophilia is usually associated with parasitosis in Third World countries. We present a case of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection showing multifocal FDG uptake in the axial bones mimicking malignancy. Bone marrow aspirations and biopsy revealed remarkable proliferation of eosinophils which may be related to the increased FDG uptake. This case indicates that secondary eosinophilia associated with parasitosis may be one cause of diffuse FDG uptake in the bone marrow.

  10. Bone marrow-derived cells migrate to the liver and contribute to the generation of different cell types in chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carine Machado; Solano de Freitas Souza, Bruno; Andrade de Oliveira, Sheilla; Paredes, Bruno Diaz; Barreto, Elton Sá; Neto, Hélio Almeida; Ribeiro dos Santos, Ricardo; Pereira Soares, Milena Botelho

    2015-12-01

    The main pathogenic event caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection is characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory reaction around parasite eggs and fibrosis in the liver. We have previously shown that transplantation of bone marrow cells (BMC) promotes a reduction in liver fibrosis in chronically S. mansoni-infected mice. Here we investigated the presence and phenotype of bone marrow-derived cells in livers of S. mansoni-infected mice. During the chronic phase of infection, C57BL/6 mice had an increased number of circulating mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood when compared to uninfected controls. In order to investigate the fate of BMC in the liver, we generated bone marrow chimeric mice by transplanting BMC from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice into lethally irradiated wild-type C57BL/6 mice. S. mansoni-infected chimeric mice did not demonstrate increased mortality and developed similar liver histopathological features, when compared to wild-type S. mansoni-infected mice. GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells were found in the liver parenchyma, particularly in periportal regions. CD45(+)GFP(+) cells were found in the granulomas. Flow cytometry analysis of digested liver tissue characterized GFP(+) cells as lymphocytes, myeloid cells and stem cells. GFP(+) cells were also found in areas of collagen deposition, although rare GFP(+) cells expressed the myofibroblast cell marker α-SMA. Additionally GFP(+) endothelial cells (co-stained with von Willebrand factor) were frequently observed, while BMC-derived hepatocytes (GFP(+) albumin(+) cells) were sparsely found in the liver of chimeric mice chronically infected with S. mansoni. In conclusion, BMC are recruited to the liver during chronic experimental infection with S. mansoni and contribute to the generation of different cell types involved, not only in disease pathogenesis, but possibly in liver regeneration and repair.

  11. Use of Occult Blood Detection Cards for Real-Time PCR-Based Diagnosis of Schistosoma Mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kebede Mekonnen, Seleshi; Wondafrash, Beyene; Mengele, Carolin; Fleischmann, Erna; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Verweij, Jaco J.; Geldmacher, Christof; Bretzel, Gisela; Löscher, Thomas; Zeynudin, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background In Schistosoma mansoni infection, diagnosis and control after treatment mainly rely on parasitological stool investigations which are laborious and have limited sensitivity. PCR methods have shown equal or superior sensitivity but preservation and storage methods limit their use in the field. Therefore, the use of occult blood detection cards (fecal cards) for easy sampling and storage of fecal samples for further PCR testing was evaluated in a pilot study. Methodology Stool specimens were collected in a highly endemic area for S. mansoni in Ethiopia and submitted in an investigator-blinded fashion to microscopic examination by Kato-Katz thick smear as well as to real-time PCR using either fresh frozen stool samples or stool smears on fecal cards which have been stored at ambient temperature for up to ten months. Principal Findings Out of 55 stool samples, 35 were positive by microscopy, 33 and 32 were positive by PCR of frozen samples and of fecal card samples, respectively. When microscopy was used as diagnostic “gold standard”, the sensitivity of PCR on fresh stool was 94.3% (95%-CI: 86.6; 100) and on fecal cards 91.4% (95%-CI: 82.2; 100). Conclusions The use of fecal cards proved to be a simple and useful method for stool collection and prolonged storage prior to PCR based diagnosis of S. mansoni infection. This technique may be a valuable approach for large scale surveillance and post treatment assessments PMID:26360049

  12. Efficacy of mirazid in comparison with praziquantel in Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni-infected school children and households.

    PubMed

    Botros, Sanaa; Sayed, Hanan; El-Dusoki, Howaida; Sabry, Hoda; Rabie, Ibrahim; El-Ghannam, Maged; Hassanein, Moataz; El-Wahab, Yehia Abd; Engels, Dirk

    2005-02-01

    This trial investigated the anti-schistosomal activity of mirazid in comparison with that of praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Egyptian patients. The sample population was composed of 1,131 individuals (459 school children and 672 household members). Screening for S. mansoni was conducted using the standard Kato Katz technique. Four slides from a single stool sample were examined before treatment, and four slides per sample from stool samples obtained on three consecutive days were examined post-treatment. All positive eligible subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, the first received mirazid at a dose of 300 mg/day for three consecutive days, and the second received praziquantel at a single dose of 40 mg/kg. All treated subjects were examined 4-6 weeks post-treatment. Mirazid showed low cure rates of 9.1% and 8.9% in S. mansoni-infected school children and household members, respectively, compared with cure rates of 62.5% and 79.7%, respectively, in those treated with praziquantel. Therefore, we do not recommend mirazid as an agent to control schistosomiasis. PMID:15741544

  13. Effect of artemether administered alone or in combination with praziquantel to mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Schistosoma mansoni or both.

    PubMed

    Shu-Hua, Xiao; Utzinger, Jürg; Chollet, Jacques; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-07-01

    The artemisinins have become key drugs for the treatment and control of malaria, particularly within artemisinin-based combination therapies. Since the artemisinins also exhibit antischistosomal properties, their use in areas where malaria and schistosomiasis are co-endemic may have an effect on both diseases and co-infection might alter drug efficacy. We assessed the antimalarial and antischistosomal efficacies of artemether in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Schistosoma mansoni or both parasites concurrently. Three oral doses of 400 mg/kg artemether at 14-day intervals reduced total and female S. mansoni worm burdens by 98.7-100%, regardless of a concurrent P. berghei infection. When four daily doses of 55 mg/kg artemether were administered, which is a standard treatment schedule to cure P. berghei-infected mice, significantly lower total and female S. mansoni worm burden reductions were observed (73.1-89.2%). Artemether, administered at both of the above-mentioned treatment schemes, showed excellent antimalarial efficacy with no indications of delayed clearance of P. berghei or recrudescence, also in mice co-infected with S. mansoni. Co-infection with P. berghei had no effect on S. mansoni worm burden reductions following artemether-praziquantel combinations. Our findings point to the need for epidemiological studies in areas where malaria and schistosomiasis co-exist and where artemisinin-based combination therapies are introduced, since artemisinin-based combination therapies as part of a malaria control package may have ancillary benefits against schistosomiasis. PMID:16750833

  14. Biomphalaria glabrata peroxiredoxin: effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on differential gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Raghavan, Nithya; Goodall, Cheri; Cousin, Carolyn; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Sayed, Ahmed; Miller, Andre; Williams, David L; Bayne, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    To identify gene(s) that may be associated with resistance/susceptibility in the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection, a snail albumen gland cDNA library was differentially screened and a partial cDNA encoding an antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin peroxidase (Tpx), or peroxiredoxin (Prx), was identified. The 753 bp full-length, single-copy, constitutively expressed gene now referred to as BgPrx4 was later isolated. BgPrx4 is a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin containing the conserved peroxidatic cysteine (CP) in the N-terminus and the resolving cysteine (CR) in the C-terminus. Sequence analysis of BgPrx4 from both resistant and susceptible snails revealed the presence of several (at least 7) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic analysis indicated BgPrx4 to resemble a homolog of human peroxiredoxin, PRDX4. Northern analysis of hepatopancreas RNA from both resistant and susceptible snails showed that upon parasite exposure there were qualitative changes in gene expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed differences in the levels of BgPrx4 transcript induction following infection, with the transcript up-regulated in resistant snails during the early phase (5 h) of infection compared to susceptible snails in which it was down-regulated within the early time period. While there was an increase in transcription in susceptible snails later (48 h) post- infection, this never reached the levels detected in resistant snails. A similar trend - higher, earlier up-regulation in the resistant snails but lower, slower protein expression in susceptible snails - was observed by Western blot analysis. Enzymatic analysis of the purified, recombinant BgPrx4 revealed the snail sequence to function as Prx but with an unusual ability to use both thioredoxin and glutathione as substrates. PMID:19439374

  15. Behaviour of albino and melanic variants of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Mollusca: Planorbidae) following infection by Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, S M; Carvalho, J F; Magalhães, L A; Zanotti-Magalhães, E M

    2009-02-01

    The behaviour of the albino and melanic variants of Biomphalaria glabrata of Belo Horizonte (MG. Brazil) was studied comparatively, in terms of their respective susceptibilities to infection by Schistosoma mansoni of the same origin, through observation of the elimination of cercariae for a three-month period and the calculation of mortality and infection rates, in control and in infected snails. The number of amoebocytes, granulocytes and hyalinocytes in the circulating hemolymph during different periods of infection was analyzed. The evolution of the infection in the tissues was observed by means of histological cross-sections. The melanic variant showed greater susceptibility to infection and a higher mortality rate. The albino variant showed a higher number of circulating amoebocytes, both granulocytes and hyalinocytes. A higher number of degenerated sporocysts were seen in the histological cross-sections of the albino variant. The results suggest that the melanic variant of B. glabrata was more susceptible to infection by S. mansoni than was the albino variant.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prodger, Jessica L.; Ssemaganda, Aloysious; Ssetaala, Ali; Kitandwe, Paul K.; Muyanja, Enoch; Mpendo, Juliet; Nanvubya, Annet; Wambuzi, Mathias; Nielsen, Leslie; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kaul, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing. Methodology/Principal Findings Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05), Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05), and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01) than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046). However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue. Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin. PMID:26335139

  17. Cost Analysis of Tests for the Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Children in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, Caitlin M.; Bartoces, Monina; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Ochola, Elizabeth A.; Matete, Daniel O.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Secor, W. Evan

    2015-01-01

    Financial resources tend to be limited in schistosomiasis endemic areas, forcing program managers to balance financial and scientific considerations when selecting detection assays. Therefore, we compared the costs of using single stool Kato-Katz, triplicate stool Kato-Katz, and point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Economic and financial costs were estimated from the viewpoint of a schistosomiasis control program using the ingredients approach. Costs related to specimen collection, sample processing and analysis, and treatment delivery were considered. Analysis inputs and assumptions were tested using one-way and two-way sensitivity analysis. The total per-person cost of performing the single Kato-Katz, triplicate Kato-Katz, and POC-CCA was US$6.89, US$17.54, and US$7.26, respectively. Major cost drivers included labor, transportation, and supplies. In addition, we provide a costing tool to guide program managers in evaluating detection costs in specific settings, as costs may vary temporally and spatially. PMID:25870422

  18. Cost analysis of tests for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Caitlin M; Bartoces, Monina; Karanja, Diana M S; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    Financial resources tend to be limited in schistosomiasis endemic areas, forcing program managers to balance financial and scientific considerations when selecting detection assays. Therefore, we compared the costs of using single stool Kato-Katz, triplicate stool Kato-Katz, and point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Economic and financial costs were estimated from the viewpoint of a schistosomiasis control program using the ingredients approach. Costs related to specimen collection, sample processing and analysis, and treatment delivery were considered. Analysis inputs and assumptions were tested using one-way and two-way sensitivity analysis. The total per-person cost of performing the single Kato-Katz, triplicate Kato-Katz, and POC-CCA was US$6.89, US$17.54, and US$7.26, respectively. Major cost drivers included labor, transportation, and supplies. In addition, we provide a costing tool to guide program managers in evaluating detection costs in specific settings, as costs may vary temporally and spatially.

  19. Natural infection of baboons by Entamoeba histolytica elicits anti- gal-lectin heavy subunit IgA and IgG antibodies with shared epitope specificity to that of humans.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Carey, David W; Verweij, Jaco J; El-Dessouky, Yasser M M; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2013-12-01

    Non-human primates, such as baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis), are natural hosts for Entamoeba species; infections can be asymptomatic or result in invasive lethal disease. It was sought to determine whether following natural infection by Entamoeba. histolytica, baboon anti-amebic antibodies recognized native Gallectin, a recombinant portion of the lectin heavy subunit (designated LC3) and specific heavy subunit epitopes; we compared the specificity of anti-amebic antibodies from baboons to that of humans following asymptomatic E. histolytica infection or cure of amebic liver abscess (ALA). Female baboons (n=54), aged one to three years of age and living in captivity were screened for infection by real time PCR. E. histolytica infection was found in 37 baboons and was associated with serum anti-LC3 IgG (73%) and anti-LC3 IgA (46%) or intestinal anti-Gal-Lectin IgA antibody responses (49%), p<0.021 for each compared to that observed with baboons having an E. dispar infection (n=10) or uninfected baboons (n=7). The ELISA OD reading for anti-LC3 or anti-lectin antibodies correlated strongly with the presence of a PCR CT value indicative of E. histolytica infection. In humans with asymptomatic E. histolytica infection or those recently cured of ALA, 63% and 57% had serum anti- LC3 IgA and 65% and 57% had serum anti-LC3 IgG antibodies respectively. Epitope- specific synthetic peptides were used as capture antigens in ELISA; for baboons that possessed anti-LC3 and anti-lectin antibodies, 74% had anti-peptide IgG or IgA antibodies, compared to 86% of asymptomatic humans and 92% of ALA subjects(P>0.05).

  20. The use of microencapsulated hepatocytes transplantation reduces mortality and liver alterations in Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Soad A; Moharib, Mona N; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Hammam, Olfat A; Salman, Fatma H; El-Naggar, Mohamed M

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotropic liver transplantation. The goal of this work was to study the adequacy of intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in fresh and microencapsulated forms, in a hamster model of liver fibrosis by Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters were divided into 6 groups; untreated for 11 weeks (GI) and for 15 weeks (GII), treated with praziquantel (PZQ) 7 weeks PI, and killed 4 weeks (GIII) and 8 weeks (GIV) post-treatment. Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then treated orally with immunosuppressive drug "cyclosporine (4 weeks post PZQ treatment), 24 hr. before interasplenic injection with fresh hepatocytes (V). Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then injected interasplenically (4 weeks post-treatment) with microencapsulated hepatocytes (GVI). GI & GIII were killed 11 weeks PI for assessment the anti-schistosomal efficacy of PZQ. The other four groups were killed 15 weeks PI for investigation of liver and spleen histology, serum liver enzymes and hepatic oxidative markers before and after HCTx. Freshly isolated hepatocytes with a mean viability 92.97 +/- 1.2% were used for microencapsulation and transplantation. Histological study showed the presence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen of recipient. PZQ accelerated healing of hepatic granulomatous lesions as evidenced parasitologically by the increase in the percentage of dead eggs and histologically showing more granuloma circumscription with more ova degeneration and less inflammatory cells. The 25-day survival rates in GII, GIV, GV& GVI were 5/15 (33.3%), 8/15 (53.3%), 10/15 (66.7%) and 9/15 (60%) respectively. In addition, there were significantly better outcomes in serum biochemical indexes such as ALT, AST, gamma-GT, ALP, and hepatic SOD and MDA in the fresh and microencapsulated groups than in PZQ-treated group, without great differences between the microencapsulated and the fresh transplanted groups

  1. The use of microencapsulated hepatocytes transplantation reduces mortality and liver alterations in Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Soad A; Moharib, Mona N; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Hammam, Olfat A; Salman, Fatma H; El-Naggar, Mohamed M

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotropic liver transplantation. The goal of this work was to study the adequacy of intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in fresh and microencapsulated forms, in a hamster model of liver fibrosis by Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters were divided into 6 groups; untreated for 11 weeks (GI) and for 15 weeks (GII), treated with praziquantel (PZQ) 7 weeks PI, and killed 4 weeks (GIII) and 8 weeks (GIV) post-treatment. Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then treated orally with immunosuppressive drug "cyclosporine (4 weeks post PZQ treatment), 24 hr. before interasplenic injection with fresh hepatocytes (V). Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then injected interasplenically (4 weeks post-treatment) with microencapsulated hepatocytes (GVI). GI & GIII were killed 11 weeks PI for assessment the anti-schistosomal efficacy of PZQ. The other four groups were killed 15 weeks PI for investigation of liver and spleen histology, serum liver enzymes and hepatic oxidative markers before and after HCTx. Freshly isolated hepatocytes with a mean viability 92.97 +/- 1.2% were used for microencapsulation and transplantation. Histological study showed the presence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen of recipient. PZQ accelerated healing of hepatic granulomatous lesions as evidenced parasitologically by the increase in the percentage of dead eggs and histologically showing more granuloma circumscription with more ova degeneration and less inflammatory cells. The 25-day survival rates in GII, GIV, GV& GVI were 5/15 (33.3%), 8/15 (53.3%), 10/15 (66.7%) and 9/15 (60%) respectively. In addition, there were significantly better outcomes in serum biochemical indexes such as ALT, AST, gamma-GT, ALP, and hepatic SOD and MDA in the fresh and microencapsulated groups than in PZQ-treated group, without great differences between the microencapsulated and the fresh transplanted groups

  2. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wiszniewsky, Anna; Ritter, Manuel; Goreish, Ibtisam A.; Atti El Mekki, Misk El Yemen A.; Arriens, Sandra; Pfarr, Kenneth; Fimmers, Rolf; Doenhoff, Mike; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity. Methodology This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4–85 years old) from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins) and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+), n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+) and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf). Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis. Principal Findings Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions/Significance Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways

  3. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  4. Interactions between endogenous baboon type-C virus and oncogenic viruses. I. Syncytium induction and development of infectivity assay.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Korol, W; Larson, D L; Harewood, K R; Mayyasi, S A

    1975-11-15

    Cells releasing the endogenous baboon virus (BV) can interact with human KC cells containing the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) genome, resulting in cell fusion and syncytium formation. This interaction has been utilized in the development of a sensitive infectivity assay for BV. The titration pattern is of a one-hit type, demonstrating a linear relationship between virus concentration and number of syncytial plaques obtained in the KC co-cultivation assay. Endpoint titration comparisons indicate that the KC test is as sensitive as the immunofluorescence or the RNA-directed DNA-polymerase assays. Attempts to develop an XC test for BV failed, indicating that while BV can interact with the RSV genome it will do so in the human KC cells and not in the rat XC cells. Syncytia are also induced when KC cells are directly exposed to cell-free BV; however, a linear dose relationship is not obtained. When syncytium-positive KC cultures are passaged, the syncytia disappear and a chronic BV infection is established. These KC-BV cells then lose the ability to interact with either the endogenous cat RD-114 virus or the Mason-Pfizer virus which are known to form syncytia with KC cells.

  5. Bioavailability and in vivo efficacy of a praziquantel-polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    PubMed

    El-Lakkany, Naglaa; Seif El-Din, Sayed Hassan; Heikal, Lamia

    2012-12-01

    One of the problems of praziquantel (PZQ) is its very low aqueous solubility. Moreover, its dissolution rate is considered the limiting factor for its bioavailability. This work correlates the physical properties and the dissolution behavior of PZQ-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion (SD) at the ratios of 1:1 and 3:7 with its oral bioavailability and its in vivo efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). The PZQ and PZQ-PVP SD were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solubility test. Results showed a decrease in crystallinity, possible interaction between PZQ and PVP, greater increase in dissolution rate and appreciable reduction in particle size. S. mansoni-infected mice treated orally with either pure PZQ or PZQ-PVP at a single dose of 500 mg/kg showed a higher increase in AUC((0-8h)), C (max), K(a) and t (1/2e) with a significant decrease in k (el) versus the corresponding uninfected mice. Moreover, uninfected and infected mice treated with PZQ-PVP SD showed 2.3-, 1.6- and 1.3-, 1.25-fold increase, respectively, in AUC((0-8h)) and C(max), with a decrease in k(el) and increase in t (1/2e) by twofold versus the corresponding pure PZQ-treated groups. Percentage worm reduction at all administered doses (62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) was significantly higher (1- to 1.5-fold) in mice treated with PZQ-PVP SD (ED₅₀ = 40.92) versus those treated with pure PZQ (ED₅₀ = 99.29). In addition, a significant reduction in total tissue egg load concomitant with a significant decrease in total immature and mature eggs and an increase in dead eggs in PZQ-PVP SD-treated groups versus their corresponding pure PZQ-treated groups was recorded. Solid dispersion of PZQ with PVP could lead to a further improvement in the effectiveness of PZQ therapy especially with the appearance of some PZQ-tolerant S. mansoni isolates.

  6. Praziquantel in a Clay Nanoformulation Shows More Bioavailability and Higher Efficacy against Murine Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Wael S.; Nasr, Hanaa E.; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M.; Seif el-Din, Sayed H.; Botros, Sanaa S.

    2015-01-01

    Consideration of existing compounds always simplifies and shortens the long and difficult process of discovering new drugs specifically for diseases of developing countries, an approach that may add to the significant potential cost savings. This study focused on improving the biological characteristics of the already-existing antischistosomal praziquantel (PZQ) by incorporating it into montmorillonite (MMT) clay as a delivery carrier to overcome its known bioavailability drawbacks. The oral bioavailability of a PZQ-MMT clay nanoformulation and its in vivo efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni were investigated. The PZQ-MMT clay nanoformulation provided a preparation with a controlled release rate, a decrease in crystallinity, and an appreciable reduction in particle size. Uninfected and infected mice treated with PZQ-MMT clay showed 3.61- and 1.96-fold and 2.16- and 1.94-fold increases, respectively, in area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0–8) and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), with a decrease in elimination rate constant (kel) by 2.84- and 1.35-fold and increases in the absorption rate constant (ka) and half-life (t1/2e) by 2.11- and 1.51-fold and 2.86- and 1.34-fold, respectively, versus the corresponding conventional PZQ-treated groups. This improved bioavailability has been expressed in higher efficacy of the drug, where the dose necessary to kill 50% of the worms was reduced by >3-fold (PZQ 50% effective dose [ED50] was 20.25 mg/kg of body weight for PZQ-MMT clay compared to 74.07 mg/kg for conventional PZQ), with significant reduction in total tissue egg load and increase in total immature, mature, and dead eggs in most of the drug-treated groups. This formulation showed better bioavailability, enhanced antischistosomal efficacy, and a safer profile despite the longer period of residence in the systemic circulation. Although the conventional drug's toxicity was not examined, animal mortality rates were not different

  7. The Epigenome of Schistosoma mansoni Provides Insight about How Cercariae Poise Transcription until Infection

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Michael; Parrinello, Hugues; Groth, Marco; Emans, Rémi; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromatin structure can control gene expression and can define specific transcription states. For example, bivalent methylation of histone H3K4 and H3K27 is linked to poised transcription in vertebrate embryonic stem cells (ESC). It allows them to rapidly engage specific developmental pathways. We reasoned that non-vertebrate metazoans that encounter a similar developmental constraint (i.e. to quickly start development into a new phenotype) might use a similar system. Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminthes that are characterized by passage through two hosts: a mollusk as intermediate host and humans or rodents as definitive host. During its development, the parasite undergoes drastic changes, most notable immediately after infection of the definitive host, i.e. during the transition from the free-swimming cercariae into adult worms. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyze genome-wide chromatin structure of S. mansoni on the level of histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and H3K9ac) in cercariae, schistosomula and adults (available at http://genome.univ-perp.fr). We saw striking differences in chromatin structure between the developmental stages, but most importantly we found that cercariae possess a specific combination of marks at the transcription start sites (TSS) that has similarities to a structure found in ESC. We demonstrate that in cercariae no transcription occurs, and we provide evidences that cercariae do not possess large numbers of canonical stem cells. Conclusions/Significance We describe here a broad view on the epigenome of a metazoan parasite. Most notably, we find bivalent histone H3 methylation in cercariae. Methylation of H3K27 is removed during transformation into schistosomula (and stays absent in adults) and transcription is activated. In addition, shifts of H3K9 methylation and acetylation occur towards upstream and

  8. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens.

  9. Long-term effect of mass chemotherapy, transmission and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in very low endemic communities of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Hofstede, Stefanie N; Tami, Adriana; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Ballén, Diana; Incani, Renzo N

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Venezuela has changed from high to low due mostly to successful control activities, including mass chemotherapy and molluscicide applications. This study examined the impact of mass chemotherapy on S. mansoni transmission and risk factors for infection 12 years after administration of praziquantel in Venezuela. Two relatively isolated rural communities were studied, one with snail control (Manuare) and the second without (Los Naranjos). A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households included 226 (Manuare) and 192 (Los Naranjos) consenting participants. S. mansoni prevalence was determined using a combination of coprological (Kato-Katz) and serological (circumoval precipitin test, alkaline phosphatase immunoassay and Western blot) tests. Data on epidemiological and socioeconomic risk factors were obtained through individual structured interviews. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models identified independent risk factors for infection. Water sites were examined for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Only one participant was positive by coprology. The overall prevalences according to the combined tests were 32.7% in Manuare and 26.6% in Los Naranjos. Lower prevalences (12.7% in Manuare and 13.2% in Los Naranjos) were found in children <12 years of age representing those born after mass chemotherapy. Social demographic variables associated with infection in both communities were older age (>25 years), contact with specific water sites, and being a farmer/non-specialised worker. Mass treatment with praziquantel applied once to endemic communities led to an important and long-lasting sustained reduction of S. mansoni infections independent of the application of snail control. A degree of low active transmission of S. mansoni persisted in the treated areas which was associated with similar factors in both communities. PMID:25128702

  10. Epigenetic modulation, stress and plasticity in susceptibility of the snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matty; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-06-01

    Blood flukes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis - a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. During the past decade, a concerted effort has been made to control the spread of schistosomiasis, using a drug intervention program aimed at curtailing transmission. These efforts notwithstanding, schistosomiasis has re-emerged in southern Europe, raising concerns that global warming could contribute to the spread of this disease to higher latitude countries where transmission presently does not take place. Vaccines against schistosomiasis are not currently available and reducing transmission by drug intervention programs alone does not prevent reinfection in treated populations. These challenges have spurred awareness that new interventions to control schistosomiasis are needed, especially since the World Health Organization hopes to eradicate the disease by 2025. For one of the major species of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as the obligate intermediate host of this parasite. To determine mechanisms that underlie parasitism by S. mansoni of Biomphalaria glabrata, which might be manipulated to block the development of intramolluscan larval stages of the parasite, we focused effort on the impact of schistosome infection on the epigenome of the snail. Results to date reveal a complex relationship, manifested by the ability of the schistosome to manipulate the snail genome, including the expression of specific genes. Notably, the parasite subverts the stress response of the host to ensure productive parasitism. Indeed, in isolates of B. glabrata native to central and South America, susceptible to infection with S. mansoni, the heat shock protein 70 (Bg-HSP70) gene of this snail is rapidly relocated in the nucleus and transcribed to express HSP70

  11. Impact of two rounds of praziquantel mass drug administration on Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence and intensity: a comparison between community wide treatment and school based treatment in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onkanga, Isaac O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Andiego, Kennedy; Omedo, Martin; Karanja, Diana M S; Wiegand, Ryan E; Secor, W Evan; Montgomery, Susan P

    2016-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of the community-wide treatment and school-based treatment approaches in the control of Schistosoma mansoni infections in villages with ⩾25% prevalence in western Kenya. Stool samples from first year students, 9-12year olds and adults (20-55years) were analyzed by the Kato-Katz technique for S. mansoni eggs. After two rounds of treatment, S. mansoni prevalence and intensity levels significantly declined in both treatment approaches. Prevalence comparisons between the two approaches did not show any significant differences following treatment. However, infection intensity levels in the 9-12year old school-attending pupils were significantly higher in the community-wide treatment arm than in the school-based treatment arm. Nevertheless, significant reductions in S. mansoni infection prevalence and intensity levels were achieved among school-age children regardless of the treatment approach used. PMID:26940547

  12. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae. V. Anamnestic cellular and humoral responses following challenge infection

    SciTech Connect

    Correa-Oliveira, R.; Sher, A.; James, S.L.

    1984-03-01

    Mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae display low levels of cellular and humoral immune responses toward schistosomulum antigens, as measured in vitro by lymphocyte blastogenesis and quantitation of anti-larval antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Both responses wane with time after vaccination. However subsequent challenge infection provokes immune responses of classical anamnestic character, being both more rapid in appearance and of greater magnitude. Antigen responsive cells appear in lymph nodes draining the challenge site within 24 hours after infection. Both circulating anti-schistosomulum surface antibodies as well as cytophilic IgE anti-worm antigen antibodies increase substantially by 1 week after challenge. All of the anamnestic circulating antibodies belong to the IgG class. Those findings support the concept that vaccine-induced resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection involves sensitized T and B lymphocytes, and point to the possible role of post-challenge anamnestic responses in the effector mechanism of parasite killing in this model.

  13. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  14. Assessment of Quality of Life as a Tool for Measuring Morbidity Due to Schistosoma mansoni Infection and the Impact of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kimberly Y.; Abudho, Bernard; Blackstock, Anna J.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Kennedy, Erin D.; Person, Bobbie; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Ochola, Elizabeth A.; Foo, Karen T.; Hightower, Allen W.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, health measurements have broadened to include the assessment of quality of life (QOL). This study was conducted to assess whether the short form of the World Health Organization (WHO) QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was an effective tool for measuring morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni infection and whether it could detect an impact of treatment with praziquantel. A total of 724 adults 18–85 years of age were enrolled. At baseline, S. mansoni prevalence was 73.2% by stool examination and 75.4% by circulating cathodic antigen, and there was no association between infection status and WHOQOL-BREF scores. Six months after treatment, S. mansoni prevalence was lower and the proportion of persons with higher WHOQOL-BREF scores significantly increased among persons who were infected at baseline. However, a similar increase was observed in persons not infected at baseline. In areas of high prevalence, the WHOQOL-BREF may not be able to detect the benefits of schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24323511

  15. Altered feeding response as a cause for the altered heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of Schistosoma mansoni-infected biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Gilbertson, D E

    1983-08-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 33 days fed more often than uninfected snails. Whereas uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in feeding, snails with a 33-day-old infection of S. mansoni fed as often during the day as in the night. Using direct observation and film analysis, we found that feeding increased the heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of B. glabrata. When snails were allowed to feed ad lib., infected snails had higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails both during the day (P less than 0.01) and the night (P less than 0.001). However, when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr, infected snails had slightly higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails only during the day (P less than 0.05). There was no difference between the heartbeat rates of feeding, infected snails and the heartbeat rates of uninfected snails that were starved for 8 hr, and then allowed to feed. Uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in heartbeat rate regardless of feeding schedule, but infected snails had greater nighttime heartbeat rate than daytime heartbeat rate only when they were not allowed to feed. Infected snails had less nocturnal locomotor activity than uninfected snails when feeding, but there was no difference between the locomotor activity of infected and uninfected snails when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr. Absence of food also resulted in an increased nighttime to daytime ratio of locomotor activity of infected snails. These results suggest that the increased heartbeat rate and altered rhythms of heartbeat rate and locomotor activity in B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni for 33 days were caused by the altered feeding response of these snails.

  16. Telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR gamma activator, alleviates liver fibrosis induced experimentally by Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic schistosomiasis is considered to be one of the most prevalent forms of chronic liver disease in the world due to its complication of liver fibrosis. The demonstration of the pro-fibrogenic role of angiotensin (Ang) II in chronic liver disease brought up the idea that anti-Ang II agents may be effective in improving hepatic fibrosis by either blocking Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors or inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) activation has been also shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation and progression of fibrosis. The present study has aimed at testing the anti-fibrogenic effects of telmisartan; an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPARγ partial agonist, alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Methods To achieve the aim of the study, two sets of experiments were performed in which telmisartan was initiated at the 5th (set 1) and the 10th (set 2) weeks post infection to assess drug efficacy in both acute and chronic stages of liver fibrosis, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: infected-control (I), telmisartan-treated (II), PZQ-treated (III), and telmisartan+PZQ-treated (IV). In addition, a normal non-infected group was used for comparison. Parasitological (hepatomesenteric worm load and oogram pattern), histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical (hepatic expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2; TIMP-2), and biochemical (serum transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF-β1 and liver function tests) studies were performed. Results Telmisartan failed to improve the parasitological parameters, while it significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean granuloma diameter, area of fibrosis, and serum TGF-β1. Additionally, telmisartan increased MMP-2 and decreased TIMP-2 hepatic expression. Combined treatment

  17. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine.

  18. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

  19. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies. PMID:23467705

  20. Variations in helminth faecal egg counts in Kato-Katz thick smears and their implications in assessing infection status with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Birhanu; Smith, Tara; Gedamu, Selamawitt; Bereded, Dereje; Moore, Rashida; Habte, Endashaw; Redda, Abraham; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Examination of stool specimens by Kato-Katz (K-K) thick smears is the standard method recommended by the WHO for field diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. However, there is increasing concern that this technique has low diagnostic sensitivity. In 326 study subjects, we compared the diagnostic yield of examining one, three or five Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg templates. In a subset of 169 subjects who had no demonstrable Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their first three Kato-Katz thick smears, we assessed the comparative advantage of examining an additional three Kato-Katz thick smears from another stool specimen, taken four weeks later, to that of cumulative yield obtained by examining all five Kato-Katz thick smears derived from the first stool specimen. For all helminth infections, single Kato-Katz thick smear-based prevalence estimates were significantly lower than those obtained from triplet or quintet Kato-Katz thick smears. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on single, triplet and quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen were 31.3%, 45.7% and 52.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimate of S. mansoni based on quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from the first day stool specimens was not different from cumulative estimate obtained with two triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from two stool specimens, 52.1% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, either examination of quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg template or initial triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen, and if these are negative, followed by examination of additional triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from subsequent day stool specimen can adequately assess individuals for infection status with S. mansoni. PMID:15533288

  1. Natural Chagas Disease in Four Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeff T.; Dick, Edward J.; VandeBerg, John L.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is common in Central and South America and the southern United States. The causative agent is Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi, Order Kinetoplastida, Family Trypanosomatidae), a kinetoplastid protozoan parasite of humans and other vertebrates. It is a serious public health issue and the leading cause of heart disease and cardiovascular death in Central and South America. In 1984 a colony baboon was discovered to be infected with T cruzi. Methods Since the initial diagnosis was made by microscopic observation of the amastigote forms of T. cruzi in myocardial fibers, T. cruzi amastigotes have been identified in three additional baboons. Results The primary findings were similar in all four baboons and were congestive heart failure with edema of dependent areas, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and multifocal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis. Conclusions A baboon animal model of Chagas disease could contribute significantly to the development of therapies for the disease in humans. PMID:18671766

  2. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and /sup 125/I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000.

  3. Efficacy of a combination of metrifonate and praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, F A

    1995-04-01

    This study aimed to test the therapeutic effect of two antischistosomal drugs metrifonate (CAS 52-68-6) and praziquantel (CAS 55268-74-1), either alone or in combination, on mice infected with schistosoma mansoni. Both drugs were given in half of their therapeutic doses 8 weeks post infection. Animals were sacrificed two weeks after the last dose. The efficacy of the drugs was evaluated using the number of ova/g tissue, the distribution and the number of Schistosoma worms. Praziquantel and metrifonate alone produced about 91% and 22% reduction in total worm burden. The reduction in ova count in intestine and liver was 96% and 85%, respectively, using praziquantel alone while it was only 6 and 12%, respectively, after metrifonate treatment. After treatment with both drugs given in combination the number of ova count was not changed as compared with praziquantel alone; also there was no change in the worm load as compared with praziquantel. It is concluded that a combination of a low dose of praziquantel with metrifonate failed to produce any significantly better effect. PMID:7779154

  4. Daily emergence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium cercariae from naturally infected snails under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, C T; de Kock, K N; Strauss, H D; Bornman, M

    2002-09-01

    The daily emergence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium cercariae was investigated under field conditions. Intermediate host snails of both schistosome species were collected during the rainy season, cold dry season and warm dry season and kept separately in test tubes in habitat water. Shed cercariae were collected from each of the test tubes at two hourly intervals, transferred to Petri dishes and counted. Mice were exposed to these cercariae to establish the identity of the schistosome parasites. Peak shedding for both species was observed at 1100 h during the rainy and warm dry seasons and at 0900 h during the cold dry season. Shedding before 0900 h was found only for S. haematobium in the rainy season while shedding after 1700 h occurred only during this season at both species. Shedding observed during 1900 h observation period was in the low category for both species. No shedding was observed during the 2100 h observation period for any of the species and the investigation was discontinued after this period. Only S. haematobium ova were found in the exposed mice. PMID:12363382

  5. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patrícia d‘Emery Alves; de Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; do Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; de Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  6. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Moxidectin, Synriam, Synriam-Praziquantel versus Praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Infections: A Randomized, Exploratory Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barda, Beatrice; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Puchkov, Maxim; Huwyler, Jörg; Hattendorf, Jan; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis affects millions of people, yet treatment options are limited. The antimalarial Synriam (piperaquine 150 mg/arterolane 750 mg) and the anthelminthic moxidectin revealed promising antischistosomal properties in preclinical or clinical studies. Methodology We conducted two single-blind, randomized exploratory Phase 2 trials in Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium-infected adolescents in northern and central Côte d’Ivoire. Our primary endpoints were cure rates (CRs) and egg reduction rates (ERRs) based on geometric mean and safety. Each subject was asked to provide two stool samples (S. mansoni trial) for Kato-Katz analysis or three urine samples (S. haematobium trial) for urine filtration and one finger prick for malaria screening at baseline and follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to either moxidectin, Synriam, Synriam plus praziquantel or praziquantel. Principal Findings 128 adolescents (age: 12–17 years) were included in each study. Against S. haematobium moxidectin and Synriam revealed low efficacy. On the other hand, Synriam plus praziquantel and praziquantel yielded CRs of 60.0% and 38.5% and ERRs of 96.0% and 93.5%, respectively. CRs observed in the treatment of S. mansoni were 13.0%, 6.7%, 27.0%, and 27.6% for moxidectin, Synriam, Synriam plus praziquantel and praziquantel, respectively. ERRs ranged from 64.9% (Synriam) to 87.5% (praziquantel). Conclusion/Significance Synriam and moxidectin show low efficacy against S. haematobium, hence an ancillary benefit is not expected when these drugs are used for treating onchocerciasis and malaria in co-endemic settings. Further studies are needed to corroborate our findings that moxidectin and Synriam show moderate ERRs against S. mansoni. PMID:27636542

  8. Replacing oxamniquine by praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Northeast Brazil: an epidemiological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Beck, L; Favre, T C; Pieri, O S; Zani, L C; Domas, G G; Barbosa, C S

    2001-01-01

    A group of 52 villagers was followed-up for three years regarding Schistosoma mansoni infection. All villagers were periodically surveyed by the Kato-Katz method. In March 1997 and March 1998 the positives were treated with oxamniquine (15-20 mg/kg), and in March 1999, with praziquantel (60 mg/kg). All infection indices decreased substantially between March 1999 and March 2000: prevalence of infection (from 32.7% to 21.2%), prevalence of moderate/heavy infection (from 7.7% to 1.9%), intensity of infection (from 23.1 epg to 7.4 epg) and reinfection (from 35.7% to 14.3%). Negativation increased from 53.8 to 82.4. An optimistic prognostic is assumed in the short term for the introduction of praziquantel in the study area.

  9. Geographical and socioeconomic factors relating to the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in an urban area of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in Santo Antonio de Jesus, a town in Bahia State, north-east Brazil, to determine the relationship between various biological, socioeconomic, behavioural, and geographical factors and the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The town's population was around 45,000 and the study was targeted at all children born in 1970-71 who were living in the town at the time of the survey (August-November 1984). An extensive questionnaire was used to collect information on each child and on family and household conditions; samples of stools were also taken for examination (Kato-Katz method). A survey of water snails was also carried out and information on the distribution of their breeding sites was plotted on a map of the area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 31.0%. Several variables that reflected different aspects of the population's way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Some of the findings are valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and its distribution in urban locations as well as for defining high-risk groups, all of which are important for planning control strategies. PMID:1905208

  10. Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.

    PubMed

    Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Stomatin Like Protein-2 Is Located in the Tegument and Induces Partial Protection against Challenge Infection

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Leonardo P.; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Miyasato, Patricia A.; Montoya, Bogar O.; Tararam, Cibele A.; Roffato, Henrique K.; Kawano, Toshie; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Coulson, Patricia S.; Wilson, R. Alan; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Leite, Luciana C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis affects more than 200 million individuals worldwide, with a further 650 million living at risk of infection, constituting a severe health problem in developing countries. Even though an effective treatment exists, it does not prevent re-infection, and the development of an effective vaccine still remains the most desirable means of control for this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we report the cloning and characterization of a S. mansoni Stomatin-like protein 2 (SmStoLP-2). In silico analysis predicts three putative sites for palmitoylation (Cys11, Cys61 and Cys330), which could contribute to protein membrane association; and a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence, similar to that described for human Stomatin-like protein 2 (HuSLP-2). The protein was detected by Western blot with comparable levels in all stages across the parasite life cycle. Fractionation by differential centrifugation of schistosome tegument suggested that SmStoLP-2 displays a dual targeting to the tegument membranes and mitochondria; additionally, immunolocalization experiments confirm its localization in the tegument of the adult worms and, more importantly, in 7-day-old schistosomula. Analysis of the antibody isotype profile to rSmStoLP-2 in the sera of patients living in endemic areas for schistosomiasis revealed that IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgA antibodies were predominant in sera of individuals resistant to reinfection as compared to those susceptible. Next, immunization of mice with rSmStoLP-2 engendered a 30%–32% reduction in adult worm burden. Protective immunity in mice was associated with specific anti-rSmStoLP-2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and elevated production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, while no IL-4 production was detected, suggesting a Th1-predominant immune response. Conclusions/Significance Data presented here demonstrate that SmStoLP-2 is a novel tegument protein located in the host-parasite interface. It is recognized by different

  12. Trichobezoars in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Mejido, Diana C.P.; Dick, Edward J.; Williams, Priscilla C.; Sharp, R. Mark; Andrade, Marcia C.R.; DiCarlo, C.D.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little information available concerning trichobezoars in the nonhuman primate literature. Methods We evaluated 118 cases of trichobezoar in baboons over a 29 year period at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Results The anatomic locations affected in decreasing order were the stomach, small intestine, cecum, esophagus, and colon. The most common clinical history was weight loss. The most frequent associated pathology included gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration, emaciation, peritonitis, intussusception, pneumonia, and aspiration. Trichobezoars were the cause of death in 9 baboons and the reason for euthanasia in 12. Females were 2.14 times more likely than males to be affected. The greater the percentage of group housing time, the more likely the baboon was to develop trichobezoars. Conclusions The baboon may present a useful model to evaluate the etiology, genetic predisposition, physiopathology, neurobiology, and treatment response of trichobezoars. PMID:19457157

  13. Baboon and Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Jerome J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Picasso's freestanding sculpture Baboon and Young, and art activities for using the sculpture with elementary and secondary students are suggested. A listing of resources is also included. (RM)

  14. Differential Spatial Repositioning of Activated Genes in Biomphalaria glabrata Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M.; Knight, Matty

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in

  15. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion.

  16. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  17. Antischistosomal effects of praziquantel, its alkaline hydrolysis and sun decomposed products on experimentally S. mansoni infected albino mice. (A) Efficacy assessment based on clinicopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M I; Akarim, E I; Ibrahim, K E E; Saad, A M; Mohammed, A E; Ahmed, B M; Sulaiman, S M

    2004-04-01

    The antischistosomal activity of praziquantel (PZQ), its alkaline hydrolysis product (HP) and its sun-decomposed (SD) products was investigated in S. mansoni experimentally infected mice. The evaluation was made depending on the degree of clinico-pathological changes. The results obtained revealed that, PZQ, HP and the SD have induced partial suppression of worm fecundity as judged by the significant reduction in eggs per gram of faeces in comparison with the infected untreated control. The effect on tissue egg deposition in the treated groups was comparable to the infection of untrea ted control. Worm recovery showed large reduction in the number of worms for SD (47.6%) and HP (28.6%) compared to PZQ (16.6%) treated groups. So, the former two compounds have the superior antischistosomal activities. Glutamate pyruvate transominase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) concentrations were measured. The GOT values for all treated groups were significantly higher than those for the healthy control group (p=0.01). The SD group enzyme concentration was even higher than the infected untreated control. The GPT values of all groups were greater than the uninfected control and the difference was significant for the infected untreated, PZQ and the SD treated groups (p=0.05). PMID:15143740

  18. Reovirus-associated meningoencephalomyelitis in baboons.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Dick, E J; Bommineni, Y R; Yang, A; Mubiru, J; Hubbard, G B; Owston, M A

    2014-05-01

    Baboon orthoreovirus (BRV) is associated with meningoencephalomyelitis (MEM) among captive baboons. Sporadic cases of suspected BRV-induced MEM have been observed at Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) for the past 20 years but could not be confirmed due to lack of diagnostic assays. An immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assay using an antibody against BRV fusion-associated small transmembrane protein p15 and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay using primers specific for BRV were developed to detect BRV in archived tissues. Sixty-eight cases of suspected BRV-induced MEM from 1989 through 2010 were tested for BRV, alphavirus, and flavivirus by IHC. Fifty-nine of 68 cases (87%) were positive for BRV by immunohistochemistry; 1 tested positive for flavivirus (but was negative for West Nile virus and St Louis encephalitis virus by real-time PCR), and 1 virus isolation (VI) positive control tested negative for BRV. Sixteen cases (9 BRV-negative and 7 BRV-positive cases, by IHC), along with VI-positive and VI-negative controls, were tested by PCR for BRV. Three (of 9) IHC-negative cases tested positive, and 3 (of 7) IHC-positive cases tested negative by PCR for BRV. Both IHC and PCR assays tested 1 VI-positive control as negative (sensitivity: 75%). This study shows that most cases of viral MEM among baboons at SNPRC are associated with BRV infection, and the BRV should be considered a differential diagnosis for nonsuppurative MEM in baboons.

  19. Changes in collagen and albumin mRNA in liver tissue of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni as determined by in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have employed in situ hybridization to evaluate the molecular mechanisms responsible for hypoalbuminemia and increased liver collagen content in murine schistosomiasis. Results were compared using a simplified method of hybridizing isolated hepatocytes from Schistosoma mansoni-infected and normal mouse liver with mouse albumin (pmalb-2) and chick pro-alpha 2(l) collagen (pCg45) probes. Whereas hepatocytes from infected mice showed significantly less albumin mRNA than hepatocytes from control, there were more grains of procollagen mRNA in hepatocytes from infected as compared with control liver. Hybridization of infected liver tissue sections with the collagen probe showed more grains per field in granulomas than in liver regions, whereas with the albumin probe there was more hybridization in liver tissue than in granulomas. These results suggest that in murine schistosomiasis a reduction in albumin mRNA sequence content may be associated with decreased albumin synthesis and ultimately leads to hypoalbuminemia. In addition, although the granuloma seems to be the primary source of type I collagen synthesis, hepatocytes are also capable of synthesizing collagen, especially under fibrogenic stimulation. PMID:6619195

  20. Parasitological, hematological and ultrastructural study of the effect of COX-2 inhibitor, pyocyanin pigment and praziquantel, on S. mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amira H; Ezz El-Din, Nashwa; Fahmy, Zeinab H; El-Shennawy, Amal M; Hassan, Eman

    2006-04-01

    The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, such (as meloxicam, and pyocyanin pigment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with and without praziquantel (PZQ) on worms, ova count, bone marrow and blood cells in 7 groups of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was studied. The results revealed significant decrease of worm burden and ova count in all treated groups as compared to the infected untreated group, while those with combined treatment of PZQ and meloxicam or pyocyanin showed complete eradication of the worm with the highest reduction in the tissue egg load. EM showed extensive swelling and vesiculation of the tegument, completely implanted spines that overlie degenerated muscle layer were obvious in groups treated with either meloxicam or pyocyanin. Hematological study revealed significant increase (P<0.05) of total leucocytic count of PZQ treated group while that treated with either meloxicam or pyocyanin showed significant decrease (P<0.05), but in combination of PZQ with meloxicam or pyocyanin no significant difference as compared to the infected untreated group. The neutrophil was the main cell affected in groups treated with neither meloxicam nor pyocyanin alone with significant decrease (P<0.05), but with significant increase (P<0.05) in combination with PZQ as compared to the infected untreated group. Those treated with PZQ plus meloxicam showed significant increase as compared to that plus pyocyanin. Eosinophil count showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in all treated groups as compared to the infected untreated group. Inverse correlation between serum level of sFas and peripheral neutrophil count was detected. Ultrastructural study of the bone marrow explained the results as groups treated with meloxicam revealed dissociation between nuclear and cytoplasmic development in the neutophils with cytoplasm maintaining primitive appearance despite maturation of the nucleus, that is manifested by the persistent production of immature granules and the still

  1. Identification of surface antigens of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni recognized by antibodies from mice immunized by chronic infection and by exposure to highly irradiated cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.J.; James, S.L.; Sher, A.

    1983-08-01

    Surface components of mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination. After solubilization with Triton X-100, antigens were identified by immunoprecipitation. Serum from chronically infected Swiss mice reproducibly precipitated seven major polypeptides with approximate molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 68, 45, 40 to 32, 22, and 16. The antigens of molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 40 to 32, 22, and 16 were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. Sera from several strains of infected inbred mice precipitated the same polypeptides. The antibodies produced during chronic infection were found to be stimulated by adult worms since sera from 6-week-infected animals precipitated none of the surface antigens, and the pattern produced by precipitation with antibodies from a mouse infected with male worms only was indistinguishable from the pattern obtained with sera from mice with bisexual infections. Antibodies from mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae reproducibly precipitated major polypeptides of approximately (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 68, 45, 32, 22, 19, and 15 daltons. The antigens of (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 43, 32, 22, and 15 daltons were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. The 15 X 10(3)-dalton surface protein was recognized by sera from vaccinated, but not chronically infected, mice, suggesting that it represents a stage-specific immunogen present on schistosomula but not on adult worms. Sera from two inbred strains of mice which develop different degrees of immunity recognized the same antigens.

  2. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni Prevalence and Intensity of Infection, as Determined by the Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Assay or by the Kato-Katz Fecal Assay: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Nupur; Castleman, Jennifer D.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between results from Kato-Katz (KK) fecal microscopy and urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) assays for Schistosoma mansoni infection remains a critical issue. This systematic literature review of 25 published papers compares prevalence of S. mansoni infection by KK with that by the POC-CCA assay. Nineteen published studies met our inclusion criteria for data extraction and analysis. Above a prevalence of 50% by KK, KK and POC-CCA results yielded essentially the same prevalence. Below 50% prevalence by KK, the prevalence by the POC-CCA assay was between 1.5- and 6-fold higher and increased as prevalence by KK decreased. Five of nine publications met inclusion criteria for extractable data on intensity of S. mansoni infection by KK assay and visual band density using the POC-CCA assay. A clear positive relationship exists between intensity by the KK and POC-CCA assays. This systematic review indicates that below 50% prevalence, the POC-CCA assay is much more sensitive than the KK assay. However, the existing data are inadequate to precisely define the relationship between POC-CCA and KK at lower levels of KK prevalence. More studies directly comparing the two assays in low-prevalence areas are essential to inform decision-making by national schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:26755565

  3. A parasitological study on the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from the Northern Transvaal.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S

    1978-07-01

    Baboons imported into Rhodesia from the Northern Transvaal proved to be heavily infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. In fact, six protozoan species, one cestode and eight nematode species were recorded. A new concept in "identification graphs" is included in the paper which allows one to read off directly the species of strongyle eggs being passed by baboons in Southern Africa based upon length and breadth measurements of the eggs. Treatment of Balantidium coli and nematode infections of baboons is discussed as is the implication of some of these intestinal parasite infections in terms of potential human infection under natural conditions. PMID:104037

  4. The epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infections in the Egypt-49 project area. 2. Prevalence of bilharziasis in relation to personal attributes and habits.

    PubMed

    Farooq, M; Nielsen, J; Samaan, S A; Mallah, M B; Allam, A A

    1966-01-01

    The over-all uncorrected prevalence rates of bilharziasis determined in this survey were-Control Division, 59.5%; Rural and Reclamation Divisions, 35.9%; Urban Division, 21.0%. There are significant differences in rates of infection between sections within a division, between adjacent villages and even between different parts of one village. Prevalence increases rapidly with age up to about the age of 14 years, declines somewhat up to the age of 40 years and then remains fairly constant at a rate of about 30%; the age-group 0-8 years should provide the most sensitive group for the assessment of control measures. S. mansoni infection is acquired more slowly than S. haematobium infection during childhood and is more persistent among adults.Except for the youngest age-group, bilharziasis rates are higher in males than in females, but more detailed analysis shows that this is true only for farmers and farm labourers and for those who swim. In respect of occupational categories, farmers and farm labourers, with prevalence rates of 50.6% and 41.6%, respectivelx, bear the brunt of the infection, since they constitute 48% of the population, although fishermen (60.4%) and boatmen (52.0%) have higher infection rates.Differences in bilharziasis rates can also be related to differences in religion, educational attainment and domestic habits (swimming, washing clothes, utensils and cattle) according to the opportunity provided for contact with polluted water. Swimming, because of the thorough exposure to possible schistosome infection that it provides, is one of the most important activities involved in the transmission of bilharziasis. PMID:5297627

  5. P selectin and T cell profiles provide verification to understand the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis in HCV and Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Mahmoud M; Romeyia, Salah A; Ali, Mohamed M; Aziz, Heisham A; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Schistosoma mansoni are two major causes of chronic liver disease (CLD). Both immune alteration and thrombocytopenia are common complications in the majority of cirrhotic patients. The current study aimed to monitor the effect of T cell profile and platelets activation on the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis in patients suffered from single or concomitant schistosomiasis and HCV infections. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: Group I, patients infected with schistosomiasis; Group II, patients infected with HCV; Group III, patients with combined liver diseases and Group IV: healthy individuals. All groups were subjected to full clinical evaluation as well as laboratory examination including ELISA anti-HCV antibodies screening, parasitological examination, and complete blood picture as well as flow cytometry for CD41, CD42, CD62P (P selectin), CD63, CD4 and CD8. The platelets count was significantly decreased in HCV and/or schistosoma infected patients compared to controls. The percentage of the total T-lymphocytes and T-helper was significantly reduced in all infected groups, while the percentage of T-cytotoxic was increased. The patients possessed a significantly higher percentage of the platelets activation markers than control group. There were considerable correlations between the platelets counts and P selectin and MFI. Thrombocytopenia was a common finding in patients with CLD. Patients with CLD showed increased platelets activation which may contribute to the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and play a role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Infected patient showed reduction in the cell-mediated-immunity as evidenced by low T -helper cells.

  6. Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Young Children: When Are Schistosome Antigens in Urine, Eggs in Stool and Antibodies to Eggs First Detectable?

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, J. Russell; Sousa-Figuereido, Jose C.; Betson, Martha; Adriko, Moses; Arinaitwe, Moses; Rowell, Candia; Besiyge, Fred; Kabatereine, Narcis B.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Uganda, control of intestinal schistosomiasis with preventive chemotherapy is typically focused towards treatment of school-aged children; the needs of younger children are presently being investigated as in lakeshore communities very young children can be infected. In the context of future epidemiological monitoring, we sought to compare the detection thresholds of available diagnostic tools for Schistosoma mansoni and estimate a likely age of first infection for these children. Methods and Findings A total of 242 infants and preschool children (134 boys and 108 girls, mean age 2.9 years, minimum 5 months and maximum 5 years) were examined from Bugoigo, a well-known disease endemic village on Lake Albert. Schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and host antibodies to eggs were inspected to reveal a general prevalence of 47.5% (CI95 41.1–54.0%), as ascertained by a positive criterion from at least one diagnostic method. Although children as young as 6 months old could be found infected, the average age of infected children was between 3¼–3¾ years, when diagnostic techniques became broadly congruent. Conclusion Whilst different assays have particular (dis)advantages, direct detection of eggs in stool was least sensitive having a temporal lag behind antigen and antibody methods. Setting precisely a general age of first infection is problematic but if present Ugandan policies continue, a large proportion of infected children could wait up to 3–4 years before receiving first medication. To better tailor treatment needs for this younger ageclass, we suggest that the circulating cathodic antigen urine dipstick method to be used as an epidemiological indicator. PMID:21245910

  7. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use. PMID:25870418

  8. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use.

  9. In vivo effects of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on immune responsiveness of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Reduction of irradiated cercariae-induced resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.A.; Colley, D.G.

    1988-04-15

    Mice can be partially protected against challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by either single or multiple exposure to irradiated cercariae (x-cerc). The participation of L3T4+ lymphocytes on this resistance phenomenon was evaluated by selectively depleting this cell population through in vivo administration of mAb anti-L3T4 at three different times in relationship to the challenge infections. Treatment with anti-L3T4 before challenge such that depletion was effective during the time of cercarial skin penetration and dermal/s.c. residence significantly reduced the level of resistance induced by x-cerc sensitization. When treatment was delayed until after challenge, depletion of L3T4+ cells coincided with either the lung or post-lung/liver phases of schistosomular migration, and normal levels of x-cerc-induced resistance were induced. In contrast to once-immunized mice, mice hyperimmunized by five exposures to x-cerc and then depleted of L3T4+ cells at the time of challenge still expressed resistance to the challenge. These data suggest that when mice are sensitized only once with x-cerc the challenge infection provides a necessary immunologic boost which requires L3T4+ cells for effective expression of resistance. The requirement for this anamnestic effect by the challenge infection can be circumvented by hyperimmunization. Evaluation of the immune response of one-time sensitized or hyperimmunized mice demonstrated that cellular Ag-specific proliferative responses and mitogen-induced lymphokine production were abrogated after any of the various in vivo regimens of anti-L3T4 antibody. In contrast, immunoblot analysis of humoral responsiveness revealed a correlation between the expression of resistance and the ability of sera from immunized and anti-L3T4 treated mice to recognize a 75-kDa parasite antigenic component.

  10. Effect of a combination of the new antischistosomal drug Ro 15-5458 and praziquantel on different strains of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Kamel, G; Metwally, A; Guirguis, F; Nessim, N G; Noseir, M

    2000-04-01

    The possible additive or synergistic effects of both praziquantel (CAS 55268-74-1) and a new antischistosomal drug, Ro 15-5458 (10-(2-diethylamino)thyl)-9-acridanone(thiazolidin-2-yl-i dene)hydrazone, CAS 92928-47-7) were studied in two different strains of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice, namely CD susceptible and SO4 resistant strains. Assessment of cure was performed using the following parameters: hepatic and intestinal tissue egg load and distribution, oogram changes in the small intestine and histopathological examination of the mice livers. In this study, a combination was used between 1/3 the curative doses of praziquantel and Ro 15-5458. This combination therapy proved to be beneficial as regards the percentage parasite reduction and hepatic worm shift (99.4% and 100%, respectively, in the CD susceptible mouse strains, compared to 84.1% and 34.8% in the SO4 resistant strains). Treatment with subcurative doses of praziquantel and Ro 15-5458 resulted in 78.6% intestinal dead ova and 21.4% mature ones. This score shifted to 98.6% and 1.4% dead and mature ova, respectively, in the SO4 resistant strains. Again the range of liver granulomata in the CD susceptible and SO4 resistant strains receiving subcurative doses of both drugs was 4-6 and 2-5, respectively, in five successive low power fields, while in the infected untreated control mice, this range reached 8-11 and 5-9, respectively. Histopathological sections of the liver revealed a small fibrocellular granuloma with few inflammatory cells and excess fibrous collagen tissue deposition in animals undergoing the combination therapy. This contrasts with the large fibrocellular granulomata seen in the infected untreated control mice. These results may be of value in endemic areas of schistosomiasis, due to the unexpected emergence of drug resistance against the currently used antischistosomal drug, praziquantel in these areas. PMID:10800639

  11. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  12. Whole genome resequencing of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni reveals population history and effects of selection

    PubMed Central

    Crellen, Thomas; Allan, Fiona; David, Sophia; Durrant, Caroline; Huckvale, Thomas; Holroyd, Nancy; Emery, Aidan M.; Rollinson, David; Aanensen, David M.; Berriman, Matthew; Webster, Joanne P.; Cotton, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic fluke that infects millions of people in the developing world. This study presents the first application of population genomics to S. mansoni based on high-coverage resequencing data from 10 global isolates and an isolate of the closely-related Schistosoma rodhaini, which infects rodents. Using population genetic tests, we document genes under directional and balancing selection in S. mansoni that may facilitate adaptation to the human host. Coalescence modeling reveals the speciation of S. mansoni and S. rodhaini as 107.5–147.6KYA, a period which overlaps with the earliest archaeological evidence for fishing in Africa. Our results indicate that S. mansoni originated in East Africa and experienced a decline in effective population size 20–90KYA, before dispersing across the continent during the Holocene. In addition, we find strong evidence that S. mansoni migrated to the New World with the 16–19th Century Atlantic Slave Trade. PMID:26879532

  13. Suppressive effect of a chronic helminth infection, schistosomiasis mansoni, on the in vitro responses of spleen and lymph node cells to the T cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Pelley, R P; Ruffier, J J; Warren, K S

    1976-01-01

    Chronic murine schistosomiasis mansoni is associated with depressed cell-mediated immune responses to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens. The present study has examined the possibility that factors develop during infection that are capable of altering the response of lymphocytes to stimuli other than specific schistosomal antigens. Egg production begins at 5 weeks, and 1 to 3 weeks later there is a moderate degree of unresponsiveness of lymph node and spleen cells to the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. This was associated with an altered dose response curve to the mitogens similar to that observed in antigenic systems. Seven weeks after the initiation of antigenic stimulation (egg prodiction lymph node and spleen cells from chronically infected animals were profoundly unresponsive to all concentrations of concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin tested. These investigations suggest that, in addition to possible blockade by serum antibody, other suppressive factors may be involved in the spontaneous modulation of immunopathology in chronic schistosomiasis. These are detectable 1 to 3 weeks after the onset of egg production and are prominent at 12 weeks. Such findings are consistent with, but do not prove, the existence of suppressor T cells in chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:1084329

  14. Osteopontin Is Upregulated in Human and Murine Acute Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Syn, Wing-Kin; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Cunha, Pedro Henrique Diniz; Caporali, Julia Fonseca Morais; Trindade, Guilherme Vaz de Melo; Santos, Elisângela Trindade; Souza, Márcia Maria; Andrade, Zilton Araújo; Witek, Rafal P; Secor, William Evan; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum/plasma osteopontin levels were measured by ELISA in patients with acute (n = 28), hepatointestinal (n = 26), hepatosplenic (n = 39) schistosomiasis and in uninfected controls (n = 21). Liver osteopontin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in needle biopsies of 5 patients. Sera and hepatic osteopontin were quantified in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni during acute (7 and 8 weeks post infection, n = 10) and chronic (30 weeks post infection, n = 8) phase. Circulating osteopontin levels are increased in patients with acute schistosomiasis (p = 0.0001). The highest levels of OPN were observed during the peak of clinical symptoms (7–11 weeks post infection), returning to baseline level once the granulomas were modulated (>12 weeks post infection). The plasma levels in acute schistosomiasis were even higher than in hepatosplenic patients. The murine model mirrored the human disease. Macrophages were the major source of OPN in human and murine acute schistosomiasis, while the ductular reaction maintains OPN production in hepatosplenic disease. Soluble egg antigens from S. mansoni induced OPN expression in primary human kupffer cells. Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni egg antigens induce the production of OPN by macrophages in the necrotic-exudative granulomas characteristic of acute schistosomiasis mansoni. Circulating OPN levels are upregulated in human and

  15. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of hamadryas baboons Papio hamadryas in the western and northern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ghandour, A M; Zahid, N Z; Banaja, A A; Kamal, K B; Bouq, A I

    1995-12-01

    Six hundred and thirty-three faecal samples were randomly collected and examined for ova and cysts of intestinal parasites from five groups of hamadryas baboons of different population densities, with different human contact and in different ecological conditions (Al-Baha, Turabah and Al-Taif in south-western and Al-Rihat and Al-Akhal in north-western Saudi Arabia). Nine parasites were recorded (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Escherichia coli, Balantidium coli, Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., Hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Schistosoma mansoni) in 274 samples (43.28%). The prevalence of parasites was high (36.0-58.5%) in areas of mild, cool climatic conditions, where baboons were at high density and had maximum human contact. However, in an area (Al-Akhal) of hot, dry climatic conditions, low baboon density and minimum human contact, the parasites' prevalence was very low (9.5%). The concentration of parasites (ova or cysts per g of faeces) was medium. Post-mortem examination of 24, 20, 19 and 13 baboons from Al-Baha, Al-Taif, Turabah and Al-Rihat revealed most of the parasites recorded in random faecal samples at prevalence rates of 37.5, 30.0, 36.0 and 23.0% respectively. The overall prevalence rate was 32.9%. Most of the parasites recorded in baboons were also recorded in humans in the areas of study. PMID:8544227

  16. The rehabilitation of captive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kessel, A; Brent, L

    2001-04-01

    Eleven baboons who had been singly housed indoors for an average of 5 years were moved to outdoor social groups in an attempt to provide a more species-typical environment and reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Nine of the baboons were observed while in single housing and, over a 6-month period, while housed outdoors socially to document long-term changes in behavior. Abnormal behavior decreased significantly from an average of 14% of the observation time in the single cages to 3% in the sixth month of social housing. Cage manipulation and self-directed behaviors also significantly decreased, while social behavior, enrichment-directed behavior, and locomotion increased in social housing. Baboons that had been in long-term indoor single housing were able to reproduce and form stable social groups without injury. This study provides evidence that even behaviorally disturbed nonhuman primates can be successfully rehabilitated to live in social groups.

  17. [Infanticide in hamadryas baboons].

    PubMed

    Chalian, V G; Meĭshvili, N V

    1990-01-01

    The results of 20-year study of infanticide cases in hamadryas baboon troop of the Sukhumi colony and 10-year observations in Gumista Natural Reserve are presented. The allopatric behaviour which may be the cause of infant death, is shown to be common for 4-7 year old males. In behaviour of older males directed to the infants the elements of aggression predominate. The majority of injuries and infanticide by males takes place in the situations associated with a dominant male change in the group or with the introduction of new females into the groups. In the groups where the social relationships are not fully organized, the appearance of infant leads to decrease of dominant male function and to appropriation of infant by a male and its traumatizing. As a result of infanticide the infants of young 4-7 year old females die most of all. The death of infants commonly occurs during the introduction of young males into the group. The probability of infanticide during the introduction of older males is lower.

  18. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp)

    PubMed Central

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-01-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation. PMID:25926401

  19. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp).

    PubMed

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-04-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation.

  20. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.

  1. Congenital anomalies in the baboon (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Benjamin; Owston, Michael A.; Kumar, Shyamesh; Dick, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Background A comprehensive survey of the prevalence of congenital anomalies in baboons has not been previously reported. We report the congenital anomalies observed over a 26-year period in a large captive baboon colony. Methods A computer search was performed for all baboon congenital anomalies identified at necropsy and recorded on necropsy submissions. Results We identified 198 congenital anomalies in 166 baboons from 9,972 necropsies (1.66% of total necropsies). The nervous, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems were most commonly affected. The most common organs affected were the brain, bone, heart, testicle, kidney, penis, aorta, and skeletal muscle. The most frequent congenital anomalies were blindness, seizures, and hydrocephalus. Conclusions The baboon has an overall frequency of congenital anomalies similar to humans and other nonhuman primates. Although the most frequently affected systems are similar, congenital anomalies involving the digestive system appear to be less common in the baboon. PMID:21332757

  2. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio)

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  3. Spontaneous pancreatic islet amyloidosis in 40 baboons.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Steele, K E; Davis, K J; Leland, M M

    2002-04-01

    Spontaneous amyloidosis occurs in many nonhuman primate species but remains difficult to diagnose and treat. Nonhuman primates continue to offer promise as animal models in which to study amyloidosis in humans. Amyloidosis was not diagnosed clinically but was found histologically in four male and 36 female baboons. The baboons averaged 18 years of age at death (range, 7-28 years). Clinical signs, if present, were hyperglycemia and cachexia. Blood glucose values were elevated in 12 of 30 baboons with available clinical pathology data. Four baboons had been clinically diagnosed as diabetic and three were treated with insulin. Amyloid was found in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in 40 baboons; 35 baboons had amyloid only in the islets of Langerhans. Amyloid was found in nonislet tissue of baboons as follows: five, nonislet pancreas; four, intestine and adrenal; three, kidney; two, prostate and spleen; and one each, lymph node, liver, gall bladder, stomach, tongue, urinary bladder, and salivary gland. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were evaluated for amyloid with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and congo red (CR) staining, and using immunohistochemistry for human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin (SS), and porcine insulin. Islet amyloid was positive with HE in 40 baboons, with CR in 39 baboons, and with IAPP and CGRP in 35 baboons. IAPP and CGRP only stained islet amyloid. PP, SS, glucagon, and porcine insulin did not stain amyloid. Islet amyloidosis in the baboon appears to be difficult to diagnose clinically, age-related, and similar to islet amyloidosis in other species. The baboon may be a good model for the study of islet amyloidosis in humans.

  4. Two Novel Simian Arteriviruses in Captive and Wild Baboons (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Pecotte, Jerilyn; Rice, Karen; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Hyeroba, David; Greene, Justin; Correll, Michael; Gleicher, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the 1960s, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Nidovirales, Arteriviridae) has caused highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive Asian macaque colonies. However, the source(s) of these outbreaks and the natural reservoir(s) of this virus remain obscure. Here we report the identification of two novel, highly divergent simian arteriviruses related to SHFV, Mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 (MYBV-1) and Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1), in wild and captive baboons, respectively, and demonstrate the recent transmission of SWBV-1 among captive baboons. These findings extend our knowledge of the genetic and geographic diversity of the simian arteriviruses, identify baboons as a natural host of these viruses, and provide further evidence that baboons may have played a role in previous outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever in macaques, as has long been suspected. This knowledge should aid in the prevention of disease outbreaks in captive macaques and supports the growing body of evidence that suggests that simian arterivirus infections are common in Old World monkeys of many different species throughout Africa. IMPORTANCE Historically, the emergence of primate viruses both in humans and in other primate species has caused devastating outbreaks of disease. One strategy for preventing the emergence of novel primate pathogens is to identify microbes with the potential for cross-species transmission in their natural state within reservoir species from which they might emerge. Here, we detail the discovery and characterization of two related simian members of the Arteriviridae family that have a history of disease emergence and host switching. Our results expand the phylogenetic and geographic range of the simian arteriviruses and define baboons as a natural host for these viruses. Our findings also identify a potential threat to captive macaque colonies by showing that simian arteriviruses are actively circulating in captive baboons. PMID

  5. Interaction of Schistosoma mansoni Sporocysts and Hemocytes of Biomphalaria

    PubMed Central

    Negrão-Corrêa, D.; Mattos, A. C. A.; Pereira, C. A. J.; Martins-Souza, R. L.; Coelho, P. M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human infection by Schistosoma mansoni affects more than 100 million people worldwide, most often in populations of developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The transmission of S. mansoni in human populations depends on the presence of some species of Biomphalaria that act as an intermediate host. The compatibility between S. mansoni and its intermediate host is influenced by behavioral, physiological, and genetical factors of the mollusc and the parasite. The susceptibility level of the mollusc has been attributed to the capacity of internal defense system (IDS)—hemocytes and soluble components of the hemolymph—to recognize and destroy the parasite, and this will be the center of interest of this paper. The schistosome-resistant Biomphalaria can be an alternative strategy for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:22811885

  6. Impact of Schistosoma mansoni on Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Skrip, Laura; Greenhalgh, Scott; Hotez, Peter; Galvani, Alison P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa harbors the majority of the global burden of malaria and schistosomiasis infections. The co-endemicity of these two tropical diseases has prompted investigation into the mechanisms of coinfection, particularly the competing immunological responses associated with each disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni is associated with a greater malaria incidence among school-age children. Methodology We developed a co-epidemic model of malaria and S. mansoni transmission dynamics which takes into account key epidemiological interaction between the two diseases in terms of elevated malaria incidence among individuals with S. mansoni high egg output. The model was parameterized for S. mansoni high-risk endemic communities, using epidemiological and clinical data of the interaction between S. mansoni and malaria among children in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the potential impact of the S. mansoni–malaria interaction and mass treatment of schistosomiasis on malaria prevalence in co-endemic communities. Principal Findings Our results suggest that in the absence of mass drug administration of praziquantel, the interaction between S. mansoni and malaria may reduce the effectiveness of malaria treatment for curtailing malaria transmission, in S. mansoni high-risk endemic communities. However, when malaria treatment is used in combination with praziquantel, mass praziquantel administration may increase the effectiveness of malaria control intervention strategy for reducing malaria prevalence in malaria- S. mansoni co-endemic communities. Conclusions/Significance Schistosomiasis treatment and control programmes in regions where S. mansoni and malaria are highly prevalent may have indirect benefits on reducing malaria transmission as a result of disease interactions. In particular, mass praziquantel administration may not only have the direct benefit of reducing schistosomiasis infection, it may also

  7. Combined immunization using DNA-Sm14 and DNA-Hsp65 increases CD8+ memory T cells, reduces chronic pathology and decreases egg viability during Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected diseases found in developing countries and affects 249 million people worldwide. The development of an efficient vaccination strategy is essential for the control of this disease. Previous work showed partial protection induced by DNA-Sm14 against Schistosoma mansoni infection, whereas DNA-Hsp65 showed immunostimulatory properties against infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, cancer and antifibrotic properties in an egg-induced granuloma model. Methods C57BL/6 mice received 4 doses of DNA-Sm14 (100 μg/dose) and DNA-Hsp65 (100 μg/dose), simultaneously administrated, or DNA-Sm14 alone, once a week, during four weeks. Three groups were included: 1- Control (no immunization); 2- DNA-Sm14; 3- DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65. Two weeks following last immunization, animals were challenged subcutaneously with 30 cercariae. Fifteen, 48 and 69 days after infection splenocytes were collected to evaluate the number of CD8+ memory T cells (CD44highCD62low) using flow cytometry. Forty-eight days after challenge adult worms were collected by portal veins perfusion and intestines were collected to analyze the intestinal egg viability. Histological, immunohistochemical and soluble quantification of collagen and α-SMA accumulation were performed on the liver. Results In the current work, we tested a new vaccination strategy using DNA-Sm14 with DNA-Hsp65 to potentiate the protection against schistosomiasis. Combined vaccination increased the number of CD8+ memory T cells and decreased egg viability on the intestinal wall of infected mice. In addition, simultaneous vaccination with DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65 reduced collagen and α-SMA accumulation during the chronic phase of granuloma formation. Conclusion Simultaneous vaccination with DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65 showed an immunostimulatory potential and antifibrotic property that is associated with the reduction of tissue damage on Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection. PMID

  8. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Miracidium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Rotgans, Bronwyn A; Strong, April; Liang, Di; Ni, Guoying; Limpanont, Yanin; Ramasoota, Pongrama; McManus, Donald P; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive control efforts, schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in developing nations in the tropics and sub-tropics. The miracidium, along with the cercaria, both of which are water-borne and free-living, are the only two stages in the life-cycle of Schistosoma mansoni which are involved in host invasion. Miracidia penetrate intermediate host snails and develop into sporocysts, which lead to cercariae that can infect humans. Infection of the snail host by the miracidium represents an ideal point at which to interrupt the parasite's life-cycle. This research focuses on an analysis of the miracidium proteome, including those proteins that are secreted. We have identified a repertoire of proteins in the S. mansoni miracidium at 2 hours post-hatch, including proteases, venom allergen-like proteins, receptors and HSP70, which might play roles in snail-parasite interplay. Proteins involved in energy production and conservation were prevalent, as were proteins predicted to be associated with defence. This study also provides a strong foundation for further understanding the roles that neurohormones play in host-seeking by schistosomes, with the potential for development of novel anthelmintics that interfere with its various life-cycle stages. PMID:26799066

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Miracidium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Rotgans, Bronwyn A.; Strong, April; Liang, Di; Ni, Guoying; Limpanont, Yanin; Ramasoota, Pongrama; McManus, Donald P.; Cummins, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive control efforts, schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in developing nations in the tropics and sub-tropics. The miracidium, along with the cercaria, both of which are water-borne and free-living, are the only two stages in the life-cycle of Schistosoma mansoni which are involved in host invasion. Miracidia penetrate intermediate host snails and develop into sporocysts, which lead to cercariae that can infect humans. Infection of the snail host by the miracidium represents an ideal point at which to interrupt the parasite’s life-cycle. This research focuses on an analysis of the miracidium proteome, including those proteins that are secreted. We have identified a repertoire of proteins in the S. mansoni miracidium at 2 hours post-hatch, including proteases, venom allergen-like proteins, receptors and HSP70, which might play roles in snail-parasite interplay. Proteins involved in energy production and conservation were prevalent, as were proteins predicted to be associated with defence. This study also provides a strong foundation for further understanding the roles that neurohormones play in host-seeking by schistosomes, with the potential for development of novel anthelmintics that interfere with its various life-cycle stages. PMID:26799066

  11. Baboon syndrome induced by hydroxyzine.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hayet; Belhadjali, Hichem; Youssef, Monia; Mokni, Sana; Zili, Jamelediine

    2013-05-01

    Hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions are very rare. We report here a typical case of drug-related Baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) which was induced by hydroxyzine in a 60-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive patch and oral accidental provocation tests with hydroxyzine. Patch tests and oral provocation tests with cetirizine and levocetirizine were negative. A review of the literature identified only 17 reported cases of hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of hydroxyzine-induced SDRIFE. PMID:23723506

  12. Epidemiology and interactions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus – 1 and Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1/AIDS and Schistosoma mansoni are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and co-infection occurs commonly. Since the early 1990s, it has been suggested that the two infections may interact and potentiate the effects of each other within co-infected human hosts. Indeed, S. mansoni infection has been suggested to be a risk factor for HIV transmission and progression in Africa. If so, it would follow that mass deworming could have beneficial effects on HIV-1 transmission dynamics. The epidemiology of HIV in African countries is changing, shifting from urban to rural areas where the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is high and public health services are deficient. On the other side, the consequent pathogenesis of HIV-1/S. mansoni co-infection remains unknown. Here we give an account of the epidemiology of HIV-1 and S. mansoni, discuss co-infection and possible biological causal relationships between the two infections, and the potential impact of praziquantel treatment on HIV-1 viral loads, CD4+ counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Our review of the available literature indicates that there is evidence to support the hypothesis that S. mansoni infections can influence the replication of the HIV-1, cell-to-cell transmission, as well as increase HIV progression as measured by reduced CD4+ T lymphocytes counts. If so, then deworming of HIV positive individuals living in endemic areas may impact on HIV-1 viral loads and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. PMID:23849678

  13. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  14. Alternatively Activated Mononuclear Phagocytes from the Skin Site of Infection and the Impact of IL-4Rα Signalling on CD4+T Cell Survival in Draining Lymph Nodes after Repeated Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Catriona T.; Sanin, David E.; Mountford, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    In a murine model of repeated exposure of the skin to infective Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, events leading to the priming of CD4 cells in the skin draining lymph nodes were examined. The dermal exudate cell (DEC) population recovered from repeatedly (4x) exposed skin contained an influx of mononuclear phagocytes comprising three distinct populations according to their differential expression of F4/80 and MHC-II. As determined by gene expression analysis, all three DEC populations (F4/80-MHC-IIhigh, F4/80+MHC-IIhigh, F4/80+MHC-IIint) exhibited major up-regulation of genes associated with alternative activation. The gene encoding RELMα (hallmark of alternatively activated cells) was highly up-regulated in all three DEC populations. However, in 4x infected mice deficient in RELMα, there was no change in the extent of inflammation at the skin infection site compared to 4x infected wild-type cohorts, nor was there a difference in the abundance of different mononuclear phagocyte DEC populations. The absence of RELMα resulted in greater numbers of CD4+ cells in the skin draining lymph nodes (sdLN) of 4x infected mice, although they remained hypo-responsive. Using mice deficient for IL-4Rα, in which alternative activation is compromised, we show that after repeated schistosome infection, levels of regulatory IL-10 in the skin were reduced, accompanied by increased numbers of MHC-IIhigh cells and CD4+ T cells in the skin. There were also increased numbers of CD4+ T cells in the sdLN in the absence of IL-4Rα compared to cells from singly infected mice. Although their ability to proliferate was still compromised, increased cellularity of sdLN from 4x IL-4RαKO mice correlated with reduced expression of Fas/FasL, resulting in decreased apoptosis and cell death but increased numbers of viable CD4+ T cells. This study highlights a mechanism through which IL-4Rα may regulate the immune system through the induction of IL-10 and regulation of Fas/FasL mediated cell death

  15. Comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of adult, cercarial and egg antigens assessed by ELISA, in the diagnosis of chronic human Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Rania Mohammad; Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Saad, Ghada Abdel Rahman; Ahmed, Ossama Ashraf

    2014-09-01

    Total IgG ELISA was assessed comparing soluble adult worm (SWA), cercarial (SCA), and egg antigens (SEA) using sera of chronic schistosomiasis patients in two different concentrations (1/50 and 1/100). This response showed reactivity against all antigens. Concerning 1/100 serum concentration the SWA gave the best sensitivity (100%) followed by SCA (86.6%) and SEA (80%). The best specificity was obtained from SCA (94.11%) with an equivalent result from the SWA and SEA (76.47%). Concerning the 1/50 serum concentration, the SWA gave the best sensitivity (100%) with an equivalent result from the SCA and SEA (80%). The best specificity was obtained from SEA (82.35%) followed by SCA (76.47%) then SWA (64.7%). The best AUC value (0.992) was that for SWA indicating its high ability to predict the disease in comparison to (0.914) for SCA and 0.871 for SEA in serum dilution 1/100. The highest AUC value (0.955) was that for SWA in comparison to (0.914) for SEA and (0.88) for SCA in serum dilution 1/50. Comparison between the AUCs from the three mentioned antigens revealed highly significant differences when the data were analyzed by ROC. Each antigen showed a highly statistically significant correlation within its optical density values at both concentrations; 1/100 and 1/50. Comparing the two concentrations in each antigen revealed a non significant correlation obtained from the SWA which signifies a near outcome from both concentrations while the SCA and SEA showed a highly significant difference between the two concentrations. In conclusion, for the diagnosis of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni, total IgG reactivity revealed the best sensitivity by SWA. There was a difference in the type of antigen showing best specificity results between SCA and SEA according to serum concentration used.

  16. The discrimination of baboon grunt calls and human vowel sounds by baboons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Jones, April M.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2004-09-01

    The ability of baboons to discriminate changes in the formant structures of a synthetic baboon grunt call and an acoustically similar human vowel (/eh/) was examined to determine how comparable baboons are to humans in discriminating small changes in vowel sounds, and whether or not any species-specific advantage in discriminability might exist when baboons discriminate their own vocalizations. Baboons were trained to press and hold down a lever to produce a pulsed train of a standard sound (e.g., /eh/ or a baboon grunt call), and to release the lever only when a variant of the sound occurred. Synthetic variants of each sound had the same first and third through fifth formants (F1 and F3-5), but varied in the location of the second formant (F2). Thresholds for F2 frequency changes were 55 and 67 Hz for the grunt and vowel stimuli, respectively, and were not statistically different from one another. Baboons discriminated changes in vowel formant structures comparable to those discriminated by humans. No distinct advantages in discrimination performances were observed when the baboons discriminated these synthetic grunt vocalizations.

  17. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D.; Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Hess, Dean R.; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined “specialized proresolving mediators” (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae–infected (n = 5–6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200–300 ppm for 60–90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM–SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid–derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution. PMID:25568926

  18. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D; Colas, Romain A; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Hess, Dean R; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M; Piantadosi, Claude A; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-09-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined "specialized proresolving mediators" (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae-infected (n = 5-6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200-300 ppm for 60-90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM-SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution.

  19. Schistosoma mansoni antigens alter the cytokine response in vitro during cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bafica, Aline Michelle Barbosa; Cardoso, Luciana Santos; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Loukas, Alex; Varela, Giuseppe Tittoni; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Bacellar, Olívia; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Araújo, Maria Ilma

    2011-11-01

    Schistosoma mansoni infection or associated products are able to down-modulate the type 1 CD4+ T cell inflammatory response characteristic of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated how S. mansoni antigens altered the immune response that was induced by the soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients. Cytokines were measured from the supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with SLA. This was performed using the sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique in the presence or absence of S. mansoni recombinant antigens Sm29, SmTSP-2 and PIII. The addition of S. mansoni antigens to the cultures resulted in the reduction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in 37-50% of patients. Although to a lesser extent, the antigens were also able to decrease the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We compared patients that either had or did not have reduction in IFN-γ and TNF-α production in cultures stimulated with SLA in the presence of S. mansoni antigens. We found that there was no significant difference in the levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-5 in response to S. mansoni antigens between the groups. The antigens used in this study down-modulated the in vitro proinflammatory response induced by SLA in a group of CL patients through a currently undefined mechanism.

  20. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves de Assis, Natan Raimundo; Batistoni de Morais, Suellen; Figueiredo, Bárbara Castro Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Almeida, Leonardo Augusto; da Silva Pinheiro, Carina; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2) are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed. PMID:25942636

  1. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Assis, Natan Raimundo; Batistoni de Morais, Suellen; Figueiredo, Bárbara Castro Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Almeida, Leonardo Augusto; da Silva Pinheiro, Carina; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2) are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed.

  2. Defense of the lungs in oxygen-injured baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S.R.; Rawlinson, W.K.; Roach, F.M.; Seidenfeld, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pneumonia and subsequent sepsis have been linked with multiple organ failure and death in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. This suggests that lung defense may be impaired. In a model of ARDS, 13 baboons were intubated and ventilated with 80% O/sub 2/ for 6 days, following which 7 were inoculated intratracheally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) strain DGI-RI30. After 5 days on 50% O/sub 2/ the animals were sacrificed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed before O/sub 2/ exposure, after 6 days of 80% O/sub 2/, and at sacrifice. Total WBC and differential counts were determined for BAL cells. Mononuclear BAL cells were isolated for in vitro phagocytosis assays. BAL fluid (BALF) was tested for in vitro PMN chemotactic activity. An index of bacterial infection (sum of log CFU/g lung homogenate) was greater for infected animals (p < 0.01). Percentage of PMN in BALF was significantly increased at sacrifice in PA-inoculated animals. BALF from PA-inoculated animals at sacrifice elicited increased in vitro PMN chemotaxis, which was destroyed at 100/sup 0/C but not 56/sup 0/C, extracted by ether, and not degraded by proteases. Mononuclear BAL cells from inoculated animals at sacrifice were phagocytially more active than baseline cells. These data suggest that oxygen injury does not inhibit recruitment of PMN or phagocytosis of bacteria by alveolar macrophages in baboons; however, the addition of bacterial inoculation results in clinical deterioration despite unimpaired local defense.

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Analyses Suggest Multiple Trichuris Species in Humans, Baboons, and Pigs from Different Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Mohamed B. F.; Andersen, Lee O.; Gasser, Robin B.; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found in primates. Methods and Findings We sequenced and annotated complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human in Uganda, an olive baboon in the US, a hamadryas baboon in Denmark, and two pigs from Denmark and Uganda. Comparative analyses using other published mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human and a porcine host in China and from a françois’ leaf-monkey (China) were performed, including phylogenetic analyses and pairwise genetic and amino acid distances. Genetic and protein distances between human Trichuris in Uganda and China were high (~19% and 15%, respectively) suggesting that they represented different species. Trichuris from the olive baboon in US was genetically related to human Trichuris in China, while the other from the hamadryas baboon in Denmark was nearly identical to human Trichuris from Uganda. Baboon-derived Trichuris was genetically distinct from Trichuris from françois’ leaf monkey, suggesting multiple whipworm species circulating among non-human primates. The genetic and protein distances between pig Trichuris from Denmark and other regions were roughly 9% and 6%, respectively, while Chinese and Ugandan whipworms were more closely related. Conclusion and Significance Our results indicate that Trichuris species infecting humans and pigs are phylogenetically distinct across geographical regions, which might have important implications for the implementation of suitable and effective control strategies in different regions. Moreover, we provide support for the hypothesis that Trichuris infecting primates represents a complex of cryptic species with some species being able to infect both humans and non-human primates

  4. Brazilian studies on the genetics of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    The parasite Schistosoma is known to exhibit variations among species, strains and genera, such as, the levels of infectivity, pathogenicity and immunogenicity. These factors may differ among parasite populations according to the local epidemiological conditions. Diversity observed in S. mansoni from different geographical regions or within individuals of the same region can be determined by differences in the genotype of each parasite strain. However, until recently, finding adequate genetic markers to investigate infectivity or other epidemiological characteristics of a transmission area proved difficult. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the genetic variability of S. mansoni, using different techniques. Intraspecific variability was observed in morphological characters, isoenzyme studies, mtDNA, ribosomal gene probes, RAPD and microsatellites. The sequencing of the S. mansoni genome was the most important achievement concerning genetic approaches to the study of this parasite and may improve the development of drugs, vaccines and diagnostics of schistosomiasis. The knowledge of the genetic structure of schistosome populations in relation to epidemiological data and host variability is essential for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and the design of control strategies. PMID:18831955

  5. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1970-01-01

    Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images PMID:4987891

  6. Impact of Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus experimental coinfection on interleukin 10 and interferon gamma cytokines profile.

    PubMed

    Talaat, Roba Mohamed; Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Elwakil, Hala Salah

    2013-08-01

    The interactions between various aspects of the immune responses mediated by concomitant parasite infections may influence the resultant cytokines profiles. We tested this hypothesis by developing two Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus coinfection murine models. Our aim was to explore the effect of echinoccocis on the immune responses induced by schistosomiasis, either when the two infections were induced synchronously or when echinococcosis was induced during egg deposition period of S. mansoni infection. The proliferation of antigens specific stimulated splenocytes, taken from studied groups, was determined. Then, IFN-γ, and IL-10 production from stimulated cells were measured. Significant elevation of IFN-γ, 4weeks after synchronous coinfection, was occurred compared to S. mansoni infected group, associated with modest elevation of IL10 level. On the other hand, echinococcosis coinfection during egg deposition period of schistosomiasis resulted in significant marked reduction in IL10 level in comparison to S. mansoni infected mice. These results suggested that echinococcosis coinfection, during the switching from Th1 to Th2 cytokine stage of murine schistosomiasis, can alter the ability of S. mansoni infection to skew the cytokines response towards Th2 profile. It is clear that the timing and sequence of concomitant infections are of vital importance for the outcome of the immune response.

  7. Emergence of cercariae of Echinostoma caproni and Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata under different laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; LaTerra, R; Kim, Y

    2002-12-01

    Release of Echinostoma caproni cercariae and Schistosoma mansoni from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails maintained under different laboratory conditions was studied. Infected snails were isolated individually for 1 h in Stender dishes containing 5 ml of artificial spring water and the number of cercariae released during this time was recorded. Of numerous conditions tested, the addition of lettuce, the use of water conditioned by B. glabrata snails and a temperature of 35 degrees C significantly increased the release of E. caproni cercariae. A significant increase in cercarial release of S. mansoni was seen only in cultures fed lettuce. A temperature of 12 degrees C caused a significant decrease in cercarial release of both E. caproni and S. mansoni. Increased snail activity associated with feeding behaviour was probably responsible for the enhanced cercarial sheds observed in this study. PMID:12498644

  8. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Early Detection of Schistosoma mansoni in Stool Samples: A Diagnostic Approach in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Gandasegui Arahuetes, Javier; Sánchez Hernández, Alicia; López Abán, Julio; Vicente Santiago, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries. Methodology/Principal findings A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection. Conclusions/Significance We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and

  9. High Schistosoma mansoni Disease Burden in a Rural District of Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutengo, Mable M.; Mwansa, James C. L.; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6–99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15–19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7–9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696

  10. Schistosoma mansoni shares a protective carbohydrate epitope with keyhole limpet hemocyanin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The glycanic epitope of the 38,000 Mr Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula major immunogen defined by the IPLSm1 protective mAb was identified in the hemocyanin of the marine mollusc Megathura crenulata, better known as KLH. This antigenic community was exploited to investigate further the biological properties of this epitope. KLH was shown to strongly inhibit the binding of IPLSm1 mAb to its 38,000 Mr target antigen. Immunization of naive LOU rats with KLH elicited the production of anti- S. mansoni antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the 38,000 Mr schistosomulum antigen. Antibodies to KLH mediated a marked eosinophil- dependent cytotoxicity and passively transferred immunity towards S. mansoni infection. Finally, rats immunized with KLH were significantly protected against a challenge with S. mansoni cercariae. The deglycosylation of KLH completely abolishes its immunological and functional KLH properties, indicating the participation of an oligosaccharidic epitope of the native KLH that is also recognized by the sera of S. mansoni-infected patients. These observations provide new opportunities of access to the well-defined structure of a glycanic epitope potentially available for the immunoprophylaxis and seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis, and a new approach to the isotypic response towards a well-chemically defined epitope. PMID:2434601

  11. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ngui, Romano; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Dawaki, Salwa; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct) values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01). In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays. PMID:26193254

  12. A Study of the Granulomatous Responses Induced by Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Zuim, Nádia Regina Borim; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The increased pathogenesis of the Schistosoma mansoni BH strain compared with the SJ strain has been attributed to the number of granulomas formed in experimental infections, which increase the mortality in definitive hosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of granulomas around the eggs of the S. mansoni BH and SJ strains and to determine whether this host reaction was strain specific. Four experimental groups were analyzed. Two groups contained mice inoculated in the caudal vein with eggs from the S. mansoni BH or SJ strains and the other two contained mice that were infected with cercariae of the BH strain prior to being inoculated with eggs. The number of granulomas per tissue area in the lungs and liver, as well as the size of the granulomas, was analyzed to characterize the response to schistosome infection. The largest granulomatous responses were observed around eggs of the BH strain. Granulomas covered a larger area in the lungs of mice that were previously infected with cercariae and subsequently inoculated with eggs of the BH strain. These results indicated that specific granulomatous responses occurred following an infection with the BH and SJ strains of S. mansoni. PMID:23193397

  13. Efficacy of myrrh in the treatment of human Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Rashida; Elmorshedy, Hala; Fenwick, Alan

    2005-08-01

    Myrrh (Mirazid) has been produced and marketed as an antischistosomal drug since 2001. The current study was designed to assess the efficacy of a commercially available product of myrrh. One hundred four individuals, infected with Schistosoma mansoni, were randomized in two groups, one for myrrh and the second for praziquantel. Treatment-whether myrrh or praziquantel-was given twice with a 3-week interval. The cure rate with myrrh was very low, 15.6% after the first treatment, and 8.9% after the second treatment. Egg reduction among uncured persons was also very low, being 17.2% after the first treatment, and 28% after the second treatment. Praziquantel cure rate was 73.7% and 76.3%, and individuals still passing S. mansoni ova after praziquantel treatment showed a substantial reduction in the geometric mean egg counts (84% and 88.2% after the first and second treatments, respectively). When 34 individuals-uncured after two myrrh treatments-were offered praziquantel in the standard dose, 32 of them stopped passing S. mansoni eggs when tested 4 weeks post-treatment. The results of the current study raise serious doubts about the antischistosomal properties of Mirazid. PMID:16103605

  14. Eosinophilic pleural effusion due to Spirometra mansoni spargana: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Quan; Ouyang, Jin-Sheng; Li, Jian-Min; Yang, Li; Li, Yu-Ping; Chen, Cheng-Shui

    2015-05-01

    A 36-year-old female presented with an eosinophilic pleural effusion. The eosinophilic pleural effusion was considered to have been caused by a parasitic infection. Spirometra mansoni spargana was confirmed by semi-rigid thoracoscopy. About 2 months after treatment with praziquantel for 3 days, the pleural effusion had disappeared on the chest roentgenogram.

  15. BLOCKADE OF PGE2, PGD2 RECEPTORS CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST PREPATENT SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Rabia, Ibrahim; El-Ahwany, Eman; Saber, Sameh; Gamal, Rasha; Nagy, Faten; Mahmoud, Olaa; Hamad, Rabab Salem; Barakat, Walled

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease with considerable social impact. Despite the availability of affordable chemotherapy, drug treatment has not significantly reduced the overall number of disease cases. Among other mechanisms, the parasite produces PGE2 and PGD2 to evade host immune defenses. To investigate the role of PGE2 and PGD2 in schistosomiasis, we evaluated the effects of L-161,982, Ah6809 (PGE2 receptor antagonists alone of combined with each other) and MK-0524 (PGD2 receptor antagonist) during prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally an hour before and 24 hours after infection of C57BL/6 mice with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. L-161,982, Ah6809, their combination and MK-0524 caused partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection which was mediated by biasing the immune response towards Th1 phenotype. These results showed that blockade of PGE2 and PGD2 receptors confers partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection in mice and that they may be useful as adjunctive therapy to current anti-schistosomal drugs or vaccines. PMID:26939228

  16. From Incidentaloma to Suspicion of Malignancy: The Diverse Clinical Presentation of Gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Laiana do Carmo; de Oliveira, Marbele Guimarães; Castro Pereira, Fábio Meira; de Bessa Júnior, José

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread parasitic disease in the world, second only to malaria. The usual places the Schistosoma mansoni can be found in are the rectal and sigmoidal venules, as well as other segments of the large intestine of men. It may also be present in other ectopic topographies. Gonadal schistosomiasis is an unusual presentation of Schistosomiasis mansoni and its different clinical signs and symptoms disrupt correct diagnosis and culminate in surgical treatment that is, in most cases, unnecessary. In this study, we report four cases of gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni, two in the ovary and two in the testicles. These cases were clinically investigated as a bacterial infection, a benign neoplasm, and a suspected cancer, whilst one of them was an incidentaloma. PMID:24392230

  17. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

    2012-08-01

    Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission.

  18. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

    2012-08-01

    Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission. PMID:22300265

  19. Role of Host Granulomatous Response in Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Olds, G. Richard; Mahmoud, Adel A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils form 50% of cells in the host granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs, but their functional role in these granulomas and their relation to egg destruction is unknown. We have studied the course of S. mansoni infection in mice treated with normal rabbit serum (NRS) or depleted of their eosinophils by monospecific anti-eosinophil serum (AES). At 6-wk of infection (after 2 wk of egg deposition) the AES-treated animals were similar to NRS-treated controls with the exception that hepatic granulomas in the AES-treated animals were 50% smaller and devoid of eosinophils. At 8 wk of infection, AES-treated mice had significantly higher mortality, spleen weight, portal pressure, and 80% more eggs retained in their livers. These data suggest that eosinophil depletion delayed egg destruction. We subsequently studied destruction of eggs injected into the pulmonary microvasculature of sensitized mice. 2,000 S. mansoni eggs were intravenously injected into the tail veins of mice treated with NRS, anti-neutrophil serum, AES or ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin); at time intervals the remaining eggs were recovered from the lungs by tissue digestion. Egg recovery from NRS- or anti-neutrophil serum-treated mice began to decrease by day 16 and the percent recovery of eggs at day 24 was 55 and 52%, respectively. In contrast, animals treated with AES had smaller lung granulomas that were devoid of eosinophils and a marked delay of egg destruction was seen. It took until day 44 for 50% of the eggs to be destroyed. In ATG-treated animals smaller granulomas were seen that had diminished lymphocytes and also 75% less eosinophils. ATG treatment apparently slowed egg destruction but was not statistically significant. Our data define the role of the eosinophils in destruction of schistosome eggs in vivo and delineates the protective function of these cells within the host granulomatous response. PMID:7440710

  20. Green tea (Camellia sinesis) ameliorates female Schistosoma mansoni-induced changes in the liver of Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bin Dajem, Saad M; Shati, Ali A; Adly, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Osama M; Ibrahim, Essam H; Mostafa, Osama M S

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of green tea, an aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis, on the oxidative stress, antioxidant defense system and liver pathology of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Green tea at concentration of 3% (w/v) was given orally to treated mice as sole source of drinking water from the end of the 4th week to the end of 10th week post-infection; untreated mice were allowed to drink normal water. The data of the studied S. mansoni-infected mice exhibited a suppression of hepatic total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione content. The liver lipid peroxidation was deleteriously elevated in S. mansoni-infected mice. The hepatic total protein content, AST and ALT activities were profoundly decreased in the S. mansoni-infected mice. Most hepatocytes were damaged and showed abnormal microscopic appearance with aggressive necrosis. Both total protein and glycogen levels have been greatly reduced as indicated by histochemical examination. The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea succeeded to suppress oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxides but failed to significantly enhance the antioxidant defense system and deteriorated changes owing to liver damage and necrosis. In consistence with biochemical data, histopathological and histochemical data indicated that treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea could ameliorate hepatocytes thus reduce cellular necrosis and partially restore both total protein and glycogen levels. Thus, the study concluded that the green tea suppresses the oxidative stress through its constituent with free radicals scavenging properties rather than through the endogenous antioxidant defense system.

  1. Schistosomiasis mansoni presenting as a cerebellar tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joacil Carlos da; Lima, Frederico de Melo Tavares de; Vidal, Cláudio Henrique; Azevedo Filho, Hildo Cirne Rocha de

    2007-09-01

    The Manson's schistosomiasis tumoral form rarely affects the brain. There are only 12 cases prior related with a mean age of 25 years and a male predominance. We describe a 16-year-old Brazilian Northeastern boy with a cerebellar mass lesion. The radiological aspect was considered compatible with glioma and a gross total resection was performed. Microscopic examination disclosed intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding Schistosoma mansoni eggs. The case is compared with the literature findings and some peculiar aspects of this trematode infection are reviewed. PMID:17952294

  2. Polonium metabolism in adult female baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Fellman, A. ); Ralston, L. ); Hickman, D. ); Ayres, L.; Cohen, N. )

    1994-02-01

    The biokinetics of polonium in nonhuman primates (Papio anubis) has been studied after intravenous injection of [sup 210]Po citrate. The urinary excretion of polonium in the baboon could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 15.6 days. Excretion fractions of polonium were found to be markedly different from those reported for other species, including humans. Polonium-210 was found to be distributed throughout the soft tissues of the baboon with 29% of the injected polonium being deposited in liver, 7% in kidneys and 0.6 in spleen. Retention of polonium in all tissues exhibited single exponential functions; however, the biological half-times were variable, ranging from 15 to 50 days. 23 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Polonium metabolism in adult female baboons.

    PubMed

    Fellman, A; Ralston, L; Hickman, D; Ayres, L; Cohen, N

    1994-02-01

    The biokinetics of polonium in nonhuman primates (Papio anubis) has been studied after intravenous injection of 210Po citrate. The urinary excretion of polonium in the baboon could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 15.6 days. Excretion fractions of polonium were found to be markedly different from those reported for other species, including humans. Polonium-210 was found to be distributed throughout the soft tissues of the baboon with 29% of the injected polonium being deposited in liver, 7% in kidneys and 0.6% in spleen. Retention of polonium in all tissues exhibited single exponential functions; however, the biological half-times were variable, ranging from 15 to 50 days.

  4. Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords [1]. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  5. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  6. Cognitive control under social influence in baboons.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Pascal; Barbet, Isabelle; Belletier, Clément; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Fagot, Joël

    2014-12-01

    From cockroaches to human beings, the presence of other members of the same species typically facilitates dominant (habitual/well-learned) responses regardless of their contextual relevance. This social facilitation requires special attention in animal species such as primates, given their evolved cognitive control mechanisms. Here we tested baboons who freely engaged in (computer-based) conflict response tasks requiring cognitive control for successful performance, and discovered that social presence does not only enhance dominant responses but also consumes cognitive control resources. Under social presence, the baboons experienced greater cognitive conflicts, were less able to inhibit a learned action in favor of a new one, and were also less able to take advantage of previous experience with response conflict, compared with isolation. These findings explain why inappropriate behaviors are not easily suppressed in primates acting in social contexts, and indicate a greater demand for cognitive control in social groups. This extra demand might represent a major evolutionary drive of human intelligence.

  7. Evaluation of "Myrrh extract" against Schistosoma mansoni: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; El Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H; Saleh, Hanan A A; Khalil, Hazem H M

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of myrrh extract on different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Sixty albino mice were used and divided into three main groups: GI (control group), GII (infected group) and GIII (infected-treated group). The last group was further divided into 3 subgroups where the drug was administered in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for 5 days starting on the 1st day PI for IIIA, on the 21st day PI for IIIB and on the 45th day PI for IIIC. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of granulomas. In GII, typical bilharzial granulomas were frequently encountered in the portal tracts with numerous eosinophils, collagen fiber deposition and reticular fiber condensation. Hepatocytes revealed vacuolation, nuclear affection and depletion of glycogen. In GIII, granulomas were less frequently observed with apparent decrease of eosinophils. The maximum effect of the drug was observed in SGs IIIB and IIIC as detected by significant decrease in the mean number and size of granulomas, paucity of eosinophils, decreased fibrosis and reticular fibers and the restoration of the glycogen content in the hepatocytes. The present data proved that myrrh has a valuable schistosomicidal effect against different stages of S. mansoni. This chemotherapeutic effect was more evident when the drug was given to infected mice on the 21st as well as on the 45th day PI. PMID:20503602

  8. [Redirection and consolation in hamadryas baboons].

    PubMed

    Butovskaia, M L; Meĭshvili, N V; Chalian, V G

    2013-06-01

    Post-conflict interactions between victims and non-involved group members was investigated in the troop of hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Observations were done in the Russian Primate Center, Adler in 1996-1997. Redirected aggression, initiation of affiliation from the side of victims towards third parties and consolation were registered during this study. The analyses was done on 445 PC-MC pairs of animals, represented different social classes (harem male-female pairs, harem females, relations, females from different harems, male-male pairs, female-subadult pairs). The attracted-pairs method and the time-rule method were used. Redirected aggression was practiced mainly by male aggressees. It was typical for victims, both males and females, to initiate affiliative interactions with third parties soon after the conflict. Consolation was practiced by hamadryas baboons, but it was limited to harem male-female pairs only. Special affiliative patterns were used by male-consoler. This is the first case, when consolation was demonstrated in baboons.

  9. Stability of partner choice among female baboons.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Cheney, Dorothy L; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    In a wide range of taxa, including baboons, close social bonds seem to help animals cope with stress and enhance long-term reproductive success and longevity. Current evidence suggests that female baboons may benefit from establishing and maintaining highly individuated relationships with a relatively small number of partners. Here, we extend previous work on the stability of female baboons' social relationships in three different ways. First, we assess the stability of females' social relationships in two distinct and geographically distant sites using the same method. Second, we conduct simulations to determine whether females' social relationships were more stable than expected by chance. Third, we examine demographic sources of variance in the stability of close social bonds. At both sites, females' relationships with their most preferred partners were significantly more stable than expected by chance. In contrast, their relationships with less preferred partners were more ephemeral, often changing from year to year. While nearly all females experienced some change in their top partners across time, many maintained relationships with top partners for several years. Females that lived in smaller groups and had more close kin available had more stable social relationships than those that lived in larger groups and had fewer close kin available.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase

    PubMed Central

    Redpath, Stephen A.; van der Werf, Nienke; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in suppression of immune responses during parasitic helminth infection, both by controlling damaging immunopathology and by inhibiting protective immunity. During the patent phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection, Foxp3+ Treg cells are activated and suppress egg-elicited Th2 responses, but little is known of their induction and role during the early prepatent larval stage of infection. We quantified Foxp3+ Treg cell responses during the first 3 weeks of murine S. mansoni infection in C57BL/6 mice, a time when larval parasites migrate from the skin and transit the lungs en route to the hepatic and mesenteric vasculature. In contrast to other helminth infections, S. mansoni did not elicit a Foxp3+ Treg cell response during this early phase of infection. We found that the numbers and proportions of Foxp3+ Treg cells remained unchanged in the lungs, draining lymph nodes, and spleens of infected mice. There was no increase in the activation status of Foxp3+ Treg cells upon infection as assessed by their expression of CD25, Foxp3, and Helios. Furthermore, infection failed to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells to produce the suppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Instead, only CD4+ Foxp3− IL-4+ Th2 cells showed increased IL-10 production upon infection. These data indicate that Foxp3+ Treg cells do not play a prominent role in regulating immunity to S. mansoni larvae and that the character of the initial immune response invoked by S. mansoni parasites contrasts with the responses to other parasitic helminth infections that promote rapid Foxp3+ Treg cell responses. PMID:26195548

  11. Digenetic larvae in Schistosome snails from El Fayoum, Egypt with detection of Schistosoma mansoni in the snail by PCR.

    PubMed

    Aboelhadid, Shawky M; Thabet, Marwa; El-Basel, Dayhoum; Taha, Ragaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to detect the digenetic larvae infections in Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and also PCR detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The snails were collected from different branches of Yousef canal and their derivatives in El Fayoum Governorate. The snails were investigated for infection through induction of cercarial shedding by exposure to light and crushing of the snails. The shed cercariae were S. mansoni, Pharyngeate longifurcate type I and Pharyngeate longifurcate type II from B. alexandrina, while that found in B. truncatus were Schitosoma haematobium and Xiphidiocercaria species cercariae. The seasonal prevalence of infection was discussed. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of S. mansoni in the DNA from field collected infected and non infected snails. The results of PCR showed that the pool of B. alexandrina snails which shed S. mansoni cercariae in the laboratory, gave positive reaction in the samples. Pooled samples of field collected B. alexandrina that showed negative microscopic shedding of cercariae gave negative and positive PCR in a consecutive manner. Accordingly, a latent infection in the snail (negative microscopic) could be detected by using PCR. PMID:27605774

  12. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    PubMed

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni secretes a chemokine binding protein with antiinflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip; Fallon, Rosie E; Mangan, Niamh E; Walsh, Caitriona M; Saraiva, Margarida; Sayers, Jon R; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Alcami, Antonio; Fallon, Padraic G

    2005-11-21

    The coevolution of humans and infectious agents has exerted selective pressure on the immune system to control potentially lethal infections. Correspondingly, pathogens have evolved with various strategies to modulate and circumvent the host's innate and adaptive immune response. Schistosoma species are helminth parasites with genes that have been selected to modulate the host to tolerate chronic worm infections, often for decades, without overt morbidity. The modulation of immunity by schistosomes has been shown to prevent a range of immune-mediated diseases, including allergies and autoimmunity. Individual immune-modulating schistosome molecules have, therefore, therapeutic potential as selective manipulators of the immune system to prevent unrelated diseases. Here we show that S. mansoni eggs secrete a protein into host tissues that binds certain chemokines and inhibits their interaction with host chemokine receptors and their biological activity. The purified recombinant S. mansoni chemokine binding protein (smCKBP) suppressed inflammation in several disease models. smCKBP is unrelated to host proteins and is the first described chemokine binding protein encoded by a pathogenic human parasite and may have potential as an antiinflammatory agent.

  14. Correlation between Presence of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Heart Tissue of Baboons and Cynomolgus Monkeys, and Lymphocytic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Mubiru, James N.; Yang, Alice; Dick, Edward J.; Owston, Michael; Sharp, R. Mark; VandeBerg, Jane F.; Shade, Robert E.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, preferentially infects cardiac and digestive tissues. Baboons living in Texas (Papio hamadryas) and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) have been reported to be infected naturally with T. cruzi. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed cases of animals that were diagnosed with lymphocytic myocarditis and used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method (S36/S35 primer set) to amplify T. cruzi DNA from archived frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cardiac tissues. We show that the PCR method is applicable in archived frozen and FFPE tissues and the sensitivity is in the femtogram range. A positive correlation between PCR positivity and lymphocytic myocarditis in both baboons and cynomolgus monkeys is shown. We also show epicarditis as a common finding in animals infected with T. cruzi. PMID:24567317

  15. Clinico-epidemiological study of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Waja-Timuga, District of Alamata, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, is the most prevalent water related disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Although prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been reported for the present study area, earlier studies have not estimated intensity of infections in relation to periportal fibrosis, which would have been crucial for epidemiological and clinical evaluations. Hence, a community based cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 to assess prevalence of infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis in Waja-Timuga, northern Ethiopia. Methods In a cross sectional study involving 371 randomly selected individuals, fresh stool samples were collected and processed by the Kato-Katz method and examined microscopically. Ultrasonography was used to determine status of schistosomal periportal fibrosis and to detect hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Serum was collected for assay of hepatic activity. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 11 statistical soft ware. P-value <0.05 was reported as statistically significant. Results The prevalence of S.mansoni infection was 73.9%, while the prevalence of schistosomal periportal fibrosis was 12.3% and mean intensity of infection was 234 eggs per gram of stool. Peak prevalence and intensity of S.mansoni infection was documented in the age range of 10–20 years. Among the study individuals, hepatomegaly was recorded in 3.7% and splenomegaly was recorded in 7.4% of the study individuals. Similarly, among the study individuals who had definite periportal fibrosis, 5.9% had elevated liver enzyme levels. Conclusion The high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis observed in the study area calls for a periodic deworming program to reduce disease, morbidity and transmission. Preventive chemotherapy complemented with other control measures is highly required for

  16. Longevity of Sm-p80-specific antibody responses following vaccination with Sm-p80 vaccine in mice and baboons and transplacental transfer of Sm-p80-specific antibodies in a baboon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Le, Loc; Rojo, Juan U; Karmakar, Souvik; Tillery, Kory A; Torben, Workineh; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-06-01

    Based on data obtained using vaccine efficacy studies in mice, hamsters, and baboons, the credentials of Sm-p80 as a first tier vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis have been well established. Sm-p80-based vaccine formulation(s) have consistently exhibited potent prophylactic efficacy in reducing adult worm burden following cercarial challenge and induce killing of established adult worms in chronic infection. This vaccine is protective against both intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis. In this study, the longevity of Sm-p80-specific antibody responses was studied in mice and in baboons. Robust antibody titers were detected in mice for up to 60 weeks following vaccination with Sm-p80 recombinant vaccine (Sm-p80 + GLA-SE). In the follow-up experiments to our published studies, Sm-p80-specific IgG was also detected in baboons 5-8 years following the initial vaccination with an Sm-p80 DNA vaccine. In one baboon, transfer of Sm-p80-specific antibody was detected in umbilical cord blood and in the baby. These long-lasting humoral immune response data coupled with the vaccine efficacy data in rodents and nonhuman primates further strengthens the case for Sm-p80 to be moved forward through development leading to human clinical trials.

  17. A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative with inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease and penetration of mice skin by the parasite.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El Azzouny, Aida A; Maghraby, Amany; Ruppel, Andreas; Soliman, Wael M

    2009-01-01

    A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative, N-phenyl-N-[1-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexyl] benzamide (MNRC-5), was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease activity and cercarial penetration. MNRC-5 exerted an inhibitory effect on S. mansoni cercarial serine protease at serial concentrations of the specific chromogenic substrate Boc-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-PNA for such enzyme family and the inhibitory coefficient (Ki) value was deduced. Moreover, topical treatment of mice tails with the most potent inhibitory concentration of MNRC-5 formulated in jojoba oil successfully blocked cercarial penetration as demonstrated by a significant reduction (75%; p < 0.05) in the recovered S. mansoni worms from treated mice in comparison to control ones whose tails were painted with jojoba oil base containing no MNRC-5. In addition, the IgM and IgG reactivities to crude S. mansoni cercarial, worm and egg antigens were generally lower in sera from treated infected mice than untreated infected mice. In conclusion, we report on a new serine protease inhibitor capable for blocking penetration of host skin by S. mansoni cercariae as measured by lowering worm burden and decrease in the levels of both IgM and IgG towards different bilharzial antigens upon topical treatment.

  18. Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with praziquantel as a potential therapy for Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammam, Olfat A.; Elkhafif, Nagwa; Attia, Yasmeen M.; Mansour, Mohamed T.; Elmazar, Mohamed M.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.; Kenawy, Sanaa A.; El-Khatib, Aiman S.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious consequences of S. mansoni infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effect of human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) combined with praziquantel (PZQ) in S. mansoni-infected mice. S. mansoni-infected mice received early (8th week post infection) and late (16th week post infection) treatment with WJMSCs, alone and combined with oral PZQ. At the 10th month post infection, livers were collected for subsequent flow cytometric, histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical, gene expression, and gelatin zymographic studies. After transplantation, WJMSCs differentiated into functioning liver-like cells as evidenced by their ability to express human hepatocyte-specific markers. Regression of S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis was also observed in transplanted groups, as evidenced by histopathological, morphometric, and gelatin zymographic results besides decreased expression of three essential contributors to liver fibrosis in this particular model; alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen-I, and interleukin-13. PZQ additionally enhanced the beneficial effects observed in WJMSCs-treated groups. Our results suggest that combining WJMSCs to PZQ caused better enhancement in S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis, compared to using each alone. PMID:26876222

  19. Reconstructing Colonization Dynamics of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni following Anthropogenic Environmental Changes in Northwest Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Van den Broeck, Frederik; Maes, Gregory E.; Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Rollinson, David; Sy, Ibrahima; Faye, Djibril; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Polman, Katja; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic environmental changes may lead to ecosystem destabilization and the unintentional colonization of new habitats by parasite populations. A remarkable example is the outbreak of intestinal schistosomiasis in Northwest Senegal following the construction of two dams in the ‘80s. While many studies have investigated the epidemiological, immunological and geographical patterns of Schistosoma mansoni infections in this region, little is known about its colonization history. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites were collected at several time points after the disease outbreak and genotyped using a 420 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite markers. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses revealed the presence of (i) many genetically different haplotypes at the non-recombining mitochondrial marker and (ii) one homogenous S. mansoni genetic group at the recombining microsatellite markers. These results suggest that the S. mansoni population in Northwest Senegal was triggered by intraspecific hybridization (i.e. admixture) between parasites that were introduced from different regions. This would comply with the extensive immigration of infected seasonal agricultural workers from neighboring regions in Senegal, Mauritania and Mali. The spatial and temporal stability of the established S. mansoni population suggests a swift local adaptation of the parasite to the local intermediate snail host Biomphalaria pfeifferi at the onset of the epidemic. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that S. mansoni parasites are very successful in colonizing new areas without significant loss of genetic diversity. Maintaining high levels of diversity guarantees the adaptive potential of these parasites to cope with selective pressures such as drug treatment, which might complicate efforts to control the disease. PMID:26275049

  20. Studies of reconciliation in anubis baboons.

    PubMed

    Meishvili, N V; Chalyan, V G; Butovskaya, M L

    2005-11-01

    Studies of post-conflict reconciliation were performed on anubis baboons living in corrals. Reconciliation was found to occur after more than a third of the conflicts observed; the mean reconciliatory tendency was 27.3 +/- 2.4. Different categories of conflict pairs showed similar reconciliation frequencies. In 75% of cases, reconciliation occurred within the first 2 min of completion of the conflict. The set of behavioral fragments demonstrated by participants in reconciliation depended on gender and role in the conflict. Differences were seen in the magnitudes of the reconciliatory tendencies of monkeys of high and low rankings.

  1. Assessment of metacognitive monitoring and control in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Malassis, Raphaëlle; Gheusi, Gilles; Fagot, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition refers to the ability of an organism to evaluate its states of knowledge (metacognitive monitoring) and engage in appropriate information-seeking behaviors when a lack of knowledge is detected (metacognitive control). This study assessed metacognitive monitoring and control in three Guinea baboons (Papio papio). Monkeys were required to report on a touchscreen the location of two target stimuli that had previously appeared briefly on a grid. They could either respond directly or use a "Repeat" key providing an opportunity to repeat the target stimuli. In Experiment 1, the baboons used the Repeat key more frequently in difficult trials and transferred this use of the key to novel conditions. Two baboons showed higher accuracy when they declined using the key compared to Baseline trials in which the key was not available, suggesting accurate metacognitive monitoring judgments. The same two baboons were consistently faster at reporting the targets' locations after a repetition of the stimulus. In Experiment 2, the baboons had to choose between two Repeat keys, one for each target. Two baboons showed a preference for repeating the presentation of the less visible target, suggesting that they identified what information they lack. Overall, results support the hypothesis of metacognitive monitoring in baboons, and also provide limited evidence for metacognitive control. We propose that tests requiring subjects to choose between several metacognitive responses in computerized tasks provide a suitable new approach for studying targeted information-seeking behaviors in animals.

  2. Relationship Between Epilepsy and Colpocephaly in Baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Szabó, C Ákos; De La Garza, Melissa; Rice, Karen; Bazan Iii, Carlos; Salinas, Felipe S

    2016-01-01

    Brain MRI scans revealed various occipital horn variants in a pedigreed baboon colony consisting of Papio hamadryas anubis and its hybrids. We retrospectively characterized these variants and evaluated their relationships to epilepsy phenotypes and scalp EEG findings. MRI scans (3D, T1-weighted) from 208 baboons (female, 134 female; male, 74; age [mean ± 1 SD], 16 ± 5 y) were reviewed; 139 (67%) of these animals also underwent scalp EEG previously. Occipital horn variants included elongation (extension of the occipital ventricle behind the mediobasal origin of the calcarine fissure), which affected 23 baboons (11%; 7 bilateral, 9 left, 7 right), and elongation with enlargement (colpocephaly), which occurred in 30 baboons (14%; 7 bilateral, 11 left, 12 right). The incidence of the occipital horn variants did not differ according to age or prenatal or perinatal history. Colpocephaly was associated with craniofacial trauma but not with witnessed seizures. Abnormal scalp EEG findings, including interictal epileptic discharges, did not differ significantly among the occipital horn morphologies. This study is the first radiologic description of occipital horn variants, particularly colpocephaly, in baboons. Whereas colpocephaly is frequently associated with other radiologic and neurologic abnormalities in humans, it is mostly an isolated finding in baboons. Because craniofacial trauma can occur in the setting of seizure-related falls, its increased association with colpocephaly may reflect an increased risk of seizures or of traumatic brain injuries due to seizures. Colpocephaly in baboons needs to be characterized prospectively radiologically, neurologically, histopathologically, and genetically to better understand its etiology and clinical significance.

  3. Renal histopathology of a baboon model with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Choles, Hernan; Abboud, Hanna E; Lee, Shuko; Shade, Robert E; Rice, Karen S; Carey, K Dee; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Barnes, Jeffrey L

    2012-10-01

    Naturally occurring type 2 diabetes has been found in a colony of baboons. Ongoing characterization of the baboon colony maintained at the Southwest National Primate Research Center has revealed a significant range of glucose sensitivity with some animals clearly diabetic.   Seven baboons, four with diabetes and three without diabetes, underwent histopathological investigation. Three diabetic animals were diagnosed using fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and intravenous glucose tolerance test, and a fourth one was known to have hyperglycemia. One control baboon and three baboons with diabetes had microalbuminuria. On kidney biopsy, diabetic baboons had thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix expansion compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry showed the diabetic animals had increased mesangial expression of cellular fibronectin ED-A. Two diabetic animals with microalbuminuria had evidence of mesangiolysis with the formation of an early nodule. One diabetic animal had a Kimmestiel-Wilson nodule. We conclude that the baboon represents a useful primate model of diabetes and nephropathy that resembles the nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes in humans.

  4. [Factors responsible for preventing the carrying out of the Schistosoma mansoni cycle in the waters of Grande Terre of Guadeloupe (French Antilles)].

    PubMed

    Theron, A; Pointier, J P

    1985-01-01

    Different surveys which have been conducted in ponds and pools in the Grande Terre of Guadalupe, have demonstrated the absence of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in spite of apparent favourable ecological conditions. Four hypothesises can explain this absence of transmission: 1 - the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata populations non-susceptible to the infestation by S. mansoni. 2 - Ecological conditions unfavourable to the survival of parasitized snails. 3 - Ecological conditions unfavourable to the production, survival and infectivity of the S. mansoni cercariae. 4 - Factors causing the non-contamination of the snails. The results show that the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni is possible in the ponds and pools of Grande Terre. Only human behaviour is responsible for the absence of actual transmission in the waterbodies of this area. Man breaks the life-cycle of the parasite by avoiding all fecal pollution and therefore all snail contamination.

  5. Darwin's monkey: why baboons can't become human.

    PubMed

    Strum, Shirley C

    2012-01-01

    Baboons were used in the past as models for human evolution. I utilize 40 years of data from my long-term study on baboons in Kenya to suggest that baboons are once again relevant for understanding human evolution, not as a referential model but to reset the starting conditions of the human experiment. The baboon data also offer a critique of widely held ideas about how natural selection might work by looking at real lives in real time. This situates competition in a matrix of collaboration and illustrates the critical role of chance, contingency, and history in baboon survival and success. I make three methodological moves to reach these conclusions. The first is to focus on process not just outcome. The second is to look at time scales longer than usual studies but shorter than evolutionary time as a way to open the black box that currently links behavior to evolutionary value. The third is to use comparative natural history, Darwin's method, as a way to capture and comprehend how complexity is generated and how baboons deal with it in their daily lives. These empirical and methodological turns lead to conclusions that run counter to widely held ideas about baboons, about primates, and about the determinism of natural selection. I follow my own research history to illustrate these points. The discussion ranges from alternative interpretations of the male and the female dominance hierarchies, to insights from a fission that happened when the foraging strategy of raiding and nonraiding baboons diverged, to evidence of adaptation after translocation, and finally to assessing two unusual fusions of baboon groups. Altogether, these natural histories yield baboon "principles of the social" with insights about cognition, cooperation, and culture and suggest why baboons can't become human. The data also support Weiss and Buchanan's framework (The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,2009

  6. Thoracoscopic examination of empyema in a patient with sparganosis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Keita; Suzuki, Junko; Nagai, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Akira; Ando, Takahiro; Suzuki, Jun; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Masuda, Kimihiko; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Akagawa, Shinobu; Kitani, Masashi; Hebisawa, Akira; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Ohta, Ken

    2016-02-01

    A 27-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with right pleural effusion. He had suffered from right chest and back pain and a high fever for one week prior to the admission. He had been treated with clarithromycin without improvement. Since thoracoscopy under local anesthesia revealed purulent effusion, synechiae and fibrous septa in the thoracic cavity, synechiotomy was performed and we started antibiotic treatment with the diagnosis of acute bacterial empyema. At the same time, we also suspected parasitic infection because of massive eosinophilic infiltration in pleural effusion and his dietary history of eating raw frogs. During the course of the disease, he had an infiltration in the right lower lobe and pneumothorax. Finally, we diagnosed him with sparganosis mansoni because his serum as well as pleural effusion was positive for the binding to sparganosis mansoni plerocercoid antigen, without any positive findings in bacteriology. His pleural effusion and lung infiltration were resolved after the administration of a high-dose praziquantel. We report this rare parasitic empyema with findings by thoracoscopic examination. PMID:26603428

  7. Neutral nuclear variation in Baboons (genus Papio) provides insights into their evolutionary and demographic histories.

    PubMed

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Alvarez, Lauren; Giraldo-Ramirez, Juliana; Tollis, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda, and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 noncoding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions, and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea, and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ∼1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant effective population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (∼30,000 to 95,000 individuals).

  8. Neutral Nuclear Variation in Baboons (genus Papio) Provides Insights into their Evolutionary and Demographic Histories

    PubMed Central

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Alvarez, Lauren; Giraldo-Ramirez, Juliana; Tollis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 non-coding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ~1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (~30,000 to 95,000 individuals). PMID:25234435

  9. Assessment of severity of disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni in the Egypt-49 project area

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, M.; Samaan, S. A.; Nielsen, J.

    1966-01-01

    The impact of bilharziasis on a community has been evaluated in terms of the stages and grades of severity of the disease; egg counts in faeces and urine were correlated with the clinical severity. At the time this study was carried out, the over-all prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 37.6%, that of S. mansoni infection 29.8% and that of mixed infections 17.1%. Of 579 people examined, 292 (58.2%) were excreting schistosome eggs. All except one person were classified as Stage III—asymptomatic, 122 (41.8% of those infected); mild, 74 (25.3%); moderate, 89 (30.5%); severe, 6 (2.1%). The remaining person was classified as Stage IV (moderate). Mixed infections produced a higher proportion of symptomatic cases (74.8%) than either infection alone (58.2%), and S. haematobium (57.1%) a higher proportion than S. mansoni (37.8%). The percentage of symptomatic cases was highest in those aged 10-14 years, who also had the highest prevalence of infection. On average, the egg output per infection was in the range 32-63 eggs for S. haematobium infections and 4-7 for S. mansoni in unit measure of urine and faeces, respectively. For S. haematobium infections, alone and in mixed infections, mean egg output increased with the severity of clinical symptoms. For S. mansoni infections, no such relation was established. It is concluded that the criteria of severity should be made more objective and that more satisfactory methods of determining egg counts should be adopted in an attempt to obtain more direct evidence of the validity of regarding egg count as a measure of worm load. PMID:5297634

  10. Parasite transmission risk from geophagic and foraging behavior in chacma baboons.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Archer, Colleen E; Appleton, Chris C; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Numerous behavioral and ecological factors are associated with parasite transmission. One factor explored in human research, but absent from nonhuman primate research, is parasite transmission from soil ingestion. Human studies suggest geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, increases risk of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Geophagy, which is prevalent in nonhuman primates, has several positive associations: gastrointestinal distress alleviation, possible mineral supplementation, and bacterial infection prevention. Our objective was to determine whether STH transmission was possible from deliberate or accidental soil ingestion, in a troop of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) that engaged in geophagy, foraged on the terrestrial substrata, and had a Trichuris sp. sample prevalence of 100%. We collected and analyzed 80 soil samples from geophagy and ground foraging sites on and around Wildcliff Nature Reserve, South Africa. Forty soil samples were collected from sites where soil was consumed, and 40 were collected from sites where soil was not consumed. At geophagy sites, the number of Trichuris sp. eggs recovered varied significantly between areas used and unused by the baboons, suggesting behavior is an important factor. In contrast, at foraging sites, there was only a tendency to recover more eggs at used than unused areas, and we propose egg recovery was influenced by fecal contamination that occurred throughout foraging stands. The difference in egg recovery between used areas at geophagy sites and used areas at foraging sites was not significant. These preliminary findings suggest both geophagy and foraging sites are a potential source of STH infection for this troop. Whether geophagy benefits outweigh the potential cost of parasite reinfection for this baboon troop is unknown, so we encourage future research on the influence that host foraging behavior may have on parasite reinfection.

  11. Omega-1 knockdown in Schistosoma mansoni eggs by lentivirus transduction reduces granuloma size in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Jana; Young, Neil D.; Every, Alison L.; Pagel, Charles N.; Schnoeller, Corinna; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, one of the most important neglected tropical diseases worldwide, is caused by flatworms (blood flukes or schistosomes) that live in the bloodstream of humans. The hepatointestinal form of this debilitating disease results from a chronic infection with Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. No vaccine is available to prevent schistosomiasis, and treatment relies predominantly on the use of a single drug, praziquantel. In spite of considerable research effort over the years, very little is known about the complex in vivo events that lead to granuloma formation and other pathological changes during infection. Here we use, for the first time, a lentivirus-based transduction system to deliver microRNA-adapted short hairpin RNAs (shRNAmirs) into the parasite to silence and explore selected protein-encoding genes of S. mansoni implicated in the disease process. This gene-silencing system has potential to be used for functional genomic–phenomic studies of a range of socioeconomically important pathogens. PMID:25400038

  12. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response.

  13. Artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine versus praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ayoub A; Mahgoub, Haider M; Magzoub, Mamoun; Gasim, Gasim I; Eldein, Walid N; Ahmed, Abd el Aziz A; Adam, Ishag

    2009-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of oral artesunate+sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS+SP) (4 mg/kg AS for 3 consecutive days+25 mg sulfadoxine on Day 0) in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections were compared with those of praziquantel (PZQ) (40 mg/kg) among infected schoolchildren (46 in each study arm) in eastern Sudan. The cure rate at 28 days was 58.6% in the AS+SP group and 100% in the PZQ group (P<0.001). While drug-related adverse effects (headache, dizziness, nausea and diarrhoea) were not significantly different between the two groups, significantly more children suffered abdominal pain in the PZQ group than in the AS+SP group (P=0.001). Thus, AS+SP has poor efficacy in the treatment of S. mansoni compared with PZQ. PMID:19261314

  14. The Effect of Season on Inflammatory Response in Captive Baboons

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Dianne; Wolf, Roman F.; McDaniel, Kristen A.; White, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Highly seasonal animals demonstrate predictable changes in immune function that coincide with changes in photoperiod. Little is known about the effect of season on immune response in baboons. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of season on inflammatory response in baboons. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine response following immune stimulation and serum markers of inflammation were assessed during each season in two groups of young male baboons; one housed under natural light; one in a controlled environment of 12 hours light:12 hours dark. Results A seasonal immune rhythm was evident in both groups, with a greater TNF-α and IL-6 response to stimulation and serum CRP concentration in June and September compared to December. Conclusions Season is an important experimental confounder and therefore time of year should be controlled when designing studies and analyzing data from immune studies in baboons. PMID:22905903

  15. Behavioral assessment of combinatorial semantics in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Medam, Tiphaine; Fagot, Joël

    2016-02-01

    Combinatorial semantics is a core property of human language whose mechanisms remain poorly known. This study used computerized tasks with touch screens to investigate whether baboons (Papio papio) can understand the combination of shape and color labels in order to designate their corresponding colored shape. The baboons were trained either directly with label-pairs (Experiment 1) or with individual shape and color labels (Experiment 2), before being tested with novel compound labels from which they had to identify the referent. Compound labels understanding was found in one out of seven baboons tested in Experiment 1. Quite surprisingly, none of the 11 baboons showed this capacity in Experiment 2. We discuss several aspects of our protocols which could explain this difference between our two experiments, as well as the significance of our findings for language studies in animals and children.

  16. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Rapid and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as simple school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Monoamine Metabolites in the Epileptic Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Patel, Mayuri; Uteshev, Victor V.

    2016-01-01

    The baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In this retrospective study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated in 263 baboons of a pedigreed colony. CSF monoamine abnormalities have been linked to reduced seizure thresholds, behavioral abnormalities and SUDEP in various animal models of epilepsy. The levels of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and homovanillic acid in CSF samples drawn from the cisterna magna were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These levels were compared between baboons with seizures (SZ), craniofacial trauma (CFT) and asymptomatic, control (CTL) baboons, between baboons with abnormal and normal EEG studies. We hypothesized that the CSF levels of major monoaminergic metabolites (i.e., dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine) associate with the baboons’ electroclinical status and thus can be used as clinical biomarkers applicable to seizures/epilepsy. However, despite apparent differences in metabolite levels between the groups, usually lower in SZ and CFT baboons and in baboons with abnormal EEG studies, we did not find any statistically significant differences using a logistic regression analysis. Significant correlations between the metabolite levels, especially between 5-HIAA and HVA, were preserved in all electroclinical groups. While we were not able to demonstrate significant differences in monoamine metabolites in relation to seizures or EEG markers of epilepsy, we cannot exclude the monoaminergic system as a potential source of pathogenesis in epilepsy and SUDEP. A prospective study evaluating serial CSF monoamine levels in baboons with recently witnessed seizures, and evaluation of abnormal expression and function of monoaminergic receptors and transporters within epilepsy-related brain regions, may impact the electroclinical status. PMID:26924854

  18. A COLLAGENOUS COLITIS-LIKE CONDITION IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED INFANT BABOONS

    PubMed Central

    Dons, Eefje M.; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Rigatti, Lora H.; Klein, Edwin; Montoya, Claudia; Wolf, Roman F.; Ijzermans, Jan N.M.; Cooper, David K.C.; Wagner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Collagenous colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. It is fairly common in adult humans, but rare in infants, and has been associated with autoimmune disorders. Case Reports We report four infant baboons (age 7–12 months) that had received a transplant at three months of age and subsequent immunosuppressive therapy for periods of 4–10 months. All presented identical symptoms within a period of four weeks, including weight loss associated with chronic watery diarrhea that was unresponsive to standard antimicrobial treatment. Clinical chemistry evaluations were within normal ranges, viral causes were ruled out, and fecal and blood cultures were repeatedly negative. At necropsy, two infant baboons were found to have a form of collagenous colitis. In the remaining two baboons that had identical clinical features, immunosuppressive therapy was discontinued and treatment with budesonide was initiated. Both baboons recovered and remained well on no medication until the end of follow-up (24 months). Conclusions Collagenous colitis has occasionally been reported in patients with organ transplants. It has been reported only once previously in baboons. The four cases reported here strongly suggest that (i) clinical features as well as histopathological findings of collagenous colitis in baboons are very similar to those in human patients; (ii) it was associated with the immunocompromised state of the baboons, as two non-immunosuppressed age-matched baboons in close proximity did not develop the condition, and (iii) it may have had an infectious origin as all four cases developed within a four week period of time. PMID:22294413

  19. Processing of contour closure by baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Barbet, Isabelle; Fagot, Joël

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the Gestalt law of closure in baboons. Using a computer-controlled self-testing procedure, we trained baboons (Papio papio) to discriminate open versus closed shapes presented on a touch screen with a two-alternative forced choice procedure. Ten baboons (OPEN + group) were trained with the open shapes serving as the positive stimulus (S+), and nine others (CLOSE + group) were trained with the closed shape serving as S+. The OPEN + group obtained higher discrimination performance than the CLOSE + group (Exp 1), but its scores declined when new line segments were added to the stimuli (Exp 2) and after smoothing the end points of the open shapes (Exp 3). The CLOSE + group was less affected by the above manipulations of local stimulus dimension, but its performance was disrupted when the collinearity end points was reduced (Exp 3). Use of a visual search task revealed that the search for an open shape among closed distractors was less attention demanding in baboons than the search for a closed shape among open ones (Exp 4). It is concluded that (1) end lines rather than closeness per se are perceptual primitives for the open versus closed discrimination in baboons, and (2) the relative emphasis on local or configural cues when processing contour closure depends on experiential factors in baboons and is thus subject to interindividual variations.

  20. Clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1992.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R N; Murta, C; Teixeira Júnior, M A; Cury, G C; Rocha, M O

    1995-01-01

    A clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni was conducted in the population of Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Faecal parasitology by the Kato-Katz method and clinical examination were performed in 93.8% and 82.8% of the local population, respectively. A socioeconomic survey was also made and the signs and symptoms presented by the patients were recorded, as well as their contacts with natural waters. The rate of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 50.3%; the peak of infection occurred during the second decade of life; there was a predominance of low egg counts in faeces (85.89% of positive patients eliminated less than 500 eggs per gram of faeces); the splenomegaly rate was 1.23%. When the risk factors for S. mansoni infection were studied, significant risks were detected in activities such as fetching water, washing dishes, bathing, and crossing streams. PMID:7569646

  1. [Grooming and group structure in hamadryas baboons].

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    The results of 3-year observation on coral living hamadryas baboons transported from natural habitat in Tuapse reservation have been presented. Despite of the fact that grooming between males and females accounted for 73% of total cases of grooming in adult individual pairs, only the relationships of males with high-ranked females of their harems fully corresponded to a star-shaped sociogram. The high-ranked females were not different from all the other females either according to a total number of grooming cases with their female partners or according to a proportion of a performed and received grooming. Grooming between the related females was noted predominantly in the cases when they belonged to the same harem. Grooming between the related males accounted for 59% of all the cases of grooming between the male partners.

  2. Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni by transplantation of APO Biomphalaria tenagophila.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L; Caldeira, R L; Carvalho, O S; Vidigal, T H D A; Jannotti-Passos, L K; Coelho, P M Z

    2006-05-01

    Transplantation of the haematopoietic organ from Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim strain, RS, Brazil), resistant to Schistosoma mansoni, to a highly susceptible strain (Cabo Frio, RJ, Brazil) of the same species, showed in the recipient snails resistance against the trematode, when a successful transplant occurred. The success of transplantation could be confirmed by a typical molecular marker of the Taim strain in haemocytes of the recipients (350 bp detected by PCR-RFLP). The recipient snails which did not present the donor marker in haemocytes (unsuccessful transplantation) were infected with the parasite. The use of an atoxic modelling clay for closing the hole in the transplantation site reduced significantly the mortality caused by bleeding after transplantation procedures. PMID:16629706

  3. Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni by transplantation of APO Biomphalaria tenagophila.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L; Caldeira, R L; Carvalho, O S; Vidigal, T H D A; Jannotti-Passos, L K; Coelho, P M Z

    2006-05-01

    Transplantation of the haematopoietic organ from Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim strain, RS, Brazil), resistant to Schistosoma mansoni, to a highly susceptible strain (Cabo Frio, RJ, Brazil) of the same species, showed in the recipient snails resistance against the trematode, when a successful transplant occurred. The success of transplantation could be confirmed by a typical molecular marker of the Taim strain in haemocytes of the recipients (350 bp detected by PCR-RFLP). The recipient snails which did not present the donor marker in haemocytes (unsuccessful transplantation) were infected with the parasite. The use of an atoxic modelling clay for closing the hole in the transplantation site reduced significantly the mortality caused by bleeding after transplantation procedures.

  4. Increases in schistosome-specific IgE and CD23+ B cells in a cohort of Kenyan children undergoing repeated treatment and reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Black, Carla L.; Muok, Erick M. O.; Mwinzi, Pauline M. N.; Carter, Jennifer M.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan; Colley, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Age prevalence curves from areas endemic for schistosomiasis suggest that humans develop partial immunity to reinfection beginning in early adolescence. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study to determine if children infected with S. mansoni develop protection-related immune responses upon treatment with PZQ and if the development of these immune responses is accelerated by frequent treatment upon reinfection. Methods 8-10 year old children were tested for S. mansoni every four months and treated with praziquantel (PZQ) when positive (Arm A, N=68) or tested and treated at the end of the 2-year follow-up (Arm B, N=49). Results Children in Arm A who remained free of infection during follow-up had significantly higher baseline levels of schistosome-specific IgE than children with ≥2 repeat S. mansoni diagnoses. Children with ≥2 repeat S. mansoni diagnoses significantly increased their levels of anti-schistosome IgE and CD23+ B cells after receiving ≥3 PZQ treatments over the course of follow-up. No increase in either parameter was seen in children who received only the baseline PZQ treatment. Conclusions B cell activation and anti-schistosomal IgE are associated with resistance to S. mansoni in children, and these immunological parameters can be increased by multiple rounds of infections and PZQ-induced cures. PMID:20560767

  5. Ecological studies in Madagascar of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. 2. Biology and dynamics in the non-endemic area of Antananarivo.

    PubMed

    Pfluger, W

    1978-01-01

    The region of Antananarivo, where Schistosomiasis is not yet endemic, is compared to Ambositra, a well established focus of S. mansoni, with regard to climate, hydrology and snail habitats. Higher mean temperatures and a more pronounced dry season in Antananarivo contribute to sometimes less favourable hydrological conditions. Biomphalaria is found in very few and limited habitats. Population dynamics were followed up in selected habitats and showed ecological parameters comparable to those of the Ambositra-strain. Trematode infections were very scarce. Both strains of Biomphalaria are equally susceptible to infections with the malagasy strain of S. mansoni (up to 100 p. 100). Mortality rates, prepatency periods and the electrophoretic pattern of egg proteins are very similar. Foreign snail species like B. glabrata (albino strain) and B. pfeifferi (South African strain) are hardly susceptible to malagasy S. mansoni. Some cases of S. mansoni-infections are mentioned, which presumably had been contracted in non-endemic areas of the province of Antananarivo. The possibility and risk of implantation of schistosomiasis in this region and in the town is evaluated following the discussion of epidemiological details. The author concludes that in spite of some unfavourable conditions for S. mansoni the establishment of the cycle can locally not be excluded. Attention is all the more important, as control of endemic schistosomiasis would be particularly difficult under malagasy conditions of geography, climate, snail dynamics and human behaviour.

  6. Biomphalaria tenagophila potencial vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Paraná River basin (Argentina and Paraguay).

    PubMed

    Borda, C Edgardo; Rea, María Josefa F

    2007-05-01

    Susceptibility and compatibility experiments were carried out with 700 Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Paraná River basin exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Individual infection was performed with 10 miracidia of SJ2 strain from the Paraiba valley (Brazil) originally infective to B. tenagophila. These snails were laboratory-breed progeny of B. tenagophila collected from six localities of Argentina and one from Paraguay. From Argentina: Rincón de Vences (7%) and Posadas (11%) became infected with S. mansoni and the calculation of Frandsen's index (TCP/100) shows that they were Class II poorly compatible. Those snails from Goya (22%), Maloyas (5%), and Berón de Astrada (3%) were Class III compatible to the S. mansoni. None of the 100 snails exposed from Caá-Catí became infected (Class 0 incompatible). Tested samples from Paraguay (Encarnación) were infected (20%) and compatible (Class III). It was also studied the persistence of the infection in 244 snails of the first generation (F1) of those that were susceptible from three places. It was demonstrated an increment of the susceptibility in the F1 from Maloyas (chi2 = 27.22; p = 0.0001) and Posadas (chi2 = 4.24; p = 0.04). The results point out the possibility that schistosomiasis might be able to spread into the Paraná River basin where B. tenagophila exists.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Schistosoma mansoni larval development using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    TAFT, A. S.; VERMEIRE, J. J.; BERNIER, J.; BIRKELAND, S.R.; CIPRIANO, M. J.; PAPA, A. R.; MCARTHUR, A.G.; YOSHINO, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Infection of the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, by the free-swimming miracidial stage of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and its subsequent development to the parasitic sporocyst stage is critical to establishment of viable infections and continued human transmission. We performed a genome-wide expression analysis of the S. mansoni miracidia and developing sporocyst using Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE). Five cDNA libraries were constructed from miracidia and in vitro cultured 6- and 20-day-old sporocysts maintained in sporocyst medium (SM) or in SM conditioned by previous cultivation with cells of the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line. We generated 21 440 SAGE tags and mapped 13 381 to the S. mansoni gene predictions (v4.0e) either by estimating theoretical 3′ UTR lengths or using existing 3′ EST sequence data. Overall, 432 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed amongst all 5 libraries. In total, 172 tags were differentially expressed between miracidia and 6-day conditioned sporocysts and 152 were differentially expressed between miracidia and 6-day unconditioned sporocysts. In addition, 53 and 45 tags, respectively, were differentially expressed in 6-day and 20-day cultured sporocysts, due to the effects of exposure to Bge cell-conditioned medium. PMID:19265565

  8. [Critical analysis of the estimated number of Schistosomiasis mansoni carriers in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Katz, N; Peixoto, S V

    2000-01-01

    The number of carriers of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil was estimated based on the results of parasitological examinations of feces carried out by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS - National Health Foundation) in 1996 and 1997, as well as population data from 18 states collected by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). This information allowed the number of carriers of schistosomiasis mansoni to be estimated at 7.1 million in 1996 and 6. 3 million in 1997. These figures may not reflect the true situation since the population sample used was not originally selected for this purpose. The absence of precise data indicates the need for an adequate national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis, which continues to be an important endemic parasitic disease, justifying greater efforts for its control in Brazil.

  9. Is the New Primate Genus Rungwecebus a Baboon?

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Dietmar; Arnold, Michael L.; Roos, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus. Methodology/Principal Findings We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are

  10. Relationship Between Epilepsy and Colpocephaly in Baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Szabó, C Ákos; De La Garza, Melissa; Rice, Karen; Bazan Iii, Carlos; Salinas, Felipe S

    2016-01-01

    Brain MRI scans revealed various occipital horn variants in a pedigreed baboon colony consisting of Papio hamadryas anubis and its hybrids. We retrospectively characterized these variants and evaluated their relationships to epilepsy phenotypes and scalp EEG findings. MRI scans (3D, T1-weighted) from 208 baboons (female, 134 female; male, 74; age [mean ± 1 SD], 16 ± 5 y) were reviewed; 139 (67%) of these animals also underwent scalp EEG previously. Occipital horn variants included elongation (extension of the occipital ventricle behind the mediobasal origin of the calcarine fissure), which affected 23 baboons (11%; 7 bilateral, 9 left, 7 right), and elongation with enlargement (colpocephaly), which occurred in 30 baboons (14%; 7 bilateral, 11 left, 12 right). The incidence of the occipital horn variants did not differ according to age or prenatal or perinatal history. Colpocephaly was associated with craniofacial trauma but not with witnessed seizures. Abnormal scalp EEG findings, including interictal epileptic discharges, did not differ significantly among the occipital horn morphologies. This study is the first radiologic description of occipital horn variants, particularly colpocephaly, in baboons. Whereas colpocephaly is frequently associated with other radiologic and neurologic abnormalities in humans, it is mostly an isolated finding in baboons. Because craniofacial trauma can occur in the setting of seizure-related falls, its increased association with colpocephaly may reflect an increased risk of seizures or of traumatic brain injuries due to seizures. Colpocephaly in baboons needs to be characterized prospectively radiologically, neurologically, histopathologically, and genetically to better understand its etiology and clinical significance. PMID:27298250

  11. The development of an age structured model for schistosomiasis transmission dynamics and control and its validation for Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M. S.; Guyatt, H. L.; Bundy, D. A.; Booth, M.; Fulford, A. J.; Medley, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical models are potentially useful tools to aid in the design of control programmes for parasitic diseases. In this paper, a fully age structured epidemiological model of human schistosomiasis is developed and parameterized, and used to predict trends in infection prevalence, intensity and prevalence of heavy infections over age and time during several rounds of mass and age targeted treatment. The model is validated against data from a Schistosoma mansoni control programme in Kenya. Images Fig. 3 (a)-(c) PMID:7589272

  12. Role of Grooming in Reducing Tick Load in Wild Baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Akinyi, Mercy Y; Tung, Jenny; Jeneby, Maamun; Patel, Nilesh B; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-03-01

    Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behavior that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined the relationship between grooming behavior, tick load (number of ticks), and haemoprotozoan infection status in a population of wild free-ranging baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We found that the amount of grooming received was influenced by an individual's age, sex and dominance rank. The amount of grooming received, in turn, affected the tick load of an individual. Baboons with higher tick loads had lower packed red cell volume (PCV or haematocrit), one general measure of health status. We detected a tick-borne haemoprotozoan, Babesia microti, but its low prevalence in the population precluded identifying sources of variance in infection. PMID:24659824

  13. Role of Grooming in Reducing Tick Load in Wild Baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    Akinyi, Mercy Y.; Tung, Jenny; Jeneby, Maamun; Patel, Nilesh B.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behavior that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined the relationship between grooming behavior, tick load (number of ticks), and haemoprotozoan infection status in a population of wild free-ranging baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We found that the amount of grooming received was influenced by an individual’s age, sex and dominance rank. The amount of grooming received, in turn, affected the tick load of an individual. Baboons with higher tick loads had lower packed red cell volume (PCV or haematocrit), one general measure of health status. We detected a tick-borne haemoprotozoan, Babesia microti, but its low prevalence in the population precluded identifying sources of variance in infection. PMID:24659824

  14. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  15. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  16. A baboon model for hematologic studies of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Y; Gikakis, N; Gorman, J H; Khan, M M; Hack, C E; Velthuis, H T; Sun, L; Marcinkiewicz, C; Rao, A K; Niewiarowski, S; Colman, R W; Edmunds, L H; Anderson, H L

    1997-10-01

    Objective investigation of new inhibitors of blood protein or cellular systems that are activated during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is impeded by the absence of a satisfactory animal model. Because most baboon hematologic proteins immunologically cross-react with those used for human assays, we developed a robust, reusable baboon model of CPB. Blood samples were obtained from adult baboons at six time intervals before, during, and after 60 minutes of partial CPB at 37 degrees C with peripheral cannulas. Both membrane (n = 7) and bubble oxygenators (n = 7) were investigated. We measured platelet and white blood cell counts; platelet response to adenosine diphosphate and release of beta-thromboglobulin; fibrinopeptide A, prothrombin fragment F1.2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin complex; activated complement (C3b/c and C4b/c); elastase-alpha1 proteinase inhibitor complex; and bleeding times. Adherent glycoprotein IIIa antigen in Triton X-100 washes of the perfusion circuit was also measured. Markers of baboon platelet, complement, and neutrophil activation and thrombosis significantly increased during CPB with bubble oxygenator systems but did not change appreciably in membrane oxygenator circuits. Markers of fibrinolysis, D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin complex did not change with either oxygenator. The baboon model of CPB, when a bubble oxygenator is used, is a robust, reusable animal model for evaluating inhibitors of platelet, complement, and neutrophil activation and thrombosis during and after CPB.

  17. Absorption of biliary cobalamin in baboons following total gastrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Van Tonder, S.V.; Kew, M.C.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Absorption of radiolabeled cobalamin in baboons was assessed by whole body counting. Retention of biliary cobalamin and an aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin was measured in normal baboons and in baboons after total gastrectomy by using /sup 57/Co-labeled biliary cobalamin and /sup 58/C0-cyanocobalamin, with and without baboon gastric juice containing intrinsic factor. Radiolabeled biliary cobalamin was obtained by intravenous injection of /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin in baboons and collection of bile through a cannula placed in the common bile duct. Cobalamin absorption was not completely abolished by gastrectomy and biliary cobalamin was better retained than cyanocobalamin; intrinsic factor enhanced absorption of both forms. After gastrectomy there was steady depletion of liver and serum cobalamin levels, which ceased after a new equilibrium was reached between a progressively diminishing cobalamin loss and the impaired but significant residual level of absorption. These studies in the nonhuman primate provide further information concerning the enterohepatic circulation of cobalamin and suggest that the form of cobalamin in bile may be more readily absorbed than is cyanocobalamin or that bile itself may have an enhancing effect on cobalamin absorption. The data also suggest that physiologically significant amounts of cobalamin may be absorbed in the absence of a gastric source of intrinsic factor.

  18. The baboon: an ideal model in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Hugo, N; Beverley, G

    1992-01-01

    The baboon is a good animal model for research and investigations in physiology and pathophysiology, also using radiopharmaceutical techniques. It has several similarities to the human being, and all parameters in human physiology can be measured in the baboon model with the same or equal technical equipment. Fourier phase analysis in radionuclide ventriculography, hemodynamic reactions in a septic shock model, and investigations in conjunction with local anesthetics (eg, effects on cerebral blood flow) are typical types of research that have been or are currently being performed on the baboon. Institutes using the baboon model must be equipped with all instruments and operating facilities as would be needed for investigations in human beings. Ethical considerations must be regarded strictly and supervised by an ethics committee. Protocols must determine exactly why in vivo experimentation is preferred to in vitro tests. Anesthesia techniques in a baboon model allow study on the animal itself, eliminate pain (and stress) to the animal, and should not interfere with the aims of the investigation being performed.

  19. Environmental inducers of schistosomiasis mansoni in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma Filho, Francisco; Sant'Ana, João Moreno; dos Santos, Rozely Ferreira; Castagna, Cláudio Luiz

    2010-11-01

    Human occupation/activity in the suburbs of the large cities in Brazil, together with high social vulnerability associated with poor living conditions, influence the dynamics of schistosomiasis mansoni as well as several other emerging and re-emerging diseases. Previous notification data surveys for Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, carried out by the Information System for Notification Disease, show that there are distinct prevalence differences across healthcare districts of the city. This paper supports the hypothesis that the distribution of schistosomiasis is not random and that the centralized location of cases are linked to human behaviour, in particular to human activities that interfere with basic landscape structure. This paper analyzes the spatial patterns of the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host Biomphalaria comparing disease prevalence with natural conditions and the current pattern of territory occupation by the population. The spatial and hierarchical distribution of factors related to the environmental conditions and land use that indicate the risk for schistosomiasis has been surveyed. It was found that landscape characteristics define the areas at risk for this endemic disease and, as a result, a risk map comprising different risk classes was established. This risk map highlights the regions prone to become new foci for infection or that serves to maintain an existing focus. The research approach used attempts to introduce "geotechnology", i.e. a social application in which better knowledge about these foci, designated endemic "hot spots" can assist preventive public intervention measures in a way that is inexpensive and easy to handle.

  20. Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Western Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a SCORE Study, One Year after Initial Praziquantel Administration

    PubMed Central

    Assaré, Rufin K.; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T.; Yao, Patrick K.; N’Guessan, Nicaise A.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Meïté, Aboulaye; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; N’Goran, Eliézer K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d’Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. Methodology The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. Principal Findings The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5–24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5–20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9–13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2–105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7–135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. Conclusions/Significance One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Schistosoma mansoni Egg Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Califf, Lindsay L.; Xu, Tao; Hernandez, Hector J.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Yates, John R.; Williams, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a largely neglected, global health problem. The morbid pathology of the disease stems from the host's inflammatory response to parasite eggs trapped in host tissues. Long term host/parasite survival is dependent upon the successful modulation of the acute pathological response, which is induced by egg antigens. In this study, using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology, we identified the Schistosoma mansoni egg secretome consisting of 188 proteins. Notably we identified proteins involved in redox balance, molecular chaperoning and protein folding, development and signaling, scavenging and metabolic pathways, immune response modulation, and 32 novel, previously uncharacterized schistosome proteins. We localized a subset of previously-characterized schistosome proteins identified in egg secretions in this study, to the surface of live S. mansoni eggs using the circumoval precipitin reaction. The identification of proteins actively secreted by live schistosome eggs provides important new information for understanding immune modulation and the pathology of schistosomiasis. PMID:17644200

  2. Serum albumin and α-1 acid glycoprotein impede the killing of Schistosoma mansoni by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Svenja; Long, Thavy; Scheld, Christina; Geyer, Rudolf; Caffrey, Conor R.; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2014-01-01

    In the search for new drugs and drug targets to treat the flatworm disease schistosomiasis, protein kinases (PKs) have come under particular scrutiny because of their essential roles in developmental and physiological processes in schistosome parasites. In this context the application of the anti-cancer Abl tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor Imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec; STI-571) to adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro has indicated negative effects on diverse physiological processes including survival. Motivated by these in vitro findings, we performed in vivo experiments in rodent models of S. mansoni infection. Unexpectedly, Imatinib had no effect on worm burden or egg-production. We found that the blood components serum albumin (SA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP or orosomucoid) negated Imatinib’s deleterious effects on adult S. mansoni and schistosomula (post-infective larvae) in vitro. This negative effect was partially reversed by erythromycin. AGP synthesis can increase as a consequence of inflammatory processes or infection; in addition upon infection AGP levels are 6–8 times higher in mice compared to humans. Therefore, mice and probably other rodents are poor infection models for measuring the effects of Imatinib in vivo. Accordingly, we suggest the routine evaluation of the ability of AGP and SA to block in vitro anti-schistosomal effects of small molecules like Imatinib prior to laborious and expensive animal experiments. PMID:25516839

  3. Rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody reacting with a 15-kilodalton tegumental antigen of Schistosoma mansoni for serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A J; Piuvezam, M R; de Moura, H; Maddison, S; Peralta, J M

    1993-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) for antibody detection was developed by using a monoclonal antibody which reacts with a 15-kDa tegumental antigen of the adult worm of Schistosoma mansoni. This monoclonal antibody was not able to react with antigens of Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma haematobium in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) and indirect immunofluorescence tests. The assay was performed in a period of 1 h using an adult worm crude extract antigen. To evaluate the CELISA, a total of 73 serum samples was analyzed: 35 were from S. mansoni-infected patients, 23 were from individuals with parasitic infections other than schistosomiasis, and 14 were from healthy individuals. All serum samples from healthy individuals and from patients infected with other parasites were negative, as were two (6%) samples from patients infected with S. mansoni. EITB analysis showed that 32 of 33 CELISA-positive samples were positive in the EITB but with different patterns of reactivity. A 15-kDa protein reacted with 60% of serum samples, and a 60-kDa protein showed the highest level of reactivity (85%). The two samples from patients infected with S. mansoni that were negative in the CELISA reacted with 70-, 60-, 50-, 47-, and 38-kDa proteins. One sample, positive in CELISA, did not react with proteins of the antigenic extract. Images PMID:8408548

  4. A Comparative Chemogenomics Strategy to Predict Potential Drug Targets in the Metazoan Pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Conor R.; Rohwer, Andreas; Oellien, Frank; Marhöfer, Richard J.; Braschi, Simon; Oliveira, Guilherme; McKerrow, James H.; Selzer, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a prevalent and chronic helmintic disease in tropical regions. Treatment and control relies on chemotherapy with just one drug, praziquantel and this reliance is of concern should clinically relevant drug resistance emerge and spread. Therefore, to identify potential target proteins for new avenues of drug discovery we have taken a comparative chemogenomics approach utilizing the putative proteome of Schistosoma mansoni compared to the proteomes of two model organisms, the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Using the genome comparison software Genlight, two separate in silico workflows were implemented to derive a set of parasite proteins for which gene disruption of the orthologs in both the model organisms yielded deleterious phenotypes (e.g., lethal, impairment of motility), i.e., are essential genes/proteins. Of the 67 and 68 sequences generated for each workflow, 63 were identical in both sets, leading to a final set of 72 parasite proteins. All but one of these were expressed in the relevant developmental stages of the parasite infecting humans. Subsequent in depth manual curation of the combined workflow output revealed 57 candidate proteins. Scrutiny of these for ‘druggable’ protein homologs in the literature identified 35 S. mansoni sequences, 18 of which were homologous to proteins with 3D structures including co-crystallized ligands that will allow further structure-based drug design studies. The comparative chemogenomics strategy presented generates a tractable set of S. mansoni proteins for experimental validation as drug targets against this insidious human pathogen. PMID:19198654

  5. Genital Schistosomiasis: A Report on Two Cases of Ovarian Carcinomas Containing Viable Eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Amorim, Andressa; Alves Barbosa Pagio, Fernanda; Neves Ferreira, Rodrigo; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a variety of species being responsible for causing the disease. In Brazil, however, the only identified species is Schistosoma mansoni. The adult parasites inhabit the blood vessels of the hepatic portal system of the main host. The disease may range from being asymptomatic to provoking liver damage or portal hypertension. Furthermore, ectopic schistosomiasis may develop, and several hypotheses have been raised to explain the occurrence of the disease. This paper describes two cases, one in a 39-year-old woman and the other in a 47-year-old woman. Both had similar symptoms of pain and abdominal distension caused by a large abdominal/pelvic mass. Histopathology of the ovary showed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the intestinal type in the first patient and a papillary serous carcinoma in the second, with both tumors containing viable eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. The neoplasms probably serve as a migratory route for the adult parasites and the embolization of eggs. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence to confirm the malignization of a benign lesion due to the presence of Schistosoma mansoni. Few cases have been reported in the international literature on the association between ovarian schistosomiasis and neoplasms. PMID:25587473

  6. Activities of N,N′-Diarylurea MMV665852 Analogs against Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Noemi; Dätwyler, Philipp; Ernst, Beat; Wang, Chunkai; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Spangenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need to discover and develop novel antischistosomal drugs. As exemplified by MMV665852, N,N′-diarylureas have recently emerged as a promising antischistosomal chemotype. In this study, we evaluated the structure-activity relationships of 46 commercially available analogs of MMV665852 on newly transformed schistosomula (NTS) and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms in vitro. Active compounds were evaluated with a cytotoxicity assay, in silico calculations, metabolic stability studies, and an in vivo assay with mice harboring adult S. mansoni worms. Of the 46 compounds tested at 33.3 μM, 13 and 14 compounds killed NTS and adult worms, respectively, within 72 h. Nine compounds had 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC90s) of ≤10 μM against adult worms, with selectivity indexes of ≥2.8. Their physicochemical properties and permeation through an artificial membrane indicated good to moderate intestinal absorption. Their metabolic stabilities ranged from low to high. Despite satisfactory in vitro results and in silico predictions, only one compound resulted in a statistically significant worm burden reduction (66%) after administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight to S. mansoni-infected mice. Worm burden reductions of 0 to 43% were observed for the remaining eight compounds tested. In conclusion, several analogs of the N,N′-diarylurea MMV665852 had high efficacy against S. mansoni in vitro and favorable physicochemical properties for permeation through the intestinal wall. To counteract the low efficacy observed in the mouse model, further investigations should focus on identifying compounds with improved solubility and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:25583726

  7. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  8. Phytol, a Diterpene Alcohol from Chlorophyll, as a Drug against Neglected Tropical Disease Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Josué; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Costa, Jéssica P.; Junior, Antonio L. G.; de Sousa, Damião P.; Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods and findings In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL). Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL) reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg) administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6%) and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern) was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. Conclusions The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:24392173

  9. Schistosoma mansoni: Antiparasitic effects of orally administered Nigella sativa oil and/or Chroococcus turgidus extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Medhat; Eldahab, Marwa Abou; Mansour, Hoda Anwer; Nigm, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the parasites causing schistosomiasis, a disease which threatens millions of people all over the world. Traditional chemical drugs are not fully effective against schistosomaisis due to the evolving drug resistant worm strains, so exploring new remedies derived from natural products is a good way to fight schistosomiasis. In the present investigation two natural products, Nigella sativa oil and Chroococcus turgidus extract were used separately or in a combination to explore their effect on S. mansoni. The infected mice treated with Chroococcus turgidus extract or/and sativa seed oil showed a significant decrease in the total worm burden. The total number of deposited eggs by females of S. mansoni was significantly decreased in the liver of mice treated with Chroococcus turgidus extract or/and sativa seed oil. However, in the intestine, the number of eggs was significantly reduced in mice treated with algal extract and those treated with both algal extract and oil. Fecundity of female S. mansoni showed a significant decrease from mice treated with algal extract or/and sativa seed oil. According to SEM investigations the tegmental surface, oral and ventral suckers of worms also showed considerable changes; as the tubercles lost their spines, some are swollen and torn out. The suckers become edematous and enlarged while the tegmental surface is damaged due to the treatment with Chroococcus turgidus extract or/and sativa seed oil. In conclusion, the Nigella sativa oil and Chroococcus turgidus extract are promising natural compounds that can be used in fighting schistosomiasis. PMID:27630048

  10. Comparative evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma intercalatum, and Schistosoma haematobium alkaline phosphatase antigenicity by the alkaline phosphatase immunoassay (APIA).

    PubMed

    Cesari, I M; Ballén, D E; Mendoza, L; Ferrer, A; Pointier, J-P; Kombila, M; Richard-Lenoble, D; Théron, A

    2014-04-01

    To know if alkaline phosphatase (AP) from schistosomes other than Schistosoma mansoni can be used as diagnostic marker for schistosomiasis in alkaline phosphatase immunocapture assay (APIA), we comparatively tested n-butanol extracts of adult worm membranes from a Venezuelan (JL) strain of S. mansoni (Ven/AWBE/Sm); a Cameroonian (EDEN) strain of Schistosoma intercalatum (Cam/AWBE/Si) and a Yemeni strain of Schistosoma haematobium (Yem/AWBE/Sh). APIA was evaluated with sera of patients from Venezuela, Senegal, and Gabon infected with S. mansoni, from Gabon infected with S. intercalatum or S. haematobium, from Chine infected with Schistosoma japonicum and from Cambodian patients infected with Schistosoma mekongi. Results indicate that 92.5% (37/40) of Venezuela sera, 75% (15/20) of Senegal sera, 39.5% (17/43) of S. haematobium sera, and 19.2% (5/26) S. intercalatum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm preparation. APIA with the Cam/AWBE/Si preparation showed that 53.8% of S. intercalatum-positive sera had anti-AP antibodies, and 51.2% S. haematobium-positive sera cross-immunocapturing the S. intercalatum AP. APIA performed with Yem/AWBE/Sh showed that 55.8% S. haematobium sera were positive. Only two out of nine S. japonicum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm and Cam/AWBE/Si, and no reaction was observed with Cambodian S. mekongi-positive sera. AP activity was shown to be present in all the schistosome species/strains studied. The use of APIA as a tool to explore the APs antigenicity and the presence of Schistosoma sp. infections through the detection of anti-Schistosoma sp. AP antibodies in a host, allowed us to demonstrate the antigenicity of APs of S. mansoni, S. intercalatum, and S. haematobium.

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell free circulating Schistosoma mansoni DNA: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Aly, Nagwa Shaban Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Searching for a more sensitive and accurate marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis and treatment follow up is a potential necessity. Hereby, we evaluated usefulness of circulating free DNA as a marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis, assessing drug efficacy and monitoring the control interventions impact using SYBR green real-time PCR. A batch of mice were infected by 90 ± 10 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Starting from the 2nd day post infection (p.i.), groups of 2 or 3 mice were sacrificed every 3 days until 30 days p.i. The remaining animals were treated by a single dose of 400 mg/kg mefloquine and sacrificed in group at 5, 10, 21 days post treatment (35, 40, 51 days p.i.). Using SYBR green real time qPCR, pooled sera DNA were extracted and amplified. The results showed that, circulating free S. mansoni DNA was detected from the 2nd day post infection (p.i.) onwards with gradual decrease in the cycle threshold value Ct which indicates the gradual elevation of the DNA level (Log quantity was 2.6-3.1 IU/ml), As the infection progressed, DNA quantity was increased(Log quantity was 6.29 IU/ml). Initial increase of circulating free DNA was observed 10 days post treatment (40 days p.i.) (Log quantity was 7.38 IU/ml). That was followed by a progressive decrease in DNA level by the end of 21st day, post treatment (51 p.i.) (Log quantity 4.35 IU/ml). In conclusion, circulating free S. mansoni DNA is a reliable marker in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and for assessing drug efficacy and monitoring the impact of control interventions. PMID:27605830

  12. Sm10.3, a Member of the Micro-Exon Gene 4 (MEG-4) Family, Induces Erythrocyte Agglutination In Vitro and Partially Protects Vaccinated Mice against Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vicente P.; Morais, Suellen B.; Pinheiro, Carina S.; Assis, Natan R. G.; Figueiredo, Barbara C. P.; Ricci, Natasha D.; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke that causes schistosomiasis. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control disease is a combination of drug treatment and immunization with an anti-schistosome vaccine. Numerous antigens that are expressed at the interface between the parasite and the mammalian host have been assessed. Among the most promising molecules are the proteins present in the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we evaluated the potential of Sm10.3, a member of the micro-exon gene 4 (MEG-4) family, for use as part of a recombinant vaccine. We confirmed by real-time PCR that Sm10.3 was expressed at all stages of the parasite life cycle. The localization of Sm10.3 on the surface and lumen of the esophageal and intestinal tract in adult worms and lung-stage schistosomula was confirmed by confocal microscopy. We also show preliminary evidence that rSm10.3 induces erythrocyte agglutination in vitro. Immunization of mice with rSm10.3 induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type response, as IFN-γ, TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 were detected in the supernatant of cultured splenocytes. The protective effect conferred by vaccination with rSm10.3 was demonstrated by 25.5–32% reduction in the worm burden, 32.9–43.6% reduction in the number of eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, a 23.8% reduction in the number of granulomas, an 11.8% reduction in the area of the granulomas and a 39.8% reduction in granuloma fibrosis. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that Sm10.3 is a potential candidate for use in developing a multi-antigen vaccine to control schistosomiasis and provide the first evidence for a possible role for Sm10.3 in the blood feeding process. PMID:24651069

  13. Diagnostic significance of Schistosoma mansoni proteins Sm31 and Sm32 in human schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, L H; Ghoneim, H; Demian, S R; El-Sayed, M H; Tawfik, N M; Sakr, I; Abou-Basha, L M; Renganathan, E; Klinkert, M Q; Abou-Rawash, N

    1998-09-01

    We performed a series of ELISAs to evaluate the diagnostic significance of two Schistosoma mansoni proteins, Sm31 (cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B) and Sm32 (asparaginyl endopeptidase). Our study populations were chosen from two villages in an endemic area close to Alexandria. Using fusion proteins MS2-Sm31 and MS2-Sm32 as antigens, 70% and 78.9%, respectively, of patient sera from 134 parasitologically confirmed cases reacted positively. The percentage of seropositivity increased to 84.5% when parasite-derived proteins Sm31 and Sm32 were used. The serum levels of antibodies to these two proteins in recombinant or native forms do not correlate with intensity of infection and hence are detected even when egg counts are low, which makes proteins Sm31 and Sm32 useful antigens in the identification of S. mansoni infected cases, particularly in endemic areas in Egypt. PMID:9754667

  14. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using Indirect Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin Test

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Viviana Alvarado-Mora, Monica; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Experimental Liver Injury Induced by Schistosoma mansoni: A Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Fikry, Heba; Gawad, Sara Abdel; Baher, Walaa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been proposed as effective treatment of many diseases owing to their unique ability to differentiate into other cell types in vivo. Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is characterized by hepatic granuloma formation around schistosome eggs at acute stage of infection, followed by hepatic fibrosis at chronic and advanced stages. Whether BM-MSCs have an ameliorative effect on hepatic tissue injury caused by S. mansoni infection or not, was inspected in the current study. Materials and Results Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Half of control animals served as donors for bone marrow stem cells, and the other half was used to collect liver samples. Experimental group was injected with circariae of S. mansoni, and then subdivided into three subgroups; Subgroup B1, sacrificed after eight weeks of infection without treatment, subgroup B2, received BM-MSCs at the eighth week and sacrificed four weeks later, and subgroup B3, was untreated till the twelfth week of infection. Histological examination of liver samples showed the formation of granulomas and liver fibrosis which were extensive in subgroup B3. However, treated subgroup illustrated improvement of liver histology, signs of hepatocytes regeneration, and possible contribution of oval cell in the process of hepatic and biliary regeneration. Conclusion BM-MSCs decreased liver fibrosis and contributed to an increase in oval cells, generation of new hepatocytes and/or to the improvement of resident hepatocytes in S. mansoni infected mice. PMID:27426091

  16. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun.; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes in the placenta. The major findings of this study were 1) decreased placental syncytiotrophoblast amplification factor, intact syncytiotrophoblast endoplasmic reticulum structure and decreased system A placental amino acid transport in obese animals; 2) fetal serum amino acid composition and mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome were different in fetuses from obese compared with non-obese animals 3) maternal obesity in humans and baboons is similar in regard of increased placental and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration, increased CD14 expression in maternal PBMC and maternal hyperleptinemia. In summary, these data demonstrate that in obese baboons in the absence of increased fetal weight, placental and fetal phenotype are consistent with those described for large- for-gestational age human fetuses. PMID:19632719

  17. Predation as a determinant of minimum group size in baboons.

    PubMed

    Bettridge, Caroline M; Dunbar, R I M

    2012-01-01

    Predation risk places a pressure on animals to adopt mechanisms by which they reduce their individual risk of being preyed on. However, a consensus on methods of determining predation risk has yet to be reached. One of the most widespread ways in which animals respond to predation risk is by living in groups. Minimum permissible group size is the smallest group size that animals are able to live in, given the habitat-specific predation risk they face. We explore ways in which predation risk can be measured and analyse its effect on minimum observed group size in baboons. Using data on predator density, habitat composition and baboon body size, we investigate the impact of the components of predation risk on baboon group size, and derive an equation that best predicts minimum group size. Minimum group size in baboons is related to predator density and female body mass. Both of these elements can, in turn, be estimated from environmental variables. These findings present support for the argument that group living in primates is a response to predation risk and offer potentially new ways of investigating carnivore and primate ecology. PMID:23363593

  18. Histogenesis of alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon.

    PubMed

    Popper, H; Lieber, C S

    1980-03-01

    Sequential liver specimens of 18 baboons exposed for up to 6 years to alcohol on a nutritionally adequate diet, as well as those of pair-fed controls, were examined by light microscopy. Whereas control animals failed to develop pathologic changes, in all baboons exposed, ethanol produced initial steatosis and subsequently fibrosis. Emphasis was on the pattern of the fiber accumulations as related to lesions of the hepatocytes. Segmented neutrophilic leukocytes were rarely observed, and the picture of frank alcoholic hepatitis was absent, but diffusely increased mononuclear sinusoidal cells and interstitial clusters of such cells with PAS-positive macrophages were abundant. Fibrosis proceeding to septum formation was associated mainly with large-droplet steatosis. Septum formation was initiated by excess layers of reticulin around steatotic hepatocytes or, more frequently, by linking of fiber accumulations around the clusters of mononuclear cells, in both instances with subsequent deposition of collagen fibers. Both processes were prominent in the centrolobular zone, creating a perivenous net-like fibrosis, but septum formation also started within the lobular parenchyma and eventually linked with the barely altered portal tracts. Fifteen alcohol-fed baboons developed septums, with diffuse septal fibrosis in 5; 4 proceeded to septal cirrhosis and 1 each to micronodular and to mixed micromacronodular cirrhosis. Cirrhosis in the baboons thus develops without the conspicuous polymorphonuclear inflammation characteristic of human alcoholic hepatitis. These observations indicate a pathway to cirrhosis over creeping fibrosis that might play a role also in man, instead of (or supplementing) the one proceeding over alcoholic hepatitis.

  19. Hyperglycemic Challenge and Distribution of Adipose Tissue in Obese Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Tanmay; Slaughter, Gymama; Ego-Osuala, Chimdi; Kochunov, Peter; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Mattern, Vicki; Andrade, Marcia; Higgins, Paul B.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Voruganti, V. Saroja

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood glucose levels regulate the rate of insulin secretion, which is the body’s mechanism for preventing excessive elevation in blood glucose. Impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance have been linked to excess body fat composition. Here, we quantify abdominal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue compartments in a large nonhuman primate, the baboon, and investigate their relationship with serum glucose response to a hyperglycemic challenge. Methods Five female baboons were fasted for 16 hours prior to 90 minute body imaging experiment that consisted of a 20-min baseline, followed by a bolus infusion of glucose (500mg/kg). The blood glucose was sampled at regular intervals. The total volumes of the muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured. Results and discussion We found that adipose tissue composition predicted fluctuations in glucose responses to a hyperglycemic challenge of a non-human primate. Animals with higher visceral adiposity showed significantly reduced glucose elimination. The glucose responses were positively correlated with body weight, visceral and muscle fat (p < 0.005). Polynomial regression analysis showed that body weight, visceral and muscle were significant Conclusions These results reveal the similarity between humans and baboons with respect to glucose metabolism and strengthen the utility of baboon for biomedical research. PMID:25429366

  20. Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Barnard, Allison M; Hughes, Kelly D; Gerhardt, Regina R; Divincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  2. Effects of antenatal colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum on pulmonary disease in the immature baboon.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Bradley A; Coalson, Jacqueline J; Winter, Vicki T; Siler-Khodr, Teresa; Duffy, Lynne B; Cassell, Gail H

    2003-12-01

    Current nonhuman models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia have not included perinatal infection. We studied the effects of antenatal Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection in the 125-d immature baboon. Ten 125-d gestation (term = 185 d) baboon dams were delivered after intra-amniotic inoculation with Uu. Serial blood and tracheal aspirate samples were analyzed for Uu colony-forming units, IL-6, IL-8, and cell counts. Physiologic parameters were serially recorded. Lung histology was examined after 14 d of ventilation and compared with unexposed controls. All Uu-exposed animals had >4 x 102 CFU in tracheal aspirate at 24 h. Four of nine Uu animals remained heavily colonized [(+) Uu] at necropsy (>6 x 103). Five animals had negative or low tracheal colony-forming units. All Uu animals had significant increases for white blood cells, IL-6, and IL-8 in amniotic and fetal lung fluid. Compared with controls, (+) Uu animals had significantly higher fraction of inspired oxygen, airway pressures, oxygenation index, and ventilation efficiency index between 48 and 240 h and had significantly elevated tracheal IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations between 72 and 240 h. Compared with controls (-) Uu animals had significantly better oxygenation index and ventilation efficiency index scores between 48 and 144 h. Lung histopathology in both Uu groups showed more severe bronchiolitis and interstitial pneumonitis compared with controls. Two patterns of disease were observed after Uu perinatal infection. Persistent colonization manifested a picture consistent with acute pneumonitis, worse lung function from 2 to 10 d, and prolonged elevated tracheal cytokines. Colonized animals that subsequently cleared Uu from the lung demonstrated early improved lung function compared with unexposed controls yet still manifested mixed bronchiolitis and interstitial pneumonitis at necropsy. Inherent immune system responses may determine outcome of perinatal Ureaplasma colonization.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanning orphan receptor (SmTOR): a new vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lochmatter, C; Schneider, C L; Ingram, K; Keiser, J; Schifferli, J A

    2012-01-01

    One approach to fight against schistosomiasis is to develop an efficient vaccine. Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanning orphan receptor (SmTOR) might be a vaccine candidate, as it is a tegument membrane protein expressed most highly in cercariae. In this study we characterized the recombinant first extracellular domain of SmTOR (rSmTORed1) as having the expected property to bind C2 of complement similarly to a smaller peptide of the same domain, and to produce specific and high-titre antibodies in BALB/c mice immunized using complete Freund's adjuvant/incomplete Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA). Immunization was protective against parasite infection, as demonstrated by a significant decrease in worm burden in immunized BALB/c mice versus the control groups over two independent trials [64 and 45% reduction for mean adult worm burden in immunized versus phosphate-bufferd saline (PBS) injected mice]. Interestingly, infection by itself did not lead to the generation of anti-rSmTORed1 antibodies, corresponding to the low frequency of specific anti-rSmTORed1 antibodies detected in the sera of patients infected with S. mansoni (2/20; 10%). These data suggest that, as opposed to the natural infection during which SmTOR induces antibodies only rarely, immunization with its smaller first extracellular domain might be more efficient. PMID:23121675

  4. Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Zahida; Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP family, the ∼70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells) from its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. S. mansoni larval stage ESPs are known to interfere with haemocyte physiology and behaviour. Haemocytes from two different B. glabrata strains, one which is susceptible to S. mansoni infection and one which is resistant, both showed reduced HSP70 protein levels following 1 h challenge with S. mansoni ESPs when compared to unchallenged controls; however, the reduction observed in the resistant strain was less marked. The decline in intracellular HSP70 protein persisted for at least 5 h in resistant snail haemocytes only. Furthermore, in schistosome-susceptible snails infected by S. mansoni for 35 days, haemocytes possessed approximately 70% less HSP70. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially restored HSP70 protein levels in ESP-challenged haemocytes, demonstrating that the decrease in HSP70 was in part due to intracellular degradation. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway appears to regulate HSP70 protein expression in these cells, as the mitogen-activated protein-ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced HSP70 protein levels. Disruption of intracellular HSP70 protein expression in B. glabrata haemocytes by S. mansoni ESPs may be a strategy employed by the parasite to manipulate the immune response of the intermediate snail host. PMID:20182834

  5. An economic analysis of "demand" for food in baboons.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R W

    1991-11-01

    Responding of 6 adult male baboons (Papio c. anubis) was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement during daily 22-hr experimental sessions. Completion of the ratio requirement resulted in the delivery of a single 1-g food pellet; supplemental feeding was limited to a daily fruit ration. Ratio values were increased on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays according to the following schedule: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 96, 128. Responding under each ratio value was examined four times. Under the Fixed-Ratio 2 conditions, food intake ranged between 300 and 600 g. Ratios were increased for each baboon until food intake decreased to about 100 g (20% to 30% of Fixed-Ratio 2 intake). Increasing the response cost increased total time responding and total daily responding in all baboons, but this increase in responding was not sufficient to maintain stable food intake. Baboons responded between 90 and 180 min per day. The highest running response rates were observed under the Fixed-Ratio 2 and Fixed-Ratio 4 schedules. Running rate was similar across the larger ratio values (greater than Fixed-Ratio 8) but was lower than that observed under the Fixed-Ratio 2 and Fixed-Ratio 4 schedules. Similar results were observed the four times that each fixed-ratio value was tested. Intake as a function of cost was analyzed by fitting data to the nonlinear equation proposed by Hursh, Raslear, Shurtleff, Bauman, and Simmons (1988) for "demand" functions. Demand for food was inelastic over most of the ratio values until food intake decreased to 15% to 55% of baseline. The results indicate that demand functions are appropriate for the study of food intake in baboons, but also caution that intake at the cost when demand shifts from inelastic to elastic and its relationship to maximal intake should also be included in analyses of demand for a commodity. PMID:1774538

  6. Metabolism and disposition of bupropion in pregnant baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Rytting, Erik; Wang, Xiaoming; Vernikovskaya, Daria I; Zhan, Ying; Bauer, Cassondra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N

    2014-10-01

    Recent in vitro data obtained in our laboratory revealed similarities between baboons and humans in the biotransformation of bupropion (BUP) by both hepatic and placental microsomes. These data supported the use of baboons to study BUP biotransformation during pregnancy. The aim of this investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetics of BUP in baboons during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as fetal exposure to the drug after intravenous administration. Pregnant baboons (n = 5) received a single intravenous bolus dose of bupropion hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) at gestational ages 94-108 days (midpregnancy), 142-156 days (late pregnancy), and 6 weeks postpartum. Blood and urine samples were collected for 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The concentrations of BUP, hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion in plasma were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to the postpartum period, the average midpregnancy clearance of BUP trended higher (3.6 ± 0.15 versus 2.7 ± 0.28 l/h per kg) and the average C(max) (294 ± 91 versus 361 ± 64 ng/ml) and the area under the curve (AUC) of BUP values (288 ± 22 versus 382 ± 42 h·ng/ml) trended lower. AUC(OH-BUP) also tended to be lower midpregnancy compared with postpartum (194 ± 76 versus 353 ± 165 h·ng/ml). Whereas the observed trend toward increased clearance of BUP during baboon pregnancy could be associated with a pregnancy-induced increase in its biotransformation, the trend toward increased renal elimination of OH-BUP may overshadow any corresponding change in the hydroxylation activity of CYP2B.

  7. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Tarrabain, Mahmoud; Kabore, Alethe L; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing host-parasite relationship presents an opportunity to study both the importance of conserved immunological features in novel immunological roles, as well as new immunological adaptations that have arisen to combat a very specific type of immunological challenge. While it is well supported that the snail immune response is important for protecting against schistosome infection, very few specific snail immune factors have been identified and even fewer have been functionally characterized. Here, we provide the first functional report of a snail Toll-like receptor, which we demonstrate as playing an important role in the cellular immune response of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata following challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. This TLR (BgTLR) was identified as part of a peptide screen of snail immune cell surface proteins that differed in abundance between B. glabrata snails that differ in their compatibility phenotype to challenge by S. mansoni. The S. mansoni-resistant strain of B. glabrata (BS-90) displayed higher levels of BgTLR compared to the susceptible (M-line) strain. Transcript expression of BgTLR was found to be very responsive in BS-90 snails when challenged with S. mansoni, increasing 27 fold relative to β-actin (non-immune control gene); whereas expression in susceptible M-line snails was not significantly increased. Knockdown of BgTLR in BS-90 snails via targeted siRNA oligonucleotides was confirmed using a specific anti-BgTLR antibody and resulted in a significant alteration of the resistant phenotype, yielding patent infections in 43% of the normally resistant snails, which

  8. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pila, Emmanuel A.; Tarrabain, Mahmoud; Kabore, Alethe L.; Hanington, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing host-parasite relationship presents an opportunity to study both the importance of conserved immunological features in novel immunological roles, as well as new immunological adaptations that have arisen to combat a very specific type of immunological challenge. While it is well supported that the snail immune response is important for protecting against schistosome infection, very few specific snail immune factors have been identified and even fewer have been functionally characterized. Here, we provide the first functional report of a snail Toll-like receptor, which we demonstrate as playing an important role in the cellular immune response of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata following challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. This TLR (BgTLR) was identified as part of a peptide screen of snail immune cell surface proteins that differed in abundance between B. glabrata snails that differ in their compatibility phenotype to challenge by S. mansoni. The S. mansoni-resistant strain of B. glabrata (BS-90) displayed higher levels of BgTLR compared to the susceptible (M-line) strain. Transcript expression of BgTLR was found to be very responsive in BS-90 snails when challenged with S. mansoni, increasing 27 fold relative to β-actin (non-immune control gene); whereas expression in susceptible M-line snails was not significantly increased. Knockdown of BgTLR in BS-90 snails via targeted siRNA oligonucleotides was confirmed using a specific anti-BgTLR antibody and resulted in a significant alteration of the resistant phenotype, yielding patent infections in 43% of the normally resistant snails, which

  9. Pseudotumoral form of cerebral Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fr; Zanini, Ma; Ducati, Lg; Gabarra, Rc; Haddad, Gr; de Souza, V

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of 36-year-old woman presented with epileptic seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an enhancing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. Stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. Praziquantel was started (60mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose), followed by Prednisone (80mg/day) for seven days to treat the cerebral edema. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MRI yielded normal findings.

  10. Pseudotumoral form of cerebral Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Romero, FR; Zanini, MA; Ducati, LG; Gabarra, RC; Haddad, GR; de Souza, V

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of 36-year-old woman presented with epileptic seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an enhancing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. Stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. Praziquantel was started (60mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose), followed by Prednisone (80mg/day) for seven days to treat the cerebral edema. The patient’s symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MRI yielded normal findings. PMID:24960795

  11. Praziquantel inhibits Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    da-Silva, S P; Noel, F

    1990-01-01

    Male adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were placed in a glass dish containing Tyrode solution and observed for 15 min after addition of praziquantel (0.01 to 1 microM). Praziquantel promoted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of sucker-mediated attachment of the worm. Attachment inhibition was correlated with shortening of the parasite. We propose that the rapid and total inhibition of worm attachment observed in vitro with 1 microM praziquantel indicates that therapeutic concentrations of this drug should promote a rapid hepatic shift, in vivo, which may facilitate host tissue reaction. PMID:2101049

  12. Pulmonary leukocytic responses are linked to the acquired immunity of mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1988-05-15

    Pulmonary cellular responses in C57BL/6 mice exposed to Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated by sampling cells from the respiratory airways with bronchoalveolar lavage. Mice exposed to cercariae attenuated with 20 krad gamma-radiation developed stronger and more persistent pulmonary leukocytic responses than animals exposed to equal numbers of normal parasites. Although vaccination with irradiated cercariae also stimulated T cell responses of greater magnitude and duration than normal infection, the lymphocytic infiltrate elicited by each regimen did not differ substantially in its composition, 5 wk after exposure. Studies with cercariae attenuated by different treatments established that a link exists between the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs of vaccinated mice and resistance to reinfection. There was a strong association between pulmonary leukocytic responses and the elimination of challenge infections by vaccinated mice. Animals exposed to irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni were resistant to homologous challenge infection but were not protected against Schistosoma margrebowiei. Homologous challenge of vaccinated mice stimulated anamnestic leukocytic and T lymphocytic responses in the lungs, 2 wk postinfection, but exposure of immunized animals to the heterologous species failed to trigger an expansion in these populations of cells. Our studies indicate that pulmonary leukocytes and T lymphocytes are intimately involved in the mechanism of vaccine-induced resistance to S. mansoni. It remains unclear whether these populations of cells initiate protective inflammatory reactions against challenge parasites in the lungs, or accumulate in response to the activation of the protective mechanism by other means.

  13. Swamp rice farming: possible effects on endemicity of schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobia in a population in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Kazura, J W; Neill, M; Peters, P A; Dennis, E

    1985-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the possible influence of swamp rice farming on the patterns of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections, the populations of two communities in rural liberia were studied. In one village, Balama (population of 435), swamp rice farms were initiated six years before the survey; in the other nearby community, Gbarta (population of 216), swamp rice farms had not yet been initiated. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection in Balama was 87% vs. 9% in Gbarta (P less than 0.01). The geometric and arithmetic mean egg counts for all infected subjects in Balama were respectively 263 and 671/g feces. in Gbarta, the geometric and arithmetic mean egg counts were 150 and 129/g feces. S. haematobium eggs were detected in 42% of subjects in Balama vs. 11% in Gbarta (P less than 0.01). Hematuria correlated with the presence of S. haematobium eggs in urine. These data indicate that there is a significantly higher prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobia in a community where swamp rice farming has been utilized for 6 years compared to a nearby village where this water irrigation and drainage practice has not yet been implemented.

  14. [Identification of a new focus of schistosoma mansoni. (Municipality of Nova Lima, MG, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guerra, H L; Guimarães, C T; França, M A; Rocha, R S; Katz, N

    1991-01-01

    The detection of a new transmission focus of schistosomiasis in Nova Lima town, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is reported. The search of snail intermediate hosts in Banqueta do Bananal a small locality of Boa Vista neighbourhood detected 356 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata, with a infection rate of 8.4%. In hundred-sixty-two patients stool examinations (Kato-Katz method) were done, showing ninety-one patients with eggs of Schistosoma mansoni in their feces. The integrated action of local residents and the local administration resulted in the elimination of the focus.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria: past history and future trends.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J A; Dejong, R J; Snyder, S D; Mkoji, G M; Loker, E S

    2001-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most abundant infectious agents of humankind. Its widespread distribution is permitted by the broad geographic range of susceptible species of the freshwater snail genus Biomphalaria that serve as obligatory hosts for its larval stages. Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that Schistosoma originated in Asia, and that a pulmonate-transmitted progenitor colonized Africa and gave rise to both terminal-spined and lateral-spined egg species groups, the latter containing S. mansoni. Schistosoma mansoni likely appeared only after the trans-Atlantic dispersal of Biomphalaria from the Neotropics to Africa, an event that, based on the present African fossil record, occurred only 2-5 million years ago. This parasite became abundant in tropical Africa and then entered the New World with the slave trade. It prospered in the Neotropics because a remarkably susceptible and productive host, B. glabrata, was widely distributed there. Indeed, a snail similar to B. glabrata may have given rise to the African species of Biomphalaria. Schistosoma mansoni has since spread into other Neotropical Biomphalaria species and mammalian hosts. The distribution of S. mansoni is in a state of flux. In Egypt, S. mansoni has nearly completely replaced S. haematobium in the Nile Delta, and has spread to other regions of the country. A susceptible host snail, B. straminea, has been introduced into Asia and there is evidence of S. mansoni transmission in Nepal. Dam and barrage construction has lead to an epidemic of S. mansoni in Senegal, and the parasite continues its spread in Brazil. Because of competition with introduced aquatic species and environmental changes, B. glabrata and consequently S. mansoni have become less abundant on the Caribbean islands. Control of S. mansoni using praziquantel and oxamniquine has reduced global prevalence but control is difficult to sustain, and S. mansoni can develop tolerance/resistance to praziquantel, raising concerns about

  16. The Influence of Social Systems on Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Kopp, G H; Ferreira da Silva, M J; Fischer, J; Brito, J C; Regnaut, S; Roos, C; Zinner, D

    2014-01-01

    Behavior is influenced by genes but can also shape the genetic structure of natural populations. Investigating this link is of great importance because behavioral processes can alter the genetic diversity on which selection acts. Gene flow is one of the main determinants of the genetic structure of a population and dispersal is the behavior that mediates gene flow. Baboons (genus Papio) are among the most intensely studied primate species and serve as a model system to investigate the evolution of social systems using a comparative approach. The general mammalian pattern of male dispersal and female philopatry has thus far been found in baboons, with the exception of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). As yet, the lack of data on Guinea baboons (Papio papio) creates a taxonomic gap in genus-wide comparative analyses. In our study we investigated the sex-biased dispersal pattern of Guinea baboons in comparison to hamadryas, olive, yellow, and chacma baboons using sequences of the maternally transmitted mitochondrial hypervariable region I. Analyzing whole-range georeferenced samples (N = 777), we found strong evidence for female-biased gene flow in Guinea baboons and confirmed this pattern for hamadryas baboons, as shown by a lack of genetic-geographic structuring. In addition, most genetic variation was found within and not among demes, in sharp contrast to the pattern observed in matrilocal primates including the other baboon taxa. Our results corroborate the notion that the Guinea baboons' social system shares some important features with that of hamadryas baboons, suggesting similar evolutionary forces have acted to distinguish them from all other baboons.

  17. Group Composition of Guinea Baboons (Papio papio) at a Water Place Suggests a Fluid Social Organization.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar; Fickenscher, Gisela; Diedhiou, Sarany; Camara, Becaye; Stahl, Daniel; Fischer, Julia

    2011-06-01

    Baboon social systems are among the most studied in primates. Solid knowledge of the hamadryas and savannah baboon systems has accumulated, leading to a dichotomic view of baboon social systems. Hamadryas baboons live in multilayered troops based on 1-male units whereas savannah baboons live in multimale multifemale groups based on a network of related females. Less attention has been paid to their West African congenerics, the Guinea baboons, Papio papio. To fill this gap, in 2007 we initiated a long-term study of a baboon troop ranging in the Niokolo Koba National Park in southeastern Senegal. Earlier studies suggested a tendency for a multilayered social system in Guinea baboons, similar to the hamadryas baboon organization. Therefore, as a first approach to analyzing variability in party size and composition, we observed members of the troop crossing an open area from a fixed point for 3 mo during the dry and wet seasons. We counted individuals and recorded changes in composition of both arriving and departing parties. Party size and composition were highly variable on both a daily and a seasonal basis; 45.9% of the arriving parties changed in composition while crossing the open area, either splitting into smaller parties or fusing into larger ones, suggesting a fluid organization. Our data support the existence of neither a hamadryas baboon-like multilayered social organization nor a stable medium-sized multimale multifemale group as in savannah baboons. In light of our data we may need to revise the dichotomic view of baboon social systems and include space for greater variability of their social systems.

  18. Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.

    PubMed

    El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails. PMID:18383803

  19. SchistoDB: a Schistosoma mansoni genome resource

    PubMed Central

    Zerlotini, Adhemar; Heiges, Mark; Wang, Haiming; Moraes, Romulo L. V.; Dominitini, Anderson J.; Ruiz, Jerônimo C.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    SchistoDB (http://schistoDB.net/) is a genomic database for the parasitic organism Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major causative agents of schistosomiasis worldwide. It currently incorporates sequences and annotation for S. mansoni in a single user-friendly database. Several genomic scale analyses are available as well as ESTs, oligonucleotides, metabolic pathways and drugs. In this article, we describe the data sets and its analyses, how to query the database and tools available in the website. PMID:18842636

  20. Phenotypic plasticity of male Schistosoma mansoni from the peritoneal cavity and hepatic portal system of laboratory mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mati, V L T; Freitas, R M; Bicalho, R S; Melo, A L

    2015-05-01

    Morphometric analysis of Schistosoma mansoni male worms obtained from AKR/J and Swiss mice was carried out. Rodents infected by the intraperitoneal route with 80 cercariae of the schistosome (LE strain) were killed by cervical dislocation at 45 and 60 days post-infection and both peritoneal lavage and perfusion of the portal system were performed for the recovery of adult worms. Characteristics including total body length, the distance between oral and ventral suckers, extension of testicular mass and the number of testes were considered in the morphological analysis. Changes that occurred in S. mansoni recovered from the peritoneal cavity or from the portal system of AKR/J and Swiss mice included total body length and reproductive characteristics. Significant morphometric alterations were also observed when worms recovered from the portal system of both strains of mice were compared with the schistosomes obtained from hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the vertebrate host in which the LE strain had been adapted and maintained by successive passages for more than four decades. The present results reinforce the idea that S. mansoni has high plastic potential and adaptive capacity.

  1. Characterization of antigens from Schistosoma mansoni and construction of a cDNA library for the study of schistosomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Bugra, K.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the antigens of adult Schistosoma mansoni, /sup 35/S-methionine-labelled, detergent-extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated and analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Human infection serum immunoprecipitated 14 polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 120, 105, 88, 86, 66, 64, 54, 48, 42, 38, 35, 32, 29, and 20 Kd. Upon digestion with endoglycosidase F polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 120, 105, 54, 48, and 29 appeared to have carbohydrate moieties. Extracts of female and male S. mansoni were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Two polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 86 Kd and 54 Kd were detected only in extracts of males. Polyadenylated RNA was extracted from S. mansoni and translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Among the in vitro translation products, polypeptides with 120, 94, 64, 43, 37, 35, 30, 26 and 22 Kd apparent molecular weights were immunoprecipitated by human infection serum. When the translation products of female worms and male worms were compared, the polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 94 and 64 Kd were only observed in males.

  2. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  3. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.; Keough, E.M.; Ramberg-Laskaris, K.; McCullough, J.L.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Melaragno, A.; Valeri, C.R.; Weiblen, B.

    1984-07-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in pregnant baboons (Papio spp.).

    PubMed

    Shoulson, Rivka L; Stark, Raymond L; Garland, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Fluoxetine is used to treat a number of psychiatric conditions in humans and behavioral problems in animals. Its use in pregnancy must balance maternal benefit with potential risk to the fetus. Knowledge of adult and fetal drug disposition can assist clinicians in selecting therapy that minimizes adverse effects to the fetus. Nonhuman primate models are used frequently in drug dose-translation studies, and pregnancy in baboons has many similarities to human pregnancy. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic analysis of a series of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine administrations to pregnant baboons was performed. The mean maternal baboon steady-state clearance of fluoxetine (42 mL/min/kg) was considerably higher than that in humans. Norfluoxetine, the major active metabolite, had a higher metabolite-to-drug ratio (8.7) than that found in humans, particularly with oral dosing. These results are consistent with more extensive metabolism in baboons than in humans and leads to a higher clearance than would be expected from allometric scaling. Fetal-to-maternal fluoxetine and norfluoxetine ratios under steady-state conditions were similar to those in humans, with fetal concentrations of fluoxetine 42% and norfluoxetine 47% of maternal concentrations. The fetal clearance of fluoxetine (303 ± 176 mL/min) and norfluoxetine (450 mL/min) exceeded reported placental blood flow. Understanding these species-associated differences in metabolism is a prerequisite to extrapolating data between species. Nonetheless, nonhuman primates are likely to remain valuable models for pharmacokinetic studies during pregnancy, particularly those directed toward fetal neurodevelopmental effects. Our results also are applicable to determining appropriate dosing of nonhuman primates in clinical settings.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoxetine in Pregnant Baboons (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Shoulson, Rivka L; Stark, Raymond L; Garland, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Fluoxetine is used to treat a number of psychiatric conditions in humans and behavioral problems in animals. Its use in pregnancy must balance maternal benefit with potential risk to the fetus. Knowledge of adult and fetal drug disposition can assist clinicians in selecting therapy that minimizes adverse effects to the fetus. Nonhuman primate models are used frequently in drug dose-translation studies, and pregnancy in baboons has many similarities to human pregnancy. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic analysis of a series of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine administrations to pregnant baboons was performed. The mean maternal baboon steady-state clearance of fluoxetine (42 mL/min/kg) was considerably higher than that in humans. Norfluoxetine, the major active metabolite, had a higher metabolite-to-drug ratio (8.7) than that found in humans, particularly with oral dosing. These results are consistent with more extensive metabolism in baboons than in humans and leads to a higher clearance than would be expected from allometric scaling. Fetal-to-maternal fluoxetine and norfluoxetine ratios under steady-state conditions were similar to those in humans, with fetal concentrations of fluoxetine 42% and norfluoxetine 47% of maternal concentrations. The fetal clearance of fluoxetine (303 ± 176 mL/min) and norfluoxetine (450 mL/min) exceeded reported placental blood flow. Understanding these species-associated differences in metabolism is a prerequisite to extrapolating data between species. Nonetheless, nonhuman primates are likely to remain valuable models for pharmacokinetic studies during pregnancy, particularly those directed toward fetal neurodevelopmental effects. Our results also are applicable to determining appropriate dosing of nonhuman primates in clinical settings. PMID:25650979

  6. Social behavior and patterns of testosterone and glucocorticoid levels differ between male chacma and Guinea baboons.

    PubMed

    Kalbitzer, Urs; Heistermann, Michael; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Fischer, Julia

    2015-09-01

    In multi-male, multi-female groups of mammals, males usually compete aggressively over access to females. However, species vary in the intensity of male contest competition, which has been linked to differences in testosterone and glucocorticoid profiles. Chacma (Papio ursinus) and Guinea (P. papio) baboons constitute an intriguing model to examine variation in male competition and male endocrine correlates, because of the differences in their social systems. Chacma baboons live in stable female-bonded groups with linear male dominance hierarchies and a high male mating skew, whereas Guinea baboons live in male-bonded, multi-level societies. We recorded male behavior and assayed testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) levels from fecal samples in one population of each species. Male chacma baboons were more frequently involved in agonistic interactions, and dominance relationships were more consistent than in Guinea baboons, where we could not detect linear hierarchies. Notably, male chacma baboons were also more aggressive towards females, indicating an overall higher aggressiveness in this species. In contrast, male Guinea baboons showed higher levels of affiliative interactions and spatial tolerance. High-ranking and consorting male chacma baboons showed elevated fGC levels and also tended to show elevated fT levels, but there was no effect of consortship in Guinea baboons. Agonism was not related to hormone levels in either species. Thus, predictors of fT and fGC levels in Guinea baboons seem to differ from chacma baboons. Our results support the view that different social systems create differential selection pressures for male aggression, reflected by different hormone profiles.

  7. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates.

  8. Superficial veins of the foot in the baboon Papio anubis.

    PubMed

    Dyl, L; Topol, M

    2007-02-01

    Although the baboon is considered a good animal model in biomedical research, no description of the superficial veins of the foot in Papio anubis is found in the available literature. The current study was conducted to document the anatomy of these veins in the baboon foot. A macroscopic anatomical investigation was carried out on 20 hind legs (10 cadavers) of the adult Papio anubis (9 males and 1 female). The circulatory system of the entire body was filled with coloured latex. Traditional methods were used for the preparation of the veins of the legs. These were then compared with the venous system of the lower extremities in humans as presented in the literature. The medial and lateral metatarsal veins, the dorsal venous network, the long saphenous vein and the short saphenous vein in Papio anubis were described according to their origin, course, opening, length and diameter. The network observed was divided into three types with respect to the connections between the superficial veins. The investigation revealed no symmetry in the venous system of the baboon foot. The short saphenous vein appeared to be the main vein of the hind leg in Papio anubis and the long saphenous vein ran as a double vessel.

  9. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    PubMed

    Macho, Gabriele A

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation. PMID:24416315

  10. Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei

    PubMed Central

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%–80% of their tissues’ δ13C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei’s food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%–42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2–4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species’ derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation. PMID:24416315

  11. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity. PMID:27287424

  12. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    PubMed

    Macho, Gabriele A

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  13. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

    2005-11-01

    This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

  14. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Dixon, B.; Wilson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni.

  15. A chemokinetic response in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    PubMed

    Shiff, C J; Graczyk, T K

    1994-12-01

    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae have been shown to aggregate in the presence of glass slides treated with clear nail varnish and linoleic acid. In choice chambers cercariae move toward the stimulant, but this behavior is not seen when linoleic acid is omitted. After 30-45 min, the cercariae were concentrated near the end of the choice-chamber containing the linoleic acid slide. When the cercariae were added in the center of the choice chamber, they formed a diffuse cloud that dispersed slowly in both directions in the absence of linoleic acid. Cercariae aggregating in the vicinity of a stimulant surface are not immediately stimulated to commence penetration; this appears to be time and dose related. PMID:7799158

  16. Characterization of biophysical properties of baboon lipoproteins: modulation by dietary fat and cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Babiak, J.

    1984-04-01

    The serum lipoproteins of baboons fed diets containing differing types and amounts of fat and varying amounts of cholesterol were examined by analytic ultracentrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, density gradient ultracentrifugation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and standard protein and lipid composition assays. These studies characterized the lipoproteins of the baboon, observed how concentrations and physical-chemical properties of the lipoproteins are modulated by dietary fat and cholesterol and described the suitability of the baboon as an animal model of human lipoprotein metabolism. Results indicate that baboon high density lipoproteins (HDL), though higher in total serum concentration than human HDL, are remarkably similar to human HDL. The concentration of baboon HDL is increased by dietary saturated fat but decreased by the addition of cholesterol. While serum concentrations of low density lipoproteins (LDL) tend to be lower in baboons, the physical-chemical properties of the LDL of baboons and humans are comparable. The LDL of both species contains apolipoprotein B as their major apolipoprotein and exhibit considerable polydispersity in particle size. LDL of both species consists of seven discrete subpopulations. The analytical and statistical data presented in this dissertation indicate that the baboon is a good model for studying the role of lipoproteins in the development of atherosclerosis. 125 references, 31 figures, 28 tables.

  17. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alda Maria Soares; Costa, Emanuele Gama Dutra; Ray, Debalina; Suzuki, Brian M.; Hsieh, Michael H.; Fraga, Lucia Alves de Oliveira; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz (KK) stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT) has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high. Methods and Findings The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130) were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test): 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble (adult) worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r

  18. Effects of garlic on Schistosoma mansoni harbored in albino mice: molecular characterization of the host and parasite.

    PubMed

    Riad, Nahed H A; Taha, Hoda A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2013-04-15

    Garlic has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. Modern research confirmed many of the healing properties of garlic, including its antiparasitic activity. This study was designed to evaluate the antischistosomal action of garlic through detecting the changes in DNA profile of Schistosoma mansoni worms and the infected mouse. Forty mice were subcutaneously infected with ~200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae/mouse. Infected mice were divided into four equal groups: non-treated, prophylactic, therapeutic, and continuously-treated. Non-infected control and garlic-treated groups were assigned for the sake of comparison. Garlic extract (50mg/kg bw/mouse) was given orally, day after day, at a fixed daytime. Seven weeks post-infection, adult schistosomes were recovered by perfusion and the livers of the mice were excised out and were processed for DNA extraction and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). The results showed that garlic exerted no major changes in the genome of schistosomes. Nevertheless, that schistosomal infection induced genetic alterations in the DNA of mice, and garlic was able to ameliorate such alterations to a great extent.

  19. The baboon (Papio sp.) as a model for female reproduction studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-01-01

    Due to their size and anatomical similarity to humans, baboons make an excellent model for reproductive studies. Baboons have a simple short cervix, muscular uterus, ovaries just lateral to the uterus, and similar vasculature to that of humans. Because of the size of the animals, instruments designed for use in women can be readily used on baboons. Noninvasive determination of phase of estrous cycle is readily made by observation of changes in perineal sexual skin turgor and color. Some advantages of use of baboons compared to other nonhuman primates is that they are non-seasonal breeders, allowing for studies to be conducted year-round, have minimal infectious disease risks to humans as they do not carry Herpes B, and have a social structure allowing for easy group formation. Baboons serve as good models for many conditions in humans and should be considered for studies investigating reproductive issues. PMID:26072741

  20. Fetal immunization of baboons induces a fetal-specific antibody response.

    PubMed

    Watts, A M; Stanley, J R; Shearer, M H; Hefty, P S; Kennedy, R C

    1999-04-01

    Neonates face a high risk of infection because of the immaturity of their immune systems. Although the transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus may convey improved postnatal immunity, this transfer occurs late in gestation and may fail to prevent in utero infection. Both fetal immunization and in utero exposure to antigen can result in a state of immunologic tolerance in the neonate. Tolerance induction of fetal and premature infant lymphocytes has become a paradigm for neonatal responsiveness. However, fetal IgM responses have been demonstrated to maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid and to congenital infections such as rubella, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, 1-week-old infants can respond to standard pediatric vaccination, and neonates immunized with polysaccharide antigens do not develop immunologic tolerance. Here, direct immunization of the baboon fetus with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen produced a specific fetal IgG antibody response. No specific maternal antibody response was detected, eliminating the possibility of vertical antibody transmission to the fetus. Some infants also responded to later vaccinations with hepatitis B surface antigen, indicating that no immunological tolerance was induced by prior fetal immunization. These results characterize the ability of the fetal immune system to respond to in utero vaccination. We demonstrate that active fetal immunization can serve as a safe and efficient vaccination strategy for the fetus and neonate. PMID:10202933

  1. Parasitological, Hematological and Biochemical Characteristics of a Model of Hyper-microfilariaemic Loiasis (Loa loa) in the Baboon (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Eyong, Ebanga-Echi; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ngwa, Che; Esuka, Elive; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice; Enyong, Peter; Hopkins, Adrian; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Loiasis, a filarial infection caused by Loa loa usually thought to cause relatively minor morbidity, can cause serious and often fatal reactions in patients carrying very high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae (mf) following administration of microfilaricidal drugs. An experimental model of this condition would greatly aid the definition of the optimal management of this important clinical presentation. Methodology/Principle Findings Fifteen baboons (Papio anubis) were infected with 600 infective larvae (L3) isolated from Chrysops vector flies. Animals were observed for any clinical changes; blood samples were collected every 1–2 months for 22 months, and analysed for parasitological, hematological and biochemical profiles using standard techniques. All animals became patent but remained clinically normal throughout the study. The parasitological pre-patent period was between 4–8 months, with a majority (60%) of animals becoming patent by 5 months post infection (MPI); all animals were patent by 8 MPI. Microfilarial loads increased steadily in all animals and reached a peak at 18 MPI. By 10 MPI >70% of animals had mf >8,000 mf/mL, and at 18 MPI >70% of animals had mf >30,000mf/mL with 50% of these animals with mf >50,000mf/mL. Absolute eosinophil, creatinine, Ca2+ and K+ levels were generally above normal values (NV). Positive associations were seen between microfilariaemia and eosinophilia, Hb, Ca2+, and gamma-GT values, whilst significant negative associations were seen between microfilariaemia and potassium, glucose and mononuclear leukocyte levels. Conclusions Infection of splenectomised baboons with L. loa can induce levels of circulating microfilariae, and corresponding haematological profiles, which parallel those seen in those humans in danger of the severe post-microfilariacide clinical responses. Utilization of this experimental model could contribute to the improved management of the loiasis related adverse responses in humans

  2. Induction of protective immunity and modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity in mice using PIII, an anionic fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C; Zouain, C S; Alves, J B; Goes, A M

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed in order to define Schistosoma mansoni antigens that are able to function as modulator agents in the granulomatous hypersensitivity to parasite eggs in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. A fraction of S. mansoni, designated PIII, derived from adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was obtained using anion-exchange chromatography on an FPLC system. Immunization of mice with PIII in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH)3 as adjuvant induced an immune response in this animals as determined by ELISA and spleen cell proliferation assays against S. mansoni antigens SEA, SWAP and PIII. In addition, PIII caused a significant degree of protection against a challenge infection in immunized mice as observed by the decrease on worm burden recovered from the portal system. We also showed that PIII profoundly inhibited the vigorous anamnestic granulomatous response to eggs in the liver and lungs. This suppression correlated with a significant decrease in granuloma size. From these results we conclude that the PIII preparation contains antigens that can mediate protective anti-parasite immunity and downregulate granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs. PMID:9280892

  3. New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology and Population Genetics of Schistosoma mansoni in Ugandan Pre-school Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Significant numbers of pre-school children are infected with Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa and are likely to play a role in parasite transmission. However, they are currently excluded from control programmes. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided insights into the evolutionary origins and transmission dynamics of S. mansoni, but there has been no research into schistosome molecular epidemiology in pre-school children. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni in pre-school children and mothers living in lakeshore communities in Uganda and monitored for changes over time after praziquantel treatment. Parasites were sampled from children (<6 years) and mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Schistosomiasis Mothers and Infants Study at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys. 1347 parasites from 35 mothers and 45 children were genotyped by direct sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene. The cox1 region was highly diverse with over 230 unique sequences identified. Parasite populations were genetically differentiated between lakes and non-synonymous mutations were more diverse at Lake Victoria than Lake Albert. Surprisingly, parasite populations sampled from children showed a similar genetic diversity to those sampled from mothers, pointing towards a non-linear relationship between duration of exposure and accumulation of parasite diversity. The genetic diversity six months after praziquantel treatment was similar to pre-treatment diversity. Our results confirm the substantial genetic diversity of S. mansoni in East Africa and provide significant insights into transmission dynamics within young children and mothers, important information for schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:24349589

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, H.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using (75Se)selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  6. Ultrastructural studies of the killing of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni by activated macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    McLaren, D J; James, S L

    1985-05-01

    Immunologically activated murine macrophages have been shown elsewhere to kill skin stage schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni in vitro, in a manner analogous to the extracellular killing of tumour cell targets. In this study, the kinetics of the interaction between activated macrophages and larval targets and the resultant ultrastructural changes in parasite morphology that culminated in death have been analysed in detail. Unlike granulocyte-mediated schistosomular killing, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity did not appear to be directed against the surface tissues of the parasite. Macrophages adhered only transiently following initiation of the cultures, yet changes in the subtegumental mitochondria and muscle cells of the larva were detected within the first hour of incubation. Progressive internal disorganisation followed rapidly, but the tegument and tegumental outer membrane remained intact, to form a 'shell' that maintained the general shape of the parasite. Such changes were recognised irrespective of whether the effector cell population comprised peritoneal macrophages activated by lymphokine treatment in vitro, or by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG), or S. mansoni in vivo. That macrophages rather than contaminating granulocytes or lymphocytes, had mediated the observed damage was demonstrated by the use of a lymphokine treated macrophage cell line, IC-21. The observation that macrophage cytotoxicity is directed against internal organelles rather than the tegumental outer membrane of this multicellular target, may help to elucidate the general mechanism of extracellular killing by these cells. PMID:3892433

  7. Dendritic cell profile induced by Schistosoma mansoni antigen in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Diego Mota; Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Cardoso, Thiago Marconi de Souza; Bafica, Aline Michele Barbosa; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Carvalho, Edgar M; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cardoso, Luciana Santos

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although responsible for controlling the infection, is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Conversely, the immune response induced by S. mansoni antigens is able to prevent immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the S. mansoni Sm29 antigen to change the profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from subjects with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in vitro. Monocytes derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of twelve patients were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for differentiation into dendritic cells and then stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in the presence or absence of Sm29 antigen. The expression of surface molecules associated with maturation and activation (HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, CD80, and CD86), inflammation (IL-12, TNF), and downregulation (IL-10, IL-10R) was evaluated using flow cytometry. We observed that the frequencies of HLA-DR, CD83, CD80, and CD86 as well as of IL-10 and IL-10R on MoDCs were higher in cultures stimulated with Sm29, compared to the unstimulated cell cultures. Our results indicate that the Sm29 antigen is able to activate regulatory MoDCs in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. It might be useful to control the inflammatory process associated with this disease.

  8. Field trial of 1% niclosamide as a topical antipenetrant to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elyazeed, R R; Podgore, J K; Mansour, N S; Kilpatrick, M E

    1993-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial of a topical antipenetrant lotion, 1% niclosamide, applied daily to the upper and lower limbs of farmers occupationally exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercarial-infested water, was conducted in the Nile Delta to assess its safety and efficacy in preventing reinfection. Farmers aged 18-40 years were treated to cure their S. mansoni infections three months prior to the onset of the trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive niclosamide or placebo lotion that was self-applied daily for five months. A total of 186 subjects met the inclusion criteria and completed the trial. The exposure to schistosomal-infested water occurred during routine irrigation activities from June to November 1991. Stool specimens were evaluated monthly during and for two months following the lotion application period. The subjects applying the niclosamide lotion were comparable to those applying placebo lotion in age (mean 30 years for both), total water contact (184.5 hr versus 173.8 hr), reported lotion application compliance (88% versus 92%), and reported water contact involving skin exposure other than upper and lower limbs (23% versus 27%). The schistosomal reinfection rate was lower in the niclosamide group (53.3%) compared with the placebo lotion group (71.3%), (P < 0.02). Increased protection might be obtained with total body application for shorter, less intense, water contact exposures.

  9. Dendritic Cell Profile Induced by Schistosoma mansoni Antigen in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Diego Mota; Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Cardoso, Thiago Marconi de Souza; Bafica, Aline Michele Barbosa; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cardoso, Luciana Santos

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although responsible for controlling the infection, is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Conversely, the immune response induced by S. mansoni antigens is able to prevent immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the S. mansoni Sm29 antigen to change the profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from subjects with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in vitro. Monocytes derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of twelve patients were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for differentiation into dendritic cells and then stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in the presence or absence of Sm29 antigen. The expression of surface molecules associated with maturation and activation (HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, CD80, and CD86), inflammation (IL-12, TNF), and downregulation (IL-10, IL-10R) was evaluated using flow cytometry. We observed that the frequencies of HLA-DR, CD83, CD80, and CD86 as well as of IL-10 and IL-10R on MoDCs were higher in cultures stimulated with Sm29, compared to the unstimulated cell cultures. Our results indicate that the Sm29 antigen is able to activate regulatory MoDCs in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. It might be useful to control the inflammatory process associated with this disease. PMID:25309922

  10. Strategic Use of Affiliative Vocalizations by Wild Female Baboons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although vocal production in non-human primates is highly constrained, individuals appear to have some control over whether to call or remain silent. We investigated how contextual factors affect the production of grunts given by wild female chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, during social interactions. Females grunted as they approached other adult females 28% of the time. Supporting previous research, females were much more likely to grunt to mothers with young infants than to females without infants. Grunts also significantly increased the likelihood of affiliative interactions among all partners. Notably, however, grunts did not simply mirror existing social bonds. Instead, they appeared to perform a very different function: namely, to serve as signals of benign intent between partners whose relationship is not necessarily close or predictable. Females were less likely to grunt to their mothers or adult daughters—the individuals with whom they shared the closest and least aggressive bonds—than to other females. In contrast, patterns of grunting between sisters were similar to those between nonkin, perhaps reflecting sisters’ more ambivalent relationships. Females grunted at higher rates to lower-ranking, than to higher-ranking, females, supporting the hypothesis that grunts do not simply signal the signaler’s level of arousal or anxiety about receiving aggression, but instead function as signals of benign intent. Taken together, results suggest that the grunts given by female baboons serve to reduce uncertainty about the likely outcome of an interaction between partners whose relationship is not predictably affiliative. Despite their limited vocal repertoire, baboons appear to be skilled at modifying call production in different social contexts and for different audiences. PMID:27783705

  11. Baboon (Papio anubis) social complexity--a network approach.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Julia; Ross, Caroline

    2011-08-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the causes and consequences of social relationships, few studies have explicitly assessed how measures of social relationships are affected by the choice of behaviors used to quantify them. The use of many behaviors to measure social relationships in primates has long been advocated, but it was analytically difficult to implement this framework into primatological work. However, recent advances in social network analysis (SNA) now allow the comparison of multiple networks created from different behaviors. Here we use our database of baboon social behavior (Papio anubis, Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria) to investigate (i) to what extent social networks created from different behaviors overlap, (ii) to what extent individuals occupy similar social positions in these networks and (iii) how sex affects social network position in this population of baboons. We used data on grooming, aggression, displacement, mounting and presenting, which were collected over a 15-month period. We calculated network parameters separately for each behavior. Networks based on displacement, mounting and presenting were very similar to each other, whereas grooming and aggression networks differed both from each other and from mounting, displacement and presenting networks. Overall, individual network positions were strongly affected by sex. Individuals central in one network tended to be central in most other networks as well, whereas other measures such as clustering coefficient were found to vary depending on the behavior analyzed. Thus, our results suggest that a baboon's social environment is best described by a multiplex network based on affiliative, aggressive and sexual behavior. Modern SNA provides a number of useful tools that will help us to better understand animals' social environment. We also discuss potential caveats related to their use.

  12. Thyroid hormone levels and cigarette smoking in baboons.

    PubMed

    Sepkovic, D W; Marshall, M V; Rogers, W R; Cronin, P A; Colosimo, S G; Haley, N J

    1988-02-01

    Using a primate animal model, two studies were undertaken to examine the effects of cigarette smoking on thyroid hormone levels. In study 1, mean total triiodothyronine (total T3) and mean total thyroxine (total T4) levels were measured in two groups of baboons (Papio cynocephalus) who were taught to smoke cigarettes using operant conditioning techniques. The smokers were divided into established and naive smokers according to pack-years of exposure. A control group of never-smoker baboons was included for comparison. Blood sampling was done after long-term cigarette consumption and again 1 week after cigarette deprivation. In the naive smoker group, mean total T3 concentrations were reduced below control group values (P less than 0.05). After cigarette deprivation for 1 week, mean total T3 values returned to normal. No significant differences in total T4 levels were observed in either group. In study 2, we assessed some other indices of thyroid function. The same groups of baboons were divided into good and poor smokers by plasma cotinine and blood carboxyhemoglobin (% COHb) levels during 28 weeks of cigarette smoking activity. Immediate fluctuations and reductions in total T3 levels were observed that were not accompanied by reductions in total T4. The animals were then cigarette deprived for 1 week and blood samples were obtained every other day during this period. Significant increases in total T3 concentrations were observed in poor smokers immediately after cessation. Both groups also exhibited significant reductions (P less than 0.05) in T3 uptake and free T4 index (FT4I) when compared to control group values. These data suggest that poor smokers are more susceptible to thyroid hormone level shifts than more established smokers, since the established smokers become habituated to the compounds contained in cigarette smoke through repeated exposure.

  13. Taste responses to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats and baboon monkeys.

    PubMed

    Naim, M; Rogatka, H; Yamamoto, T; Zehavi, U

    1982-06-01

    Preference-aversion behavior to solutions containing neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC) was studied rats and baboon monkeys. Electrophysiological responses evoked by application of NHDHC solutions to taste receptors innervated by the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves were also measured. As a group, rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC in short and long-term preference tests. A solution containing the very high concentration of 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC was consumed less than water by all rats. The aversive behavior of rats to the 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC solution appeared to be due to taste quality rather than olfaction. When percent preferences were calculated on an individual basis for the long-term preference tests, 59% of the rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC, 33% of the animals found this solution aversive and less than 8% showed preference. Behavioral responses to a solution of 3.4 x 10(-4) M aspartame also varied considerably among rats. The electrophysiological data were in line with the behavioral responses suggesting weak taste responses for NHDHC in rats. More pronounced responses observed in the glossopharyngeal nerve as compared to the chorda tympani. Baboon monkeys showed a strong preference for solutions containing 1.6 x 10(-5) M-1.6 x 10(-3) M NHDHC. A solution of 1.6 x 10(-2) M was consumed to a lesser extent than water. It is concluded that baboon monkeys present a better experimental model than rats for investigating the sweetness of NHDHC.

  14. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    SciTech Connect

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown.

  15. Failure to label baboon milk intrinsically with iron

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-Colon, R.; Elwell, J.H.; Jackson, E.; Osborne, J.W.; Fomon, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The widely held belief that 50% of the iron in human milk is absorbed is based on studies that have used an extrinsic radioactive iron tag. To determine the validity of an extrinsic tag, it is necessary to label the milk intrinsically with one isotope and to compare absorption of this isotope with absorption of another isotope added as the extrinsic tag. We chose the baboon as a model and infused 59Fe intravenously. In each of three attempts we failed to label the milk intrinsically.

  16. Antibiotic resistance and population structure in Escherichia coli from free-ranging African yellow baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Routman, E; Miller, R D; Phillips-Conroy, J; Hartl, D L

    1985-01-01

    Two collections of Escherichia coli from human hosts and one from free-ranging African yellow baboons were examined for the ability to utilize various sugars (biotype) and for resistance to antibiotics. The frequency of antibiotic resistance in the E. coli flora of baboons that feed regularly in village garbage dumps was found to be no greater than that in baboons not associated with human habitation. The frequency of antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolated from baboons is similar to that in E. coli isolated from humans before the widespread use of antibiotics but significantly lower than that in recent isolates from humans. The biotype data indicate that the amount and distribution of genetic variation in the E. coli among free-ranging baboon troops are similar to those in isolates from humans. However, E. coli isolates from baboons are able to utilize a greater variety of sugars as their sole carbon source, possibly because of a greater variety of sugars in the baboon diet. PMID:3909963

  17. Learning of spatial statistics in nonhuman primates: contextual cueing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Fagot, Joel

    2013-06-15

    A growing number of theories of cognition suggest that many of our behaviors result from the ability to implicitly extract and use statistical redundancies present in complex environments. In an attempt to develop an animal model of statistical learning mechanisms in humans, the current study investigated spatial contextual cueing (CC) in nonhuman primates. Twenty-five baboons (Papio papio) were trained to search for a target (T) embedded within configurations of distrators (L) that were either predictive or non-predictive of the target location. Baboons exhibited an early CC effect, which remained intact after a 6-week delay and stable across extensive training of 20,000 trials. These results demonstrate the baboons' ability to learn spatial contingencies, as well as the robustness of CC as a cognitive phenomenon across species. Nevertheless, in both the youngest and oldest baboons, CC required many more trials to emerge than in baboons of intermediate age. As a whole, these results reveal strong similarities between CC in humans and baboons, suggesting similar statistical learning mechanisms in these two species. Therefore, baboons provide a valid model to investigate how statistical learning mechanisms develop and/or age during the life span, as well as how these mechanisms are implemented in neural networks, and how they have evolved throughout the phylogeny.

  18. An efficient model of human endometriosis by induced unopposed estrogenicity in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Hareesh B.; Baker, Robert; Owston, Michael A.; Escalona, Renee; Dick, Edward J.; VandeBerg, John L.; Nickisch, Klaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent disease that occurs in approximately 10% of reproductive age women. Baboons offer a clear benefit for studying the initiation and progression of endometriosis since baboon is very close to humans phylogenetically. Progestins are used in the treatment of endometriosis. The therapeutic window of progestins depends on the ratio of its affinity towards progesterone receptor agonism verses antagonism. The present study is to determine the role of pure antiprogestin in baboon endometriosis. We hypothesize that pure antiprogestin will induce unopposed estrogenicity and spontaneous endometriosis in baboons. The rate of endometrial invasion and attachment through modeled peritoneum in the presence and absence of progesterone and antiprogestin was evaluated in this study. A baboon model of endometriosis induced by unopposed estrogenicity using progesterone receptor antagonist (EC304) was used in this study. We observed EC304 has induced unopposed estrogenicity that deregulated proteins involved in attachment, invasion, cell growth, and steroid hormone receptors in this model. Our data suggest that depleting progesterone levels in the endometrium will increase estrogen hyper-responsiveness that leads to increased endometriotic lesion progression in the baboon (Papio anubis) model. This study reports a refined model of human endometriosis in baboons that could potentially be used to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the benefit of women suffering from endometriosis. PMID:26908459

  19. An efficient model of human endometriosis by induced unopposed estrogenicity in baboons.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hareesh B; Baker, Robert; Owston, Michael A; Escalona, Renee; Dick, Edward J; VandeBerg, John L; Nickisch, Klaus J

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent disease that occurs in approximately 10% of reproductive age women. Baboons offer a clear benefit for studying the initiation and progression of endometriosis since baboon is very close to humans phylogenetically. Progestins are used in the treatment of endometriosis. The therapeutic window of progestins depends on the ratio of its affinity towards progesterone receptor agonism verses antagonism. The present study is to determine the role of pure antiprogestin in baboon endometriosis. We hypothesize that pure antiprogestin will induce unopposed estrogenicity and spontaneous endometriosis in baboons. The rate of endometrial invasion and attachment through modeled peritoneum in the presence and absence of progesterone and antiprogestin was evaluated in this study. A baboon model of endometriosis induced by unopposed estrogenicity using progesterone receptor antagonist (EC304) was used in this study. We observed EC304 has induced unopposed estrogenicity that deregulated proteins involved in attachment, invasion, cell growth, and steroid hormone receptors in this model. Our data suggest that depleting progesterone levels in the endometrium will increase estrogen hyper-responsiveness that leads to increased endometriotic lesion progression in the baboon (Papio anubis) model. This study reports a refined model of human endometriosis in baboons that could potentially be used to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the benefit of women suffering from endometriosis. PMID:26908459

  20. [Diagnosis and Treatment for Four Cases of Sparganosis mansoni].

    PubMed

    Shen, Mei-qing; Liu, Jian; Yang, Li-qun; Zhang, Hong-fang; Qian, Hua

    2015-04-01

    The data of 4 sparganosis mansoni cases were collected from January 2010 to September 2014, and analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods. Among the cases, 3 cases had a history of eating raw frogs, and 1 case had a history of eating half-cooked frogs and drinking unboiled water. All cased and 3 out of 7 persons eating raw frogs together with case 3 were positive for anti-Sparganum mansoni antibody. 2 patients were cured by operation removal and praziquantel+alhendazole treatment, and the other 2 cases were cured by drugs only. PMID:26245124

  1. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans.

  2. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans. PMID:25257698

  3. Bayesian Risk Mapping and Model-Based Estimation of Schistosoma haematobium–Schistosoma mansoni Co-distribution in Côte d′Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; N′Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are blood flukes that cause urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively. In Côte d′Ivoire, both species are endemic and control efforts are being scaled up. Accurate knowledge of the geographical distribution, including delineation of high-risk areas, is a central feature for spatial targeting of interventions. Thus far, model-based predictive risk mapping of schistosomiasis has relied on historical data of separate parasite species. Methodology We analyzed data pertaining to Schistosoma infection among school-aged children obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey conducted between November 2011 and February 2012. More than 5,000 children in 92 schools across Côte d′Ivoire participated. Bayesian geostatistical multinomial models were developed to assess infection risk, including S. haematobium–S. mansoni co-infection. The predicted risk of schistosomiasis was utilized to estimate the number of children that need preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel according to World Health Organization guidelines. Principal Findings We estimated that 8.9% of school-aged children in Côte d′Ivoire are affected by schistosomiasis; 5.3% with S. haematobium and 3.8% with S. mansoni. Approximately 2 million annualized praziquantel treatments would be required for preventive chemotherapy at health districts level. The distinct spatial patterns of S. haematobium and S. mansoni imply that co-infection is of little importance across the country. Conclusions/Significance We provide a comprehensive analysis of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk among school-aged children in Côte d′Ivoire and a strong empirical basis for a rational targeting of control interventions. PMID:25522007

  4. Group housing of hamadryas baboons: a new cage design based upon field studies of social organization.

    PubMed

    Maclean, J M; Phippard, A F; Garner, M G; Duggin, G G; Horvath, J S; Tiller, D J

    1987-02-01

    The hamadryas subspecies, which is utilized extensively for laboratory research, has a social structure unique among baboons. Field studies have shown that small one male units are the basic grouping in a complex multi-level social system. A housing design for a research colony of hamadryas baboons was conceived to reflect this unique social organization and related behavioral patterns. The outcome of combining such ethological considerations with practical dictates for housing large laboratory primates has been assessed in terms of reproductive performance, animal health and utilization for research. Various benefits of this approach to cage design for hamadryas baboons are identified in this report.

  5. Human Schistosomiasis mansoni associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: current perspective.

    PubMed

    El-Tonsy, Manar Mahmoud; Hussein, Hesham Mohammed; Helal, Thanaa El-Sayed; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Koriem, Khalid Mohamed; Hussein, Hend Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It was reported to account for about 4.7 % of chronic liver disease in Egyptian patients. The present study aimed at studying the different factors that may be implicated in the relationship of schistosomiasis mansoni with HCC in Egypt. A total of 75 Egyptian patients with primary liver tumours (HCC) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to full history taking and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. According to the results, the patients were categorized into two groups: Group I: 29 patients with negative IHA for schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive with no history or laboratory evidence of previous or current Schistosoma mansoni infection. Group II: 46 patients with positive IHA for schistosomiasis and HCV positive. The significant higher proportion of HCC patients in the present study had concomitant HCV and schistosomiasis (61.3 %) compared to HCC patients with HCV alone (38.7 %) suggesting that the co-infection had increased the incidence of HCC among these patients. Analysis of the age distribution among HCC patients revealed that patients in Group II were younger in age at time of diagnosis of HCC with mean age 57.1 years, as compared to patients in Group I with mean age 64.3 years with a highly significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. HCC in Group II was more common in rural residents while it was more common in urban areas in Group I with a significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. Analysis of the sex distribution among the studied groups showed that HCC was more common in males than females in both groups. As regards the aggression of HCC, it was more commonly multifocal and larger in size in patients with concomitant infection than in patients with HCV alone. PMID:27605822

  6. Schistosome-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and osteopontin secretion correlate with fibrosis and portal hypertension in human and murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago A.; Syn, Wing-Kin; Machado, Mariana V.; Vidigal, Paula V.; Resende, Vivian; Voieta, Izabela; Xie, Guanhua; Otoni, Alba; Souza, Márcia M.; Santos, Elisângela T.; Chan, Isaac S.; Trindade, Guilherme V.M.; Choi, Steve S.; Witek, Rafal P.; Pereira, Fausto E.; Secor, William E.; Andrade, Zilton A.; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major cause of portal hypertension worldwide. It associates with portal fibrosis that develops during chronic infection. The mechanisms by which the pathogen evokes these host responses remain unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis that schistosome eggs release factors that directly stimulate liver cells to produce osteopontin (OPN), a pro-fibrogenic protein that stimulates hepatic stellate cells to become myofibroblasts. We also investigated the utility of OPN as a biomarker of fibrosis and/or severity of portal hypertension. Cultured cholangiocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells were treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA); OPN production was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) and ELISA; cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine). Mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 6 or 16 weeks to cause early or advanced fibrosis. Liver OPN was evaluated by qRTPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with liver fibrosis and serum OPN. Livers from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni (early fibrosis n=15; advanced fibrosis n=72) or healthy adults (n=22) were immunostained for OPN and fibrosis markers. Results were correlated with plasma OPN levels and splenic vein pressures. SEA-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion (P<0.001 compared with controls). Cholangiocytes were OPN (+) in Schistosoma-infected mice and humans. Liver and serum OPN levels correlated with fibrosis stage (mice: r=0.861; human r=0.672, P=0.0001) and myofibroblast accumulation (mice: r=0.800; human: r=0.761, P=0.0001). Numbers of OPN (+) bile ductules strongly correlated with splenic vein pressure (r=0.778; P=0.001). S. mansoni egg antigens stimulate cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion. OPN levels in liver and blood correlate with fibrosis stage and portal hypertension severity. PMID:26201095

  7. Network connections, dyadic bonds and fitness in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Joan B.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    In many social mammals, females who form close, differentiated bonds with others experience greater offspring survival and longevity. We still know little, however, about how females' relationships are structured within the social group, or whether connections beyond the level of the dyad have any adaptive value. Here, we apply social network analysis to wild baboons in order to evaluate the comparative benefits of dyadic bonds against several network measures. Results suggest that females with strong dyadic bonds also showed high eigenvector centrality, a measure of the extent to which an individual's partners are connected to others in the network. Eigenvector centrality was a better predictor of offspring survival than dyadic bond strength. Previous results have shown that female baboons derive significant fitness benefits from forming close, stable bonds with several other females. Results presented here suggest that these benefits may be further augmented if a female's social partners are themselves well connected to others within the group rather than being restricted to a smaller clique. PMID:27493779

  8. Copulation patterns in captive hamadryas baboons: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Florian; Stueckle, Sabine; Stahl, Daniel; Zinner, Dietmar

    2011-10-01

    For primates, as for many other vertebrates, copulation which results in ejaculation is a prerequisite for reproduction. The probability of ejaculation is affected by various physiological and social factors, for example reproductive state of male and female and operational sex-ratio. In this paper, we present quantitative and qualitative data on patterns of sexual behaviour in a captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), a species with a polygynous-monandric mating system. We observed more than 700 copulations and analysed factors that can affect the probability of ejaculation. Multilevel logistic regression analysis and Akaike's information criterion (AIC) model selection procedures revealed that the probability of successful copulation increased as the size of female sexual swellings increased, indicating increased probability of ovulation, and as the number of females per one-male unit (OMU) decreased. In contrast, occurrence of female copulation calls, sex of the copulation initiator, and previous male aggression toward females did not affect the probability of ejaculation. Synchrony of oestrus cycles also had no effect (most likely because the sample size was too small). We also observed 29 extra-group copulations by two non-adult males. Our results indicate that male hamadryas baboons copulated more successfully around the time of ovulation and that males in large OMUs with many females may be confronted by time or energy-allocation problems.

  9. Network connections, dyadic bonds and fitness in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Dorothy L; Silk, Joan B; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    In many social mammals, females who form close, differentiated bonds with others experience greater offspring survival and longevity. We still know little, however, about how females' relationships are structured within the social group, or whether connections beyond the level of the dyad have any adaptive value. Here, we apply social network analysis to wild baboons in order to evaluate the comparative benefits of dyadic bonds against several network measures. Results suggest that females with strong dyadic bonds also showed high eigenvector centrality, a measure of the extent to which an individual's partners are connected to others in the network. Eigenvector centrality was a better predictor of offspring survival than dyadic bond strength. Previous results have shown that female baboons derive significant fitness benefits from forming close, stable bonds with several other females. Results presented here suggest that these benefits may be further augmented if a female's social partners are themselves well connected to others within the group rather than being restricted to a smaller clique. PMID:27493779

  10. Compounds Derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, Demonstrate Dual Anthelmintic Activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Mark S.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Becker, Luke; Sotillo, Javier; Pickering, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we studied four major compounds derived from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties against the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris and the platyhelminth blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni using the xWORM assay technique. Of four compounds tested, two compounds—luteolin (3) and (3R,6R)-linalool oxide acetate (1)—showed dual anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni (IC50 range = 5.8–36.9 μg/mL) and T. muris (IC50 range = 9.7–20.4 μg/mL). Using scanning electron microscopy, we determined luteolin as the most efficacious compound against both parasites and additionally was found effective against the schistosomula, the infective stage of S. mansoni (IC50 = 13.3 μg/mL). Luteolin induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. Our in vivo assessment of luteolin (3) against T. muris infection at a single oral dosing of 100 mg/kg, despite being significantly (27.6%) better than the untreated control group, was markedly weaker than mebendazole (93.1%) in reducing the worm burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Among the four compounds tested, luteolin demonstrated the best broad-spectrum activity against two different helminths—T. muris and S. mansoni—and was

  11. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RECENT ISOLATES OF Schistosoma mansoni TO PRAZIQUANTEL

    PubMed Central

    MENDONÇA, Adriana Maria B.; FEITOSA, Ana Paula S.; VERAS, Dyana L.; MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago J.; CAVALCANTI, Marília G. dos Santos; BARBOSA, Constança Clara G. S.; BRAYNER, Fábio A.; ALVES, Luiz C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), but concerns over PZQ resistance have renewed interest in evaluating the in vitro susceptibility of recent isolates of Schistosoma mansoni to PZQ in comparison with well-established strains in the laboratory. Material and methods: The in vitro activity of PZQ (6.5-0.003 µg/mL) was evaluated in terms of mortality, reduced motor activity and ultrastructural alterations against S. mansoni. Results: After 3 h of incubation, PZQ, at 6.5 µg/mL, caused 100% mortality of all adult worms in the three types of recent isolates, while PZQ was inactive at concentrations of 0.08-0.003 µg/mL after 3 h of incubation. The results show that the SLM and Sotave isolates basically presented the same pattern of susceptibility, differing only in the concentration of 6.5 µg/mL, where deaths occurred from the range of 1.5 h in Sotave and just in the 3 h range of SLM. Additionally, this article presents ultrastructural evidence of rapid severe PZQ-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni after treatment with the drug, such as disintegration, sloughing, and erosion of the surface. Conclusion: According to these results, PZQ is very effective to induce tegument destruction of recent isolates of S. mansoni. PMID:26910445

  12. Uncovering Notch pathway in the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lizandra G; Morais, Enyara R; Machado, Carla B; Gomes, Matheus S; Cabral, Fernanda J; Souza, Julia M; Soares, Cláudia S; Sá, Renata G; Castro-Borges, William; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    Several signaling molecules that govern development in higher animals have been identified in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, including the transforming growth factor β, protein tyrosine kinases, nuclear hormone receptors, among others. The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling mechanism which is involved in a wide variety of developmental processes including embryogenesis and oogenesis in worms and flies. Here we aimed to provide the molecular reconstitution of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni using the available transcriptome and genome databases. Our results also revealed the presence of the transcripts coded for SmNotch, SmSu(H), SmHes, and the gamma-secretase complex (SmNicastrin, SmAph-1, and SmPen-2), throughout all the life stages analyzed. Besides, it was observed that the viability and separation of adult worm pairs were not affected by treatment with N-[N(3,5)-difluorophenacetyl)-L-Alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor. Moreover, DAPT treatment decreased the production of phenotypically normal eggs and arrested their development in culture. Our results also showed a significant decrease in SmHes transcript levels in both adult worms and eggs treated with DAPT. These results provide, for the first time, functional validation of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni and suggest its involvement in parasite oogenesis and embryogenesis. Given the complexity of the Notch pathway, further experiments shall highlight the full repertoire of Notch-mediated cellular processes throughout the S. mansoni life cycle.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni Tegument (Smteg) Induces IL-10 and Modulates Experimental Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that S. mansoni infection and inoculation of the parasite eggs and antigens are able to modulate airways inflammation induced by OVA in mice. This modulation was associated to an enhanced production of interleukin-10 and to an increased number of regulatory T cells. The S. mansoni schistosomulum is the first stage to come into contact with the host immune system and its tegument represents the host-parasite interface. The schistosomula tegument (Smteg) has never been studied in the context of modulation of inflammatory disorders, although immune evasion mechanisms take place in this phase of infection to guarantee the persistence of the parasite in the host. Methodology and Principal Findings The aim of this study was to evaluate the Smteg ability to modulate inflammation in an experimental airway inflammation model induced by OVA and to characterize the immune factors involved in this modulation. To achieve the objective, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA aerosol after Smteg intraperitoneal inoculation. Protein extravasation and inflammatory cells were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage and IgE levels were measured in serum. Additionally, lungs were excised for histopathological analyses, cytokine measurement and characterization of the cell populations. Inoculation with Smteg led to a reduction in the protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and eosinophils in both BAL and lung tissue. In the lung tissue there was a reduction in inflammatory cells and collagen deposition as well as in IL-5, IL-13, IL-25 and CCL11 levels. Additionally, a decrease in specific anti-OVA IgE levels was observed. The reduction observed in these inflammatory parameters was associated with increased levels of IL-10 in lung tissues. Furthermore, Smteg/asthma mice showed high percentage of CD11b+F4/80+IL-10+ and CD11c+CD11b+IL-10+ cells in lungs. Conclusion Taken together, these findings

  14. GROUP DECISIONS. Shared decision-making drives collective movement in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Farine, Damien R; Couzin, Iain D; Crofoot, Margaret C

    2015-06-19

    Conflicts of interest about where to go and what to do are a primary challenge of group living. However, it remains unclear how consensus is achieved in stable groups with stratified social relationships. Tracking wild baboons with a high-resolution global positioning system and analyzing their movements relative to one another reveals that a process of shared decision-making governs baboon movement. Rather than preferentially following dominant individuals, baboons are more likely to follow when multiple initiators agree. When conflicts arise over the direction of movement, baboons choose one direction over the other when the angle between them is large, but they compromise if it is not. These results are consistent with models of collective motion, suggesting that democratic collective action emerging from simple rules is widespread, even in complex, socially stratified societies.

  15. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  16. A cloned ATP:guanidino kinase in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni has a novel duplicated structure.

    PubMed

    Stein, L D; Harn, D A; David, J R

    1990-04-25

    Creatine kinase (CK) is part of a conserved family of ATP:guanidino phosphotransferases whose members play important roles in intracellular energy flow. Previously characterized members of this family are approximately 80-kDa dimers of two related 40-kDa subunits. We have cloned a gene from the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni which has substantial amino acid sequence similarities to CK. Like the genes for vertebrate CKs, this gene is developmentally regulated; mRNA levels are high in the infective cercarial stage but rapidly decrease upon transformation to the parasitic schistosomulum stage. In contrast to members of the guanidino phosphotransferase family characterized previously, however, the schistosome gene appears to be a direct fusion of two CK-like domains that encode a single 74-kDa polypeptide. Correlative evidence from enzyme assays of crude parasite homogenates suggests that the cloned gene is a creatine kinase. This represents the first molecular cloning of an invertebrate ATP:guanidino phosphotransferase.

  17. Early Differential Gene Expression in Haemocytes from Resistant and Susceptible Biomphalaria glabrata Strains in Response to Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Emery, Aidan M.; Kane, Richard A.; Walker, Anthony J.; Mayer, Claus D.; Mitta, Guillaume; Coustau, Christine; Adema, Coen M.; Hanelt, Ben; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R.; Jones, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for asymmetric distributions of gene function also identified immune-related gene expression in resistant snails, but not in susceptible. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinone biosynthesis and electron carrier activity were consistently up-regulated in resistant snails but down-regulated in susceptible. This supports the hypothesis that schistosome-resistant snails recognize schistosomes and mount an appropriate defence response, while in schistosome-susceptible snails the parasite suppresses this defence response, early in infection. PMID:23300533

  18. Voxel-based morphometry in epileptic baboons: Parallels to human juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C Ákos; Salinas, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    The epileptic baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), closely resembling juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Due to functional neuroimaging and pathological differences between epileptic (SZ+) and asymptomatic control (CTL) baboons, we expected structural differences in gray matter concentration (GMC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Standard anatomical (MP-RAGE) MRI scans using a 3T Siemens TIM Trio (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) were available in 107 baboons (67 females; mean age 16±6years) with documented clinical histories and scalp-electroencephalography (EEG) results. For neuroimaging, baboons were anesthetized with isoflurane 1% (1-1.5 MAC) and paralyzed with vecuronium (0.1-0.3mg/kg). Data processing and analysis were performed using FSL's VBM toolbox. GMC was compared between CTL and SZ+ baboons, epileptic baboons with interictal epileptic discharges on scalp EEG (SZ+/IED+), asymptomatic baboons with abnormal EEGs (SZ-/IED+), and IED+ baboons with (IED+/PS+) and without (IED+/PS-) photosensitivity, and the subgroups amongst themselves. Age and gender related changes in gray matter volumes were also included as confound regressors in the VBM analyses of each animal group. Significant increases in GMC were noted in the SZ+/IED+ subgroup compared to the CTL group, including bilaterally in the frontopolar, orbitofrontal and anterolateral temporal cortices, while decreases in GMC were noted in the right more than left primary visual cortices and in the specific nuclei of the thalamus, including reticular, anterior and medial dorsal nuclei. No significant differences were noted otherwise, except that SZ+/IED+ baboons demonstrated increased GMC in the globus pallidae bilaterally compared to the SZ-/IED+ group. Similar to human studies of JME, the epileptic baboons demonstrated GMC decreases in the thalami and occipital cortices, suggesting secondary injury due to chronic epilepsy. Cortical GMC, on the other hand, was increased

  19. Voxel-based morphometry in epileptic baboons: Parallels to human juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C Ákos; Salinas, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    The epileptic baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), closely resembling juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Due to functional neuroimaging and pathological differences between epileptic (SZ+) and asymptomatic control (CTL) baboons, we expected structural differences in gray matter concentration (GMC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Standard anatomical (MP-RAGE) MRI scans using a 3T Siemens TIM Trio (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) were available in 107 baboons (67 females; mean age 16±6years) with documented clinical histories and scalp-electroencephalography (EEG) results. For neuroimaging, baboons were anesthetized with isoflurane 1% (1-1.5 MAC) and paralyzed with vecuronium (0.1-0.3mg/kg). Data processing and analysis were performed using FSL's VBM toolbox. GMC was compared between CTL and SZ+ baboons, epileptic baboons with interictal epileptic discharges on scalp EEG (SZ+/IED+), asymptomatic baboons with abnormal EEGs (SZ-/IED+), and IED+ baboons with (IED+/PS+) and without (IED+/PS-) photosensitivity, and the subgroups amongst themselves. Age and gender related changes in gray matter volumes were also included as confound regressors in the VBM analyses of each animal group. Significant increases in GMC were noted in the SZ+/IED+ subgroup compared to the CTL group, including bilaterally in the frontopolar, orbitofrontal and anterolateral temporal cortices, while decreases in GMC were noted in the right more than left primary visual cortices and in the specific nuclei of the thalamus, including reticular, anterior and medial dorsal nuclei. No significant differences were noted otherwise, except that SZ+/IED+ baboons demonstrated increased GMC in the globus pallidae bilaterally compared to the SZ-/IED+ group. Similar to human studies of JME, the epileptic baboons demonstrated GMC decreases in the thalami and occipital cortices, suggesting secondary injury due to chronic epilepsy. Cortical GMC, on the other hand, was increased

  20. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Baboon Model of Generalized Epilepsy: Continuous Intracranial Video-EEG Monitoring with Subdural Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Salinas, Felipe S.; Leland, M. Michelle; Caron, Jean-Louis; Hanes, Martha A.; Knape, Koyle D.; Xie, Dongbin; Williams, Jeff T.

    2012-01-01

    The baboon provides a natural non-human primate model for photosensitive, generalized epilepsy. This study describes an implantation procedure for the placement of subdural grid and strip electrodes for continuous video-EEG monitoring in the epileptic baboon to evaluate the generation and propagation of ictal and interictal epileptic discharges. Subdural grid, strip and depth electrodes were implanted in six baboons, targeting brain regions that were activated in functional neuroimaging studies during photoparoxysmal responses. The baboons were monitored with continuous video-EEG monitoring for 2–21 (mean 9) days. Although the animals were tethered, the EEG signal was transmitted wirelessly to optimize their mobility. Spontaneous seizures, interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs), and responses to intermittent light stimulation (ILS) were assessed. Due to cortical injuries related to the electrode implantation and their displacement, the procedure was modified. Habitual myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures were recorded in three baboons, all associated with a generalized ictal discharge, but were triggered multiregionally, in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices. IEDs were similarly expressed multiregionally, and responsible for triggering most generalized spike-and-wave discharges. Generalized photoparoxysmal responses were activated only in one baboon, while driving responses recorded in all three photosensitive baboons were 2.5 times the stimulus rate. In contrast to previous intracranial investigations in this model, generalized ictal and interictal epileptic discharges were triggered by parietal and occipital, in addition to the frontocentral cortices. Furthermore, targeted visual areas responded differently to ILS in photosensitive than nonphotosensitive baboons, but further studies are required before mechanisms can be implicated for ILS-induced activation of the epileptic networks. PMID:22480914

  2. Baboon (Papio ursinus) model to study deep vein thrombosis using 111-indium-labeled autologous platelets.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Jacobs, D J; Pretorius, J P; Maree, M; Franz, R C

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the chacma baboon as a model for investigations on deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There is a good correlation of the baboon and human thrombelastographic parameters (r-time, k-time, ma). Investigation on the diagnostic efficacy of 111 In-labeled platelets as an imaging agent for DVT cast considerable doubt on the procedure, owing to the age of the thrombus.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  4. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins recognized by protective antibodies from mice immunized with irradiated cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.; Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-06-15

    The humoral immune response of mice patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni and of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae were compared by radioimmunoassays and one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses of radioimmunoprecipitates. The binding observed with antibodies of mice vaccinated twice with radiation-attenuated cercariae over a period of 7 to 11 wk was less than 50% of the binding observed with antibodies of mice patently infected for 20 wk, but three to four times greater than that obtained with antibodies of mice infected for 6 wk, irrespective of whether the test extracts were derived from schistosomula or adult worms. Sera of vaccinated mice precipitated a restricted number of predominantly high m.w. glycoproteins of both schistosomula and adult worms metabolically labeled with sulfur-35 methionine. Each of the glycoproteins of 36 hr in vitro-cultured schistosomula that was precipitated by the sera of vaccinated mice was also precipitated by the sera of infected mice. Although radiation-attenuated larvae do not reach the adult stage, mice vaccinated with these still elicit a strong immune response against egg glycoproteins. These results show that the antibody response in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated larvae differs qualitatively and quantitatively from that of infected mice.

  5. Susceptibility to praziquantel of male and female cercariae of praziquantel-resistant and susceptible isolates of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y-S; Wang, W; Dai, J-R; Li, H-J; Tao, Y-H; Zhang, J-F; Li, W; Zhu, Y-C; Coles, G C; Doenhoff, M J

    2010-06-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is now widely used for the treatment of human schistosomiasis. However, in recent years, there has been a growing concern about the resistance of Schistosoma to PZQ. The mechanisms of PZQ action against Schistosoma and resistance of Schistosoma to PZQ are poorly understood. Here, we report differential susceptibilities to PZQ between male and female cercariae in the PZQ-susceptible and PZQ-resistant isolates of Schistosoma mansoni, using tail loss as a measurement of PZQ action. The miracidia were collected by hatching eggs collected from faeces of infected mice. Single-sex cercaria lines were made by infecting a single Biomphalaria glabrata snail with a single miracidium. The sex of each single-sex cercaria line was identified by a direct W1-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Single-sex cercariae of two isolates were exposed to four different concentrations of PZQ, respectively. The tail shedding of cercariae was observed under a dissecting microscope for five time points up to 100 min after adding PZQ. The results showed that male cercariae have higher tail-shedding rates than that of female cercariae when PZQ-susceptible isolates of S. mansoni are exposed to the same concentration of PZQ. But this phenomenon was not observed in the PZQ-resistant isolates. This sexual differential resistance phenomenon of S. mansoni suggests that resistance to PZQ is induced by decreasing the PZQ susceptibility of male worms. The experiment described here may also be useful for developing tests to detect PZQ resistance in the field. PMID:19765323

  6. Efficacy of Synriam™, a new antimalarial combination of OZ277 and piperaquine, against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F; Amer, Eglal I; El-Faham, Marwa H

    2015-03-01

    Control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Given the rising concerns about the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, it has now become necessary to search for novel therapeutics. However, the current pace for anti-schistosomal drug discovery is slow; hence, repositioning of existing approved drugs can offer a safe, rapid and cost-effective solution. The anti-malarial synthetic artemisinin-derivatives trioxolanes demonstrated anti-schistosomal efficacies against the three major species infecting humans and, unlike PZQ, showed activities against both juvenile and adult worm stages. The 1,2,4-trioxolane/OZ277 (arterolane maleate) in combination with a partner drug: piperaquine phosphate was recently developed as an anti-malarial drug and manufactured by Ranbaxy (India) as Synriam™ (SYN). Herein, the in vivo activities of SYN were investigated in a mouse model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni), compared to PZQ. We show that a single fixed dose of 240mg/kg SYN (40mg/kg arterolane and 200mg/kg piperaqine) induced significant protective effects in mice, in terms of reduction in worm and tissue egg burdens, which were evident against all schistosome developmental stages. Extensive alterations in the tegument and subtegumental tissues of SYN-exposed worms were revealed by both scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Progressive decrease in worm activity and occurrence of death were noticed in vitro upon exposure to the drug - more pronounced in the presence of haemin. This report provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a combination of 1,2,4-trioxolane and piperaquine against S. mansoni in mice. Being effective against young stages, SYN could be used to prevent early Schistosoma infection. PMID:25530543

  7. Murine schistosomiasis mansoni: process of blood coagulation at pre-patent, acute and chronic phases, and consequence of chemotherapeutic cure on the reversion of changes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria G; Mello, Rômulo T; Soares, Anna L; Bicalho, Rosilene S; Lima e Silva, Francisco C; Coelho, Paulo M Z

    2005-10-01

    The present study aims to elucidate in a sequential manner the changes of the blood coagulation process at different phases of experimental schistosomiasis, comprising the pre-patent, acute, intermediate and chronic phases, and the effect of chemotherapeutic cure, at the acute and chronic phases, on reversion of changes related to the coagulation factors. Mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, and were divided into four groups. Blood samples from these groups were collected 32, 70, 100, and 140 days after infection, corresponding to the pre-patent, acute, intermediate and chronic phases, respectively. Simultaneously, other infected groups were given oxamniquine, 70 and 140 days after infection. At the same time as blood collection from infected and/or treated animal groups, other uninfected control animal groups were punctured and maintained under the same conditions as the infected animals. The vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors were found to be more sensitive to infection at different phases, while factors VIII and XI presented hyperactivity. Results obtained 90 days after chemotherapeutic treatment with oxamniquine, administered at the acute and chronic phases, presented noticeable reversion of the main alterations in the coagulation mechanism. The present study provides unquestionable data on the development of hemostatic changes throughout the course of S. mansoni infection.

  8. Baboon syndrome and toxic erythema of chemotherapy: Fold (intertriginous) dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Three decades ago, researchers described an eruption with a very characteristic distribution pattern that was confined to the buttocks and the intertriginous and flexor areas. They gave this reaction pattern one of the most unforgettable names in dermatology, baboon syndrome (BS), due to the characteristic, bright-red, well-demarcated eruption predominantly on the buttocks and genital area, reminiscent of the red bottom of a baboon. The authors described three cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel, and mercury. They were convinced that BS represented a special form of hematogenous or systemic contact-type dermatitis, but several important papers that appeared during the past decade disagreed and suggested that BS should be distinguished from hematogenous or systemic contact-type dermatitis. A new acronym, SDRIFE (symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexoral exanthema), was proposed along with five diagnostic criteria: (1) exposure to a systemically administered drug at the time of first or repeated doses (contact allergens excluded), (2) sharply demarcated erythema of the gluteal/perianal area and/or V-shaped erythema of the inguinal/perigenital area, (3) involvement of at least one other intertriginous/flexural fold, (4) symmetry of affected areas, and (5) absence of systemic symptoms and signs. Although there are merits to the arguments in favor of SDRIFE, many of us still prefer to use the wittier name baboon syndrome, and even more authors use both terms. We confess that we find it difficult to relinquish the term BS, which has served us so well for years; however, recognition, familiarity, and knowledge of the characteristics of this form of drug eruption must supersede sentimental attachment to a certain nomenclature and so, however reluctantly, we must embrace change. Another intertriginous drug eruption is the one induced by chemotherapy. Toxic erythema of chemotherapy (TEC) is a useful clinical term that recently has been introduced to describe this

  9. Metabolism and disposition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy") in baboons after oral administration: comparison with humans reveals marked differences.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Melanie; Goodwin, Amy K; Ator, Nancy A; McCann, Una D; Ricaurte, George A

    2011-07-01

    The baboon is potentially an attractive animal for modeling 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) effects in humans. Baboons self-administer MDMA, are susceptible to MDMA neurotoxicity, and are suitable for positron emission tomography, the method most often used to probe for MDMA neurotoxicity in humans. Because pharmacokinetic equivalence is a key feature of a good predictive animal model, we compared the pharmacokinetics of MDMA in baboons and humans. Baboons were trained to orally consume MDMA. Then, pharmacokinetic profiles of MDMA and its major metabolites were determined after various oral MDMA doses using the same analytical method recently used to perform similar studies in humans. Results indicate that MDMA pharmacokinetics after oral ingestion differ markedly between baboons and humans. Baboons had little or no MDMA in their plasma but had high plasma concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), pointing to much more extensive first-pass metabolism of MDMA in baboons than in humans. Other less prominent differences included less O-methylation of HHMA to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, greater N-demethylation of MDMA to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and a shorter half-life of HHMA in the baboon. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize MDMA metabolism and disposition in the baboon. Differences in MDMA pharmacokinetics between baboons and humans suggest that the baboon may not be ideal for modeling human MDMA exposure. However, the unusually rapid conversion of MDMA to HHMA in the baboon may render this animal uniquely useful for clarifying the relative role of the parent compound (MDMA) versus metabolites (particularly HHMA) in the biological actions of MDMA.

  10. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR). Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene. PMID:22704171

  11. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  12. Metabolism of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate by hepatic and placental microsomes of human and baboons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ru; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.; Zharikova, Olga L.; Mattison, Donald R.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data from our laboratory revealed the formation of an unknown metabolite of 17 hydroxyprogestrone caproate (17-HPC), used for treatment of preterm deliveries, during its perfusion across the dually perfused human placental lobule. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug is not hydrolyzed, neither in vivo nor in vitro, to progesterone and caproate. Therefore, the hypothesis for this investigation is that 17-HPC is actively metabolized by human and baboon (Papio cynocephalus) hepatic and placental microsomes. Baboon hepatic and placental microsomes were investigated to validate the nonhuman primate as an animal model for drug use during pregnancy. Data presented here indicate that human and baboon hepatic microsomes formed several mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxylated derivatives of 17-HPC. However, microsomes of human and baboon placentas metabolized 17-HPC to its mono-hydroxylated derivatives only in quantities that were a fraction of those formed by their respective livers, except for two metabolites (M16’ and M17’) that are unique for placenta and contributed to 25% and 75% of the total metabolites formed by human and baboon, respectively. The amounts of metabolites formed, relative to each other, by human and baboon microsomes were different suggesting that the affinity of 17-HPC to CYP enzymes and their activity could be species-dependent. PMID:18329004

  13. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio)

    PubMed Central

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species. PMID:24624114

  14. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. PMID:26828857

  15. Alopecia in Outdoor Group- and Corral-Housed Baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Corrine K; Sharp, R Mark

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia has been reported to occur in several species of captive NHP. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; whether other primate species such as baboons are affected similarly is unknown. Because alopecia can be a focus of inspectors and a possible marker of wellbeing, the purpose of the current study was to survey the occurrence of alopecia in 2 baboon populations and to identify potential risk factors. Subjects were 262 group-housed and 279 corral-housed baboons. Alopecia was assessed cage-side (group-housed) and on sedated animals (corral-housed). Although alopecia was mild in both populations, there were significant effects of season and sex. Alopecia was greater in the winter (group-housed) and the fall (corral-housed) and in female baboons. In addition, the group-housed baboons showed a significant negative effect of age and a lesser effect of group size on alopecia. These results demonstrate that variables other than those associated with animal management practices can affect hair loss in baboons.

  16. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species.

  17. Early sexual maturity in male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive implications.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Dietmar; Krebs, Ellen; Schrod, Annette; Kaumanns, Werner

    2006-04-01

    We present data on sexual maturity in young hamadryas baboon males (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive consequences in a large captive baboon colony. Hamadryas baboons live in a multilevel social system, with one-male units (OMUs) as the smallest social entity. Male leaders of OMUs are believed to monopolize matings within their OMUs; hence mating is believed to be polygynous and monandrous. In a captive colony of hamadryas baboons, we found evidence that young males less than 4 years old fathered at least 2.5% of 121 offspring born subsequent to vasectomy of all adult males, and males aged 4-5 years fathered at least 16.5% of the offspring. Additional evidence that these young males are able to sire offspring came from a morphological comparison of sperm from hamadryas males of different ages. The sperm of a 48-month-old hamadryas baboon were morphologically indistinguishable from viable sperm from adult males, whereas sperm from a 45-month-old male showed some aberrations. If successful copulations by adolescent males constitute a regular pattern even in free-ranging hamadryas baboons, a hamadryas male's chances to reproduce would not be limited to his role as an OMU leader as previously assumed, and a male's reproductive career would consist of two phases: the adolescent phase, and the OMU leader male phase.

  18. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  19. Alopecia in Outdoor Group- and Corral-Housed Baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Corrine K; Sharp, R Mark

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia has been reported to occur in several species of captive NHP. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; whether other primate species such as baboons are affected similarly is unknown. Because alopecia can be a focus of inspectors and a possible marker of wellbeing, the purpose of the current study was to survey the occurrence of alopecia in 2 baboon populations and to identify potential risk factors. Subjects were 262 group-housed and 279 corral-housed baboons. Alopecia was assessed cage-side (group-housed) and on sedated animals (corral-housed). Although alopecia was mild in both populations, there were significant effects of season and sex. Alopecia was greater in the winter (group-housed) and the fall (corral-housed) and in female baboons. In addition, the group-housed baboons showed a significant negative effect of age and a lesser effect of group size on alopecia. These results demonstrate that variables other than those associated with animal management practices can affect hair loss in baboons. PMID:26224438

  20. Early sexual maturity in male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive implications.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Dietmar; Krebs, Ellen; Schrod, Annette; Kaumanns, Werner

    2006-04-01

    We present data on sexual maturity in young hamadryas baboon males (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive consequences in a large captive baboon colony. Hamadryas baboons live in a multilevel social system, with one-male units (OMUs) as the smallest social entity. Male leaders of OMUs are believed to monopolize matings within their OMUs; hence mating is believed to be polygynous and monandrous. In a captive colony of hamadryas baboons, we found evidence that young males less than 4 years old fathered at least 2.5% of 121 offspring born subsequent to vasectomy of all adult males, and males aged 4-5 years fathered at least 16.5% of the offspring. Additional evidence that these young males are able to sire offspring came from a morphological comparison of sperm from hamadryas males of different ages. The sperm of a 48-month-old hamadryas baboon were morphologically indistinguishable from viable sperm from adult males, whereas sperm from a 45-month-old male showed some aberrations. If successful copulations by adolescent males constitute a regular pattern even in free-ranging hamadryas baboons, a hamadryas male's chances to reproduce would not be limited to his role as an OMU leader as previously assumed, and a male's reproductive career would consist of two phases: the adolescent phase, and the OMU leader male phase. PMID:16331661

  1. Comparison of Three Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccines in the Baboon Model of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Zimmerman, Lindsey I.

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis rates in the United States have escalated since the 1990s and reached a 50-year high of 48,000 cases in 2012. While this pertussis resurgence is not completely understood, we previously showed that the current acellular pertussis vaccines do not prevent colonization or transmission following challenge. In contrast, a whole-cell pertussis vaccine accelerated the rate of clearance compared to rates in unvaccinated animals and animals treated with the acellular vaccine. In order to understand if these results are generalizable, we used our baboon model to compare immunity from whole-cell vaccines from three different manufacturers that are approved outside the United States. We found that, compared to clearance rates with no vaccine and with an acellular pertussis vaccine, immunization with any of the three whole-cell vaccines significantly accelerated the clearance of B. pertussis following challenge. Whole-cell vaccination also significantly reduced the total nasopharyngeal B. pertussis burden, suggesting that these vaccines reduce the opportunity for pertussis transmission. Meanwhile, there was no difference in either the duration or in B. pertussis burden between unvaccinated and acellular-pertussis-vaccinated animals, while previously infected animals were not colonized following reinfection. We also determined that transcription of the gene encoding interleukin-17 (IL-17) was increased in whole-cell-vaccinated and previously infected animals but not in acellular-pertussis-vaccinated animals following challenge. Together with our previous findings, these data are consistent with a role for Th17 responses in the clearance of B. pertussis infection. PMID:26561389

  2. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Zahida; Lockyer, Anne E; Davies, Angela J; Kirk, Ruth S; Emery, Aidan M; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Walker, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs) that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml) for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  3. Unusually high predation on chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) by female leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg Mountains, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, E; Pitman, R T; van Hoven, W; Swanepoel, L H

    2012-01-01

    Leopards do not preferentially favour baboons as prey, but they are considered the primary predators of baboons across Africa. Even in areas where baboons are abundant, their contribution to leopard diet seldom exceeds 5% of biomass. It is suggested that the extreme aggressiveness of baboons, group vigilance and their high mobility when escaping may limit leopard predation. Male baboons are particularly aggressive, and retaliation often leads to the death of the leopard. However, evidence suggests that leopards may learn to catch and kill certain dangerous prey. This study reports predation on chacma baboons by 3 female leopards on a private game reserve in the Waterberg Mountains of South Africa. Potential leopard feeding sites were identified using global positioning system (GPS) location clusters obtained from GPS collars. Over a 5-month period, we investigated 200 potential leopard feeding sites and located 96 leopard feeding/kill sites. Baboons constituted 18.7% of the leopards' biomass intake. The majority of baboons preyed upon were adults and 70% of the kills were diurnal. In terms of the measured variables, there were no significant differences in the way the leopards preyed upon baboons, compared to the rest of the prey species.

  4. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  5. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  7. A Pacific Culture among Wild Baboons: Its Emergence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Reports exist of transmission of culture in nonhuman primates. We examine this in a troop of savanna baboons studied since 1978. During the mid-1980s, half of the males died from tuberculosis; because of circumstances of the outbreak, it was more aggressive males who died, leaving a cohort of atypically unaggressive survivors. A decade later, these behavioral patterns persisted. Males leave their natal troops at adolescence; by the mid-1990s, no males remained who had resided in the troop a decade before. Thus, critically, the troop's unique culture was being adopted by new males joining the troop. We describe (a) features of this culture in the behavior of males, including high rates of grooming and affiliation with females and a “relaxed” dominance hierarchy; (b) physiological measures suggesting less stress among low-ranking males; (c) models explaining transmission of this culture; and (d) data testing these models, centered around treatment of transfer males by resident females. PMID:15094808

  8. Sequential phenotypic constraints on social information use in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alecia J; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-04-12

    Social information allows the rapid dissemination of novel information among individuals. However, an individual's ability to use information is likely to be dependent on phenotypic constraints operating at three successive steps: acquisition, application, and exploitation. We tested this novel framework by quantifying the sequential process of social information use with experimental food patches in wild baboons (Papio ursinus). We identified phenotypic constraints at each step of the information use sequence: peripheral individuals in the proximity network were less likely to acquire and apply social information, while subordinate females were less likely to exploit it successfully. Social bonds and personality also played a limiting role along the sequence. As a result of these constraints, the average individual only acquired and exploited social information on.

  9. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-16

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations-a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living.

  10. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  11. Sequential phenotypic constraints on social information use in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alecia J; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Social information allows the rapid dissemination of novel information among individuals. However, an individual's ability to use information is likely to be dependent on phenotypic constraints operating at three successive steps: acquisition, application, and exploitation. We tested this novel framework by quantifying the sequential process of social information use with experimental food patches in wild baboons (Papio ursinus). We identified phenotypic constraints at each step of the information use sequence: peripheral individuals in the proximity network were less likely to acquire and apply social information, while subordinate females were less likely to exploit it successfully. Social bonds and personality also played a limiting role along the sequence. As a result of these constraints, the average individual only acquired and exploited social information on. PMID:27067236

  12. Categorization does not promote symmetry in Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Medam, Tiphaine; Marzouki, Yousri; Montant, Marie; Fagot, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the capacity to use stimuli interchangeably by forming equivalence classes, and this ability seems to be supported by our language system. According to Sidman and Tailby (Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. J Exp Anal Behav 37:5-22, 1982), the formation of equivalence classes require that three relations are derived among the class members, and past experiments have shown that one of these relations, i.e., symmetry, corresponding to the ability to reverse a relation (if A → B, then B → A), is extremely difficult to obtain in non-human animals. Because language development and the ability to form equivalence classes both co-occur in children with an increased ability to form categories, the current study tested the idea that category learning might promote symmetry in a nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 1, twelve Guinea baboons (Papio papio) were trained to associate 60 pictures of bears and 60 pictures of cars to two category labels, before being tested in symmetry trials. In Experiment 2, symmetry was trained and tested by reversing the association order between labels and pictures, using a new set of stimuli. In both experiments, the baboons successfully demonstrated category discrimination, but had only a weak (though significant) tendency to respond in accordance with symmetry during test trials. Altogether, our results confirm that symmetry is inherently difficult in non-human animals. We discuss possible explanations for such a limitation and give reasons for thinking that the effects of categorization on symmetry should be further investigated.

  13. Thromboembolic potential of synthetic vascular grafts in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P.A.; Kotze, H.F.; Heyns, A.D.; Hanson, S.R.

    1989-07-01

    We have compared in baboons the capacity of two types of synthetic vascular grafts to accumulate thrombus, activate circulating platelets, and generate occlusive platelet microemboli. Grafts were incorporated into femoral arterial-arterial shunts placed unilaterally in 10 baboons; the unoperated contralateral limbs served as controls. The accumulation of indium 111 (111In)-labeled platelets onto the grafts (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) or knitted Dacron, 4 mm inner diameter) and the appearance of 111In radioactivity in distal microcirculatory beds (calf and foot) were quantified by dynamic scintillation camera imaging. After 1 hour total platelet deposition per graft was higher with Dacron (49.0 +/- 8.0 x 10(9) platelets) than with ePTFE (3.7 +/- 0.6 x 10(9) platelets, p less than 0.01). Platelet counts decreased and beta-thromboglobulin levels increased with Dacron graft placement but were unaffected by ePTFE graft placement (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively). Emboli shed from Dacron grafts were detected as multifocal, irregular, and changing deposits in the calves and feet. Indium 111 platelet activity in the feet distal to the Dacron grafts increased 81.1% +/- 21.4% from baseline values over 1 hour, whereas the activities in the feet distal to the ePTFE grafts were unchanged (p less than 0.05). The increase 111In-platelet radioactivity above the control limb values (excess radioactivity) was higher for the Dacron graft group than for the ePTFE group in both the feet (139.6% +/- 46.9% vs 6.2%, p less than 0.05) and the calves (86.7% +/- 21.7% vs 7.3% +/- 3.6%, p less than 0.05).

  14. Characterization of inhaled asbestos fibers in the lung of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, Y.; Hiroshima, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Goldstein, B.; Webster, I. National Center for Occupational Health, Johannesburg )

    1991-03-15

    The histopathological changes of the lungs of 7 baboons after exposure to asbestos fibers were studied, and the size distribution of the fibers was determined by electron microscopy using 25 {mu} paraffin sections and low temperature-ashing method. The size distribution of the fibers in four locations in the lung, peribronchiolar area, alveolar area, subpleural area, and interlobular connective tissue was studied. Both amosite and chrysotile induced pulmonary asbestosis and pleural thickening. Asbestosis occurred more severely in amosite-exposed animals than in chrysotile-exposed ones, and one pleural mesothelioma was found 49 months after exposure to amosite and after another 59 months of recovery in non-dusting conditions. The length, width and aspect ratios of the UICC standard sample fibers used had geometric means (G.M.) of 3.3 {mu} 0.28 {mu}, 11.8 for amosite and 1.1 {mu}, 0.12{mu}, 9.8 for chrysotile. As a whole, intrapulmonary amosite fibers were shorter than the UICC standard samples in the four baboons dusted. After 48 months exposure with or without recovery, amosite fibers found in the lungs were thinner when compared to the standard samples. For chrysotile, the length of fibers after 13 months and 26 months exposure was longer than those of standard samples of 8.5 months exposure. After inhalation, the width of the chrysotile fibers were thinner than the standard sample fibers. The size distribution of amosite fibers found in the lung and in the mesotheliomatous tissue was not significantly different.

  15. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting (/sup 14/C)cholesterol 186 days and (/sup 3/H)cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates.

  16. Categorization does not promote symmetry in Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Medam, Tiphaine; Marzouki, Yousri; Montant, Marie; Fagot, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the capacity to use stimuli interchangeably by forming equivalence classes, and this ability seems to be supported by our language system. According to Sidman and Tailby (Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. J Exp Anal Behav 37:5-22, 1982), the formation of equivalence classes require that three relations are derived among the class members, and past experiments have shown that one of these relations, i.e., symmetry, corresponding to the ability to reverse a relation (if A → B, then B → A), is extremely difficult to obtain in non-human animals. Because language development and the ability to form equivalence classes both co-occur in children with an increased ability to form categories, the current study tested the idea that category learning might promote symmetry in a nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 1, twelve Guinea baboons (Papio papio) were trained to associate 60 pictures of bears and 60 pictures of cars to two category labels, before being tested in symmetry trials. In Experiment 2, symmetry was trained and tested by reversing the association order between labels and pictures, using a new set of stimuli. In both experiments, the baboons successfully demonstrated category discrimination, but had only a weak (though significant) tendency to respond in accordance with symmetry during test trials. Altogether, our results confirm that symmetry is inherently difficult in non-human animals. We discuss possible explanations for such a limitation and give reasons for thinking that the effects of categorization on symmetry should be further investigated. PMID:27278368

  17. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T.; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the non-occluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  18. Identification of Antigenic Glycans from Schistosoma mansoni by Using a Shotgun Egg Glycan Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Mickum, Megan L.; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Song, Xuezheng; Dorabawila, Nelum; Mandalasi, Msano; Lasanajak, Yi; Luyai, Anthony; Secor, W. Evan; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Van Die, Irma; Smith, David F.; Nyame, A. Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Infection of mammals by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni induces antibodies to glycan antigens in worms and eggs, but the differential nature of the immune response among infected mammals is poorly understood. To better define these responses, we used a shotgun glycomics approach in which N-glycans from schistosome egg glycoproteins were prepared, derivatized, separated, and used to generate an egg shotgun glycan microarray. This array was interrogated with sera from infected mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans and with glycan-binding proteins and antibodies to gather information about the structures of antigenic glycans, which also were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A major glycan antigen targeted by IgG from different infected species is the FLDNF epitope [Fucα3GalNAcβ4(Fucα3)GlcNAc-R], which is also recognized by the IgG monoclonal antibody F2D2. The FLDNF antigen is expressed by all life stages of the parasite in mammalian hosts, and F2D2 can kill schistosomula in vitro in a complement-dependent manner. Different antisera also recognized other glycan determinants, including core β-xylose and highly fucosylated glycans. Thus, the natural shotgun glycan microarray of schistosome eggs is useful in identifying antigenic glycans and in developing new anti-glycan reagents that may have diagnostic applications and contribute to developing new vaccines against schistosomiasis. PMID:26883596

  19. Schistosoma mansoni polypeptides immunogenic in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.

    1987-10-01

    We compared the humoral immune response of mice protected against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae to that of patently infected mice, and we identified antigens that elicit a greater, or unique, immune response in the vaccinated mice. These comparisons were based upon radioimmunoprecipitations and immunodepletion of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled schistosomular and adult worm polypeptides, followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses. The humoral responses of patently infected mice and of mice vaccinated once were remarkably similar and were directed against schistosome glycoproteins ranging in molecular size from greater than 300 to less than 10 kDa. Exposing mice to a second vaccination resulted in a marked change in the immune response, to one predominantly directed toward high molecular size glycoproteins. Sequential immunodepletion techniques identified five schistosomular and seven adult worm antigens that showed a greater or unique immunogenicity in vaccinated mice as compared with patently infected mice. These adult worm antigens were purified by preparative sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and used to prepare a polyclonal antiserum, anti-irradiated vaccine. This antiserum bound to the surface of live newly transformed and lung-stage schistosomula, as assessed by immunofluorescence assays, and was reactive with a number of /sup 125/I-labeled schistosomular surface polypeptides, including a doublet of 150 kDa that was also recognized by sera of vaccinated mice but not by sera of patently infected mice.

  20. Characteristics of the Human Host Have Little Influence on Which Local Schistosoma mansoni Populations Are Acquired

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Eliana A.; Azevedo, Theomira M.; Costa, Jackson M.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Blanton, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brazil remains the country in the Americas with the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis. A combination of control efforts and development, however, has sharply reduced its intensity and distribution. The acquisition of specific schistosome populations may be dependent on host characteristics such as sex, age, geography, work, habits and culture. How these and other host characteristics align with parasite subpopulations may guide approaches to improve control. Methodology A cohort of more than 90% of the residents in two rural communities in Brazil participated in an epidemiologic survey of demographic, socio-economic and behavioral characteristics. The variables sex, age, intensity of infection, socio-economic index, % lifetime spent on site, previous infection, and trips outside the district were used to group parasites infecting individuals. Schistosoma mansoni infection status was determined by examination of stools submitted on 3 different days. The aggregate of eggs collected from the whole stool was used to determine degree of population differentiation from allele frequencies for 15 microsatellites. Conclusions/Significance Infection prevalence was 41% for these communities, and the epidemiologic characteristics were similar to many of the endemic areas of Brazil and the world. Parasite population structuring was observed between the two communities (Jost's D 0.046, CI95% 0.042–0.051), although separated by only 8 km and connected by a highway. No structuring was observed when infected individuals were stratified by host's biologic, demographic or epidemiologic characteristics. Those most heavily infected best reflected the communities' overall parasite diversity. The lack of differentiation within villages suggests that individuals are likely to get infected at the same sites or that the same parasite multilocus genotypes can be found at most sites. The geographic structuring between villages and the lack of structuring by age of the host

  1. Hepatosplenic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren on Ukerewe Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    El Scheich, Tarik; Hofer, L; Kaatano, G; Foya, J; Odhiambo, D; Igogote, J; Lwambo, N; Ekamp, H; Karst, K; Häussinger, D; Richter, J

    2012-06-01

    The study was conducted to assess infection intensity and morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren on Ukerewe Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, East Africa. Three hundred and sixty pupils who have never been treated previously were enrolled (180 males/180 females, age 6-17 years [median 10 years]) in three different schools of the island. Double stool samples were collected from each pupil and egg excretion was classified according to WHO recommendations. Ultrasound investigations were performed in accordance with the WHO Niamey-Belo-Horizonte protocol. Male (112/180, 62.2%) and female (104/180; 57.7%) pupils were infected (difference, not significant [n.s.]). In the positive 216 cases, egg excretion varied from 1 to 2,440 eggs per gramme stool (epg) [median 165 epg]. There were 69/216 (31.9%) who had a low grade, 105/216 (53.2%) had a moderate and 42/216 (14.8%) had a heavy infection. There was no significant difference between male and female sex nor with regard to age groups. There were 354/360 children who underwent sonography: 321 (90.7%) had splenomegaly, 316 (89.3%) showed a left lobe and 109 (30.9%) had a right lobe hepatomegaly. Overt signs of portal fibrosis (PF) were present in 19 children (5.4%) out of whom 11 presented with echogenic thickening of peripheral portal and 8 with thickening of central portal branches. Non-specific portal wall changes were seen in 6 children (1.7%). Association of PF to quantitative egg excretion was not seen (median in PF, 172 epg vs. median in non PF, 168 epg; difference, n.s.). Portal vein dilatation was seen in 101/354 (28.5%) cases. In Ukerewe, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and infection intensity in children is high, yet overt hepatic morbidity is low as compared to other endemic foci. Non-specific ultrasonographic abnormalities including hepatosplenomegaly and portal vein dilatation were seen frequently but the fraction attributable to schistosomiasis is difficult to assess.

  2. Peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in preterm baboons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Cynthia L; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Seidner, Steven R; McCurnin, Donald C; Leland, Michelle M; Anzueto, Diana G; Johnson, Marney C; Liang, Hanyu; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm baboons (67% gestation) had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5 ± 1.5 vs 21.8 ± 4.4 mg/kg · min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8 ± 2.6 vs 16.3 ± 4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold vs 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower glucose transporter-1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8%-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFAs) did not decrease in response to insulin, whereas FFAs decreased by greater than 80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFAs in the preterm animals was paired with a decreased glucose transporter-4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counterregulatory hormones are not major contributors.

  3. Reduced Efficacy of Praziquantel Against Schistosoma mansoni Is Associated With Multiple Rounds of Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Crellen, Thomas; Walker, Martin; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Cotton, James A.; Webster, Joanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of this strategy is dependent on the continued high efficacy of praziquantel; however, drug efficacy is rarely monitored using appropriate statistical approaches that can detect early signs of wane. Methods. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study, examining children infected with Schistosoma mansoni from 6 schools in Uganda that had previously received between 1 and 9 rounds of MDA with praziquantel. We collected up to 12 S. mansoni egg counts from 414 children aged 6–12 years before and 25–27 days after treatment with praziquantel. We estimated individual patient egg reduction rates (ERRs) using a statistical model to explore the influence of covariates, including the number of prior MDA rounds. Results. The average ERR among children within schools that had received 8 or 9 previous rounds of MDA (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 88.23%–93.64%) was statistically significantly lower than the average in schools that had received 5 rounds (95% BCI, 96.13%–99.08%) or 1 round (95% BCI, 95.51%–98.96%) of MDA. We estimate that 5.11%, 4.55%, and 16.42% of children from schools that had received 1, 5, and 8–9 rounds of MDA, respectively, had ERRs below the 90% threshold of optimal praziquantel efficacy set by the World Health Organization. Conclusions. The reduced efficacy of praziquantel in schools with a higher exposure to MDA may pose a threat to the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control programs. We call for the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs used in MDA to be closely monitored. PMID:27470241

  4. HIV-1 Integrates Widely throughout the Genome of the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Victoria H.; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Yan, Hong-bin; Huckvale, Thomas; Protasio, Anna V.; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Bukrinsky, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the RNA genome reverse transcribed. Anchored PCR analysis, sequencing HIV-1-specific anchored Illumina libraries and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of schistosomes confirmed chromosomal integration; >8,000 integrations were mapped, distributed throughout the eight pairs of chromosomes including the sex chromosomes. The rate of integrations in the genome exceeded five per 1,000 kb and HIV-1 integrated into protein-encoding loci and elsewhere with integration bias dissimilar to that of human T cells. We estimated ~ 2,100 integrations per schistosomulum based on WGS, i.e. about two or three events per cell, comparable to integration rates in human cells. Accomplishment in schistosomes of post-entry processes essential for HIV-1replication, including integrase-catalyzed integration, was remarkable given the phylogenetic distance between schistosomes and primates, the natural hosts of the genus Lentivirus. These enigmatic findings revealed that HIV-1 was active within cells of S. mansoni, and provided the first demonstration that HIV-1 can integrate into the genome of an invertebrate. PMID:27764257

  5. A catecholamine transporter from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni with low affinity for psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads B; Fontana, Andréia C K; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Mortensen, Ole V

    2011-05-01

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is the primary cause of schistosomiasis, a devastating neglected tropical disease that affects 200 million individuals. Identifying novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis is therefore of great public interest. The catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are essential for the survival of the parasite as they cause muscular relaxation and a lengthening in the parasite and thereby control movement. Here we characterize a novel dopamine/norepinephrine transporter (SmDAT) gene transcript, from S. mansoni. The SmDAT is expressed in the adult form and in the sporocyst form (infected snails) of the parasite, and also in the egg and miracidium stage. It is absent in the cercariae stage but curiously a transcript missing the exon encoding transmembrane domain 8 was identified in this stage. Heterologous expression of the cDNA in mammalian cells resulted in saturable, dopamine transport activity with an apparent affinity for dopamine comparable to that of the human dopamine transporter. Efflux experiments reveal notably higher substrate selectivity compared with its mammalian counterparts as amphetamine is a much less potent efflux elicitor against SmDAT compared to the human DAT. Pharmacological characterization of the SmDAT revealed that most human DAT inhibitors including psychostimulants such as cocaine were significantly less potent in inhibiting SmDAT. Like DATs from other simpler organisms the pharmacology for SmDAT was more similar to the human norepinephrine transporter. We were not able to identify other dopamine transporting carriers within the completed parasite genome and we hypothesize that the SmDAT is the only catecholamine transporter in the parasite and could be responsible for not only clearing DA but also NE. PMID:21251927

  6. Developmental regulation of protein kinase A expression and activity in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewski, Brett E.; Davies, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    c-AMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) are the main transducers of cAMP signaling in eukaryotic cells. Recently we reported the identification and characterization of a PKA catalytic subunit (SmPKA-C) in Schistosoma mansoni that is required for adult schistosome viability in vitro. To gain further insights into the role of SmPKA-C in biological processes during the schistosome life cycle, we undertook a quantitative analysis of SmPKA-C mRNA expression in different life cycle stages. Our data shows that SmPKA-C mRNA expression is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels of expression in cercariae and adult female worms. To evaluate the biological role of SmPKA-C in these developmental stages, cercariae and adult worms were treated with various concentrations of PKA inhibitors. Treatment of cercariae with H-89 or PKI 14-22 amide resulted in loss of viability suggesting that, as in adults, PKA is an essential enzyme activity in this infectious larval stage. In adult worms, in vitro exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of H-89 or PKI 14-22 amide resulted in inhibition of egg production in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a murine model of schistosome infection where S. mansoni fecundity is impaired, we show that reduced rates of egg production in vivo correlate with significant reductions in SmPKA-C mRNA expression and PKA activity. Finally, restoration of parasite egg production in vivo also resulted in normalization of SmPKA-C mRNA expression and PKA activity. Taken together, our data suggest that PKA signaling is required for cercarial viability and may play a specific role in the reproductive activity of adult worms. PMID:20097200

  7. A catecholamine transporter from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni with low affinity for psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mads B.; Fontana, Andréia C. K.; Magalhães, Lizandra G.; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Mortensen, Ole V.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is the primary cause of schistosomiasis, a devastating neglected tropical disease that affects 200 million individuals. Identifying novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis is therefore of great public interest. The catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are essential for the survival of the parasite as they cause muscular relaxation and a lengthening in the parasite and thereby control movement. Here we characterize a novel dopamine/norepinephrine transporter (SmDAT) gene transcript, from Schistosoma mansoni. The SmDAT is expressed in the adult form and in the sporocyst form (infected snails) of the parasite, and also in the egg and miracidium stage. It is absent in the cercaria stage but curiously a transcript missing the exon encoding transmembrane domain 8 was identified in this stage. Heterologous expression of the cDNA in mammalian cells resulted in saturable, dopamine transport activity with an apparent affinity for dopamine comparable to that of the human dopamine transporter. Efflux experiments reveal notably higher substrate selectivity compared with its mammalian counterparts as amphetamine is a much less potent efflux elicitor against SmDAT compared to the human DAT. Pharmacological characterization of the SmDAT revealed that most human DAT inhibitors including psychostimulants such as cocaine were significantly less potent in inhibiting SmDAT. Like DATs from other simpler organisms the pharmacology for SmDAT was more similar to the human norepinephrine transporter. We were not able to identify other dopamine transporting carriers within the completed parasite genome and we hypothesize that the SmDAT is the only catecholamine transporter in the parasite and could be responsible for not only clearing DA but also NE. PMID:21251927

  8. Characterization of phosphodiesterase-5 as a surface protein in the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rofatto, Henrique K; Tararam, Cibele A; Borges, William C; Wilson, R Alan; Leite, Luciana C C; Farias, Leonardo P

    2009-07-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis, an important parasitic disease that constitutes a severe health problem in developing countries. Even though an effective treatment exists, it does not prevent re-infection and the development of an effective vaccine still remains the most desirable means of control for this disease. In this work we describe the cloning and characterization of a S. mansoni nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphosdiesterase type 5 (SmNPP-5), previously identified in the tegument by proteomic studies. In silico analysis predicts an N-terminal signal peptide, three N-glycosylation sites and a C-terminal transmembrane domain similar to that described for mammalian isoforms. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses determined that SmNPP-5 is significantly upregulated in the transition from free-living cercaria to schistosomulum and adult worm parasitic stages; additionally, the native protein was demonstrated to be N-glycosylated. Immunolocalization experiments and tegument surface membrane preparations confirm the protein as a tegument surface protein. Furthermore, the ectolocalization of this enzyme was corroborated through the hydrolysis of the phosphodiesterase specific substrate (rho-Nph-5'-TMP) by living adult and 21-day-old worms. Interestingly, pre-incubation of adult and 21-day-old worms with anti-rSmNPP-5 antibody was able to reduce by 50-60% the enzyme activity. These results suggest that SmNPP-5 is closely associated with the new tegument surface generation after cercarial penetration, and being located at the host-parasite interface, is a potential target for immune intervention. PMID:19428670

  9. S. mansoni Bolsters Anti-Viral Immunity in the Murine Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Sebastian; Krempl, Christine; Kallfass, Carsten; Frey, Stefanie; Jakob, Thilo; Mouahid, Gabriel; Moné, Hélène; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Staeheli, Peter; Lamers, Marinus C.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal parasite Schistosoma mansoni causes a chronic disease, schistosomiasis or bilharzia. According to the current literature, the parasite induces vigorous immune responses that are controlled by Th2 helper cells at the expense of Th1 helper cells. The latter cell type is, however, indispensable for anti-viral immune responses. Remarkably, there is no reliable literature among 230 million patients worldwide describing defective anti-viral immune responses in the upper respiratory tract, for instance against influenza A virus or against respiratory syncitial virus (RSV). We therefore re-examined the immune response to a human isolate of S. mansoni and challenged mice in the chronic phase of schistosomiasis with influenza A virus, or with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a mouse virus to model RSV infections. We found that mice with chronic schistosomiasis had significant, systemic immune responses induced by Th1, Th2, and Th17 helper cells. High serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, and GM-CSF were found after mating and oviposition. The lungs of diseased mice showed low-grade inflammation, with goblet cell hyperplasia and excessive mucus secretion, which was alleviated by treatment with an anti-TNF-α agent (Etanercept). Mice with chronic schistosomiasis were to a relative, but significant extent protected from a secondary viral respiratory challenge. The protection correlated with the onset of oviposition and TNF-α-mediated goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus secretion, suggesting that these mechanisms are involved in enhanced immune protection to respiratory viruses during chronic murine schistosomiasis. Indeed, also in a model of allergic airway inflammation mice were protected from a viral respiratory challenge with PVM. PMID:25398130

  10. Myeloradiculitis: a rare event in schistosoma infection.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, D; Hofmann, C; Sudeck, H; Burchard, G-D; Moser, A

    2006-12-01

    Schistosomiasis a parasitic disease caused by trematodes is widely distributed in (sub-)tropical countries. Depending on the species the infection manifests clinically as gastrointestinal (preferentially Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum) or urinary (preferentially S. haematobium) disorders. Here we present an uncommon case of myeloradiculitis leading to bladder palsy and sensory loss at the lower limbs. PMID:17180592

  11. Sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons and their perceptual discrimination by baboon listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendall, Drew; Owren, Michael J.; Weerts, Elise; Hienz, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study quantifies sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons (Papio spp.) and tests the basic perceptual discriminability of these differences to baboon listeners. Acoustic analyses were performed on 1028 grunts recorded from 27 adult baboons (11 males and 16 females) in southern Africa, focusing specifically on the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies. The mean F0 and the mean frequencies of the first three formants were all significantly lower in males than they were in females, more dramatically so for F0. Experiments using standard psychophysical procedures subsequently tested the discriminability of adult male and adult female grunts. After learning to discriminate the grunt of one male from that of one female, five baboon subjects subsequently generalized this discrimination both to new call tokens from the same individuals and to grunts from novel males and females. These results are discussed in the context of both the possible vocal anatomical basis for sex differences in call structure and the potential perceptual mechanisms involved in their processing by listeners, particularly as these relate to analogous issues in human speech production and perception.

  12. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  13. Preliminary analysis of miRNA pathway in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Matheus S; Cabral, Fernanda J; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; Carvalho, Omar; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Baba, Elio H; Sá, Renata G

    2009-03-01

    RNA silencing refers to a series of nuclear and cytoplasmatic processes involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), either by sequence-specific mRNA degradation or by translational arrest. The best characterized small RNAs are microRNAs (miRNAs), which predominantly perform gene silencing through post-transcriptional mechanisms. In this work we used bioinformatic approaches to identify the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni sequences that are similar to enzymes involved in the post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated by miRNA pathway. We used amino acid sequences of well-known proteins involved in the miRNA pathway against S. mansoni genome and transcriptome databases identifying a total of 13 putative proteins in the parasite. In addition, the transcript levels of SmDicer1 and SmAgo2/3/4 were identified by qRT-PCR using cercariae, adult worms, eggs and in vitro cultivated schistosomula. Our results showed that the SmDicer1 and SmAgo2/3/4 are differentially expressed during schistosomula development, suggesting that the miRNA pathway is regulated at the transcript level and therefore may control gene expression during the life cycle of S. mansoni.

  14. [Hormonal activity of the hypophysis-gonadal system in male hamadryas baboons in relationship to their hierarchical position].

    PubMed

    Taranov, A G; Shashk-ogly, L K; Goncharov, N P

    1986-03-01

    Hierarchic status-dependent hormonal activity of pituitary-gonadal system was studied in an isolated group of hamadryas baboons. Testosterone level was higher in dominating males. The level of sex hormone was higher in aged animals with great muscle mass. No correlation was observed between hierarchic status of hamadryas baboon males and the blood level of luteinizing hormone.

  15. Disentangling the effects of exposure and susceptibility on transmission of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Civitello, David J; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    For all parasites, transmission is composed of two processes: host contact with parasites ('exposure') and risk of infection given such contact ('susceptibility'). Classic models, such as mass action (density-dependent) transmission, lump these processes together. However, separating these processes could enhance predictions for disease dynamics, especially for free-living parasites. Here, we outline three transmission models that partition exposure and susceptibility. Using data from a study of Schistosoma mansoni (trematode) infections in Biomphalaria glabrata snails, we competed these three models against four alternative models, including the mass action model (which lumps exposure and susceptibility). The models that separately accounted for exposure and susceptibility best predicted prevalence across the density gradients of hosts and parasites, outperforming all other models based on Akaike information criterion. When embedded into a dynamic epidemiological model, the exposure-explicit models all predicted lower equilibrium densities of infected snails and human-infectious cercariae. Thus, population-level epidemiological models that utilize the classic mass action transmission model might overestimate human risk of schistosomiasis. More generally, the presented approach for disentangling exposure and susceptibility can distinguish between behavioural and immunological resistance, identify mechanisms of 'disease dilution' and provide a more complete dissection of drivers of parasite transmission.

  16. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells and immunomodulation after Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hasby, Eiman A; Hasby Saad, Marwa A; Shohieb, Zeinab; El Noby, Kholoud

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization on the immunomodulation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis as an experimental model of IBD in comparison to non immunization and healthy control. The study was performed on 180 mice; 25 healthy control, 15 to identify the inflammatory peak of DSS, 25 received DSS for 7 days; 90 infected with S. mansoni cercariae to collect eggs for antigen preparation, and 25 immunized with the prepared antigen then received DSS course. Disease activity index, macroscopic & microscopic inflammatory scores, FoxP3+ T regulatory cell count, myeloperoxidase activity, and Th1/Th2 cytokine profile were compared in studied groups. Immunization induced both FoxP3+ T(regs) and Th2 cytokines to establish a state of immune homeostasis and create a quiescent steadier immune response to DSS. S. mansoni egg antigen succeeded in acting like a prophylactic helminthic therapy as it has a profitable modulatory effect on DSS-induced colitis model.

  17. Spontaneous disc degeneration in the baboon model: magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Platenberg, R C; Hubbard, G B; Ehler, W J; Hixson, C J

    2001-10-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of disability in humans. The baboon model is an excellent natural disease model to study comparable human disease, because baboons are relatively large (adult males 20-26 kg, adult females 12-17 kg), long-lived (30-45 years), well defined, easy to use, and closely related to humans. Published investigations with plain radiographs of disc degeneration in baboons indicated vertebral anatomy and changes that were remarkably similar to those seen in humans, and it would be valuable to determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic evaluation would be useful methods for studying the model, as MRI allows multi-planar visualization of tissues without the use of intravenous contrast and it is superior for evaluating disc hydration, annulus tears, and herniations. The thoracolumbar junctions from 47 randomly selected baboons, ranging in age from 2 weeks to 34 years, were evaluated with MRI and histopathology. Excellent correlation with MRI was observed for changes in disc desiccation, height, and age (P < 0.001). The pathologic analysis demonstrated P values of < 0.001 when comparing histopathology with age and MRI results. All severely degenerated discs seen by MRI were in baboons 14 years of age or older.

  18. Perspectives on the use of the baboon in embryology and teratology research.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, A G; Peterson, P E

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developmental stages of the baboon during the period of organ formation and provides comparative information for other primates, including the human. Special attention is directed to the early development of the nervous system, eye, ear and nose/palate. The similarity in development of these structures with humans indicates that the baboon is a suitable model for studies of normal and abnormal neurological development. Spontaneous prenatal loss rates in the baboon (2.4-11.2%) are slightly lower than those reported in rhesus and cynomologus monkeys. The baboon, in addition to the cynomologus monkey and macaque, has been used as a model in teratology research to assess the potential risk of thalidomide, sex steroids, Bendectin and rubella virus, as well as to study the pathogenesis of malformations associated with the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide. The rate of spontaneous malformations (<1%) in baboons, similar to that reported for other commonly used primates, supports their continued use as a teratological model. In this regard, a sample protocol is provided for the safety evaluation of biotechnology products using nonhuman primates, which are the most appropriate model for those compounds which are bioactive in species closely related to humans.

  19. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates.

  20. Efficacy of Myrrh in the treatment of schistosomiasis (haematobium and mansoni) in Ezbet El-Bakly, Tamyia Center, El-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M

    2004-08-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in Egypt, despite the continuous control effort. Most of the anti-schistosomal drugs have deleterious side effects or low efficacy. This necessitates a search for new safe and effective drug. A field survey was done in Ezbet El-Bakly (Tamyia Center) El-Fayoum Governorate to determine the magnitude of schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni and to evaluate the efficacy of Mirazid (the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree, family: Burseraceae) in the treatment of both types of schistosomiasis. Among the 1019 individuals parasitologically examined, the prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni were 4.2% and 2.4% respectively and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 33.2 eggs/10 ml urine and 113.3 eggs/gram stools. Most of the patients with haematobiasis and mansoniasis were <15 years (56.4% & 53.8%), males (56.4% & 53.8%) & illiterates (46.2% & 46.2%). All cases were treated by Myrrh (Mirazid) as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days and were followed up clinically and parasitologically by urine analysis by the sedimentation and nucleopore techniques and by hatching test and by stool analysis by sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques and by hatching test. The parasitological cure rate after three months was 97.4% and 96.2% for S. haematobium and S. mansoni cases with the marvelous clinical cure without any side-effects. Patients not completely responded to a single course of treatment showed marked reduction of egg intensity. It is concluded that Mirazid proved to be safe and very effective in treatment of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections under field conditions. PMID:15287168

  1. Immunostimulatory property of a synthetic peptide belonging to the soluble ATP diphosphohydrolase isoform (SmATPDase 2) and immunolocalisation of this protein in the Schistosoma mansoni egg.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rita Gabriela Pedrosa Ribeiro; Gusmão, Michélia Antônia do Nascimento; Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Detoni, Michelle de Lima; Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Soares, Thais Vieira; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2011-11-01

    A peptide (SmB2LJ; r175-194) that belongs to a conserved domain from Schistosoma mansoni SmATPDase 2 and is shared with potato apyrase, as predicted by in silico analysis as antigenic, was synthesised and its immunostimulatory property was analysed. When inoculated in BALB/c mice, this peptide induced high levels of SmB2LJ-specific IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes, as detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, dot blots were found to be positive for immune sera against potato apyrase and SmB2LJ. These results suggest that the conserved domain r175-194 from the S. mansoni SmATPDase 2 is antigenic. Western blots were performed and the anti-SmB2LJ antibody recognised in adult worm (soluble worm antigen preparation) or soluble egg antigen antigenic preparations two bands of approximately 63 and 55 kDa, molecular masses similar to those predicted for adult worm SmATPDase 2. This finding strongly suggests the expression of this same isoform in S. mansoni eggs. To assess localisation of SmATPDase 2, confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed using cryostat sections of infected mouse liver and polyclonal antiserum against SmB2LJ. Positive reactions were identified on the external surface from the miracidium in von Lichtenberg's envelope and, in the outer side of the egg-shell, showing that this soluble isoform is secreted from the S. mansoni eggs. PMID:22124552

  2. Olfactomedin-like 3 (OLFML3) gene expression in baboon and human ocular tissues: cornea, lens, uvea and retina

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iràm Pablo; Garza-Rodríguez, Maria Lourdes; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Tejero, Maria Elizabeth; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Ibave, Diana Cristina Perez; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L; Reséndez-Pérez, Diana; Cole, Shelley A; Cavazos-Adame, Humberto; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Background Olfactomedin-like is a polyfunctional polymeric glycoprotein. This family has at least four members. One member of this family is OLFML3, which is preferentially expressed in placenta but is also detected in other adult tissues including the liver and heart. However, the orthologous rat gene is expressed in the iris, sclera, trabecular meshwork, retina, and optic nerve. Methods OLFML3 amplification was performed by RT-PCR from human and baboon ocular tissues. The products were cloned and sequenced. Results We report OFML3 expression in human and baboon eye. The full CDS has 1221 bp, from which a OFR of 406 amino acid was obtained. The baboon OLFML3 gene nucleotidic sequence has 98%, and amino acidic 99% similarity with humans. Conclusions OLFML3 expression in human and baboon ocular tissues and its high similarity make the baboon a powerful model to deduce the physiological and/or metabolic function of this protein in the eye. PMID:23398349

  3. Schistosoma haematobium hotspots in south Nyanza, western Kenya: prevalence, distribution and co-endemicity with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis studies in western Kenya have mainly focused on the intestinal form, with evidence of urinary schistosomiasis remaining anecdotal. Detailed disease mapping has been carried out predominantly along the shores of Lake Victoria, but there is a paucity of information on intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis in inland sites. Methods This cross-sectional survey of 3,487 children aged 7–18 years from 95 schools in south Nyanza, western Kenya determined the prevalence, infection intensity, and geographical distribution of Schistosoma haematobium, evaluating its co-endemicity with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Helminth eggs were analyzed from single urine (for S. haematobium) and stool (for S. mansoni and STHs) samples by centrifugation and Kato-Katz, respectively. Hematuria was used as a proxy indicator for S. haematobium. Schools and water bodies (ponds, water-points, streams, dams and rivers) were mapped using Geographical Information System and prevalence maps obtained using ArcView GIS Software. Results S. haematobium infections with an overall prevalence of 9.3% (95% CI = 8.4-10.2%) were mostly prevalent in Rachuonyo, 22.4% (95% CI = 19.2-25.9% and 19.7 eggs/10 ml) and Migori, 10.7% (95% CI = 9.2-12.3% and 29.5 eggs/10 ml) districts, particularly around Kayuka pond and Ongoche river respectively. Overall infections correlated with hematuria (r = 0.9, P < 0.0001) and were more likely in boys (P < 0.0001, OR = 0.624). S. mansoni infections with an overall prevalence of 13% (95% CI =11.9-14.1%) were majorly confined along the shores of Lake Victoria. STH infections were homogenously distributed with A. lumbricoides occurring in 5.4% (95% CI = 4.7-6.3%) and T. trichiura in 2.8% (95% CI = 2.3-3.4%) of the children. Although S. mansoni infections were more co-endemic with S. haematobium, only A. lumbricoides infections were positively associated with S. haematobium (P = 0

  4. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochron, Sharon T.

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  5. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  6. Protective and Anti-Pathology Effects of Sm Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase-Based DNA Vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni by Changing Route of Injection

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Mohamed; Hammam, Olft; Karim, Amr; Medhat, Amina; Khela, Mamdouh; El-Dabaa, Ehab

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fructose-1,6-bis phosphate aldolase (SMALDO) DNA vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni infection using different routes of injection. The SMALDO has been cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1/V5-His TOPO-TA and was used in injecting Swiss albino mice intramuscularly (IM), subcutaneously (SC), or intraperitoneally (IP) (50 µg/mouse). Mice vaccinated with non-recombinant pcDNA3.1 served as controls. Each group was immunized 4 times at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Two weeks after the last booster dose, all mice groups were infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae via tail immersion. At week 8 post-infection, animals were sacrificed for assessment of parasitological and histopathological parameters. High anti-SMALDO IgG antibody titers were detected in sera of all vaccinated groups (P<0.01) compared to the control group. Both the IP and SC vaccination routes resulted in a significant reduction in worm burden (46.2% and 28.9%, respectively, P<0.01). This was accompanied by a significant reduction in hepatic and intestinal egg counts (41.7% and 40.2%, respectively, P<0.01) in the IP group only. The number of dead eggs was significantly increased in both IP and IM groups (P<0.01). IP vaccination recorded the highest significant reduction in granuloma number and diameter (54.7% and 29.2%, respectively, P<0.01) and significant increase in dead miracidia (P<0.01). In conclusion, changing the injection route of SMALDO DNA vaccination significantly influenced the efficacy of vaccination. SMALDO DNA vaccination via IP route could be a promising protective and anti-pathology vaccine candidate against S. mansoni infection. PMID:23710082

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-fertilization-lineage.

    PubMed

    Mascara, D; Kawano, T; Magnanelli, A C; Silva, R P; Sant' Anna, O A; Morgante, J S

    1999-11-01

    Mascara, D., Kawano, T., Magnanelli, A. C., Silva, R. P. S., Sant' Anna, O. A., and Morgante, J. S. 1999. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-Fertilization-Lineage. Experimental Parasitology 93, 133-141. Artificial selection of Biomphalaria tenagophila snails for susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma mansoni (Brazilian SJ strain) was carried out from natural populations. After five self-fertilization generations, two lineages were isolated and were designated as SUSC (highly susceptible 93-100%) and RES (nonsusceptible 5-0%). Length of the prepatent period, cercarial production, and mortality of the hosts in postexposure were determined in all generations (F(1)-F(8)) and were analyzed as quantitative traits related to host susceptibility. Distribution patterns of frequencies were observed within snail families (samples derived from one F(0) snail), these traits showing a significant influence by selection applied to susceptibility. The multiple quantitative classes were described in terms of continuous variation. During the selection of SUSC lineage, classes with higher values of prepatent length and lower cercarial production were eliminated, and the heritability calculated for these two traits was 0.811 and 0.709, respectively. Experimental results were correlated with an increase in the level of susceptibility in the generations selected and are discussed in relation to inheritance patterns as well as the quantitative variation of susceptibility.

  8. Passive transfer with serum and IgG antibodies of irradiated cercaria-induced resistance against Schistosoma mansoni in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-04-01

    The role of humoral immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in C57BL/6J mice was examined by employing a passive transfer system. Sera from highly resistant mice that had been exposed to two or three immunizations with 50-kilorad-gamma-irradiated cercariae were tested for their ability to transfer protection against S. mansoni challenge. All five batches of serum tested were observed to have protective activity. Immune serum recipients exhibited statistically significant reductions in challenge worm burdens of 20 to 50% compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The most consistent level of resistance was obtained when immune serum was administered several days post-challenge, i.e., at a time coincident with schistosomulum residence in the lungs. Furthermore, it was shown that the protective activity in immune serum was associated with factors that bind to staphylococcal protein A and that are precipitated by 50% ammonium sulfate; thus it appears that the protective factors in immune serum are IgG antibodies.

  9. Baboons (Papio papio), but not humans, break cognitive set in a visuomotor task.

    PubMed

    Pope, Sarah M; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Hopkins, William D; Fagot, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive set can be both helpful and harmful in problem solving. A large set of similar problems may be solved mechanically by applying a single-solution method. However, efficiency might be sacrificed if a better solution exists and is overlooked. Despite half a century of research on cognitive set, there have been no attempts to investigate whether it occurs in nonhuman species. The current study utilized a nonverbal, computer task to compare cognitive set between 104 humans and 15 baboons (Papio papio). A substantial difference was found between humans' and baboons' abilities to break cognitive set. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of humans were highly impaired by set, yet baboons were almost completely unaffected. Analysis of the human data revealed that children (aged 7-10) were significantly better able to break set than adolescents (11-18) and adults (19-68). Both the evolutionary and developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26194414

  10. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  11. A non-Lévy random walk in chacma baboons: what does it mean?

    PubMed

    Sueur, Cédric

    2011-01-13

    The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover this Brownian walk is not the main process responsible for movement patterns of baboons. Findings about their speed and trajectories show that baboons use metal maps and memory to find resources. Thus the Brownian process found in this species appears to be more dependent on the environment or might be an alternative when known food patches are depleted and when animals have to find new resources.

  12. Baboons (Papio papio), but not humans, break cognitive set in a visuomotor task.

    PubMed

    Pope, Sarah M; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Hopkins, William D; Fagot, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive set can be both helpful and harmful in problem solving. A large set of similar problems may be solved mechanically by applying a single-solution method. However, efficiency might be sacrificed if a better solution exists and is overlooked. Despite half a century of research on cognitive set, there have been no attempts to investigate whether it occurs in nonhuman species. The current study utilized a nonverbal, computer task to compare cognitive set between 104 humans and 15 baboons (Papio papio). A substantial difference was found between humans' and baboons' abilities to break cognitive set. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of humans were highly impaired by set, yet baboons were almost completely unaffected. Analysis of the human data revealed that children (aged 7-10) were significantly better able to break set than adolescents (11-18) and adults (19-68). Both the evolutionary and developmental implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. A visual-familiarity account of evidence for orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Jamieson, Randall K

    2014-04-01

    Grainger, Dufau, Montant, Ziegler, and Fagot (2012a) taught 6 baboons to discriminate words from nonwords in an analogue of the lexical decision task. The baboons more readily identified novel words than novel nonwords as words, and they had difficulty rejecting nonwords that were orthographically similar to learned words. In a subsequent test (Ziegler, Hannagan, et al., 2013), responses from the same animals evinced a transposed-letter effect. These three effects, when seen in skilled human readers, are taken as hallmarks of orthographic processing. We show, by simulation of the unique learning trajectory of each baboon, that the results can be interpreted equally well as an example of simple, familiarity-based discrimination of pixel maps without orthographic processing.

  14. [Reconciliation in hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas: testing the relationships quality hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Butovskaia, M L; Chalian, V G; Meĭshvili, N V

    2011-08-01

    Post-conflict interactions between former opponents were investigated in a troop of hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. This species is known for it's multilevel structure with evidently expressed hierarchy between males and females. Due to this fact hamadryas baboons represent an ideal object for testing the "relationship quality" hypothesis. The analyses were done on 436 PC-MC pairs of animals, which represented different social classes (harem male-female pairs, harem females, relatives, females from different harems. Male-male pairs, and female-subadult pairs). Reconciliation was practiced in different social classes of individuals: harem male-female pairs, harem female-female pairs, kin-kin pairs, male-male pairs, female-subadult pairs. Significant differences in the rate of reconciliatory tendency for different categories of interacting animals were found. Interactions between former opponents were highly selective. These may be interpreted as an indicator of the influence of the relation quality on the probability of reconciliation in hamadryas baboons.

  15. Ranging behavior, group size and behavioral flexibility in Ethiopian hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Swedell, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This study reports group size, home range size, daily path lengths, seasonal effects on ranging behavior and qualitative information on diet for a population of hamadryas baboons inhabiting the lowlands of the northern Rift Valley in central Ethiopia. The minimum home range size and daily path length for this population are similar to those reported for other populations of hamadryas baboons in Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia. Group sizes, however, are much larger than those in most other hamadryas populations for which published data are available. The large group sizes in this area may be related to the abundance of one food resource in particular, doum palm nuts. Overall, this study suggests that hamadryas baboons may be more flexible in some aspects of their behavioral ecology (e.g. group size) than in others (e.g. ranging behavior).

  16. Social contact influences on the menstrual cycle of the female Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus).

    PubMed

    Howard-Tripp, M E; Bielert, C

    1978-09-01

    The menstrual cycle characteristics of 2 groups of adult female Chacma baboons were compared. Out of a group of 27 female baboons, 41% (11/27) failed to cycle during the 6 month study period but were all under the stresses of fairly severe experimental manipulation. Data on the menstrual cycles of the remaining 16 unmanipulated females was collected and carefully analysed. These 16 females were individually caged and denied social contact with other baboons. Their menstrual cycles were then contrasted to those of a group of 8 individually caged females which received 24 minute mating tests with vasectomized males on alternate days during their cycles. The females denied the social contact of the mating tests showed significantly longer cycles as a result of significantly lengthened periods up to the time of perineal detumescence.

  17. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    PubMed

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  18. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations—a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05224.001 PMID:25774601

  19. Social status predicts wound healing in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Social status can have striking effects on health in humans and other animals, but the causes often are unknown. In male vertebrates, status-related differences in health may be influenced by correlates of male social status that suppress immune responses. Immunosuppressive correlates of low social status may include chronic social stress, poor physical condition, and old age; the immunosuppressive correlates of high status may include high testosterone and energetic costs of reproduction. Here we test whether these correlates could create status-related differences in immune function by measuring the incidence of illness and injury and then examining healing rates in a 27-y data set of natural injuries and illnesses in wild baboon males. We found no evidence that the high testosterone and intense reproductive effort associated with high rank suppress immune responses. Instead, high-ranking males were less likely to become ill, and they recovered more quickly than low-ranking males, even controlling for differences in age. Notably, alpha males, who experience high glucocorticoids, as well as the highest testosterone and reproductive effort, healed significantly faster than other males, even other high-ranking males. We discuss why alpha males seem to escape from the immunosuppressive costs of glucocorticoids but low-ranking males do not, including the idea that glucocorticoids' effects depend on an individual's physiological and social context. PMID:22615389

  20. Adult male positioning in baboon progressions: order and chaos revisited.

    PubMed

    Rhine, R J; Westlund, B J

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of nonrandom positioning among adult males is crucial for a protection theory of the spatial organization of baboon progressions. In a recent study it was suggested that systematic positioning of troop members other than mothers and infants is so slight and rare that progressions may be regarded as essentially random. This suggestion depends upon debatable methodological points presumably downgrading previous findings of nonrandom order. Reanalysis of data from this study revealed numerous analytical and statistical problems, as well as serious calculation and other errors, and showed that the findings are consistent with results of the present and previous research. Adult males tended toward the front or back of progressions, a tendency which was intensified in potentially dangerous situations. Dominant males were disproportionately more often frontward and subordinate males rearward. Nonrandom order, which was found for a variety of circumstances at high levels of statistical significance, was unusually general in that it occurred in 6 studies, 7 troops, 2 species, and 5 locations. Such generality is consistent with a protection theory postulating phylogenetic underpinnings of a sociospatial organization which allows an advanced primate to adapt to terrestrial coexistence with predators.

  1. Effects of pharmacological manipulations on "demand" for food by baboons.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    In a study examining the effects of pharmacological manipulations on "demand" for food, responding of six adult male baboons (Papio c. anubis) was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement during daily 22h experimental sessions. Increasing the response requirement decreased daily food intake. Administration of anorectic drugs (amphetamine, fenfluramine, diethylpropion, phenmetrazine, phenylpropanolamine and mazindol) produced parallel dose-dependent downward shifts in responding at all response costs. In contrast, administration of the anxiolytic, diazepam, produced parallel dose-dependent upward shifts in responding at all response costs. Oral phencyclidine decreased intake during the first 8h of the session, but compensatory feeding later in the day eliminated this effect. Changes in pellet intake were fitted to a theoretical equation derived by Hursh et al. (1988) to describe changes in demand for a commodity. When responding increases as a result of increasing cost, demand is said to be inelastic, but when responding decreases as a result of increasing cost, demand is said to be elastic. Administration of anorectic drugs, while decreasing maximal intake at minimal cost, had no effect on the elasticity of demand for food. Similarly, diazepam increased maximal intake at minimal cost without affecting the elasticity of demand for food. The effect of anorectic drugs differs from the previously reported effects of caloric substitutes which increase the elasticity of demand for food. Thus, anorectic drugs do not function as caloric substitutes, in an economic sense, for food. PMID:11224228

  2. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Dorothy L.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males in polygynous species of mammals will invest more reproductive effort in mate competition than parental investment. A corollary to this prediction is that males will mount a stress response when their access to mates is threatened. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that males exhibit elevated stress hormones, or glucocorticoids (GCs), when their access to females, or a proxy to this access like dominance rank, is challenged. In contrast, the relationship between stress hormones and paternal effort is less obvious. We report results from a study of wild male chacma baboons indicating that males experienced elevated GC levels during periods of social instability following the immigration of a dominant male. These effects were strongest in males whose mating opportunities were at greatest risk: high-ranking males and males engaged in sexual consortships. Males involved in friendships with lactating females, a form of paternal investment, also experienced high GC levels during these periods of instability. There was a tendency for males with lactating female friends to reduce their time spent in consortships during unstable periods, when the risk of infanticide was high. Thus, even in a highly polygynous mammal, males may have to balance paternal effort with mating effort. Males who invest entirely in mating effort risk losing the infants they have sired to infanticide. Males who invest in paternal care may enhance their offspring's survival, but at the cost of elevated GC levels, the risk of injury, and the loss of mating opportunities. PMID:25620835

  3. Wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) remember single foraging episodes.

    PubMed

    Noser, Rahel; Byrne, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Understanding animal episodic-like memory is important for tracing the evolution of the human mind. However, our knowledge about the existence and nature of episodic-like memory in non-human primates is minimal. We observed the behaviour of a wild male chacma baboon faced with a trade-off between protecting his stationary group from aggressive extra-group males and foraging among five out-of-sight platforms. These contained high-priority food at a time of natural food shortage. In 10 morning and eight evening trials, the male spontaneously visited the platforms in five and four different sequences, respectively. In addition, he interrupted foraging sequences at virtually any point on eight occasions, returning to the group for up to 2 h. He then visited some or all of the remaining platforms and prevented revisits to already depleted ones, apparently based on his memory for the previous foraging episode about food value, location, and time. Efficient use of memory allowed him to keep minimal time absent from his group while keeping food intake high. These findings support the idea that episodic-like memory offers an all-purpose solution to a wide variety of problems that require flexible, quick, yet precise decisions in situations arising from competition for food and mates in wild primates.

  4. Social status predicts wound healing in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-06-01

    Social status can have striking effects on health in humans and other animals, but the causes often are unknown. In male vertebrates, status-related differences in health may be influenced by correlates of male social status that suppress immune responses. Immunosuppressive correlates of low social status may include chronic social stress, poor physical condition, and old age; the immunosuppressive correlates of high status may include high testosterone and energetic costs of reproduction. Here we test whether these correlates could create status-related differences in immune function by measuring the incidence of illness and injury and then examining healing rates in a 27-y data set of natural injuries and illnesses in wild baboon males. We found no evidence that the high testosterone and intense reproductive effort associated with high rank suppress immune responses. Instead, high-ranking males were less likely to become ill, and they recovered more quickly than low-ranking males, even controlling for differences in age. Notably, alpha males, who experience high glucocorticoids, as well as the highest testosterone and reproductive effort, healed significantly faster than other males, even other high-ranking males. We discuss why alpha males seem to escape from the immunosuppressive costs of glucocorticoids but low-ranking males do not, including the idea that glucocorticoids' effects depend on an individual's physiological and social context.

  5. Sequential phenotypic constraints on social information use in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alecia J; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Social information allows the rapid dissemination of novel information among individuals. However, an individual’s ability to use information is likely to be dependent on phenotypic constraints operating at three successive steps: acquisition, application, and exploitation. We tested this novel framework by quantifying the sequential process of social information use with experimental food patches in wild baboons (Papio ursinus). We identified phenotypic constraints at each step of the information use sequence: peripheral individuals in the proximity network were less likely to acquire and apply social information, while subordinate females were less likely to exploit it successfully. Social bonds and personality also played a limiting role along the sequence. As a result of these constraints, the average individual only acquired and exploited social information on <25% and <5% of occasions. Our study highlights the sequential nature of information use and the fundamental importance of phenotypic constraints on this sequence. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13125.001 PMID:27067236

  6. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Variation in Baboon Cranial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Charles C.; Willmore, Katherine E.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hildebolt, Charles; Sadler, Brooke E.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Cheverud, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The development, function, and integration of morphological characteristics are all hypothesized to influence the utility of traits for phylogenetic reconstruction by affecting the way in which morphological characteristics evolve. We use a baboon model to test the hypotheses about phenotypic and quantitative genetic variation of traits in the cranium that bear on a phenotype’s propensity to evolve. We test the hypotheses that: 1) individual traits in different functionally and developmentally defined regions of the cranium are differentially environmentally, genetically, and phenotypically variable; 2) genetic covariance with other traits constrains traits in one region of the cranium more than those in others; 3) and regions of the cranium subject to different levels of mechanical strain differ in the magnitude of variation in individual traits. We find that the levels of environmental and genetic variation in individual traits are randomly distributed across regions of the cranium rather than being structured by developmental origin or degree of exposure to strain. Individual traits in the cranial vault tend to be more constrained by covariance with other traits than those in other regions. Traits in regions subject to high degrees of strain during mastication are not any more variable at any level than other traits. If these results are generalizable to other populations, they indicate that there is no reason to suppose that individual traits from any one part of the cranium are intrinsically less useful for reconstructing patterns of evolution than those from any other part. PMID:20623673

  7. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems.

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S. ); Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L. )

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.

  9. Baboon palm nut harvesters in ancient Egypt: new (ancient) evidence, new questions.

    PubMed

    Deputte, B L; Anderson, J R

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that hamadryas baboons were used by the ancient Egyptians to pick fruits, but it is not well known that these baboons were also used to collect palm nuts. We describe this practice as it is depicted on a painting on a rarely exhibited ancient Egyptian artefact. Striking similarities with the modern use of pig-tailed macaques as coconut harvesters are described, raising new questions about the demise of the practice in Africa and its continuation in South-East Asia. PMID:19628946

  10. Schistosoma haematobium in the baboon (Papio anubis): assessment of protection levels against either a single mass challenge or repeated trickle challenges after vaccination with irradiated schistosomula.

    PubMed

    Reid, G D; Sturrock, R F; Harrison, R A; Tarara, R P

    1995-06-01

    Baboons vaccinated intramuscularly with three times 9000 20 krad irradiated Schistosoma haematobium schistosomula at monthly intervals were exposed percutaneously to either a single mass challenge of 3000 (VMC) or ten, weekly trickle challenges of 300 (VTC) normals S. haematobium cercariae. Unvaccinated mass (MCC) or trickle (TCC) challenge controls were exposed simultaneously. Faecal and urine egg production was delayed in the vaccinated groups which also had reduced adult, particularly female, worm recoveries. Total faecal, urine and tissue eggs were lower in the vaccinated groups, as also were the size of granulomata and the gross pathology and severity of inflammatory responses in the bladder and ureters, except for an increased proportion of tissue eggs in the livers of vaccinated animals. Differences in pathology between groups were less marked in the other organs. Most indices were reduced in the trickle versus the mass challenge control groups. Some of these trends were statistically significant, mostly in the trickle vaccination group (VTC), but others were not. Compared with the appropriate unvaccinated controls, the percentage reduction for the trickle challenge (VTC) group (73%) was three times greater than that of the mass challenge (VMC) group (23%). Overall, the protective effect of vaccination was more clearly demonstrated in the trickle than in the mass challenge groups. This conclusion is based on a single experiment. Nevertheless, because trickle infections probably approximate more closely to what humans receive naturally, it is recommended that they should be used for future testing of all potential vaccines in baboons. PMID:7636159

  11. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. Alan; Langermans, Jan A. M.; van Dam, Govert J.; Vervenne, Richard A.; Hall, Stephanie L.; Borges, William C.; Dillon, Gary P.; Thomas, Alan W.; Coulson, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack. Principal Findings To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and circulating antigen levels indicated that a substantial population had established in all animals. Half the macaques had portal hypertension but only one had portacaval shunts, ruling out translocation to the lungs as the reason for loss of adult burden. Many worms had a shrunken and pallid appearance, with degenerative changes in intestines and reproductive organs. Tegument, gut epithelia and muscles appeared cytologically intact but the parenchyma was virtually devoid of content. An early and intense IgG production correlated with low worm burden at perfusion, and blood-feeding worms cultured in the presence of serum from these animals had stunted growth. Using immunoproteomics, gut digestive enzymes, tegument surface hydrolases and antioxidant enzymes were identified as targets of IgG in the high responder animals. Significance It appears that worms starve to death after cessation of blood feeding, as a result of antibody-mediated processes. We suggest that proteins in the three categories above, formulated to trigger the appropriate mechanisms operating in rhesus macaques, would have both prophylactic and therapeutic potential as a human vaccine. PMID:18820739

  12. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of – Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Mupoyi, Sylvain; Mukele, Rodin; Mukunda, Faustin; Kabongo, Madeleine Mbuyi; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA) were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5–94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2%) had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures. PMID:25521351

  13. A central role for hepatic conventional dendritic cells in supporting Th2 responses during helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Lundie, Rachel J; Webb, Lauren M; Marley, Angela K; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T; Cook, Peter C; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H; Brown, Sheila; Maizels, Rick M; Boon, Louis; O'Keeffe, Meredith; MacDonald, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key initiators of T-helper (Th) 2 immune responses against the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Although the liver is one of the main sites of antigen deposition during infection with this parasite, it is not yet clear how distinct DC subtypes in this tissue respond to S. mansoni antigens in vivo, or how the liver microenvironment might influence DC function during establishment of the Th2 response. In this study, we show that hepatic DC subsets undergo distinct activation processes in vivo following murine infection with S. mansoni. Conventional DCs (cDCs) from schistosome-infected mice upregulated expression of the costimulatory molecule CD40 and were capable of priming naive CD4+ T cells, whereas plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) upregulated expression of MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 but were unable to support the expansion of either naive or effector/memory CD4+ T cells. Importantly, in vivo depletion of pDCs revealed that this subset was dispensable for either maintenance or regulation of the hepatic Th2 effector response during acute S. mansoni infection. Our data provides strong evidence that S. mansoni infection favors the establishment of an immunogenic, rather than tolerogenic, liver microenvironment that conditions cDCs to initiate and maintain Th2 immunity in the context of ongoing antigen exposure. PMID:26657145

  14. 5-lipoxygenase pathway is essential for the control of granuloma extension induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs in lung.

    PubMed

    Toffoli da Silva, Gabriel; Espíndola, Milena Sobral; Fontanari, Caroline; Rosada, Rogerio Silva; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Frantz, Fabiani Gai

    2016-08-01

    According to WHO, it is estimated that approximately 2 billion people are infected with intestinal helminths worldwide and the number of people who are cured of these diseases is relatively low, resulting in a large percentage of chronically infected individuals. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases present in developing countries configuring it as a serious public health problem, directly related to poverty and social disadvantage. Once the parasite infection is established, Schistosoma mansoni eggs fall into the bloodstream and are trapped in the liver microcirculation where a strong granulomatous response and fibrosis formation occurs. In the experimental model, granulomas develop in the mouse lung after intravenous injection of purified eggs. Here we aim to understand how leukotrienes are involved in the granuloma formation. Leukotrienes are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolites via 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) enzyme. They are potent proinflammatory agents and induce recruitment, cell activation, regulation of microbicidal activity of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells. In this study, 5LO deficient mice (5LO(-/-)) were inoculated with S. mansoni eggs for evaluation of immunopathological parameters involved in the induction of type 2 granulomas. We showed that in the absence of leukotrienes, the size of granulomas were decreased comparing to the wild type mice and the inflammatory compromised areas had a lower extension. In 5LO(-/-) mice granulomas presented extensive areas of fibrosis, detected by α-SMA expression along the lesions, indicating remodeling in attempt to reestablish the normal tissue. Also, comparing to WT mice we detected decrease of IL-4 and IL-13 and increase of TGF-β in the lung of 5LO(-/-), but these mice failed to produce protective IFN-γ and IL-12. These results evidenced 5-Lipoxygenase as an important pathway during lung injury due to Schistosoma-eggs injection. PMID:27262746

  15. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  16. Genomewide ancestry and divergence patterns from low-coverage sequencing data reveal a complex history of admixture in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Alberts, Susan C; Cox, Laura A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Nevonen, Kimberly A; Carbone, Lucia; Tung, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Naturally occurring admixture has now been documented in every major primate lineage, suggesting its key role in primate evolutionary history. Active primate hybrid zones can provide valuable insight into this process. Here, we investigate the history of admixture in one of the best-studied natural primate hybrid zones, between yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and anubis baboons (Papio anubis) in the Amboseli ecosystem of Kenya. We generated a new genome assembly for yellow baboon and low-coverage genomewide resequencing data from yellow baboons, anubis baboons and known hybrids (n = 44). Using a novel composite likelihood method for estimating local ancestry from low-coverage data, we found high levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between the parent taxa, and excellent agreement between genome-scale ancestry estimates and a priori pedigree, life history and morphology-based estimates (r(2)  = 0.899). However, even putatively unadmixed Amboseli yellow individuals carried a substantial proportion of anubis ancestry, presumably due to historical admixture. Further, the distribution of shared vs. fixed differences between a putatively unadmixed Amboseli yellow baboon and an unadmixed anubis baboon, both sequenced at high coverage, is inconsistent with simple isolation-migration or equilibrium migration models. Our findings suggest a complex process of intermittent contact that has occurred multiple times in baboon evolutionary history, despite no obvious fitness costs to hybrids or major geographic or behavioural barriers. In combination with the extensive phenotypic data available for baboon hybrids, our results provide valuable context for understanding the history of admixture in primates, including in our own lineage.

  17. Genomewide ancestry and divergence patterns from low-coverage sequencing data reveal a complex history of admixture in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Alberts, Susan C; Cox, Laura A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Nevonen, Kimberly A; Carbone, Lucia; Tung, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Naturally occurring admixture has now been documented in every major primate lineage, suggesting its key role in primate evolutionary history. Active primate hybrid zones can provide valuable insight into this process. Here, we investigate the history of admixture in one of the best-studied natural primate hybrid zones, between yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and anubis baboons (Papio anubis) in the Amboseli ecosystem of Kenya. We generated a new genome assembly for yellow baboon and low-coverage genomewide resequencing data from yellow baboons, anubis baboons and known hybrids (n = 44). Using a novel composite likelihood method for estimating local ancestry from low-coverage data, we found high levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between the parent taxa, and excellent agreement between genome-scale ancestry estimates and a priori pedigree, life history and morphology-based estimates (r(2)  = 0.899). However, even putatively unadmixed Amboseli yellow individuals carried a substantial proportion of anubis ancestry, presumably due to historical admixture. Further, the distribution of shared vs. fixed differences between a putatively unadmixed Amboseli yellow baboon and an unadmixed anubis baboon, both sequenced at high coverage, is inconsistent with simple isolation-migration or equilibrium migration models. Our findings suggest a complex process of intermittent contact that has occurred multiple times in baboon evolutionary history, despite no obvious fitness costs to hybrids or major geographic or behavioural barriers. In combination with the extensive phenotypic data available for baboon hybrids, our results provide valuable context for understanding the history of admixture in primates, including in our own lineage. PMID:27145036

  18. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals’ vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. Results In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons’ social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Conclusions Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species’ social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important

  19. Cloning of a developmentally regulated tegument antigen of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Stein, L D; David, J R

    1986-09-01

    We have cloned a gene encoding a 22.6 kDa antigen from a Schistosoma mansoni cDNA library. Northern blots indicate that transcription of this antigen occurs in adults and sporocysts but not in cercariae, eggs or in newly-transformed schistosomula. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting with specific antisera indicate that the antigen is not detectable in the newly transformed schistosomulum but appears within 24 h of schistosomulum transformation. Indirect immunofluorescence of adult worms shows this protein to be located in the tegument.

  20. In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Poncy, J L; Metivier, H; Dhilly, M; Verry, M; Masse, R

    1992-01-01

    In vitro cellular dissolution tests for insoluble forms of uranium oxide are technically difficult with conventional methodology using adherent alveolar macrophages. The limited number of cells per flask and the slow dissolution rate in a large volume of nutritive medium are obvious restricting factors. Macrophages in suspension cannot be substituted because they represent different and poorly reproducible functional subtypes with regard to activation and enzyme secretion. Preliminary results on the dissolution of uranium oxide using immobilized alveolar macrophages are promising because large numbers of highly functional macrophages can be cultured in a limited volume. Cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavages performed on baboons (Papio papio) and then immobilized after the phagocytosis of uranium octoxide (U3O8) particles in alginate beads linked with Ca2+. The dissolution rate expressed as percentage of initial uranium content in cells was 0.039 +/- 0.016%/day for particles with a count median geometric diameter of 3.84 microns(sigma g = 1.84). A 2-fold increase in the dissolution rate was observed when the same number of particles was immobilized without macrophages. These results, obtained in vitro, suggest that the U3O8 preparation investigated should be assigned to inhalation class Y as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Future experiments are intended to clarify this preliminary work and to examine the dissolution characteristics of other particles such as uranium dioxide. It is recommended that the dissolution rate should be measured over an interval of 3 weeks, which is compatible with the survival time of immobilized cells in culture and may reveal transformation states occurring with aging of the particles. PMID:1396447

  1. Maternal obesity disrupts the methionine cycle in baboon pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Yan, Jian; Green, Ralph; Nijland, Mark; Miller, Joshua W; Wu, Guoyao; McDonald, Thomas J; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-11-01

    Maternal intake of dietary methyl-micronutrients (e.g. folate, choline, betaine and vitamin B-12) during pregnancy is essential for normal maternal and fetal methionine metabolism, and is critical for important metabolic processes including those involved in developmental programming. Maternal obesity and nutrient excess during pregnancy influence developmental programming potentially predisposing adult offspring to a variety of chronic health problems. In the present study, we hypothesized that maternal obesity would dysregulate the maternal and fetal methionine cycle. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nulliparous baboon obesity model fed a high fat, high energy diet (HF-HED) prior to and during gestation, and examined methionine cycle biomarkers (e.g., circulating concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, choline, betaine, key amino acids, folate, and vitamin B-12). Animals were group housed allowing full physical activity and social interaction. Maternal prepregnancy percent body fat was 5% in controls and 19% in HF-HED mothers, while fetal weight was 16% lower in offspring of HF-HED mothers at term. Maternal and fetal homocysteine were higher, while maternal and fetal vitamin B-12 and betaine were lower in the HF-HED group. Elevations in circulating maternal folate were evident in the HF-HED group indicating impaired folate metabolism (methyl-trap) as a consequence of maternal vitamin B-12 depletion. Finally, fetal methionine, glycine, serine, and taurine were lower in the HF-HED fetuses. These data show that maternal obesity disturbs the methionine cycle in primate pregnancy, providing a mechanism for the epigenetic changes observed among obese pregnant women and suggesting diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities in human pregnancies complicated by obesity.

  2. In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Poncy, J.L.; Dhilly, M.; Verry, M. ); Metivier, H. ); Masse, R. )

    1992-07-01

    In vitro cellular dissolution tests for insoluble forms of uranium oxide are technically difficult with conventional methodology using adherent alveolar macrophages. The limited number of cells per flask and the slow dissolution rate in a large volume of nutritive medium are obvious restricting factors. macrophages in suspension cannot be substituted because they represent different and poorly reproducible functional subtypes with regard to activation and enzyme secretion. Preliminary results on the dissolution of uranium oxide using immobilized alveolar macrophages are promising because large numbers of highly function macrophages can be cultured in a limited volume. Cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavages performed on baboons (Papio papio) and then immobilized after the phagocytosis of uranium octoxide (U[sub 3]O[sub 8]) particles in alginate beads linked with Ca[sup 2+]. The dissolution rate expressed as percentage of initial uranium content in cells was 0.039 [+-] 0.016%/day for particles with a count median geometric diameter of 3.84 [mu]m([sigma][sub g] = 1.84). A 2-fold increase in the dissolution rate was observed when the same number of particles was immobilized without macrophages. These results, obtained in vitro, suggest that the U[sub 3]O[sub g] preparation investigated should be assigned to inhalation class Y as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Future experiments are intended to clarify this preliminary work and to examine the dissolution characteristics of other particles such as uranium dioxide. It is recommended that the dissolution rate should be measured over an interval of 3 weeks, which is compatible with the survival time of immobilized cells in culture and may reveal transformation states occurring with aging of the particles. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  3. [Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusk. III. Mortality, body and viscera weight].

    PubMed

    Zanotti-Magalhaes, E M; Magalhaes, L A; de Carvalho, J F

    1995-08-01

    The relationship between the development of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, body weight and mortality rate and the degree of susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila at which infective cercariae developed was studied. The study utilized Swiss mice, SPF, as definitive hosts and populations of snails genetically selected for character susceptibility as intermediate hosts. Low body weight and smaller viscera were observed in infected mice with cercariae originating from snails that showed a high degree of susceptibility. The higher susceptibility of molluscs infected with S. mansoni corresponded to a lower survival of the infected mice. These results lead to the conclusion that the higher degree of adaptation of the parasite to its intermediate hosts, evidenced by the high indexes of susceptibility, leads to different behaviour on the part of this parasite in its definitive host.

  4. Discriminating acute from chronic human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Beck, Lílian; Van-Lüme, Daniele S M; Souza, Joelma R; Domingues, Ana L C; Favre, Tereza; Abath, Frederico G C; Montenegro, Silvia M L

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG and IgM) responses to different antigen targets (soluble eggs antigen--SEA, soluble worm adult protein--SWAP and keyhole limpet hole--KLH) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis, as well as patients without schistosomiasis. SEA IgA and KLH IgM presented high discriminatory powers to distinguish acute from chronic schistosomiasis, with calculated areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.88 and 0.82, respectively, obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. On the other hand, these tests, particularly SEA IgA were not useful to distinguish schistosomiasis (including the acute and chronic forms) from individuals without this disease, but infected with other intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). By contrast, SWAP IgG and SEA IgG were able to discriminate schistosomiasis patients from healthy individuals and patients infected with other parasites (AUCs of 0.96 and 0.85, respectively). Thus, it is possible to use a combination of serological tests, such as SEA IgA and SWAP IgG, to simultaneously establish the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and discriminate the acute from the chronic forms of the disease.

  5. Methoxychlor and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Aberdeen, Graham; Babus, Janice K; Albrecht, Eugene D; Flaws, Jodi A

    2007-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles in rodents. MXC metabolites, mono-OH MXC (mono-OH) and bis-OH MXC (HPTE), are thought to be more toxic than the parent compound. Although studies have examined effects of MXC in rodents, few studies have evaluated the effects of MXC in primates. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from adult baboon ovaries and cultured with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide; DMSO), MXC (1-100 micro g/ml), mono-OH (0.1-10 micro g/ml), or HPTE (0.1-10 micro g/ml) for 96 hr. Growth was monitored at 24 hr intervals. After culture, follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE significantly inhibited follicular growth and increased atresia compared to DMSO. Moreover, the adverse effects of MXC and its metabolites on growth and atresia in baboon antral follicles were observed at lower (100-fold) doses than those causing similar effects in rodents. These data suggest that MXC and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles, and that primate follicles are more sensitive to MXC than rodent follicles.

  6. Inhibition of heparin/protamine complex-induced complement activation by Compstatin in baboons.

    PubMed

    Soulika, A M; Khan, M M; Hattori, T; Bowen, F W; Richardson, B A; Hack, C E; Sahu, A; Edmunds, L H; Lambris, J D

    2000-09-01

    Complement activation products are major components of the inflammatory response induced by cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass which contribute to postoperative organ dysfunction, fluid accumulation, and morbidity. Activation of the complement system occurs during extracorporeal circulation, during reperfusion of ischemic tissue, and after the formation of heparin-protamine complexes. In this study we examine the efficacy of Compstatin, a recently discovered peptide inhibitor of complement, in preventing heparin/protamine-induced complement activation in baboons. The study was performed in baboons because Compstatin binds to baboon C3 and is resistant to proteolytic cleavage in baboon blood (similar to humans); Compstatin inhibits only the activation of primates' complement system. After testing various doses and administration regimens, Compstatin produced complete inhibition at a total dose of 21 mg/kg when given as a combination of bolus injection and infusion. Compstatin completely inhibited in vivo heparin/protamine-induced complement activation without adverse effects on heart rate or systemic arterial, central venous, and pulmonary arterial pressures. This study indicates that Compstatin is a safe and effective complement inhibitor that has the potential to prevent complement activation during and after clinical cardiac surgery. Furthermore, Compstatin can serve as the prototype for designing an orally administrated drug.

  7. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    A device suitable for the continuous measurement of physiological activity in large, conscious monkeys has permitted the direct recording of systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate in caged baboons. The device comprises a lightweight fiberglass backpack, retained in place on the baboon by a thoracic elastic band and shoulder straps, and a flexible stainless steel tether connecting the pack to an electrocannular slip-ring in the top center of the baboon's cage. A chronically indwelling arterial catheter inserted retrograde into the abdominal aorta via the internal iliac artery and connected to a small pressure transducer on the pack provides direct measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Body fluids can be sampled or drugs administered via an indwelling catheter in the inferior vena cava. Electrical and fluid connections between the fiberglass pack and recording and infusion equipment located outside the cage pass through the flexible tether and remain protected from the subject. The reliability of the tethering system has been demonstrated in physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral experiments with baboons.

  8. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cutroneo, G; Centofanti, A; Speciale, F; Rizzo, G; Favaloro, A; Santoro, G; Bruschetta, D; Milardi, D; Micali, A; Di Mauro, D; Vermiglio, G; Anastasi, G; Trimarchi, F

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  9. Prophylactic use of polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) in baboons exposed to quartz dust

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.; Rendall, R.E.G.

    1987-04-01

    Twelve baboons were exposed to a quartz dust cloud. Four of these were also given polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) by aerosol and four received PVNO by aerosol and injection. A prophylactic effect was demonstrated during the course of treatment, but when treatment stopped the silicosis progressed to the same degree of severity as in the untreated animals.

  10. Study of Hamadryas Baboons (Papio Hamadryas) Ability to Solve Object Manipulation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Anikaev, A E; Chalyan, V G; Meishvili, N V

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive ability to solve object manipulation tasks was evaluated by "string pulling" and "transparent tube" tests. The string pulling task was solved by 7 of 11 animals. The task of object extraction from the tube was too difficult, not a single animal solved it. The authors conclude that Hamadryas baboons demonstrated rather poor ability to solve object manipulation tasks.

  11. The influence of quarantine on reproductive cycling in wild-caught Baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Liechty, Emma R; Wang, Diane Y; Chen, Emily; Chai, Daniel; Bell, Jason D; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2015-12-01

    Stress impacts nonhuman primate menstrual cycle length but the impact of quarantine is unknown. A retrospective analysis was performed on cycle data from 31 wild-caught baboons during and following quarantine. Cycling initiated in 94 days (19-181) and length normalized within 4-6 cycles. Quarantine significantly impacts menstrual cycle length.

  12. Sarcoglycan Complex in Masseter and Sternocleidomastoid Muscles of Baboons: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Cutroneo, G.; Centofanti, A.; Speciale, F.; Rizzo, G.; Favaloro, A.; Santoro, G.; Bruschetta, D.; Milardi, D.; Micali, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Vermiglio, G.; Anastasi, G.; Trimarchi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status. PMID:26150161

  13. Impact of social status and antidepressant treatment on neurogenesis in the baboon hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Melody V; Shamy, Jul Lea; Bedi, Gillinder; Choi, Chien-Wen J; Wall, Melanie M; Arango, Victoria; Boldrini, Maura; Foltin, Richard W; Hen, René

    2014-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is critically implicated in rodent models of stress and anxiety as well as behavioral effects of antidepressants. Whereas similar factors such as psychiatric disorder and antidepressant administration are correlated with hippocampal volume in humans, the relationship between these factors and adult neurogenesis is less well understood. To better bridge the gap between rodent and human physiology, we examined the numbers of proliferating neural precursors and immature cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) as well as in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-estimated whole hippocampal volume in eight socially dominant- or subordinate-like (SL) baboons administered the antidepressant fluoxetine or vehicle. SL baboons had lower numbers of proliferating cells and immature neurons than socially dominant-like baboons. Fluoxetine treatment was associated with a larger whole hippocampal volume but surprisingly resulted in lower numbers of immature neurons. These findings are the first to indicate that adult neurogenesis in the baboon hippocampal DG may be functionally relevant in the context of social stress and mechanisms of antidepressant action.

  14. Strong and consistent social bonds enhance the longevity of female baboons.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2010-08-10

    Longevity is a major component of variation in fitness in long-lived iteroparous species [1-4]. Among female baboons, variation in breeding lifespan accounts for approximately 50% of the variation in lifetime fitness [5, 6]. However, we know little about the causes of variation in longevity in primates or other long-lived mammals. Savannah baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring relationships with specific female partners, particularly with close relatives and agemates [7-10]. The quality of females' social relationships influences their ability to cope with stressful events [11-13] and is associated with variation in female reproductive success [9, 14]. Here we show that dominance rank and the quality of close social bonds have independent effects on the longevity of female chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus). High-ranking females live longer than lower-ranking females. In addition, females who form stronger and more stable social bonds with other females live significantly longer than females who form weaker and less stable relationships. These data extend our understanding of the adaptive value of social bonds in baboons and complement a growing body of evidence that indicates that social bonds have adaptive value in a range of taxa, from mice to humans [9, 14-19].

  15. Prevalence and laparoscopic appearance of spontaneous endometriosis in the baboon (Papio anubis, Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    D'Hooghe, T M; Bambra, C S; Cornillie, F J; Isahakia, M; Koninckx, P R

    1991-09-01

    The prevalence of spontaneous endometriosis was investigated by laparoscopy in 52 baboons (Papio anubis and Papio cynocephalus) of proven fertility. Clinical endometriosis was diagnosed in 9 (17%) and 4 (8%) baboons with or without a previous hysterotomy, respectively. Endometriosis was confirmed by histology in 75% of these animals. The 37 endometriotic lesions were classified as typical (13%), subtle (57%), or suspicious (30%); and the percentage of histological confirmation was 100%, 61%, and 50%, respectively. Lesions were found on the uterosacral ligaments and in Douglas' pouch (46%), on the uterine peritoneum and the uterovesical fold (38%), and on uterine-omental adhesions (11%). Only 5% of the lesions were localized on the ovarian ligament, whereas ovarian endometriosis was not found. This study for the first time demonstrates that spontaneous endometriosis occurs in healthy baboons with proven fertility. It also shows that the laparoscopic appearances, the histological aspect, and the localization of the pelvic lesions are comparable to those found in women. We therefore conclude that the baboon is a good animal model for the study of endometriosis.

  16. The average baboon brain: MRI templates and tissue probability maps from 89 individuals.

    PubMed

    Love, Scott A; Marie, Damien; Roth, Muriel; Lacoste, Romain; Nazarian, Bruno; Bertello, Alice; Coulon, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-05-15

    The baboon (Papio) brain is a remarkable model for investigating the brain. The current work aimed at creating a population-average baboon (Papio anubis) brain template and its left/right hemisphere symmetric version from a large sample of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images collected from 89 individuals. Averaging the prior probability maps output during the segmentation of each individual also produced the first baboon brain tis