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Sample records for manually validated human

  1. Validation of Agricultural Mechanics Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; And Others

    This study was concerned with the validation of the Oklahoma Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center's agricultural mechanics curriculum manual and the development of a model whereby future manuals can be validated. Five units in the manual were randomly selected from a list of units to be taught during the second semester of the 1977-78…

  2. CTF Validation and Verification Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K.; Blyth, Taylor S.; Dances, Christopher A.; Magedanz, Jeffrey W.; Jernigan, Caleb; Kelly, Joeseph; Toptan, Aysenur; Gergar, Marcus; Gosdin, Chris; Avramova, Maria; Palmtag, Scott; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays- Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. It uses a two- uid, three- eld (i.e. uid lm, uid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of nine conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Paci c Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and has been used and modi ed by several institutions over the last several decades. COBRA-TF is also used at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently became the PSU RDFMG version of COBRA- TF (CTF). One part of the improvement process includes validating the methods in CTF. This document seeks to provide a certain level of certainty and con dence in the predictive capabilities of the code for the scenarios it was designed to model|rod bundle geometries with operating conditions that are representative of prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)s and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)s in both normal and accident conditions. This is done by modeling a variety of experiments that simulate these scenarios and then presenting a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results that demonstrates the accuracy to which CTF is capable of capturing speci c quantities of interest.

  3. Model validation software -- Theory manual

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1997-11-04

    Work began in May of 1991 on the initial Independent Spline (IS) technology. The IS technology was based on research by Dolin showing that numerical topology and geometry could be validated through their topography. A unique contribution to this research is that the IS technology has provided a capability to modify one spline`s topology to match another spline`s topography. Work began in May of 1996 to extend the original IS capability to allow solid model topologies to be compared with corresponding two-dimensional topologies. Work began in July, 1996 to extend the IS capability to allow for tool path and inspection data analyses. Tool path analysis involves spline-spline comparisons. Inspection data analysis involves fitting inspection data with some type of analytical curve and then comparing that curve with the original (i.e., nominal) curve topology. There are three types of curves that the inspection data can be fit with. Using all three types of curve fits help engineers understand the As-Built state of whatever it is that is being interrogated. The ability to compute axi-symmetric volumes of revolution for a data set fit with either of the three curves fitting methods described above will be added later. This involves integrating the area under each curve and then revolving the area through 2{pi} radians to get a volume of revolution. The algorithms for doing this will be taken from the IGVIEW software system. The main IS program module parses out the desired activities into four different logical paths: (1) original IS spline modification; (2) two- or three-dimensional topography evaluated against 2D spline; (3) tool path analysis with tool path modifications; and (4) tool path and inspection data comparisons with nominal topography. Users have the option of running the traditional IS application software, comparing 3D ASCII data to a Wilson-Fowler spline interpolation of 2D data, comparing a Wilson-Fowler spline interpolation to analytical topology, or

  4. Manual physical assessment of spinal segmental motion: intent and validity.

    PubMed

    Abbott, J Haxby; Flynn, Timothy W; Fritz, Julie M; Hing, Wayne A; Reid, Duncan; Whitman, Julie M

    2009-02-01

    Validity of a clinical test can be defined as the extent to which the test actually assesses what it is intended to assess. In order to investigate the validity of manual physical assessment of the spine, it is therefore essential to establish what physical therapists intend to assess when they are applying these tests. The aims of this study were to (1) establish what manual physical therapists are intending to assess while applying passive intervertebral motion tests; and (2) examine the face validity and content validity for manual physical assessment of the spine. We surveyed 1502 members of the national manual physical therapist organisations of New Zealand and the United States of America using a web-based survey instrument. Sixty-six percent of 466 respondents believed passive accessory intervertebral motion (PAIVM) tests were valid for assessing quantity of segmental motion, and 76% believed passive physiologic intervertebral motion (PPIVM) tests were valid for assessing quantity of segmental motion. Ninety-eight percent of manual physical therapists base treatment decisions at least in part on the results of segmental motion tests. Quality of resistance to passive segmental motion was considered of greater importance than quantity of kinematic motion during PAIVM tests, while the quality of complex kinematic motion was considered of greater importance than quantity of displacement kinematics during PPIVM tests. Manual physical therapists accept the face validity of manual physical assessment of spinal segmental motion to a great extent, however a minority voice scepticism. Content validity is dominated by concepts of segmental kinematics and the force-displacement relationship. Intent of assessment does, however, vary widely between therapists. These data will inform the design of concurrent validity studies. Further work is recommended to increase consistency of intent, methodology and terminology in manual physical assessment of the spine.

  5. Demonstration and Validation Assets: User Manual Development

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the development of a database-supported user manual for DEMVAL assets in the NSTI area of operations and focuses on providing comprehensive user information on DEMVAL assets serving businesses with national security technology applications in southern New Mexico. The DEMVAL asset program is being developed as part of the NSPP, funded by both Department of Energy (DOE) and NNSA. This report describes the development of a comprehensive user manual system for delivering indexed DEMVAL asset information to be used in marketing and visibility materials and to NSTI clients, prospective clients, stakeholders, and any person or organization seeking it. The data about area DEMVAL asset providers are organized in an SQL database with updateable application structure that optimizes ease of access and customizes search ability for the user.

  6. Education and Human Resources Sector Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy; Cieutat, Victor J.

    This manual endorses and adopts the sector-assessment approach for planning and managing the allocation of educational resources. Chapter 1 presents the manual's goals. Chapter 2 describes the manual's content and information sources, explains the term "sector assessment," identifies the groups that benefit from recommendations made by…

  7. Computer aided manual validation of mass spectrometry-based proteomic data.

    PubMed

    Curran, Timothy G; Bryson, Bryan D; Reigelhaupt, Michael; Johnson, Hannah; White, Forest M

    2013-06-15

    Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have increased the speed of analysis and the depth provided by a single analysis. Computational tools to evaluate the accuracy of peptide identifications from these high-throughput analyses have not kept pace with technological advances; currently the most common quality evaluation methods are based on statistical analysis of the likelihood of false positive identifications in large-scale data sets. While helpful, these calculations do not consider the accuracy of each identification, thus creating a precarious situation for biologists relying on the data to inform experimental design. Manual validation is the gold standard approach to confirm accuracy of database identifications, but is extremely time-intensive. To palliate the increasing time required to manually validate large proteomic datasets, we provide computer aided manual validation software (CAMV) to expedite the process. Relevant spectra are collected, catalogued, and pre-labeled, allowing users to efficiently judge the quality of each identification and summarize applicable quantitative information. CAMV significantly reduces the burden associated with manual validation and will hopefully encourage broader adoption of manual validation in mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

  8. Training Manual for Human Service Risk Managers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frank W.; And Others

    This manual is designed to educate human service agency management personnel involved in transportation about basic risk management principles and insurance issues. Chapter I illustrates the liability factors that create the insurance and risk management needs. Both legal and humanitarian obligations of human service agencies involved in…

  9. Validation of Placebo in a Manual Therapy Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Bjørn Russell, Michael

    2015-07-06

    At present, no consensus exists among clinical and academic experts regarding an appropriate placebo for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Therefore, we investigated whether it was possible to conduct a chiropractic manual-therapy RCT with placebo. Seventy migraineurs were randomized to a single-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial that consisted of 12 treatment sessions over 3 months. The participants were randomized to chiropractic SMT or placebo (sham manipulation). After each session, the participants were surveyed on whether they thought they had undergone active treatment ("yes" or "no") and how strongly they believed that active treatment was received (numeric rating scale 0-10). The outcome measures included the rate of successful blinding and the certitude of the participants' beliefs in both treatment groups. At each treatment session, more than 80% of the participants believed that they had undergone active treatment, regardless of group allocation. The odds ratio for believing that active treatment was received was >10 for all treatment sessions in both groups (all p < 0.001). The blinding was maintained throughout the RCT. Our results strongly demonstrate that it is possible to conduct a single-blinded manual-therapy RCT with placebo and to maintain the blinding throughout 12 treatment sessions given over 3 months.

  10. Validation of Placebo in a Manual Therapy Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Bjørn Russell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At present, no consensus exists among clinical and academic experts regarding an appropriate placebo for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Therefore, we investigated whether it was possible to conduct a chiropractic manual-therapy RCT with placebo. Seventy migraineurs were randomized to a single-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial that consisted of 12 treatment sessions over 3 months. The participants were randomized to chiropractic SMT or placebo (sham manipulation). After each session, the participants were surveyed on whether they thought they had undergone active treatment (“yes” or “no”) and how strongly they believed that active treatment was received (numeric rating scale 0–10). The outcome measures included the rate of successful blinding and the certitude of the participants’ beliefs in both treatment groups. At each treatment session, more than 80% of the participants believed that they had undergone active treatment, regardless of group allocation. The odds ratio for believing that active treatment was received was >10 for all treatment sessions in both groups (all p < 0.001). The blinding was maintained throughout the RCT. Our results strongly demonstrate that it is possible to conduct a single-blinded manual-therapy RCT with placebo and to maintain the blinding throughout 12 treatment sessions given over 3 months. PMID:26145718

  11. Content validity of manual spinal palpatory exams - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najm, Wadie I; Seffinger, Michael A; Mishra, Shiraz I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Adams, Alan; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda S; Goodman, Arnold F

    2003-01-01

    Background Many health care professionals use spinal palpatory exams as a primary and well-accepted part of the evaluation of spinal pathology. However, few studies have explored the validity of spinal palpatory exams. To evaluate the status of the current scientific evidence, we conducted a systematic review to assess the content validity of spinal palpatory tests used to identify spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction. Methods Review of eleven databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed literature, published between 1965–2002, was undertaken. Two blinded reviewers abstracted pertinent data from the retrieved papers, using a specially developed quality-scoring instrument. Five papers met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Three of the five papers included in the review explored the content validity of motion tests. Two of these papers focused on identifying the level of fixation (decreased mobility) and one focused on range of motion. All three studies used a mechanical model as a reference standard. Two of the five papers included in the review explored the validity of pain assessment using the visual analogue scale or the subjects' own report as reference standards. Overall the sensitivity of studies looking at range of motion tests and pain varied greatly. Poor sensitivity was reported for range of motion studies regardless of the examiner's experience. A slightly better sensitivity (82%) was reported in one study that examined cervical pain. Conclusions The lack of acceptable reference standards may have contributed to the weak sensitivity findings. Given the importance of spinal palpatory tests as part of the spinal evaluation and treatment plan, effort is required by all involved disciplines to create well-designed and implemented studies in this area. PMID:12734016

  12. Validation of the ABILHAND questionnaire as a measure of manual ability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Durez, Patrick; Fraselle, Virginie; Houssiau, Frédéric; Thonnard, Jean‐Louis; Nielens, Henri; Penta, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Hand and upper limb involvement is common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its impact on manual activities of daily life has not been fully evaluated. A measure of manual ability was developed, through the Rasch measurement model, by adapting and validating the ABILHAND questionnaire, which measures the patient's perceived difficulty in performing everyday manual activities. Methods 112 patients with RA were evaluated. The following tests were performed: the ABILHAND questionnaire, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Jamar grip and key pinch strength tests, the Box and Block dexterity test and the Purdue pegboard dexterity test. In total, 35 patients were reassessed to determine the test–retest reliability of the ABILHAND, and 6 patients were studied before and after therapy with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers to address sensitivity to change. Results The Rasch refinement of the ABILHAND led to a selection of 27 items rated on a 3‐point scale. The resulting ability scale was targeted to the ability of the patients. The item‐difficulty hierarchy was stable across demographic and clinical subgroups and over time. Grip and key pinch strength and manual and digital dexterity on both hands were significantly, though moderately, correlated with the ABILHAND measures. Manual ability was also significantly related to the number of affected hands, disease duration, tender and swollen joint counts on upper limbs, disease activity and the HAQ. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated in patients treated with TNF blockers, commensurate with their clinical improvement. Conclusion The ABILHAND questionnaire is a clinically valid person‐centred measure of manual ability that could be useful in longitudinal RA studies. PMID:17170054

  13. The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity

    PubMed Central

    Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bocchetta, Martina; Bauer, Corinna; Frederiksen, Kristian S.; Liu, Yawu; Preboske, Gregory; Swihart, Tim; Blair, Melanie; Cavedo, Enrica; Grothe, Michel J.; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Martinez, Oliver; Nishikawa, Masami; Portegies, Marileen; Stoub, Travis; Ward, Chadwich; Apostolova, Liana G.; Ganzola, Rossana; Wolf, Dominik; Barkhof, Frederik; Bartzokis, George; DeCarli, Charles; Csernansky, John G.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stephane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; O'Brien, John; Silbert, Lisa C.; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teipel, Stefan; Waldemar, Gunhild; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Firbank, Michael; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pruessner, Jens C.; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; deLeon, Mony; Pantel, Johannes; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bosco, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Duchesne, Simon; Duvernoy, Henri; Boccardi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. Methods Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. Results The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). Conclusions The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms. PMID:25267715

  14. Reliability and validity of self-reported assessment of exposure and outcome variables for manual lifting tasks: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S; Genaidy, Ash M; Karwowski, Waldemar; Leung, P C

    2002-09-01

    The reliability and validity of self-reported assessment of exposure and outcome variables were examined for manual lifting activities among ten physiotherapists. In this study, the participants evaluated the effects of five lifting variables on perceived effort, twice separated by a one-week period. One hundred and sixty-two lifting conditions were evaluated by each subject. The exposure and outcome lifting variables were described in linguistic terms. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC(1,1)) analysis revealed a mean value of 0.62 for all lifting activities. The self-reported assessment was cross-validated with the NIOSH lifting index by mapping the linguistic variables into numerical ranges. Moderate correlations (r = 0.54 and 0.53, p<0.01) were obtained between perceived physical exertion/perceived risk and lifting index. The findings of this study provide preliminary indications that human-based methodologies may be further explored on experienced workers.

  15. Time Series Modeling of Human Operator Dynamics in Manual Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency response of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that was previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  16. Time series modeling of human operator dynamics in manual control tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency responses of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that has not been previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  17. User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.; Anderberg, A.; Deline, C.; Glick, S.; Muller, M.; Perrin, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Rummel, S.; Terwilliger, K.; Silverman, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    This user's manual describes performance data measured for flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in Cocoa, Florida, Eugene, Oregon, and Golden, Colorado. The data include PV module current-voltage curves and associated meteorological data for approximately one-year periods. These publicly available data are intended to facilitate the validation of existing models for predicting the performance of PV modules, and for the development of new and improved models. For comparing different modeling approaches, using these public data will provide transparency and more meaningful comparisons of the relative benefits.

  18. Manually Interpreted Land-Use Change for Validation and Regional Assessments - 2001 TO 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, C. E.; Acevedo, W.; Sayler, K. L.; Taylor, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use/land-cover (LULC) change information for the entire conterminous United States is becoming more common, yet existing national-scale LULC datasets may provide an incomplete story of change or may contain questionable land change statistics. In order to evaluate these datasets appropriately, the overall quality, accuracy, or precision of LULC products needs be determined independently. To this end, the USGS Land Change Research Project manually collected LULC change for 676 sample blocks for the 2001-2006 and 2006-2011 time periods. The team identified 29 of 84 Level III EPA Ecoregions that underwent specific types and amounts of land change between 1973 and 2000, and updated LULC change information to 2011 in these regions using the same sample block classification procedure as the USGS Land Cover Trends project. Ecoregion specific alterations in the sampling density were made to expedite the completion of manual block interpretations. Results from this study include ecoregion-based statistical estimates of the amount of LULC change per time period, the most common types of conversions, rates of change, and percent composition. Overall estimated amount of change per ecoregion from 2001 to 2011 ranged from a low of 370 km2 in the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion to a high of 78,782 km2 in the Southeastern Plains Ecoregion. The Southeastern Plains Ecoregion continues to undergo one of the most intense forest harvesting and regrowth cycles in the country, with 16.6% of the ecoregion changing between 2001 and 2011. These manually collected LULC change statistics provide a new, valuable resource that may be used along with other ground truth data and field verified LULC data to independently validate other land change products or used alone to conduct regional land change assessments.

  19. Validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy 1

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Flávia Oliveira de Almeida Marques; Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: develop the content and face validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy. Method: descriptive methodological research. The Theory of Psychometrics was used for the validation process, developed by 15 experts in the theme area of the educative manual and by two language and publicity professionals. A minimum agreement level of 80% was considered to guarantee the validity of the material. Results: the items addressed in the assessment tool of the educative manual were divided in three blocks: objectives, structure and format, and relevance. Only one item, related to the sociocultural level of the target public, obtained an agreement rate <80%, and was reformulated based on the participants' suggestions. All other items were considered appropriate and/or complete appropriate in the three blocks proposed: objectives - 92.38%, structure and form - 89.74%, and relevance - 94.44%. Conclusion: the face and content validation of the educative manual proposed were attended to. This can contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic process the head and neck cancer patient is submitted to during the radiation therapy, besides supporting clinical practice through the nursing consultation. PMID:27305178

  20. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  1. Comparing manual and automatic segmentation of hippocampal volumes: reliability and validity issues in younger and older brains.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Johan; Noack, Hannes; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Kühn, Simone; Schaefer, Sabine; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2014-08-01

    We compared hippocampal volume measures obtained by manual tracing to automatic segmentation with FreeSurfer in 44 younger (20-30 years) and 47 older (60-70 years) adults, each measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over three successive time points, separated by four months. Retest correlations over time were very high for both manual and FreeSurfer segmentations. With FreeSurfer, correlations over time were significantly lower in the older than in the younger age group, which was not the case with manual segmentation. Pearson correlations between manual and FreeSurfer estimates were sufficiently high, numerically even higher in the younger group, whereas intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates were lower in the younger than in the older group. FreeSurfer yielded higher volume estimates than manual segmentation, particularly in the younger age group. Importantly, FreeSurfer consistently overestimated hippocampal volumes independently of manually assessed volume in the younger age group, but overestimated larger volumes in the older age group to a less extent, introducing a systematic age bias in the data. Age differences in hippocampal volumes were significant with FreeSurfer, but not with manual tracing. Manual tracing resulted in a significant difference between left and right hippocampus (right > left), whereas this asymmetry effect was considerably smaller with FreeSurfer estimates. We conclude that FreeSurfer constitutes a feasible method to assess differences in hippocampal volume in young adults. FreeSurfer estimates in older age groups should, however, be interpreted with care until the automatic segmentation pipeline has been further optimized to increase validity and reliability in this age group.

  2. JacketSE: An Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Sizing Tool; Theory Manual and Sample Usage with Preliminary Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, Rick

    2016-02-08

    This manual summarizes the theory and preliminary verifications of the JacketSE module, which is an offshore jacket sizing tool that is part of the Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model toolbox. JacketSE is based on a finite-element formulation and on user-prescribed inputs and design standards' criteria (constraints). The physics are highly simplified, with a primary focus on satisfying ultimate limit states and modal performance requirements. Preliminary validation work included comparing industry data and verification against ANSYS, a commercial finite-element analysis package. The results are encouraging, and future improvements to the code are recommended in this manual.

  3. Validating therapeutic targets through human genetics.

    PubMed

    Plenge, Robert M; Scolnick, Edward M; Altshuler, David

    2013-08-01

    More than 90% of the compounds that enter clinical trials fail to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to gain regulatory approval. Most of this failure is due to the limited predictive value of preclinical models of disease, and our continued ignorance regarding the consequences of perturbing specific targets over long periods of time in humans. 'Experiments of nature' - naturally occurring mutations in humans that affect the activity of a particular protein target or targets - can be used to estimate the probable efficacy and toxicity of a drug targeting such proteins, as well as to establish causal rather than reactive relationships between targets and outcomes. Here, we describe the concept of dose-response curves derived from experiments of nature, with an emphasis on human genetics as a valuable tool to prioritize molecular targets in drug development. We discuss empirical examples of drug-gene pairs that support the role of human genetics in testing therapeutic hypotheses at the stage of target validation, provide objective criteria to prioritize genetic findings for future drug discovery efforts and highlight the limitations of a target validation approach that is anchored in human genetics.

  4. An evaluation of manual and mechanical methods to identify Candida spp. from human and animal sources.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Geraldo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Elizabeth Teixeira; Baroni, Francisco de Assis

    2006-01-01

    To compare two yeast identification methods, i. e, the manual and the VITEK mechanical methods, 62 clinical samples from hemocultures and animal sources were analyzed. After identification as Candida yeasts by the VITEK method, the strains were recharacterized using manual assimilation methods and sugar fermentation tests. Our findings reveal 58% concurrent identification between the two methods for animal strains, and 51% for human hemoculture strains.

  5. Human Growth: Guide to a Healthier You. A Middle School Science Curriculum. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, Jeanne C.; Crow, Tracy L.

    This instructor's manual contains information and activities related to human growth processes. The curriculum focuses on choices students can make for a healthy lifestyle and is based on the most up-to-date research about human growth and development. Students generate and test their hypotheses throughout each of five modules which include…

  6. Lnc2Cancer: a manually curated database of experimentally supported lncRNAs associated with various human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Shangwei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wang, Peng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Jianjian; Liu, Yue; Gao, Yue; Guo, Maoni; Yue, Ming; Wang, Lihua; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Lnc2Cancer (http://www.bio-bigdata.net/lnc2cancer) is a manually curated database of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with experimental support that aims to provide a high-quality and integrated resource for exploring lncRNA deregulation in various human cancers. LncRNAs represent a large category of functional RNA molecules that play a significant role in human cancers. A curated collection and summary of deregulated lncRNAs in cancer is essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms and functions of lncRNAs. Here, we developed the Lnc2Cancer database, which contains 1057 manually curated associations between 531 lncRNAs and 86 human cancers. Each association includes lncRNA and cancer name, the lncRNA expression pattern, experimental techniques, a brief functional description, the original reference and additional annotation information. Lnc2Cancer provides a user-friendly interface to conveniently browse, retrieve and download data. Lnc2Cancer also offers a submission page for researchers to submit newly validated lncRNA-cancer associations. With the rapidly increasing interest in lncRNAs, Lnc2Cancer will significantly improve our understanding of lncRNA deregulation in cancer and has the potential to be a timely and valuable resource. PMID:26481356

  7. Lnc2Cancer: a manually curated database of experimentally supported lncRNAs associated with various human cancers.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shangwei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wang, Peng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Jianjian; Liu, Yue; Gao, Yue; Guo, Maoni; Yue, Ming; Wang, Lihua; Li, Xia

    2016-01-04

    Lnc2Cancer (http://www.bio-bigdata.net/lnc2cancer) is a manually curated database of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with experimental support that aims to provide a high-quality and integrated resource for exploring lncRNA deregulation in various human cancers. LncRNAs represent a large category of functional RNA molecules that play a significant role in human cancers. A curated collection and summary of deregulated lncRNAs in cancer is essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms and functions of lncRNAs. Here, we developed the Lnc2Cancer database, which contains 1057 manually curated associations between 531 lncRNAs and 86 human cancers. Each association includes lncRNA and cancer name, the lncRNA expression pattern, experimental techniques, a brief functional description, the original reference and additional annotation information. Lnc2Cancer provides a user-friendly interface to conveniently browse, retrieve and download data. Lnc2Cancer also offers a submission page for researchers to submit newly validated lncRNA-cancer associations. With the rapidly increasing interest in lncRNAs, Lnc2Cancer will significantly improve our understanding of lncRNA deregulation in cancer and has the potential to be a timely and valuable resource.

  8. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema).

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented.

  9. Field Manual for Mental Health and Human Service Workers in Major Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWolfe, Deborah J.

    This field manual is intended for mental health workers and other human service providers who assist survivors following a disaster. It provides the basics of disaster mental health, with both specific and practical suggestions for workers. Essential information is included about disaster survivors' reactions and needs such as dealing with grief;…

  10. Rational Manual and Automated Scoring Thresholds for the Immunohistochemical Detection of TP53 Missense Mutations in Human Breast Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicholas J; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Midkiff, Bentley R; Conway, Kathleen; Millikan, Robert C; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Missense mutations in TP53 are common in human breast cancer, have been associated with worse prognosis, and may predict therapy effect. TP53 missense mutations are associated with aberrant accumulation of p53 protein in tumor cell nuclei. Previous studies have used relatively arbitrary cutoffs to characterize breast tumors as positive for p53 staining by immunohistochemical assays. This study aimed to objectively determine optimal thresholds for p53 positivity by manual and automated scoring methods using whole tissue sections from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. p53-immunostained slides were available for 564 breast tumors previously assayed for TP53 mutations. Average nuclear p53 staining intensity was manually scored as negative, borderline, weak, moderate, or strong and percentage of positive tumor cells was estimated. Automated p53 signal intensity was measured using the Aperio nuclear v9 algorithm combined with the Genie histology pattern recognition tool and tuned to achieve optimal nuclear segmentation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine optimal cutoffs for average staining intensity and percent cells positive to distinguish between tumors with and without a missense mutation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a threshold of moderate average nuclear staining intensity as a good surrogate for TP53 missense mutations in both manual (area under the curve=0.87) and automated (area under the curve=0.84) scoring systems. Both manual and automated immunohistochemical scoring methods predicted missense mutations in breast carcinomas with high accuracy. Validation of the automated intensity scoring threshold suggests a role for such algorithms in detecting TP53 missense mutations in high throughput studies.

  11. Motion cue effects on human pilot dynamics in manual control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Itoko, T.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the motion cue effects on human pilots during tracking tasks. The moving-base simulator of National Aerospace Laboratory was employed as the motion cue device, and the attitude director indicator or the projected visual field was employed as the visual cue device. The chosen controlled elements were second-order unstable systems. It was confirmed that with the aid of motion cues the pilot workload was lessened and consequently the human controllability limits were enlarged. In order to clarify the mechanism of these effects, the describing functions of the human pilots were identified by making use of the spectral and the time domain analyses. The results of these analyses suggest that the sensory system of the motion cues can yield the differential informations of the signal effectively, which coincides with the existing knowledges in the physiological area.

  12. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  13. Development and validation of the V/STOL aerodynamics and stability and control manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, C.; Walters, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    A V/STOL Aerodynamics and Stability and Control Manual was developed to provide prediction methods which are applicable to a wide range of V/STOL configurations in hover and transition flight, in and out of ground effect. Propulsion-induced effects have been combined with unpowered aerodynamics in a buildup of total forces and moments for the jet-lift concept, so that total aerodynamics can be used to predict aircraft stability, control, and flying qualities characteristics. Results of longitudinal aerodynamic predictions have been compared with test data, and indicate that the methods are fast, inexpensive, and within the desired accuracy for the objective preliminary design stage.

  14. Tracking evidence based practice with youth: validity of the MATCH and standard manual consultation records.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alyssa M; Regan, Jennifer; Chorpita, Bruce F; Starace, Nicole; Rodriguez, Adriana; Okamura, Kelsie; Daleiden, Eric L; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Weisz, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the agreement between therapist report and coder observation of therapy practices. The study sampled session data from a community-based, randomized trial of treatment for youth ages 7 to 13. We used therapist report of session content and coverage gathered using formal Consultation Records and developed complimentary records for coders to use when watching or listening to therapy tape. We established initial reliability between coders and then conducted a random, stratified, and comprehensive sample of sessions across youth (N = 121), therapists (N = 57), conditions (MATCH and Standard Manuals), and study sites (Honolulu and Boston) to code and compare with therapist record reports. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) representing coder versus therapist agreement on manual content delivered ranged from .42 to 1.0 across conditions and problem areas. Analyses revealed marked variability in agreement regarding whether behavioral rehearsals took place (ICCs from -.01 to 1.0) but strong agreement on client comprehension of therapy content and homework assignments. Overall, the findings indicate that therapists can be accurate reporters of the therapeutic practices they deliver, although they may need more support in reporting subtle but valuable aspects of implementation such as types of behavioral rehearsals. Developing means to support accurate reporting is important to developing future clinical feedback methodology applicable to the implementation of evidence-based treatments in the real world.

  15. Validation of human clinical genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Ochoa-Arand, Enrique; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years, a high amount of genetic assays has been developed for molecular biopathology and genetic laboratories of the hospitals, mainly developed and provided by external companies. In some cases, the specialized staff members of the hospitals (doctors, biopathologists, geneticists or pharmacists) develop their own methods. The validation of these methods is required before their use in clinical testing, in order to assess its reliability. Analytical methods are validated under the requirements of International Guidelines, but validation procedures for clinical genetic tests are under study and need clarifications. In this manuscript, the main information related to the field of genetic validation is revised, including statistics, explaining the difficulty of validation for some of the developed genetic tests. The provided information is in agreement with all the International Guides. The information could be useful by the workers daily performing this kind of analysis.

  16. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: User`s manual. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, S.M.; Hayes, J.E.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report provides a step-by-step guide, or user manual, for personnel responsible for the planning and execution of the verification and validation (V&V), and developmental testing, of expert systems, conventional software systems, and various other types of artificial intelligence systems. While the guide was developed primarily for applications in the utility industry, it applies well to all industries. The user manual has three sections. In Section 1 the user assesses the stringency of V&V needed for the system under consideration, identifies the development stage the system is in, and identifies the component(s) of the system to be tested next. These three pieces of information determine which Guideline Package of V&V methods is most appropriate for those conditions. The V&V Guideline Packages are provided in Section 2. Each package consists of an ordered set of V&V techniques to be applied to the system, guides on choosing the review/evaluation team, measurement criteria, and references to a book or report which describes the application of the method. Section 3 presents details of 11 of the most important (or least well-explained in the literature) methods to assist the user in applying these techniques accurately.

  17. The 14th Annual Conference on Manual Control. [digital simulation of human operator dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Human operator dynamics during actual manual control or while monitoring the automatic control systems involved in air-to-air tracking, automobile driving, the operator of undersea vehicles, and remote handling are examined. Optimal control models and the use of mathematical theory in representing man behavior in complex man machine system tasks are discussed with emphasis on eye/head tracking and scanning; perception and attention allocation; decision making; and motion simulation and effects.

  18. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies.

  19. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  20. An Investigation of Human Performance Model Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    from both models and empirical activities, and the construction of scenarios that will sufficiently exercise model and human participants. 1 Development...Soar to represent peripheral players/platforms in simulation-based exercises that are used to evaluate system design concepts and tactics.) We expect...and operational concepts can best be employed to assist them." As noted above, models used in the JSB exercise must be highly accurate and accredited

  1. Flight Simulator and Training Human Factors Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Leland, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Loss of control has been identified as the leading cause of aircraft accidents in recent years. Efforts have been made to better equip pilots to deal with these types of events, commonly referred to as upsets. A major challenge in these endeavors has been recreating the motion environments found in flight as the majority of upsets take place well beyond the normal operating envelope of large aircraft. The Environmental Tectonics Corporation has developed a simulator motion base, called GYROLAB, that is capable of recreating the sustained accelerations, or G-forces, and motions of flight. A two part research study was accomplished that coupled NASA's Generic Transport Model with a GYROLAB device. The goal of the study was to characterize physiological effects of the upset environment and to demonstrate that a sustained motion based simulator can be an effective means for upset recovery training. Two groups of 25 Air Transport Pilots participated in the study. The results showed reliable signs of pilot arousal at specific stages of similar upsets. Further validation also demonstrated that sustained motion technology was successful in improving pilot performance during recovery following an extensive training program using GYROLAB technology.

  2. Validating the proposed diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition, severity indicator for personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Data were collected from a national sample of 337 mental health clinicians who provided complete diagnostic information relevant to DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 personality disorder diagnoses, as well as demographic information and other clinical judgments, on one of their patients. Of the 337 patients described, 248 met criteria for 1 of the 10 specific DSM-IV personality disorders. A "moderate" or greater rating of impairment in personality functioning on the Level Scale demonstrated 84.6% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for identifying patients meeting criteria for a specific DSM-IV personality disorder. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale had significant and substantial validity correlations with other measures of personality pathology and with clinical judgments regarding functioning, risk, prognosis, and optimal treatment intensity. Furthermore, the single-item Level of Personality Functioning rating was viewed as being as clinically useful as the 10 DSM-IV categories for treatment planning and patient description and was a better predictor of clinician ratings of broad psychosocial functioning than were the 10 DSM-IV categories combined. These results confirm hypotheses that the single-item Level of Personality Functioning Scale rating provides an indication of severity of personality pathology that predicts both assignment of personality disorder diagnosis and clinician appraisals of functioning, risk, prognosis, and needed treatment intensity.

  3. Validity and limitation of manual rotational test to detect impaired visual-vestibular interaction due to cerebellar disorders.

    PubMed

    Murai, Norihiko; Funabiki, Kazuo; Naito, Yasushi; Ito, Juichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate validity and limitation of the novel infrared system to record and analyze horizontal visual-vestibular interaction using whole-body rotation rapidly and conveniently in the routine vestibular clinic. We examined 11 patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium and 25 patients with peripheral dysequilibrium for vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness (DVOR), visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VEVOR), and fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex (FSVOR), and compared the results with those of examination for head-fixed smooth pursuit and fixation suppression during caloric stimulation. The manual rotation stimuli were 0.5-0.75 Hz in frequency and 60-90 degrees /s in maximal angular velocity. Gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness was not significantly correlated with maximal slow phase velocity (MSPV) of caloric-induced nystagmus at that stimulus condition either in patients with peripheral dysequilibrium or in those with cerebellar dysequilibrium. An index for fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex during rotation stimulus was significantly lower in patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium than in normal control subjects and those with peripheral dysequilibrium. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the two disease groups and the normal control group in gain of visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex. In about a half of patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium, measured smooth pursuit gain was lower than estimated smooth pursuit gain calculated based on a simple superposition theory of vestibulo-ocular reflex and smooth pursuit. Testing fixation suppression using the present system is an unusually convenient tool for detection of cerebellar dysequilibrium.

  4. Analysis of operational comfort in manual tasks using human force manipulability measure.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Naoki; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for human force manipulability (HFM) based on the use of isometric joint torque properties to simulate the spatial characteristics of human operation forces at an end-point of a limb with feasible magnitudes for a specified limb posture. This is also applied to the evaluation/prediction of operational comfort (OC) when manually operating a human-machine interface. The effectiveness of HFM is investigated through two experiments and computer simulations of humans generating forces by using their upper extremities. Operation force generation with maximum isometric effort can be roughly estimated with an HFM measure computed from information on the arm posture during a maintained posture. The layout of a human-machine interface is then discussed based on the results of operational experiments using an electric gear-shifting system originally developed for robotic devices. The results indicate a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of the HFM and OC levels when shifting, and the OC is predicted by using a multiple regression model with HFM measures.

  5. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles in remote handling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Pedro; Vale, Alberto; Ventura, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    In the thermonuclear experimental reactor ITER, a vehicle named CTS is designed to transport a container with activated components inside the buildings. In nominal operations, the CTS is autonomously guided under supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, such as in rescue and recovery operations, the autonomous mode must be overridden and the CTS must be remotely guided by an operator. The CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle, with two drivable and steerable wheels along its longitudinal axis, providing omni-directional capabilities. The rhombic kinematics correspond to four control variables, which are difficult to manage in manual mode operation. This paper proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to remotely guide the vehicle in manual mode. The proposed solution is implemented using a HMI with an encoder connected to a micro-controller and an analog 2-axis joystick. Experimental results were obtained comparing the proposed solution with other controller devices in different scenarios and using a software platform that simulates the kinematics and dynamics of the vehicle. (authors)

  6. Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain: validity and limitations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain in healthy subjects are used to study symptoms, signs, and the hypothesized underlying mechanisms. Although different models are available, different spontaneous and evoked symptoms and signs are inducible; 2 key questions need to be answered: are human surrogate models conceptually valid, ie, do they share the sensory phenotype of neuropathic pain states, and are they sufficiently reliable to allow consistent translational research?

  7. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  8. Development and validation of a food photography manual, as a tool for estimation of food portion size in epidemiological dietary surveys in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoucha, Mongia; Akrout, Mouna; Bellali, Hédia; Bouchoucha, Rim; Tarhouni, Fadwa; Mansour, Abderraouf Ben; Zouari, Béchir

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimation of food portion sizes has always been a challenge in dietary studies on free-living individuals. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a food photography manual to improve the accuracy of the estimated size of consumed food portions. Methods A manual was compiled from digital photos of foods commonly consumed by the Tunisian population. The food was cooked and weighed before taking digital photographs of three portion sizes. The manual was validated by comparing the method of 24-hour recall (using photos) to the reference method [food weighing (FW)]. In both the methods, the comparison focused on food intake amounts as well as nutritional issues. Validity was assessed by Bland–Altman limits of agreement. In total, 31 male and female volunteers aged 9–89 participated in the study. Results We focused on eight food categories and compared their estimated amounts (using the 24-hour recall method) to those actually consumed (using FW). Animal products and sweets were underestimated, whereas pasta, bread, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products were overestimated. However, the difference between the two methods is not statistically significant except for pasta (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.05). The coefficient of correlation between the two methods is highly significant, ranging from 0.876 for pasta to 0.989 for dairy products. Nutrient intake calculated for both methods showed insignificant differences except for fat (p<0.001) and dietary fiber (p<0.05). A highly significant correlation was observed between the two methods for all micronutrients. The test agreement highlights the lack of difference between the two methods. Conclusion The difference between the 24-hour recall method using digital photos and the weighing method is acceptable. Our findings indicate that the food photography manual can be a useful tool for quantifying food portion sizes in epidemiological dietary surveys. PMID:27585631

  9. Biosafety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce W.

    2010-05-18

    Work with or potential exposure to biological materials in the course of performing research or other work activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) must be conducted in a safe, ethical, environmentally sound, and compliant manner. Work must be conducted in accordance with established biosafety standards, the principles and functions of Integrated Safety Management (ISM), this Biosafety Manual, Chapter 26 (Biosafety) of the Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), and applicable standards and LBNL policies. The purpose of the Biosafety Program is to protect workers, the public, agriculture, and the environment from exposure to biological agents or materials that may cause disease or other detrimental effects in humans, animals, or plants. This manual provides workers; line management; Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division staff; Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) members; and others with a comprehensive overview of biosafety principles, requirements from biosafety standards, and measures needed to control biological risks in work activities and facilities at LBNL.

  10. The human operator in manual preview tracking /an experiment and its modeling via optimal control/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomizuka, M.; Whitney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    A manual preview tracking experiment and its results are presented. The preview drastically improves the tracking performance compared to zero-preview tracking. Optimal discrete finite preview control is applied to determine the structure of a mathematical model of the manual preview tracking experiment. Variable parameters in the model are adjusted to values which are consistent to the published data in manual control. The model with the adjusted parameters is found to be well correlated to the experimental results.

  11. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form, 1978-79 Comprehensive Validation Guide. Procedural Manual for: Validation of Cases Referred by Institutions; Validation of Cases Referred by the Office of Education; Recovery of Overpayments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; And Others

    Procedures for validating data reported by students and parents on an application for Basic Educational Opportunity Grants were developed in 1978 for the U.S. Office of Education (OE). Validation activities include: validation of flagged Student Eligibility Reports (SERs) for students whose schools are part of the Alternate Disbursement System;…

  12. Career Education. Human Ecology/Home Economics Objectives, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.1 [and] Approved List of Essential Textbooks/Instructional Materials for Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.2; Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides program and instructional objectives as guidelines for a human ecology/home economics program in Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). Four sections are inlcuded in the manual: (1) Human Ecology/Home Economics Program Objectives; (2) Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-8, Exploratory; (3) Fundamentals Level…

  13. Validation of a finite element model of the human metacarpal.

    PubMed

    Barker, D S; Netherway, D J; Krishnan, J; Hearn, T C

    2005-03-01

    Implant loosening and mechanical failure of components are frequently reported following metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint replacement. Studies of the mechanical environment of the MCP implant-bone construct are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of a finite element model of the intact second human metacarpal to provide a validated baseline for further mechanical studies. A right index human metacarpal was subjected to torsion and combined axial/bending loading using strain gauge (SG) and 3D finite element (FE) analysis. Four different representations of bone material properties were considered. Regression analyses were performed comparing maximum and minimum principal surface strains taken from the SG and FE models. Regression slopes close to unity and high correlation coefficients were found when the diaphyseal cortical shell was modelled as anisotropic and cancellous bone properties were derived from quantitative computed tomography. The inclusion of anisotropy for cortical bone was strongly influential in producing high model validity whereas variation in methods of assigning stiffness to cancellous bone had only a minor influence. The validated FE model provides a tool for future investigations of current and novel MCP joint prostheses.

  14. Comparison of 3D laser-based photonic scans and manual anthropometric measurements of body size and shape in a validation study of 123 young Swiss men

    PubMed Central

    Zwahlen, Marcel; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bender, Nicole; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Background Manual anthropometric measurements are time-consuming and challenging to perform within acceptable intra- and inter-individual error margins in large studies. Three-dimensional (3D) laser body scanners provide a fast and precise alternative: within a few seconds the system produces a 3D image of the body topography and calculates some 150 standardised body size measurements. Objective The aim was to enhance the small number of existing validation studies and compare scan and manual techniques based on five selected measurements. We assessed the agreement between two repeated measurements within the two methods, analysed the direct agreement between the two methods, and explored the differences between the techniques when used in regressions assessing the effect of health related determinants on body shape indices. Methods We performed two repeated body scans on 123 volunteering young men using a Vitus Smart XXL body scanner. We manually measured height, waist, hip, buttock, and chest circumferences twice for each participant according to the WHO guidelines. The participants also filled in a basic questionnaire. Results Mean differences between the two scan measurements were smaller than between the two manual measurements, and precision as well as intra-class correlation coefficients were higher. Both techniques were strongly correlated. When comparing means between both techniques we found significant differences: Height was systematically shorter by 2.1 cm, whereas waist, hip and bust circumference measurements were larger in the scans by 1.17–4.37 cm. In consequence, body shape indices also became larger and the prevalence of overweight was greater when calculated from the scans. Between 4.1% and 7.3% of the probands changed risk category from normal to overweight when classified based on the scans. However, when employing regression analyses the two measurement techniques resulted in very similar coefficients, confidence intervals, and p

  15. A self-instructional manual for installing low-cost/no-cost weatherization materials: Experimental validation with scouts.

    PubMed

    Pavlovich, M; Greene, B F

    1984-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of a self-instructional program for installing 10 low-cost/no-cost weatherization materials (e.g., weatherstripping, caulking). This program was a weatherization and retrofit manual (WARM) providing step-by-step instructions and illustrations. Boy and Girl Scouts participated and used either the WARM or existing product instructions (EPI) to apply the materials. Scouts installed the materials properly only when they used the WARM.

  16. A self-instructional manual for installing low-cost/no-cost weatherization materials: Experimental validation with scouts

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovich, Mark; Greene, Brandon F.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of a self-instructional program for installing 10 low-cost/no-cost weatherization materials (e.g., weatherstripping, caulking). This program was a weatherization and retrofit manual (WARM) providing step-by-step instructions and illustrations. Boy and Girl Scouts participated and used either the WARM or existing product instructions (EPI) to apply the materials. Scouts installed the materials properly only when they used the WARM. PMID:16795671

  17. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  18. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  19. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  20. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 2, Investigators`s Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique.

  1. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Pedro; Vale, Alberto; Ventura, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    The Cask and Plug Remote Handling System (CPRHS) and the respective Cask Transfer System (CTS) are designed to transport activated components between the reactor and the hot cell buildings of ITER during maintenance operations. In nominal operation, the CPRHS/CTS shall operate autonomously under human supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, the automatic mode must be overridden and the vehicle must be remotely guided by a human operator due to the harsh conditions of the environment. The CPRHS/CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle with two independent steerable and drivable wheels along its longitudinal axis, giving it omni-directional capabilities. During manual guidance, the human operator has to deal with four degrees of freedom, namely the orientations and speeds of two wheels. This work proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to manage the degrees of freedom and to remotely guide the CPRHS/CTS in ITER taking the most advantages of rhombic like capabilities. Previous work was done to drive each wheel independently, i.e., control the orientation and speed of each wheel independently. The results have shown that the proposed solution is inefficient. The attention of the human operator becomes focused in a single wheel. In addition, the proposed solution cannot assure that the commands accomplish the physical constrains of the vehicle, resulting in slippage or even in clashes. This work proposes a solution that consists in the control of the vehicle looking at the position of its center of mass and its heading in the world frame. The solution is implemented using a rotational disk to control the vehicle heading and a common analogue joystick to control the vector speed of the center of the mass of the vehicle. The number of degrees of freedom reduces to three, i.e., two angles (vehicle heading and the orientation of the vector speed) and a scalar (the magnitude of the speed vector). This is possible using a kinematic model based on the vehicle Instantaneous

  2. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    PubMed

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  3. Enhancing the examiner's resisting force improves the validity of manual muscle strength measurements: application to knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tung-Wu; Chien, Hui-Lien; Chang, Ling-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2012-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to test whether an examiner's strength may affect the validity of the knee muscle strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and whether enhancing the forces applied by an examiner using a resistance-enhanced dynamometer (RED) would improve measurement validity. Twenty-five young male volunteers (mean [±SD] age: 22.5 ± 1.7 years) without a history of injury to the test limb and 6 male and 6 female experienced examiners participated in this study. Maximum resisting forces of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using RED, HHD, and a dynamometer (Kin-Com). For all testing conditions, poor to moderate associations were found between the HHD and Kin-Com, whereas there was a good to excellent relationship between RED and Kin-Com. The systematic variations between RED and Kin-Com were also smaller than those between HHD and Kin-Com. The force values measured by RED were very close to those measured by Kin-Com. An examiner's strength affects the validity of the measurements using HHD. Enhancing the forces applied by the examiner to the tested segment using RED appeared to improve the validity of muscle strength measurements.

  4. Development and validation of rear impact computer simulation model of an adult manual transit wheelchair with a seated occupant.

    PubMed

    Salipur, Zdravko; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that ANSI WC19 transit wheelchairs that are crashworthy in frontal impact exhibit catastrophic failures in rear impact and may not be able to provide stable seating support and thus occupant protection for the wheelchair occupant. Thus far only limited sled test and computer simulation data have been available to study rear impact wheelchair safety. Computer modeling can be used as an economic and comprehensive tool to gain critical knowledge regarding wheelchair integrity and occupant safety. This study describes the development and validation of a computer model simulating an adult wheelchair-seated occupant subjected to a rear impact event. The model was developed in MADYMO and validated rigorously using the results of three similar sled tests conducted to specifications provided in the draft ISO/TC 173 standard. Outcomes from the model can provide critical wheelchair loading information to wheelchair and tiedown manufacturers, resulting in safer wheelchair designs for rear impact conditions.

  5. Multivariable manual control with simultaneous visual and auditory presentation of information. [for improved compensatory tracking performance of human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlemann, H.; Geiser, G.

    1975-01-01

    Multivariable manual compensatory tracking experiments were carried out in order to determine typical strategies of the human operator and conditions for improvement of his performance if one of the visual displays of the tracking errors is supplemented by an auditory feedback. Because the tracking error of the system which is only visually displayed is found to decrease, but not in general that of the auditorally supported system, it was concluded that the auditory feedback unloads the visual system of the operator who can then concentrate on the remaining exclusively visual displays.

  6. The Investigation of Construct Validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5 Personality Traits on Iranian sample with Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5) conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs). More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. Methods: This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline PD (n = 130), and nonclinical subjects (n = 94). Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients. Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician's PTRF) were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Results: Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Conclusions: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample. PMID:25709797

  7. New validated method for piracetam HPLC determination in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Curticapean, Augustin; Imre, Silvia

    2007-01-10

    The new method for HPLC determination of piracetam in human plasma was developed and validated by a new approach. The simple determination by UV detection was performed on supernatant, obtained from plasma, after proteins precipitation with perchloric acid. The chromatographic separation of piracetam under a gradient elution was achieved at room temperature with a RP-18 LiChroSpher 100 column and aqueous mobile phase containing acetonitrile and methanol. The quantitative determination of piracetam was performed at 200 nm with a lower limit of quantification LLQ=2 microg/ml. For this limit, the calculated values of the coefficient of variation and difference between mean and the nominal concentration are CV%=9.7 and bias%=0.9 for the intra-day assay, and CV%=19.1 and bias%=-7.45 for the between-days assay. For precision, the range was CV%=1.8/11.6 in the intra-day and between-days assay, and for accuracy, the range was bias%=2.3/14.9 in the intra-day and between-days assay. In addition, the stability of piracetam in different conditions was verified. Piracetam proved to be stable in plasma during 4 weeks at -20 degrees C and for 36 h at 20 degrees C in the supernatant after protein precipitation. The new proposed method was used for a bioequivalence study of two medicines containing 800 mg piracetam.

  8. Validation of a Manually Oscillating Chair for In-The-Field Assessment of Dynamic Visual Acuity on Crewmembers Within Hours of Returning From Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutzberg, G. A.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke,M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Long-duration spaceflight results in sensorimotor adaptations, which cause functional deficits during gravitational transitions, such as landing on a planetary surface after long-duration microgravity exposure. Both the vestibular system and the central nervous system are affected by gravitational transitions. These systems are responsible for coordinating head and eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and go through an adaptation period upon exposure to microgravity. Consequently, they must also re-adapt to Earth's gravitational environment upon landing. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with crewmembers reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision caused by retinal slip, or the inability to keep an image focused on their retina. This is thought to drive motion sickness symptoms experienced by most crewmembers following landing. Retinal slip can be estimated by dynamic visual acuity (DVA); visual acuity while in motion. Previously, DVA has been assessed in the laboratory where subjects walked at 6.4 km/hr on a motorized treadmill. Using this method, Peters et al. (2011) found that DVA is worsened in astronauts by an average of 0.75 eye-chart lines one day after landing. However, it is believed that re-adaptation occurs quickly and that DVA might be worse immediately upon re-exposure to a gravitational environment. Since many crewmembers are unable to walk safely upon landing, it was necessary to develop a method for replicating the vertical head movements associated with walking. In addition, the use of a chair to imitate the head displacement caused by walking isolates eye-head interactions without allowing for trunk and lower-body compensation, as seen with treadmill walking (Mulavara & Bloomberg 2003). Therefore, a modality for assessing DVA in the field within a few hours of landing was developed. In this study, we validated the ability of a manually operated oscillating chair to reproduce the oscillatory

  9. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  10. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    PubMed

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  11. Evaluating the iterative development of VR/AR human factors tools for manual work.

    PubMed

    Liston, Paul M; Kay, Alison; Cromie, Sam; Leva, Chiara; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Patel, Harshada; Langley, Alyson; Sharples, Sarah; Aromaa, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the approach taken to iteratively evaluate a set of VR/AR (virtual reality / augmented reality) applications for five different manual-work applications - terrestrial spacecraft assembly, assembly-line design, remote maintenance of trains, maintenance of nuclear reactors, and large-machine assembly process design - and examines the evaluation data for evidence of the effectiveness of the evaluation framework as well as the benefits to the development process of feedback from iterative evaluation. ManuVAR is an EU-funded research project that is working to develop an innovative technology platform and a framework to support high-value, high-knowledge manual work throughout the product lifecycle. The results of this study demonstrate the iterative improvements reached throughout the design cycles, observable through the trending of the quantitative results from three successive trials of the applications and the investigation of the qualitative interview findings. The paper discusses the limitations of evaluation in complex, multi-disciplinary development projects and finds evidence of the effectiveness of the use of the particular set of complementary evaluation methods incorporating a common inquiry structure used for the evaluation - particularly in facilitating triangulation of the data.

  12. Development and Initial Validation of an Instrument for Human Capital Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zula, Kenneth J.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on development and validation of an instrument for use in human capital approaches for organizational planning. The article describes use of a team of subject matter experts in developing a measure of human capital planning, and use of exploratory factor analysis techniques to validate the resulting instrument. These data were…

  13. Comparison of intra-arterial and manual auscultation of blood pressure during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Snyder, Eric M; Joyner, Michael J; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a key measure of cardiovascular function, and accurate measurement is important to ensure proper clinical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. We compared intra-arterial (direct) and cuff auscultation (manual) measurement techniques at rest and during 2 levels of submaximal constant-load exercise (9 min at 40% and 75% maximum watts). Sixty-four adults (aged 29.0 ± 0.7 years; 48% male; height, 173.7 ± 1.2 cm; mass, 73.0 ± 1.7 kg; body mass index, 24.1 ± 0.4 kg·m(-2); body surface area, 1.87 ± 0.03 m(2)) participated in the study. At rest, low, and moderate intensity, direct measurement demonstrated higher systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (bias for SBP: 22, 31, and 27 mm Hg and for DBP: 5, 7, and 17 mm Hg; rest, low-, and moderate-intensity, respectively; p < 0.01). At rest, the correlation and agreement between the 2 methods was modest (SBP: r = 0.56, bias = +22.1 mm Hg; DBP: r = 0.53, bias = +4.9 mm Hg; p < 0.001). There was good correlation and agreement with SBP at low and moderate intensity; however, DBP demonstrated a weaker relationship (SBP: r = 0.74 and 0.74, bias = +30.2 and +26.8 mm Hg; DBP: r = 0.39 and 0.28, bias = +7.1 and +13.4 mm Hg; for low and moderate intensity, respectively; p < 0.001). Further, manual measurement demonstrated a greater slope from rest to moderate exercise for the relationship between pulse pressure (PP) and cardiac output (13.6 ± 0.4 vs 12.3 ± 0.4, p = 0.03). As exercise intensity increases, manual DBP tends to bias low compared with direct DBP, which, when combined with parallel increases in SBP, leads to no differences in PP between methods at moderate exercise. Because PP is used to calculate other cardiovascular parameters (mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance), measurement technique and exercise intensity should be considered when using cardiovascular variables as outcome measures.

  14. Development and application of a portable manual non-contact-type goniometric instrument for measuring human anatomical angular parameters.

    PubMed

    Susato, Shin-ichi

    2013-02-01

    Several manual contact-type goniometric instruments have previously been developed to measure joint range of motion (ROM) during physical-therapy evaluation. These include the universal goniometer and the gravity-dependent goniometer, or inclinometer, which are used to measure the ROM angle of a subject in a fully erect posture. Here, we developed a manual non-contact-type portable goniometric instrument for the measurement of anatomical angular parameters based on the principle of spot irradiation by using laser markers. The accuracy of the developed instrument was tested and its performance was compared with that of a contact-type instrument by using a skeletal model (14 static angle assessments), a free posture manikin (18 static angle assessments), and healthy human bodies (5 males and 5 females; 11 dynamic angle assessments). Measurement errors were examined also. When taking the measurements, a visual landmark-detection method was used in place of the conventional palpation method, which is inappropriate for a non-contact measuring system. The instrument developed here is applicable for practical non-contact goniometry and ROM measurements.

  15. Safety manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This manual, dedicated to that effort, has been prepared to help TVA employees perform their work safely. The information in this manual is the result of the experience and observations of many people in the Division of Power System Operations (PSO). As such, the manual offers a PSO employee the benefit of that accumulated knowledge of safe working in the Division.

  16. Evidence in hand: recent discoveries and the early evolution of human manual manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, it was largely assumed that stone tool use and production were abilities limited to the genus Homo. However, growing palaeontological and archaeological evidence, comparative extant primate studies, as well as results from methodological advancements in biomechanics and morphological analyses, have been gradually accumulating and now provide strong support for more advanced manual manipulative abilities and tool-related behaviours in pre-Homo hominins than has been traditionally recognized. Here, I review the fossil evidence related to early hominin dexterity, including the recent discoveries of relatively complete early hominin hand skeletons, and new methodologies that are providing a more holistic interpretation of hand function, and insight into how our early ancestors may have balanced the functional requirements of both arboreal locomotion and tool-related behaviours. PMID:26483538

  17. Evidence in hand: recent discoveries and the early evolution of human manual manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Tracy L

    2015-11-19

    For several decades, it was largely assumed that stone tool use and production were abilities limited to the genus Homo. However, growing palaeontological and archaeological evidence, comparative extant primate studies, as well as results from methodological advancements in biomechanics and morphological analyses, have been gradually accumulating and now provide strong support for more advanced manual manipulative abilities and tool-related behaviours in pre-Homo hominins than has been traditionally recognized. Here, I review the fossil evidence related to early hominin dexterity, including the recent discoveries of relatively complete early hominin hand skeletons, and new methodologies that are providing a more holistic interpretation of hand function, and insight into how our early ancestors may have balanced the functional requirements of both arboreal locomotion and tool-related behaviours.

  18. The Human Touch: Skin Temperature during the Rubber Hand Illusion in Manual and Automated Stroking Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Marieke; Wold, Andrew; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Ernst, Marc O.

    2013-01-01

    A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToMTM force-feedback device). After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person) that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect. PMID:24260454

  19. The Bender Gestalt Test with the Human Figure Drawing Test for Young School Children. A Manual for Use with the Koppitz Scoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg

    Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…

  20. Bigfoot Field Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Burrows, S.; Gower, S. T.; Cohen, W. B.

    1999-09-01

    The BigFoot Project is funded by the Earth Science Enterprise to collect and organize data to be used in the EOS Validation Program. The data collected by the BigFoot Project are unique in being ground-based observations coincident with satellite overpasses. In addition to collecting data, the BigFoot project will develop and test new algorithms for scaling point measurements to the same spatial scales as the EOS satellite products. This BigFoot Field Manual Mill be used to achieve completeness and consistency of data collected at four initial BigFoot sites and at future sites that may collect similar validation data. Therefore, validation datasets submitted to the ORNL DAAC that have been compiled in a manner consistent with the field manual will be especially valuable in the validation program.

  1. Human events reference for ATHEANA (HERA) database description and preliminary user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Pond, D.J.

    1998-05-27

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error-forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  2. Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA) Database Description and Preliminary User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auflick, J.L.

    1999-08-12

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database (db) of analytical operational events, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  3. Validation of a semi-automated human hepatocyte assay for the determination and prediction of intrinsic clearance in discovery.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anita; Heimbach, Tycho; Freiwald, Sascha; Smith, Danielle; Winters, Roger; Michael, Steven; Surendran, Narayanan; Cai, Hongliang

    2005-02-23

    An automated high throughput human hepatocyte assay has been established with a 96-well format using a Tecan Genesistrade mark Workstation. Validation of this assay was performed with nine commercially available compounds and an additional 10 Pfizer compounds with varying hepatic extraction ratios (E(H)) ranging from 0.02 to approximately 1. The incubation conditions in the automated assay are readily and precisely controlled and cell viability of over 80% was achieved in the automated assay further confirming its utility for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (toxicity) (ADME (T)) screening. The results of the nine commercial compounds correlate with both manually executed (R(2)=0.97) and literature reported experimental results (R(2)=0.93). Overall, measured E(H)s were within two-fold of the literature values for approximately 90% of the 19 compounds tested. Additionally, good inter- and intra-day reproducibility was observed for all the 19 compounds. In conclusion, an automated and robust assay suitable for simultaneously testing up to 48 compounds with multiple time points has been validated. Throughput of 192 compounds per run can be achieved using 384-well plates to meet increasing needs in drug discovery. Currently, this automated assay is used to support early discovery profiling towards lead optimization of various discovery targets/programs.

  4. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  5. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  6. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy.

  7. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual. Part 2: Human error probability (HEP) data; Volume 5, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data.

  8. Empowering Women at the Grassroots: A Manual for Women's Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhathakurta, Meghna; Lina, Khadija

    Nagorik Uddyog (Citizen's Initiative) is a non-profit, non-governmental Bangladeshi organization focused on empowering women at the grassroots level through human rights education. Although women constitute half of the total population of Bangladesh, their participation in social, cultural, and political activities is limited. Recently,…

  9. Automated Airdrop Information Retrieval System-Human Fact ors Database (AAIRS-HFD) (Users Manual)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Release Point Missed Drop Zone Low Velocity Platform Airdrop ( LVAD ) Incidents extraction phase extraction Parachute failed to deploy properly...Biomechanical Measurements Biomechanical Modeling 7. Aerospace Physiological/Medical Factors Medical History cardiovascular condition medication...System Used Breakaway Rigging Delivery System high velocity low velocity HAARS 12. Other Airdrop Human Factors Issues History of Parachuting

  10. Junior Science and Humanities Symposium, January 1994-July 1995. Pacific Region Program Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This informational packet contains the materials necessary to administer the annual Department of Defense Dependent Schools Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (JSHS) at the high school and middle school levels. The symposium program is a calendar year research program which includes one week symposium of students (grade 8-12)…

  11. Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Community Coll. District, CA.

    This manual articulates the rights, responsibilities, entitlements, and conditions of employment of management personnel at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC). The manual first presents SJDC's mission statement and then discusses the college's management goals and priorities. An examination of SJDC's administrative organization and a list of…

  12. Quality Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Michael

    The quality manual is the “heart” of every management system related to quality. Quality assurance in analytical laboratories is most frequently linked with ISO/IEC 17025, which lists the standard requirements for a quality manual. In this chapter examples are used to demonstrate, how these requirements can be met. But, certainly, there are many other ways to do this.

  13. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  14. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison.

  15. Manual de Carpinteria (Carpentry Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TomSing, Luisa B.

    This manual is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The manual describes a carpentry course that is structured to appeal to the student as a self-directing adult. The following units are…

  16. International Validation of Two Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (ERa) Binding Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international validation study has been successfully completed for 2 competitive binding assays using human recombinant ERa. Assays evaluated included the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) assay using a full length human ER, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) assay...

  17. Plasticity of human handedness: decreased one-hand bias and inter-manual performance asymmetry in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Athletes frequently have to adapt their skills to fast changes of play, often requiring the flexible execution of a particular movement skill with either hand. To assess the influence of sport-specific expertise and extensive sport training on human laterality, a video analysis of regular basketball games was performed for professional, semi-professional, and amateur players to investigate how non-dominant hand use and proficiency change with increasing expertise. Our results showed that the right-hand (i.e. dominant hand) bias in basketball players is reduced with increasing expertise (i.e., competitive level). Accordingly, we found that professional players use their non-dominant hand more often and with greater success than semi-professional and amateur players. This was true for most of the basketball-specific skills. Based on these results, we assume that increasing amounts of bilateral practice can lead to a shift in task-specific manual preference towards a higher use of both hands in competition, as well as to a higher proficiency for non-dominant hand actions in particular. From an applied perspective, the more frequent use and higher proficiency of the non-dominant hand in professional basketball players, compared with amateurs, suggests that the context-specific and skilled use of the non-dominant hand is crucial for successful play at higher competitive levels in the sport of basketball.

  18. The effects of acceleration stress on human workload and manual control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, R. T.; Albery, W. B.; Ward, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of +Gz stress on operator task performance and workload were assessed. Subjects were presented a two dimensional maze and were required to solve it as rapidly as possible (by moving a light dot through it via a trim switch on a control stick) while under G-stress at levels from +1 Gz to +6 Gz. The G-stress was provided by a human centrifuge. The effects of this stress were assessed by two techniques; (1) objective performance measures on the primary maze-solving task, and (2) subjective workload measures obtained using the subjective workload assessment technique (SWAT). It was found that while neither moderate (+3 Gz) nor high (+5 Gz and +6 Gz) levels of G-stress affected maze solving performance, the high G levels did increase significantly the subjective workload of the maze task.

  19. Validating an artificial intelligence human proximity operations system with test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    An artificial intelligence-controlled robot (AICR) operating in close proximity to humans poses risk to these humans. Validating the performance of an AICR is an ill posed problem, due to the complexity introduced by the erratic (noncomputer) actors. In order to prove the AICR's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate the actions of these actors. This paper discusses AICR's performance validation in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, using test cases created by an AI use case producer. This test is a two-dimensional simplification relevant to autonomous UAV navigation in the national airspace.

  20. Validating and Verifying Biomathematical Models of Human Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Siera Brooke; Quintero, Luis Ortiz; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Airline pilots experience acute and chronic sleep deprivation, sleep inertia, and circadian desynchrony due to the need to schedule flight operations around the clock. This sleep loss and circadian desynchrony gives rise to cognitive impairments, reduced vigilance and inconsistent performance. Several biomathematical models, based principally on patterns observed in circadian rhythms and homeostatic drive, have been developed to predict a pilots levels of fatigue or alertness. These models allow for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and commercial airlines to make decisions about pilot capabilities and flight schedules. Although these models have been validated in a laboratory setting, they have not been thoroughly tested in operational environments where uncontrolled factors, such as environmental sleep disrupters, caffeine use and napping, may impact actual pilot alertness and performance. We will compare the predictions of three prominent biomathematical fatigue models (McCauley Model, Harvard Model, and the privately-sold SAFTE-FAST Model) to actual measures of alertness and performance. We collected sleep logs, movement and light recordings, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and urinary melatonin (a marker of circadian phase) from 44 pilots in a short-haul commercial airline over one month. We will statistically compare with the model predictions to lapses on the PVT and circadian phase. We will calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each model prediction under different scheduling conditions. Our findings will aid operational decision-makers in determining the reliability of each model under real-world scheduling situations.

  1. Salinas : theory manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  2. Ciencias 2. Manual do Professor (Science Teacher's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposo, Lucilia

    This is the teacher's manual for Ciencias 2, the second in a series of elementary science textbooks for Portuguese-speaking students. The student textbook contains 10 chapters and 57 activities. The teacher's manual presents an explanation of the educational goals and the organization of the content, Topics included are environment, the human,…

  3. Human oocyte cryopreservation: a valid alternative to embryo cryopreservation?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Michael; Morton, Paula; Liebermann, Juergen

    2004-04-05

    Embryo cryopreservation has become an ethical necessity due to the way human in vitro fertilization (IVF) infertility therapy has developed. Limited embryonic implantation has by necessity driven IVF therapy to adopt ways to maximize the harvest of oocytes following ovarian hyperstimulation with its attendant risks. Collection of more oocytes has allowed more embryos to be generated to compensate for poor embryonic viability, often leading to transfer of multiple embryos to increase per transfer pregnancy rates. In an era of improving embryonic viability and prevailing trend toward single embryo transfers, production of excessive numbers of surplus embryos appears increasingly inappropriate. At which stage embryo cryopreservation can be undertaken most effectively remains controversial. Embryo cryopreservation nevertheless represents the current solution to the problem of excessive embryo production, but inherently raises ethical concerns for certain couples uncomfortable with what they might perceive to be "experimental" cryostorage, who in extreme circumstances may even choose to limit the number of oocytes inseminated to obviate the production of spare embryos. On a more practical level, cryostored embryos are co-owned by two people who may separate, and as such the embryos then face an uncertain fate, commonly decided in courts of law. Oocyte cryopreservation, if consistent and successful, offers a way to avoid the above complications of routine IVF therapy. Oocytes may need to be cryostored in the event of unforeseen non-production of sperm during IVF therapy, allowing a more measured consideration of donor sperm use or other means of sperm retrieval. Beyond IVF for infertility therapy using a couple's own gametes, oocyte cryopreservation provides a wonderful opportunity to optimize donor oocyte cryo-banking, reducing costs and improving convenience. Meanwhile, frozen embryo donation is an approach that many couples are uncomfortable with, and allows only for

  4. Cloud cover retrieved from skyviewer: A validation with human observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bu-Yo; Jee, Joon-Bum; Zo, Il-Sung; Lee, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-01

    Cloud cover information is used alongside weather forecasts in various fields of research; however, ground observation of cloud cover is conducted by human observers, a method that is subjective and has low temporal and spatial resolutions. To address these problems, we have developed an improved algorithm to calculate cloud cover using sky image data obtained with Skyviewer equipment. The algorithm uses a variable threshold for the Red Blue Ratio (RBR), determined from the frequency distribution of the Green Blue Ratio (GBR), to calculate cloud cover more accurately than existing algorithms. To verify the accuracy of the algorithm, we conducted daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly statistical analyses of human observations of cloud cover, obtained every hour from 0800 to 1700 Local Standard Time (LST) for the entirety of 2012 at the Gangwon Regional Meteorological Administration (GRMA), Korea. A case study compared daily images taken at 1200 LST in each season with pixel images of cloud cover calculated by our improved algorithm. The selected cases yielded a high correlation coefficient of 0.93 with the GRMA data. A monthly case study showed low root mean square errors (RMSEs) and high correlation coefficients (Rs) for December (RMSE = 1.64 tenths and R = 0.92) and August (RMSE = 1.43 tenths and R = 0.91). In addition, seasonal cases yielded a high correlation of 0.9 and 87% consistency within ± 2 tenths for winter and a correlation of 0.83 and 82% consistency for summer, when cases of cloud-free or overcast conditions are frequent. Annual analyses showed that the bias of GRMA and Skyviewer cloud cover data for 2012 was -0.36 tenth, and the RMSE was 2.12 tenths, with the GRMA data showing more cloud cover. Considering that the GRMA and Skyviewer data were gathered at different spatial locations, GRMA and Skyviewer data were well correlated (R = 0.87) and showed a consistency of 80% in their cloud cover data (consistent within ± 2 tenths).

  5. Atlas-based Segmentation of Developing Tissues in the Human Brain with Quantitative Validation in Young Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of the human fetus using magnetic resonance (MR) is an essential tool for quantitative studies of normal as well as abnormal brain development in utero. However, because of fundamental differences in tissue types, tissue properties and tissue distribution between the fetal and adult brain, automated tissue segmentation techniques developed for adult brain anatomy are unsuitable for this data. In this paper, we describe methodology for automatic atlas-based segmentation of individual tissue types in motion-corrected 3D volumes reconstructed from clinical MR scans of the fetal brain. To generate anatomically correct automatic segmentations, we create a set of accurate manual delineations and build an in utero 3D statistical atlas of tissue distribution incorporating developing grey and white matter as well as transient tissue types such as the germinal matrix. The probabilistic atlas is associated with an unbiased average shape and intensity template for registration of new subject images to the space of the atlas. Quantitative whole brain 3D validation of tissue labeling performed on a set of 14 fetal MR scans (20.57–22.86 weeks gestational age) demonstrates that this atlas-based EM segmentation approach achieves consistently high DSC performance for the main tissue types in the fetal brain. This work indicates that reliable measures of brain development can be automatically derived from clinical MR imaging and opens up possibility of further 3D volumetric and morphometric studies with multiple fetal subjects. PMID:20108226

  6. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Domin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA), abrasion (A) and erosion (E). The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3) for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard) in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis. Results With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:27070901

  7. Disaster Preparedness Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Douglas O.

    Prepared for use by the staff of a community college library, this manual describes the natural, building, and human hazards which can result in disaster in a library and outlines a set of disaster prevention measures and salvage procedures. A list of salvage priorities, floor plans for all three levels of Bourke Memorial Library, and staff duties…

  8. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  9. Validation and substantiation of 25 kGy as sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane.

    PubMed

    Djefal, A; Tahtat, D; Khodja, A Nacer; Bouzid, S Saad; Remane, N

    2007-01-01

    The validation and substantiation of sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane by gamma irradiation delivered by Co60 source were investigated. The validation experiments were conducted according to ISO 13409 method B. A total of 120 human amnion membranes were collected. Of these, 10 membranes were used for estimation of bioburden and 20 membranes were used for the individual sterility test at verification dose. The average bioburden per product unit with sample item portion (SIP = 1) for lyophilized human amnion membrane was 572 cfu. The verification dose experiments were done at dose of 8.1 kGy and the results of sterility tests showed that human amnion membrane got one positive. Consequently, the sterilization dose of 25 kGy was confirmed and substantiated.

  10. ECOTONE Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    ER D C /C ER L C R -0 5- 2 ECOTONE Manual Tamara Hochstrasser and Debra Peters November 2005 C on st ru ct io n E ng in ee ri ng R es ea rc...h La bo ra to ry Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CERL CR-05-2 November 2005 ECOTONE Manual Tamara...tools, and procedures to periodically assess and evaluate land condition. One tool, the ECOTONE model, was set up to simulate vegetation recovery from

  11. Foundry Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-01-01

    AD-A956 386 · ~ 111111!1 illl 111111111 11!11 1/ l lllllf II!! llli DTIC SELECllED · APR091992 D t • Best Available Copy NAVSHIPS 250-0334 I...FOUNDRY MANUAL JAN BUREAU OF SHIPS NAVY DEPARTMENT WASHINGTON 25, D. C l’iiiTKlü ’h* Superintendent o( l )o*nmpnR^M^I?viTnmfnt P/lntlng ()fflo...Shipbuilding and Fleet Maintenance * »..•,. »^ ■ - • • i ♦■»■•< I . ,«,: >i > l I « ■. ■ ii » ■ _. — • I PREFACE This Manual is

  12. Recreation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown. Dept. of Youth Activities.

    Suggestions for recreational activities are outlined in this manual. Instructions are given for games to play in small places, home or party games, paper and pencil games, children's singing games, and dances. Ideas for crafts and special parties are also included. (SW)

  13. Boilermaking Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This manual is intended (1) to provide an information resource to supplement the formal training program for boilermaker apprentices; (2) to assist the journeyworker to build on present knowledge to increase expertise and qualify for formal accreditation in the boilermaking trade; and (3) to serve as an on-the-job reference with sound, up-to-date…

  14. Validation of Human Body Model VIRTHUMAN and its Implementation in Crash Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroslav Maňas, Ing.; Luděk Kovář, Ing.; Jan Petřík, Ing.; Hana Čechová, Ing.; Stanislav Špirk, Ing.

    Standard virtual prototyping approach of passive safety field is based on virtual models of dummies, but human body models become to be more and more important for specific crash scenarios. VIRTHUMAN is human body model based on MBS (Multi-Body Structure) approach. The model consists of movable rigid segments, which represent proper mass of each human part and enables to evaluate injury criteria describing safety risks during crash scenarios. There is evident advantage of the MBS approach in simple preparation of crash configuration—human body positioning, reasonable calculation times and mainly its applicability for robust designs development respecting variety of human population. The project VIRTHUMAN is directed on development of scaling technique enabling to generate human model based on the standard anthropometric inputs. The contribution describes status of the VIRTHUMAN model, procedures of its validation and results in standard crash scenarios.

  15. Human performance measurement: Validation procedures applicable to advanced manned telescience systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    As telescience systems become more and more complex, autonomous, and opaque to their operators it becomes increasingly difficult to determine whether the total system is performing as it should. Some of the complex and interrelated human performance measurement issues are addressed as they relate to total system validation. The assumption is made that human interaction with the automated system will be required well into the Space Station Freedom era. Candidate human performance measurement-validation techniques are discussed for selected ground-to-space-to-ground and space-to-space situations. Most of these measures may be used in conjunction with an information throughput model presented elsewhere (Haines, 1990). Teleoperations, teleanalysis, teleplanning, teledesign, and teledocumentation are considered, as are selected illustrative examples of space related telescience activities.

  16. The predictive validity of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire and the clinicians' prognostic assessment following manual therapy treatment of patients with LBP and neck pain.

    PubMed

    Dagfinrud, H; Storheim, K; Magnussen, L H; Ødegaard, T; Hoftaniska, I; Larsen, L G; Ringstad, P O; Hatlebrekke, F; Grotle, M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive ability of the standardised screening tool Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) and the clinicians' prognostic assessment in identifying patients with low back pain (LBP) and neck pain at risk for persistent pain and disability at eight weeks follow-up. Patients seeking care for LBP or neck pain were recruited by 19 manual therapists in Norway. Patients completed the ÖMPQ and the low back- or neck specific Oswestry Disability Index/Neck Disability Index at baseline and 8 weeks after first consultation. The manual therapists filled in their assessment of patient's prognosis immediately after the first consultation, blinded for patient's answers to the questionnaire. A total of 157 patients (81with neck pain and 76 with LBP) were included. The best odds for predicting the outcome for LBP patients was found for the clinicians' assessment of prognosis (LR+ = 2.1 and LR- = 0.55), whereas the likelihood ratios were similar for the two tools in the neck group. For LBP patients, both the clinicians' assessment and the ÖMPQ contributed significantly in the separate regression models (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, resp), whereas none of the tools where significant contributors for neck patients (p = 0.67 and 0.07). Neither of the two methods showed high precision in their predictions of follow-up at eight weeks. However, for LBP patients, the ÖMPQ and the clinicians' prognostic assessment contributed significantly in the prediction of functional outcome 8 weeks after the initial assessment of manual therapist, whereas the prediction for neck patients was unsure.

  17. Learning brain aneurysm microsurgical skills in a human placenta model: predictive validity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro; Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Taise Mosso; Malheiros, Jose Augusto; Nicolato, Arthur; Machado, Carla Jorge; Ferreira, Mauro Tostes; de Oliveira, Fellype Borges; de Sousa, Cecília Félix Penido Mendes; Costa, Pollyana Helena Vieira; Gusmao, Sebastiao; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Maestro, Rolando Del

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Surgery for brain aneurysms is technically demanding. In recent years, the process to learn the technical skills necessary for these challenging procedures has been affected by a decrease in the number of surgical cases available and progressive restrictions on resident training hours. To overcome these limitations, surgical simulators such as cadaver heads and human placenta models have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these models in improving technical skills is unknown. This study assessed concurrent and predictive validity of brain aneurysm surgery simulation in a human placenta model compared with a "live" human brain cadaveric model. METHODS Two human cadaver heads and 30 human placentas were used. Twelve neurosurgeons participated in the concurrent validity part of this study, each operating on 1 human cadaver head aneurysm model and 1 human placenta model. Simulators were evaluated regarding their ability to simulate different surgical steps encountered during real surgery. The time to complete the entire aneurysm task in each simulator was analyzed. The predictive validity component of the study involved 9 neurosurgical residents divided into 3 groups to perform simulation exercises, each lasting 6 weeks. The training for the 3 groups consisted of educational video only (3 residents), human cadaver only (3 residents), and human placenta only (3 residents). All residents had equivalent microsurgical experience with superficial brain tumor surgery. After completing their practice training, residents in each of the 3 simulation groups performed surgery for an unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm, and their performance was assessed by an experienced vascular neurosurgeon who watched the operative videos. RESULTS All human cadaver heads and human placentas were suitable to simulate brain aneurysm surgery. In the concurrent validity portion of the experiment, the placenta model required a longer time (p < 0.001) than cadavers

  18. SUBTLE Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    behavior). The syntax of SUBTLE is a prefix version of the language of predicate calculus and is identical to that used by MRS [Genesereth, Greiner, Smith...detect incompleteness or inconsistency. For further information on SHAM, the reader should see [ Grinberg and Lark]. Chapter 2 of this manual describes...execution continues at the next sequential statement. (CONDITION <pred> <then>) which is identical to the first form except that there is no <else> function

  19. Development of a manual self-assembled colloidal gold nanoparticle-immunochromatographic strip for rapid determination of human interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shu-Fen

    2013-05-07

    Interferons (IFNs) play a role in inhibition of tumor growth and participate in immunoreactions. Among IFNs, interferon-γ (IFNγ) is one of the most important therapeutic proteins and its immunodulation ability is better than that of other types. The objective of this study is to develop a manual self-assembled colloidal gold nanoparticle-immunochromatographic strip for human IFNγ using anti-human IFNγ polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Colloidal gold with a 25 nm diameter was made from chloroauric acid (HAuCl4), and labeled on anti-IFNγ mAbs as a chrominance reagent. A good linear relationship existed between the pixel intensity and the human IFNγ concentrations from 10-1000 ng mL(-1) in mouse serum and buffer, respectively, the regression equation was Y = 0.159logX + 0.0648, R(2) = 0.992 in mouse serum; Y = 0.294logX + 0.091, R(2) = 0.9969 in phosphate buffer by this proposed strip. Moreover, in the determination for mouse serum samples no cross-reaction occurred and the detection time was approximately 10 minutes. The shelf life of the strip was above 28 days at room temperature. The major advantages of the manual operation model were no expensive instruments and less reagents required. This proposed strip was highly specific, economic, convenient, and no machine was needed in clinical diagnosis.

  20. Methodological issues in the validation of complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-05-01

    Integrated system validation is one aspect of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s design review process for human-system interfaces. This paper will consider three methodological issues that must be addressed in validation and their implications for drawing conclusions about the acceptability of the integrated system. They are: representing the integrated system, representing the operational events it must handle, and representing system performance. A logical basis for generalizability from validation tests to predicted performance of the integrated system emerges from the comparability of the psychological and physical processes of the test and actual situations. Generalizability of results is supported when the integrated system, operating conditions and performance are representative of their real-world counterparts. The methodological considerations for establishing representativeness are discussed.

  1. Real time contact-free and non-invasive tracking of the human skull: first light and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Floris; Bruder, Ralf; Wissel, Tobias; Stüber, Patrick; Wagner, Benjamin; Schweikard, Achim

    2013-09-01

    In an increasing number of fields in medicine, precise and fast localisation of bony targets inside the body is essential. Up to now, exact localisation in the operation room can either be done with invasive methods like X-ray imaging and electromagnetic tracking systems, with volumetric ultrasound or by fixing the target in place. In this work, we present a new technology to directly track the position of the human skull through tissue in real time using infrared lasers. To achieve this, an experimental setup has been developed to precisely target a position on a subject's skin with an 850nm laser. The primary reflection on the skin is triangulated using a high-speed camera. Additionally, the reflections as well as in-tissue scattering are recorded with an in-beam setup of a NIR sensitive high-speed and high-resolution camera. Consequently, it is possible to record the scattering patterns specific to the composition of the tissue at the target. We have recorded MRI data of two test subjects (voxel size 0.15 x 0.15 x 1mm3) and extracted the soft tissue thickness with a semi-automatic segmentation approach. The MRI data was validated using force-controlled 2D ultrasound (tracked by an optical tracking system), from which soft tissue thickness was segmented manually. Optical measurements and MRI data were registered to determine soft tissue thickness for each measured laser target and finally used to train a support vector regression machine. Using the optical setup, we succeeded in computing the soft tissue thickness on the subjects' foreheads with sub-millimetre accuracy.

  2. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  3. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions.

  4. An investigation of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder construct as a prototype category and the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated several aspects of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder (APD) construct, with emphasis on the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria and the prototype nature of the construct. A sample of 1,058 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals was examined by means of exploratory factor analysis, correlation, and diagnostic efficiency statistics, chi(2) analysis, and frequency distribution. The results indicated that APD is a 1-dimensional construct with good internal consistency. The criteria had acceptable diagnostic efficiency; criterion 3 performed poorest. Number of APD criteria showed no distinct threshold between No-APD and patients with APD. Sixty-two different combinations of any 4 APD criteria occurred. It can be concluded that the prototype model fitted the data well and that the APD diagnostic criteria perform well in the current classification system. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition hierarchy of criteria was not supported.

  5. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains.

  6. Test Technical Manual 2014 GED® Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the General Educational Development (GED®) test as evidence that the GED® test is technically sound. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED® test and data collection activities, as well as evidence of reliability and validity. This…

  7. Astronaut training manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific information from previous space flights, space medicine, exercise physiology, and sports medicine was used to prepare a physical fitness manual suitable for use by members of the NASA astronaut population. A variety of scientifically valid exercise programs and activities suitable for the development of physical fitness are provided. Programs, activities, and supportive scientific data are presented in a concise, easy to read format so as to permit the user to select his or her mode of training with confidence and devote time previously spent experimenting with training routines to preparation for space flight. The programs and activities included were tested and shown to be effective and enjoyable.

  8. PBPK modeling for PFOS and PFOA: validation with human experimental data.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2014-10-15

    In recent years, because of the potential human toxicity, concern on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has increased notably with special attention to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Unfortunately, there is currently an important knowledge gap on the burdens of these chemicals in most human tissues, as the reported studies have been mainly focused on plasma. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has been extended. The present study was aimed at testing an existing PBPK model for their predictability of PFOS and PFOA in a new case-study, and also to adapt it to estimate the PFAS content in human tissue compartments. Model validation was conducted by means of PFOA and PFOS concentrations in food and human drinking water from Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), and being the predicted results compared with those experimentally found in human tissues (blood, liver, kidney, liver and brain) of subjects from the same area of study. The use of human-derived partition coefficient (Pk) data was proven as more suitable for application to this PBPK model than rat-based Pk values. However, the uncertainty and variability of the data are still too high to get conclusive results. Consequently, further efforts should be carried out to reduce parametric uncertainty of PBPK models. More specifically, a deeper knowledge on the distribution of PFOA and PFOS within the human body should be obtained by enlarging the number of biological monitoring studies on PFASs.

  9. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    PubMed

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  10. Independent Verification and Validation of Complex User Interfaces: A Human Factors Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea; Chmielewski, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has identified and evaluated a potential automated software interface inspection tool capable of assessing the degree to which space-related critical and high-risk software system user interfaces meet objective human factors standards across each NASA program and project. Testing consisted of two distinct phases. Phase 1 compared analysis times and similarity of results for the automated tool and for human-computer interface (HCI) experts. In Phase 2, HCI experts critiqued the prototype tool's user interface. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a more fully developed version of the tool will be a promising complement to a human factors-oriented independent verification and validation (IV&V) process.

  11. Reverse engineering validation using a benchmark synthetic gene circuit in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taek; White, Jacob T; Xie, Zhen; Benenson, Yaakov; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2013-05-17

    Multicomponent biological networks are often understood incompletely, in large part due to the lack of reliable and robust methodologies for network reverse engineering and characterization. As a consequence, developing automated and rigorously validated methodologies for unraveling the complexity of biomolecular networks in human cells remains a central challenge to life scientists and engineers. Today, when it comes to experimental and analytical requirements, there exists a great deal of diversity in reverse engineering methods, which renders the independent validation and comparison of their predictive capabilities difficult. In this work we introduce an experimental platform customized for the development and verification of reverse engineering and pathway characterization algorithms in mammalian cells. Specifically, we stably integrate a synthetic gene network in human kidney cells and use it as a benchmark for validating reverse engineering methodologies. The network, which is orthogonal to endogenous cellular signaling, contains a small set of regulatory interactions that can be used to quantify the reconstruction performance. By performing successive perturbations to each modular component of the network and comparing protein and RNA measurements, we study the conditions under which we can reliably reconstruct the causal relationships of the integrated synthetic network.

  12. Human factors engineering and design validation for the redesigned follitropin alfa pen injection device

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Mary C; Patterson, Patricia; Hayward, Brooke; North, Robert; Green, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate, using human factors engineering (HFE), that a redesigned, pre-filled, ready-to-use, pre-asembled follitropin alfa pen can be used to administer prescribed follitropin alfa doses safely and accurately. Methods: A failure modes and effects analysis identified hazards and harms potentially caused by use errors; risk-control measures were implemented to ensure acceptable device use risk management. Participants were women with infertility, their significant others, and fertility nurse (FN) professionals. Preliminary testing included ‘Instructions for Use’ (IFU) and pre-validation studies. Validation studies used simulated injections in a representative use environment; participants received prior training on pen use. Results: User performance in preliminary testing led to IFU revisions and a change to outer needle cap design to mitigate needle stick potential. In the first validation study (49 users, 343 simulated injections), in the FN group, one observed critical use error resulted in a device design modification and another in an IFU change. A second validation study tested the mitigation strategies; previously reported use errors were not repeated. Conclusions: Through an iterative process involving a series of studies, modifications were made to the pen design and IFU. Simulated-use testing demonstrated that the redesigned pen can be used to administer follitropin alfa effectively and safely. PMID:25895897

  13. Instrumentation for low frequency EIT studies of the human head and its validation in phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esler, Brian; Lyons, Thomas; Turovets, Sergei; Tucker, Don

    2010-04-01

    We describe instrumentation for low frequency (< 500 Hz) EIT studies of the human head and its calibration, testing and validation in the phantom experiments. Our EIT system prototype is based on a 256 channel commercial EEG system complimented by the current injection module and lock-in detection software. We have designed and built two types of head phantoms: i) a resistor network and ii) a cylinder tank filled with saline and gel insertions with chemically targeted conductivity values. We have developed a technology for fabricating, handling and storage of agar TX151 gel insertions. Independent and direct conductivity measurements of gel samples have been performed using a HP LCR meter in a four electrode conductivity cell specifically designed and built for this purpose. Measurements of saline conductivity were done with commercially available salinity / conductivity meters. Our inverse conductivity estimates in the phantom experiments with EIDORS and in-house software cross-validate the viability of the EIT-EEG system.

  14. Inference of human affective states from psychophysiological measurements extracted under ecologically valid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Zucca, Riccardo; Cetnarski, Ryszard; Greco, Alberto; Lanatà, Antonio; Mazzei, Daniele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Omedas, Pedro; De Rossi, Danilo; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions. PMID:25309310

  15. An agent-based model of exposure to human toxocariasis: a multi-country validation.

    PubMed

    Kanobana, K; Devleesschauwer, B; Polman, K; Speybroeck, N

    2013-07-01

    Seroprevalence data illustrate that human exposure to Toxocara is frequent. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is assumed to be the best indicator of human exposure, but increased risk of exposure has also been associated with many other factors. Reported associations are inconsistent, however, and there is still ambiguity regarding the factors driving the onset of Toxocara antibody positivity. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of our current conceptual understanding of the key processes driving human exposure to Toxocara. We constructed an agent-based model predicting Toxocara antibody positivity (as a measure of exposure) in children. Exposure was assumed to depend on the joint probability of 3 parameters: (1) environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, (2) larvation of these eggs and (3) the age-related contact with these eggs. This joint probability was linked to processes of acquired humoral immunity, influencing the rate of antibody seroreversion. The results of the simulation were validated against published data from 5 different geographical settings. Using simple rules and a stochastic approach with parameter estimates derived from the respective contexts, plausible serological patterns emerged from the model in nearly all settings. Our approach leads to novel insights in the transmission dynamics of Toxocara.

  16. Granulosa cells and retinoic acid co-treatment enrich potential germ cells from manually selected Oct4-EGFP expressing human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Fu; Jan, Pey-Shynan; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wu, Fang-Chun; Lan, Chen-Wei; Huang, Mei-Chi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2014-09-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (HES) cells to germ cells may become clinically useful in overcoming diseases related to germ-cell development. Niches were used to differentiate HES cell lines, NTU1 and H9 Oct4-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), including laminin, granulosa cell co-culture or conditioned medium, ovarian stromal cell co-culture or conditioned medium, retinoic acid, stem cell factor (SCF) and BMP4-BMP7-BMP8b treatment. Flow cytometry showed that granulosa cell co-culture (P < 0.001) or conditioned medium (P = 0.007) treatment for 14 days significantly increased the percentages of differentiated H9 Oct4-EGFP cells expressing early germ cell marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1(SSEA1); sorted SSEA1[+] cells did not express higher levels of germ cell gene VASA and GDF9. Manually collected H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells expressed significantly higher levels of VASA (P = 0.005) and GDF9 (P = 0.001). H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells developed to ovarian follicle-like structures after culture for 28 days but with low efficiency. Unlike SCF and BMP4, retinoic acid co-treatment enhanced VASA, GDF9 and SCP3 expression. A protocol is recommended to enrich differentiated HES cells with germ-cell potential by culture with granulosa cells, conditioned medium or retinoic acid, manual selection of Oct4-EGFP[+] cells, and analysis of VASA, GDF9 expression, or both.

  17. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  18. The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Bartels, Lambertus W; van den Bergen, Bob; Kroeze, Hugo; de Leeuw, Astrid A C; Van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Lagendijk, Jan J W

    2006-10-07

    In this study, MR B(+)(1) imaging is employed to experimentally verify the validity of FDTD simulations of electromagnetic field patterns in human anatomies. Measurements and FDTD simulations of the B(+)(1) field induced by a 3 T MR body coil in a human corpse were performed. It was found that MR B(+)(1) imaging is a sensitive method to measure the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field inside a human anatomy with a precision of approximately 3.5%. A good correlation was found between the B(+)(1) measurements and FDTD simulations. The measured B(+)(1) pattern for a human pelvis consisted of a global, diagonal modulation pattern plus local B(+)(1) heterogeneties. It is believed that these local B(+)(1) field variations are the result of peaks in the induced electric currents, which could not be resolved by the FDTD simulations on a 5 mm(3) simulation grid. The findings from this study demonstrate that B(+)(1) imaging is a valuable experimental technique to gain more knowledge about the dielectric interaction of RF fields with the human anatomy.

  19. A system to reproduce human breathing patterns: its development and validation.

    PubMed

    Häussermann, S; Bailey, A G; Maul, C

    2000-01-01

    Studies of aerosol deposition in models of the human respiratory tract play a significant role in developing our understanding of drug delivery by inhalation and particle retention in the lungs during exposure to polluted environments. To use replica casts of human airways and compare the results with in vivo data, a device is required to simulate human breathing. The objective of this study was to simulate human breathing for nasal casts. Breathing through the nose is normally limited to about 50 L/min. Therefore, a system was built to simulate human breathing patterns as well as artificial ones up to this flow rate. The system consists of a reciprocating piston in a cylinder, which is displaced by a synchronous motor via a linear actuator. The desired signal to drive the motor is given in real time by purpose-written software. The rotation and position of the motor are controlled by an electronic position control unit. The validation of the system shows that it simulates breathing up to 50 L/min closely even for complex waveforms. At breathing rates above 50 L/min, a slight difference is apparent between the desired breathing pattern and the simulated one. The breathing simulator has been shown to be a reliable tool for reproducing a wide variety of breathing patterns.

  20. Asphalt Raking. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet consists of the instructor and trainee manuals for an asphalt raking course. The instructor manual contains a course schedule for 4 days of instruction, content outline, and instructor outline. The trainee manual is divided into five sections: safety, asphalt basics, placing methods, repair and patching, and clean-up and maintenance.…

  1. An international system for the education of students of medicine and other health professionals in human reproduction. The FIGO teaching manual: a status report.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H C; Magarick, R H

    1981-03-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of FIGO's Teaching Manual on Human Reproduction is reported on the basis of answers to a questionnaire received from 100 heads of teaching departments, chiefly of obstetrics and gynecology. These represented 32 countries widely distributed throughout the developing countries of the world. The most significant finding was the evidence of the very large number of medical and other students that could be reached through the principle of placing superlatively good teaching material in the hands of key educators in their native country. Additional answers to the questionnaire provided information on the way courses were organized about the material and suggestions as the useful changes, possible expansion of subject matter, and the felt need for an updated edition.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  3. Chemical validation of trypanothione synthetase: a potential drug target for human trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Torrie, Leah S; Wyllie, Susan; Spinks, Daniel; Oza, Sandra L; Thompson, Stephen; Harrison, Justin R; Gilbert, Ian H; Wyatt, Paul G; Fairlamb, Alan H; Frearson, Julie A

    2009-12-25

    In the search for new therapeutics for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, many potential drug targets in Trypanosoma brucei have been validated by genetic means, but very few have been chemically validated. Trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC 6.3.1.9; spermidine/glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming)) is one such target. To identify novel inhibitors of T. brucei TryS, we developed an in vitro enzyme assay, which was amenable to high throughput screening. The subsequent screen of a diverse compound library resulted in the identification of three novel series of TryS inhibitors. Further chemical exploration resulted in leads with nanomolar potency, which displayed mixed, uncompetitive, and allosteric-type inhibition with respect to spermidine, ATP, and glutathione, respectively. Representatives of all three series inhibited growth of bloodstream T. brucei in vitro. Exposure to one of our lead compounds (DDD86243; 2 x EC(50) for 72 h) decreased intracellular trypanothione levels to <10% of wild type. In addition, there was a corresponding 5-fold increase in the precursor metabolite, glutathione, providing strong evidence that DDD86243 was acting on target to inhibit TryS. This was confirmed with wild-type, TryS single knock-out, and TryS-overexpressing cell lines showing expected changes in potency to DDD86243. Taken together, these data provide initial chemical validation of TryS as a drug target in T. brucei.

  4. Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Bussink, Frank J. L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Palmer, Michael T.; Palmer, Susan O.

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Validation Simulation Study investigated the viability of an ITP designed to enable oceanic flight level changes that would not otherwise be possible. Twelve commercial airline pilots with current oceanic experience flew a series of simulated scenarios involving either standard or ITP flight level change maneuvers and provided subjective workload ratings, assessments of ITP validity and acceptability, and objective performance measures associated with the appropriate selection, request, and execution of ITP flight level change maneuvers. In the majority of scenarios, subject pilots correctly assessed the traffic situation, selected an appropriate response (i.e., either a standard flight level change request, an ITP request, or no request), and executed their selected flight level change procedure, if any, without error. Workload ratings for ITP maneuvers were acceptable and not substantially higher than for standard flight level change maneuvers, and, for the majority of scenarios and subject pilots, subjective acceptability ratings and comments for ITP were generally high and positive. Qualitatively, the ITP was found to be valid and acceptable. However, the error rates for ITP maneuvers were higher than for standard flight level changes, and these errors may have design implications for both the ITP and the study's prototype traffic display. These errors and their implications are discussed.

  5. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity.

  6. Method Development and Validation for UHPLC-MS-MS Determination of Hop Prenylflavonoids in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolic, Dejan; Dahl, Jeffrey H.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer, and hop extracts containing prenylated compounds such as xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin are under investigation as dietary supplements for cancer chemoprevention and for the management of hot flashes in menopausal women. To facilitate clinical studies of hop safety and efficacy, a selective, sensitive, and fast ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the hop prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenylnaringenin, and 8-prenylnaringenin in human serum. The analytical method requires 300 μL of human serum which is processed using liquid-liquid extraction. UHPLC separation was carried out in 2.5 min with gradient elution using a reversed phase column containing 1.6 μm packing material. Prenylflavonoids were measured using negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation and selected reaction monitoring. The method was validated and showed good accuracy and precision with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.50 ng/mL for XN (1.4 nM) and 1.0 ng/mL for 6-PN (2.8 nM), XN and IX (2.9 nM) in serum for each analyte. PMID:23451393

  7. Validating Human Performance Models of the Future Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.; Walters, Brett; Fairey, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will provide transportation for crew and cargo to and from destinations in support of the Constellation Architecture Design Reference Missions. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is one of the design methods NASA employs for crew performance of the CEV. During the early development of the CEV, NASA and its prime Orion contractor Lockheed Martin (LM) strived to seek an effective low-cost method for developing and validating human performance DES models. This paper focuses on the method developed while creating a DES model for the CEV Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) task to the International Space Station. Our approach to validation was to attack the problem from several fronts. First, we began the development of the model early in the CEV design stage. Second, we adhered strictly to M&S development standards. Third, we involved the stakeholders, NASA astronauts, subject matter experts, and NASA's modeling and simulation development community throughout. Fourth, we applied standard and easy-to-conduct methods to ensure the model's accuracy. Lastly, we reviewed the data from an earlier human-in-the-loop RPOD simulation that had different objectives, which provided us an additional means to estimate the model's confidence level. The results revealed that a majority of the DES model was a reasonable representation of the current CEV design.

  8. Validation of connectivity-based thalamic segmentation with direct electrophysiologic recordings from human sensory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Elias, W Jeffrey; Zheng, Zhong A; Domer, Paul; Quigg, Mark; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-02-01

    Connectivity-based segmentation has been used to identify functional gray matter subregions that are not discernable on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the accuracy and reliability of this technique has only been validated using indirect means. In order to provide direct electrophysiologic validation of connectivity-based thalamic segmentations within human subjects, we assess the correlation of atlas-based thalamic anatomy, connectivity-based thalamic maps, and somatosensory evoked thalamic potentials in two adults with medication-refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial EEG monitoring with intrathalamic depth and subdural cortical strip electrodes. MRI with atlas-derived localization was used to delineate the anatomic boundaries of the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. Somatosensory evoked potentials with intrathalamic electrodes physiologically identified a discrete region of phase reversal in the ventrolateral thalamus. Finally, DTI was obtained so that probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based segmentation could be performed to correlate the region of thalamus linked to sensory areas of the cortex, namely the postcentral gyrus. We independently utilized these three different methods in a blinded fashion to localize the "sensory" thalamus, demonstrating a high-degree of reproducible correlation between electrophysiologic and connectivity-based maps of the thalamus. This study provides direct electrophysiologic validation of probabilistic tractography-based thalamic segmentation. Importantly, this study provides an electrophysiological basis for using connectivity-based segmentation to further study subcortical anatomy and physiology while also providing the clinical basis for targeting deep brain nuclei with therapeutic stimulation. Finally, these direct recordings from human thalamus confirm early inferences of a sensory thalamic component of the N18 waveform in somatosensory evoked potentials.

  9. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-05-01

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  10. Using experimental human influenza infections to validate a viral dynamic model and the implications for prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.

  11. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  12. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  13. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  14. Systems analysis programs for Hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0: Verification and validation (V&V) manual. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.; Calley, M.B.; Capps, E.L.; Zeigler, S.L.; Galyean, W.J.; Novack, S.D.; Smith, C.L.; Wolfram, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    A verification and validation (V&V) process has been performed for the System Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0. SAPHIRE is a set of four computer programs that NRC developed for performing probabilistic risk assessments. They allow an analyst to perform many of the functions necessary to create, quantify, and evaluate the risk associated with a facility or process being analyzed. The programs are Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA), Models And Results Database (MAR-D), and Fault tree, Event tree, and Piping and instrumentation diagram (FEP) graphical editor. Intent of this program is to perform a V&V of successive versions of SAPHIRE. Previous efforts have been the V&V of SAPHIRE Version 4.0. The SAPHIRE 5.0 V&V plan is based on the SAPHIRE 4.0 V&V plan with revisions to incorporate lessons learned from the previous effort. Also, the SAPHIRE 5.0 vital and nonvital test procedures are based on the test procedures from SAPHIRE 4.0 with revisions to include the new SAPHIRE 5.0 features as well as to incorporate lessons learned from the previous effort. Most results from the testing were acceptable; however, some discrepancies between expected code operation and actual code operation were identified. Modifications made to SAPHIRE are identified.

  15. College Text Test Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1979-01-01

    A team of faculty members and graduate students identified major concepts and developed validated test questions for two widely used textbooks in personal hygiene classes in order to standardize norms for classes and supplement inadequate instructor's manuals. (JMF)

  16. The use of reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: Results of the validation study.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Diembeck, Walter; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Gamer, Armin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Hoffmann, Christine; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kersen, Silke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Müller-Goymann, Christel; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander; Weimer, Michaela

    2008-05-01

    A formal validation study was performed, in order to investigate whether the commercially-available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are suitable for in vitro skin absorption testing. The skin types currently recommended in the OECD Test Guideline 428, namely, ex vivo human epidermis and pig skin, were used as references. Based on the promising outcome of the prevalidation study, the panel of test substances was enlarged to nine substances, covering a wider spectrum of physicochemical properties. The substances were tested under both infinite-dose and finite-dose conditions, in ten laboratories, under strictly controlled conditions. The data were subjected to independent statistical analyses. Intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability contributed almost equally to the total variability, which was in the same range as that in preceding studies. In general, permeation of the RHE models exceeded that of human epidermis and pig skin (the SkinEthic RHE was found to be the most permeable), yet the ranking of substance permeation through the three tested RHE models and the pig skin reflected the permeation through human epidermis. In addition, both infinite-dose and finite-dose experiments are feasible with RHE models. The RHE models did not show the expected significantly better reproducibility, as compared to excised skin, despite a tendency toward lower variability of the data. Importantly, however, the permeation data showed a sufficient correlation between all the preparations examined. Thus, the RHE models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are appropriate alternatives to human and pig skin, for the in vitro assessment of the permeation and penetration of substances when applied as aqueous solutions.

  17. Human Mendelian pain disorders: a key to discovery and validation of novel analgesics.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Y P; Pimstone, S N; Namdari, R; Price, N; Cohen, C; Sherrington, R P; Hayden, M R

    2012-10-01

    We have utilized a novel application of human genetics, illuminating the important role that rare genetic disorders can play in the development of novel drugs that may be of relevance for the treatment of both rare and common diseases. By studying a very rare Mendelian disorder of absent pain perception, congenital indifference to pain, we have defined Nav1.7 (endocded by SCN9A) as a critical and novel target for analgesic development. Strong human validation has emerged with SCN9A gain-of-function mutations causing inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, both Mendelian disorder of spontaneous or easily evoked pain. Furthermore, variations in the Nav1.7 channel also modulate pain perception in healthy subjects as well as in painful conditions such as osteoarthritis and Parkinson disease. On the basis of this, we have developed a novel compound (XEN402) that exhibits potent, voltage-dependent block of Nav1.7. In a small pilot study, we showed that XEN402 blocks Nav1.7 mediated pain associated with IEM thereby demonstrating the use of rare genetic disorders with mutant target channels as a novel approach to rapid proof-of-concept. Our approach underscores the critical role that human genetics can play by illuminating novel and critical pathways pertinent for drug discovery.

  18. Identification and Validation of Novel Contraction-Regulated Myokines Released from Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Silja; Eckardt, Kristin; Bjørklund Holven, Kirsten; Jensen, Jørgen; Eckel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Proteins secreted by skeletal muscle, so called myokines, have been shown to affect muscle physiology and additionally exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Although recent profiling studies have identified numerous myokines, the amount of overlap from these studies indicates that the secretome of skeletal muscle is still incompletely characterized. One limitation of the models used is the lack of contraction, a central characteristic of muscle cells. Here we aimed to characterize the secretome of primary human myotubes by cytokine antibody arrays and to identify myokines regulated by contraction, which was induced by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). In this study, we validated the regulation and release of two selected myokines, namely pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which were recently described as adipokines. This study reveals that both factors, DPP4 and PEDF, are secreted by primary human myotubes. PEDF is a contraction-regulated myokine, although PEDF serum levels from healthy young men decrease after 60 min cycling at VO2max of 70%. Most interestingly, we identified 52 novel myokines which have not been described before to be secreted by skeletal muscle cells. For 48 myokines we show that their release is regulated by contractile activity. This profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands the number of myokines, identifies novel contraction-regulated myokines and underlines the overlap between proteins which are adipokines as well as myokines. PMID:23637948

  19. The validation and application of a finite element human head model for frontal skull fracture analysis.

    PubMed

    Asgharpour, Z; Baumgartner, D; Willinger, R; Graw, M; Peldschus, S

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic head injuries can result from vehicular accidents, sports, falls or assaults. The current advances in computational methods and the detailed finite element models of the human head provide a significant opportunity for biomechanical study of human head injuries. The biomechanical characteristics of the human head through head impact scenarios can be studied in detail by using the finite element models. Skull fracture is one of the most frequent occurring types of head injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyse the experimental head impacts on cadavers by means of the Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model (SUFEHM). The results of the numerical model and experimental data are compared for validation purpose. The finite element model has also been applied to predict the skull bone fracture in frontal impacts. The head model includes the scalp, the facial bone, the skull, the cerebral spinal fluid, the meninges, the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The model is used to simulate the experimental frontal head impact tests using a cylindrical padded impactor. Results of the computational simulation shows that the model correlated well with a number of experimental data and a global fracture pattern has been predicted well by the model. Therefore the presented numerical model could be used for reconstruction of head impacts in different impact conditions also the forensic application of the head model would provide a tool for investigation of the causes and mechanism of head injuries.

  20. 21 CFR 882.4840 - Manual rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual rongeur. 882.4840 Section 882.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4840 Manual rongeur. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4840 - Manual rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual rongeur. 882.4840 Section 882.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4840 Manual rongeur. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4840 - Manual rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual rongeur. 882.4840 Section 882.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4840 Manual rongeur. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4840 - Manual rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual rongeur. 882.4840 Section 882.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4840 Manual rongeur. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4840 - Manual rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual rongeur. 882.4840 Section 882.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4840 Manual rongeur. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1770 - Manual refractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual refractor. 886.1770 Section 886.1770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1770 Manual refractor. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey for Estimating Burnout in Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.

  7. Comparison of automated and manual segmentation of hippocampus MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, John W.; Christensen, Gary E.; Miller, Michael I.; Joshi, Sarang C.; Gado, Mokhtar; Csernansky, John G.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    The precision and accuracy of area estimates from magnetic resonance (MR) brain images and using manual and automated segmentation methods are determined. Areas of the human hippocampus were measured to compare a new automatic method of segmentation with regions of interest drawn by an expert. MR images of nine normal subjects and nine schizophrenic patients were acquired with a 1.5-T unit (Siemens Medical Systems, Inc., Iselin, New Jersey). From each individual MPRAGE 3D volume image a single comparable 2-D slice (matrix equals 256 X 256) was chosen which corresponds to the same coronal slice of the hippocampus. The hippocampus was first manually segmented, then segmented using high dimensional transformations of a digital brain atlas to individual brain MR images. The repeatability of a trained rater was assessed by comparing two measurements from each individual subject. Variability was also compared within and between subject groups of schizophrenics and normal subjects. Finally, the precision and accuracy of automated segmentation of hippocampal areas were determined by comparing automated measurements to manual segmentation measurements made by the trained rater on MR and brain slice images. The results demonstrate the high repeatability of area measurement from MR images of the human hippocampus. Automated segmentation using high dimensional transformations from a digital brain atlas provides repeatability superior to that of manual segmentation. Furthermore, the validity of automated measurements was demonstrated by a high correlation with manual segmentation measurements made by a trained rater. Quantitative morphometry of brain substructures (e.g. hippocampus) is feasible by use of a high dimensional transformation of a digital brain atlas to an individual MR image. This method automates the search for neuromorphological correlates of schizophrenia by a new mathematically robust method with unprecedented sensitivity to small local and regional differences.

  8. GRSAC Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  9. Validation of a standardised method for determining beryllium in human urine at nanogram level.

    PubMed

    Devoy, Jérôme; Melczer, Mathieu; Antoine, Guillaume; Remy, Aurélie; Heilier, Jean-François

    2013-10-01

    The potential toxicity of beryllium at low levels of exposure means that a biological and/or air monitoring strategy may be required to monitor the exposure of subjects. The main objective of the work presented in this manuscript was to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible method for determining levels of beryllium in human urine and to establish reference values in workers and in non-occupationally exposed people. A chelate of beryllium acetylacetonate formed from beryllium(II) in human urine was pre-concentrated on a SPE C18 cartridge and eluted with methanol. After drying the eluate, the residue was solubilised in nitric acid and analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and/or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method is 4 to 100 times more sensitive than other methods currently in routine use. The new method was validated with the concordance correlation coefficient test for beryllium concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 ng/L. Creatinine concentration, urine pH, interfering compounds and freeze-thaw cycles were found to have only slight effects on the performance of the method (less than 6%). The effectiveness of the two analytical techniques was compared statistically with each other and to direct analysis techniques. Even with a detection limit of 0.6 ng/L (obtained with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), the method is not sensitive enough to detect levels in non-occupationally exposed persons. The method performance does however appear to be suitable for monitoring worker exposure in some industrial settings and it could therefore be of use in biological monitoring strategies.

  10. Validated High Resolution Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach for Metabolomic Fingerprinting of the Human Gut Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bussche, Julie; Marzorati, Massimo; Laukens, Debby; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-11-03

    Fecal samples are an obvious choice for metabolomic approaches, since they can be obtained noninvasively and allow one to study the interactions between the gut microbiota and the host. The use of ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) in this field is unique. Hence, this study relied on Orbitrap HRMS to develop and validate a metabolic fingerprinting workflow for human feces and in vitro digestive fluids. After chemometric sample extraction optimization, an aqueous dilution appeared necessary to comply to the dynamic range of the MS. The method was proven "fit-for-purpose" through a validation procedure that monitored endogenous metabolites in quality control samples, which displayed in both matrices an excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.990), recoveries ranging from 93% to 105%, and precision with coefficients of variation (CVs) < 15%. Finally, feces from 10 healthy individuals and 13 patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease were subjected to metabolomic fingerprinting. 9553 ions were detected, as well as differentiating profiles between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis by means of (orthogonal) partial least-square analysis ((O)PLS)-DA (discriminate analysis) models. Additionally, samples from the dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (SHIME (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem) platform) were analyzed resulting in 6446 and 5010 ions for the proximal and distal colonic samples, respectively. Supplementing SHIME feed with antibiotics resulted in a significant shift (P < 0.05) of 27.7% of the metabolites from the proximal data set and 34.3% for the distal one. As a result, the presented fingerprinting approach provided predictive modeling of the gastrointestinal metabolome in vivo and in vitro, offering a window to reveal disease related biomarkers and potential insight into the mechanisms behind pathologies.

  11. A cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream.

    PubMed

    Rosenke, M; Weiner, K S; Barnett, M A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K; Goebel, R; Grill-Spector, K

    2017-02-14

    The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale. Therefore, the goal of this study was to (a) generate a cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream on a whole brain template that is commonly used in neuroimaging studies and (b) to compare this atlas to a recently published retinotopic parcellation of visual cortex (Wang, 2014). To achieve this goal, we generated an atlas of eight cytoarchitectonic areas: four areas in the occipital lobe (hOc1-hOc4v) and four in the fusiform gyrus (FG1-FG4) and tested how alignment technique affects the accuracy of the atlas. Results show that both cortex-based alignment (CBA) and nonlinear volumetric alignment (NVA) generate an atlas with better cross-validation performance than affine volumetric alignment (AVA). Additionally, CBA outperformed NVA in 6/8 of the cytoarchitectonic areas. Finally, the comparison of the cytoarchitectonic atlas to a retinotopic atlas shows a clear correspondence between cytoarchitectonic and retinotopic areas in the ventral visual stream. The successful performance of CBA suggests a coupling between cytoarchitectonic areas and macroanatomical landmarks in the human ventral visual stream, and furthermore that this coupling can be utilized towards generating an accurate group atlas. In addition, the coupling between cytoarchitecture and retinotopy highlights the potential use of this atlas in

  12. Manual evaluation of tissue microarrays in a high-throughput research project: The contribution of Indian surgical pathology to the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) project.

    PubMed

    Navani, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) program (www.proteinatlas.org) is an international program that has been set up to allow for a systematic exploration of the human proteome using antibody-based proteomics. This is accomplished by combining high-throughput generation of affinity-purified (mono-specific) antibodies with protein profiling in a multitude of tissues/cell types assembled in tissue microarrays. Twenty-six surgical pathologists over a seven-and-half year period have annotated and curated approximately sixteen million tissue images derived from immunostaining of normal and cancer tissues by approximately 23 000 antibodies. Web-based annotation software that allows for a basic and rapid evaluation of immunoreactivity in tissues has been utilized. Intensity, fraction of immunoreactive cells and subcellular localization were recorded for each given cell population. A text comment summarizing the characteristics for each antibody was added. The methods used and the challenges encountered for this exercise, the largest effort ever by a single group of surgical pathologists, are discussed. Manual annotation of digital images is an important tool that may be successfully utilized in high-throughput research projects. This is the first time an Indian private pathology laboratory has been associated with cutting-edge research internationally providing a classic example of developed and emerging nation collaboration.

  13. Validation of the murine aortic arch as a model to study human vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casteleyn, Christophe; Trachet, Bram; Van Loo, Denis; Devos, Daniel G H; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul; Cornillie, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Although the murine thoracic aorta and its main branches are widely studied to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of human vascular diseases, detailed anatomical data on the murine aorta are sparse. Moreover, comparative studies between mice and men focusing on the topography and geometry of the heart and aorta are lacking. As this hampers the validation of murine vascular models, the branching pattern of the murine thoracic aorta was examined in 30 vascular corrosion casts. On six casts the intrathoracic position of the heart was compared with that of six younger and six older men of whom contrast-enhanced computer tomography images of the thorax were three-dimensionally reconstructed. In addition, the geometry of the human thoracic aorta was compared with that of the mouse by reconstructing micro-computer tomography images of six murine casts. It was found that the right brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery branched subsequently from the aortic arch in both mice and men. The geometry of the branches of the murine aortic arch was quite similar to that of men. In both species the initial segment of the aorta, comprising the ascending aorta, aortic arch and cranial/superior part of the descending aorta, was sigmoidally curved on a cranial/superior view. Although some analogy between the intrathoracic position of the murine and human heart was observed, the murine heart manifestly deviated more ventrally. The major conclusion of this study is that, in both mice and men, the ascending and descending aorta do not lie in a single vertical plane (non-planar aortic geometry). This contrasts clearly with most domestic mammals in which a planar aortic pattern is present. As the vascular branching pattern of the aortic arch is also similar in mice and men, the murine model seems valuable to study human vascular diseases. PMID:20345858

  14. Validation of the murine aortic arch as a model to study human vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, Christophe; Trachet, Bram; Van Loo, Denis; Devos, Daniel G H; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul; Cornillie, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    Although the murine thoracic aorta and its main branches are widely studied to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of human vascular diseases, detailed anatomical data on the murine aorta are sparse. Moreover, comparative studies between mice and men focusing on the topography and geometry of the heart and aorta are lacking. As this hampers the validation of murine vascular models, the branching pattern of the murine thoracic aorta was examined in 30 vascular corrosion casts. On six casts the intrathoracic position of the heart was compared with that of six younger and six older men of whom contrast-enhanced computer tomography images of the thorax were three-dimensionally reconstructed. In addition, the geometry of the human thoracic aorta was compared with that of the mouse by reconstructing micro-computer tomography images of six murine casts. It was found that the right brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery branched subsequently from the aortic arch in both mice and men. The geometry of the branches of the murine aortic arch was quite similar to that of men. In both species the initial segment of the aorta, comprising the ascending aorta, aortic arch and cranial/superior part of the descending aorta, was sigmoidally curved on a cranial/superior view. Although some analogy between the intrathoracic position of the murine and human heart was observed, the murine heart manifestly deviated more ventrally. The major conclusion of this study is that, in both mice and men, the ascending and descending aorta do not lie in a single vertical plane (non-planar aortic geometry). This contrasts clearly with most domestic mammals in which a planar aortic pattern is present. As the vascular branching pattern of the aortic arch is also similar in mice and men, the murine model seems valuable to study human vascular diseases.

  15. Drugs, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Human Behavior: Teacher Manual, Junior High School, and Student Book, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    A causal approach to human behavior (in this case, substance usage) has been adopted. This framework views each individual as having personality tasks, such as achieving self-respect or emotional security or dealing with sex feelings, which must be worked out. If a person meets barriers while trying to work them out, he may attempt to remove them…

  16. Development and validation of a sensitive assay for the quantification of imatinib using LC/LC-MS/MS in human whole blood and cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Klawitter, Jelena; Zhang, Yan Ling; Klawitter, Jost; Anderson, Nora; Serkova, Natalie J.; Christians, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a semi-automated LC/LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of imatinib in human whole blood and leukemia cells. After protein precipitation, samples were injected into the HPLC system and trapped onto the enrichment column (flow 5 mL/min); extracts were back-flushed onto the analytical column. Ion transitions [M + H]+ of imatinib (m/z = 494.3 → 394.3) and its internal standard trazodone (372.5 → 176.3) were monitored. The range of reliable response was 0.03–75 ng/mL. The inter-day precisions were: 8.4% (0.03 ng/mL), 7.2% (0.1 ng/mL), 6.5% (1 ng/mL), 8.2% (10 ng/mL) and 4.3% (75 ng/mL) with no interference from ion suppression. Autosampler stability was 24 hs and samples were stable over three freeze–thaw cycles. This semi-automated method is simple with only one manual step, uses a commercially available internal standard, and has proven to be robust in larger studies. PMID:19517424

  17. Rivet user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  18. Validation of microwave radiometry for measuring the internal temperature profile of human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, A.; Land, D.; Hand, J.

    2011-06-01

    A phantom target with a known linear temperature gradient has been developed for validating microwave radiometry for measuring internal temperature profiles within human tissue. The purpose of the phantom target is to simulate the temperature gradient found within the surface layers of a baby's brain during hypothermal neuroprotection therapy, in which the outer surface of the phantom represents the skin surface and the inner surface the brain core. The target comprises a volume of phantom tissue material with similar dielectric properties to high water-content human tissue, contained between two copper plates at known temperatures. The antenna of a microwave radiometer is in contact with one surface of the phantom material. We have measured the microwave temperature of the phantom with microwave radiometry in a frequency band of 3.0-3.5 GHz. Our microwave temperature measurements have small 0.05 °C (type A) uncertainties associated with random effects and provide temperatures consistent with values determined using theoretical models of the antenna-target system within uncertainties. The measurements are in good agreement with the major signal contribution being formed over a near plane-wave response within the material with a much smaller contribution from close to the antenna face.

  19. Implementation and validation of thoracic side impact injury prediction metrics in a human body model.

    PubMed

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Gaewsky, James P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-08-01

    This study's purpose was to implement injury metrics into the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) mirroring the spinal accelerometers, rib accelerometers and chest band instrumentation from two lateral post-mortem human subject sled test configurations. In both sled configurations, THUMS contacted a flat rigid surface (either a wall or beam) at 6.7 m/s. Sled A maximum simulated wall forces for the thorax, abdomen and pelvis were 7.1, 5.0 and 10.0 kN versus 5.7 ± 0.8, 3.4 ± 1.2 and 6.2 ± 2.7 kN experimentally. Sled B maximum simulated beam forces for the torso and pelvis were 8.0 and 7.6 kN versus 8.5 ± 0.2 and 7.9 ± 2.5 kN experimentally. Quantitatively, force magnitude contributed more to variation between simulated and experimental forces than phase shift. Acceleration-based injury metrics were within one standard deviation of experimental means except for the lower spine in the rigid wall sled test. These validated metrics will be useful for quantifying occupant loading conditions and calculating injury risks in various loading configurations.

  20. Validity of 3-methylhistidine excretion as an indicator of skeletal muscle protein breakdown in humans.

    PubMed

    Long, C L; Dillard, D R; Bodzin, J H; Geiger, J W; Blakemore, W S

    1988-09-01

    The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3MEH) in humans and animals has been used as a biologic marker for skeletal muscle protein breakdown. In rats, it has been recently suggested that there is a significant contribution of 3MEH in urine from the gastrointestinal tract due to the rapid turnover of protein in that tissue. To evaluate this point in humans, six patients with short bowel were evaluated. They were placed on three-day meat-free diets while 24-hour urine collections were obtained. The mean +/- SEM 3MEH in the short-bowel group was 3.27 +/- 0.34 mumol/kg/d and the mean +/- SEM molar ratio of 3MEH to creatinine was 0.0212 +/- 0.0012. These data were not significantly different from the control group at 95% confidence level. The results suggest that the contribution of the small intestine appears to be negligible, therefore urinary 3MEH should continue to be a valid index of skeletal muscle breakdown in man.

  1. Validation of the auditory hazard assessment algorithm for the human with impulse noise data.

    PubMed

    Price, G Richard

    2007-11-01

    Predicting auditory hazard from intense acoustic impulses, such as weapons fire or airbags, has been an intractable problem. The U.S. Army developed a theoretically based mathematical model of the ear designed to predict such hazards [the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for the Human (AHAAH)]. To validate it as a predictor of hazard, data from the literature (wave forms and changes in hearing sensitivity) were processed with the model in order to predict the onset of unacceptable threshold shift (25 dB or more) in the 95th percentile human ear. For comparison, alternate standards MIL-STD-1747D and A-weighted energy were also used to compute hazards for the same data. The primary dataset was that of the US Army's "Albuquerque studies" (53 different cases) and other impulses from the literature (19 additional predictions). The AHAAH model predicted correctly in over 95% of the cases, the MIL-STD-1474D was correct in 42% of the cases, and A-weighted energy was correct in 25% of the cases. Errors for all methods tended to be in the direction of overprediction of hazard. In addition to greatly increased accuracy, the AHAAH model also has the advantage of being theoretically based and including novel diagnostic features.

  2. Treatment manuals: use in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Laurel M; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2011-11-01

    As psychology has moved toward emphasizing evidence-based practice, use of treatment manuals has extended from research trials into clinical practice. Minimal research has directly evaluated use of manuals in clinical practice. This survey of international eating disorder professionals examined use of manuals with 259 clinicians' most recent client with bulimia nervosa. Although evidence-based manuals for bulimia nervosa exist, only 35.9% of clinicians reported using a manual. Clinicians were more likely to use a manual if they were younger; were treating an adult client; were clinical psychologists; were involved in research related to eating disorders; and endorsed a cognitive-behavioral orientation. Clinicians were less likely to use a manual if they provided eclectic psychotherapy that incorporated multiple psychotherapeutic approaches. We conclude that psychotherapy provided in clinical practice often does not align with the specific form validated in research trials, and "eclecticism" is at odds with efforts to disseminate manuals into clinical practice.

  3. Successful validation of genomic biomarkers for human immunotoxicity in Jurkat T cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schmeits, Peter C J; Shao, Jia; van der Krieken, Danique A; Volger, Oscar L; van Loveren, Henk; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we identified 25 classifier genes that were able to assess immunotoxicity using human Jurkat T cells. The present study aimed to validate these classifiers. For that purpose, Jurkat cells were exposed for 6 h to subcytotoxic doses of nine immunotoxicants, five non-immunotoxicants and four compounds for which human immunotoxicity has not yet been fully established. RNA was isolated and subjected to Fluidigm quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR analysis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the screening assay as based on the nine immunotoxicants and five non-immunotoxicants used in this study were 100%, 80% and 93%, respectively, which is better than the performance in our previous study. Only one compound was classified as false positive (benzo-e-pyrene). Of the four potential (non-)immunotoxicants, chlorantraniliprole and Hidrasec were classified immunotoxic and Sunset yellow and imidacloprid as non-immunotoxic. ToxPi analysis of the PCR data provided insight in the molecular pathways that were affected by the compounds. The immunotoxicants 2,3-dichloro-propanol and cypermethrin, although structurally different, affected protein metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis and transport. In addition, four compounds, i.e. chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, benzo-e-pyrene and anti-CD3, affected genes in cholesterol metabolism and transport, protein metabolism and transcription regulation. qRT-PCR on eight additional genes coding for similar processes as defined in ToxPi analyzes, supported these results. In conclusion, the 25 immunotoxic classifiers performed very well in a screening with new non-immunotoxic and immunotoxic compounds. Therefore, the Jurkat screening assay has great promise to be applied within a tiered approach for animal free testing of human immunotoxicity.

  4. The nondecussating pathway of the dentatorubrothalamic tract in humans: human connectome-based tractographic study and microdissection validation.

    PubMed

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) is the major efferent cerebellar pathway arising from the dentate nucleus (DN) and decussating to the contralateral red nucleus (RN) and thalamus. Surprisingly, hemispheric cerebellar output influences bilateral limb movements. In animals, uncrossed projections from the DN to the ipsilateral RN and thalamus may explain this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy of the dentatorubrothalamic connections in humans. METHODS The authors applied advanced deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (Q1-Q3 release, WU-Minn HCP consortium) and validated the results with microsurgical dissection of cadaveric brains prepared according to Klingler's method. RESULTS The authors identified the "classic" decussating DRTT and a corresponding nondecussating path (the nondecussating DRTT, nd-DRTT). Within each of these 2 tracts some fibers stop at the level of the RN, forming the dentatorubro tract and the nondecussating dentatorubro tract. The left nd-DRTT encompasses 21.7% of the tracts and 24.9% of the volume of the left superior cerebellar peduncle, and the right nd-DRTT encompasses 20.2% of the tracts and 28.4% of the volume of the right superior cerebellar peduncle. CONCLUSIONS The connections of the DN with the RN and thalamus are bilateral, not ipsilateral only. This affords a potential anatomical substrate for bilateral limb motor effects originating in a single cerebellar hemisphere under physiological conditions, and for bilateral limb motor impairment in hemispheric cerebellar lesions such as ischemic stroke and hemorrhage, and after resection of hemispheric tumors and arteriovenous malformations. Furthermore, when a lesion is located on the course of the dentatorubrothalamic system, a careful preoperative tractographic analysis of the relationship of the DRTT, nd-DRTT, and the lesion should be performed in order to tailor the surgical approach properly

  5. Sixteenth Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Manual control is discussed in terms of operator modeling, measurement of human response, mental workload, pilot/operator opinion, effects of motion, aircraft displays, supervisory control, automobile driving, and remote manipulation.

  6. 76 FR 37118 - Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop... Health, will be holding a two-day Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop. The Workshop is a National... engineering solutions for manual materials handling jobs in Retail, Wholesale and Warehouse industries....

  7. 21 CFR 880.6785 - Manual patient transfer device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual patient transfer device. 880.6785 Section 880.6785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6785 Manual patient transfer device. (a) Identification. A manual patient...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  11. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  12. Human-parathormone assay for use in dogs: validation, sample handling studies, and parathyroid function testing.

    PubMed

    Torrance, A G; Nachreiner, R

    1989-07-01

    Ten commercially available parathormone (PTH) assays were competitively validated, using dilutional parallelism, intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation, and sensitivity and measured responses of 2 dogs to calcium and EDTA infusions. A 2-site immunoradiometric assay for intact human-PTH was superior to the others for estimating canine-PTH, met the criteria for validity, and was further investigated. A series of sample-handling studies was performed. Serum and plasma samples stored at 24 C lost 15% (n = 5; P less than 0.05) of PTH between 2 and 24 hours. This did not occur at 6 C. The mean PTH concentration of sera from blood samples clotted at 24 C was 6% (P less than 0.05) higher than equivalent EDTA samples. Serum samples stored at 6 and 37 C deteriorated 35% and 100% (n = 5; P less than 0.05), respectively, after 1 week, whereas samples stored at -20 and -70 C for 4 weeks did not deteriorate. There was no significant deterioration of PTH in samples frozen (-40 C) and thawed up to 7 times (n = 5). Parathyroid function testing was investigated by use of 2-hour infusions of disodium EDTA (25 mg/kg/h), 10-minute infusions of calcium gluconate (3 mg of elemental calcium/kg/10 min), and physiologic saline controls (n = 8). Renal function was monitored before and after EDTA infusion by exogenous creatinine clearance. Infusion of disodium EDTA increased mean PTH concentration from 67 (time 0) to 317 and 235 pg/ml at 90 and 180 minutes, respectively (P less than 0.001). Infusion of calcium gluconate decreased mean PTH concentration from 84 (time 0) to 14 and 12 pg/ml at 15 and 60 minutes, respectively (P less than 0.005). There were no observable side effects of the infusions in normal conscious dogs and no differences in exogenous creatinine clearance after EDTA infusion.

  13. Human factors validation study of 3 mg sumatriptan autoinjector, for migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Munjal, Sagar; Kumar, Rajesh; Andre, Anthony D; Valladao, Will; Ramirez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine pain relief is reported by more than 50% of patients who receive low dose (3 mg) of sumatriptan. Currently, there is no two-step autoinjector of low-dose sumatriptan available on the market for acute migraine treatment. To fulfill this need, a fully assembled, single-dose, subcutaneous autoinjector (sumatriptan 3 mg; product-code DFN-11) was developed. The device allows for injection with a simple two-step, push-to-inject process and provides feedback of the injection activation, progress, and completion. Objective To determine if DFN-11 autoinjector can be used correctly and safely by migraine patients. Methods and participants A human factors validation study was conducted with 45 migraine patients (30 oral-only medications users; 15 injectable sumatriptan users) who performed one unaided simulated injection. Two days prior, half the oral participants were briefly trained. All others were only given the device to inspect and written instructions to review. No injections were performed during the initial session. All participants received written instructions at the injection session. Results All participants (45/45; 100%) performed the injection without any errors. Objective measures included device removal from packaging, cap removal, expiration date check, inspection of fluid in window, identification of allowable injection site, proper device positioning, dose confirmation, and device disposal. All participants (45/45; 100%) reported no difficulty administering the injection and no concerns about using the autoinjector during a severe migraine onset. Conclusion The results showed that the DFN-11 autoinjector can be used with safe handling without patterns of confusion, failures, high-risk errors, wet injections, or patient safety risks. The DFN-11 autoinjector was validated to be used correctly and safely by migraine patients, whether they were injection experienced, unexperienced, trained, or self-trained. PMID:27313479

  14. Histological validation of high-resolution DTI in human post mortem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Seehaus, Arne; Roebroeck, Alard; Bastiani, Matteo; Fonseca, Lúcia; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Lori, Nicolás; Vilanova, Anna; Goebel, Rainer; Galuske, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is amongst the simplest mathematical models available for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, yet still by far the most used one. Despite the success of DTI as an imaging tool for white matter fibers, its anatomical underpinnings on a microstructural basis remain unclear. In this study, we used 65 myelin-stained sections of human premotor cortex to validate modeled fiber orientations and oft used microstructure-sensitive scalar measures of DTI on the level of individual voxels. We performed this validation on high spatial resolution diffusion MRI acquisitions investigating both white and gray matter. We found a very good agreement between DTI and myelin orientations with the majority of voxels showing angular differences less than 10°. The agreement was strongest in white matter, particularly in unidirectional fiber pathways. In gray matter, the agreement was good in the deeper layers highlighting radial fiber directions even at lower fractional anisotropy (FA) compared to white matter. This result has potentially important implications for tractography algorithms applied to high resolution diffusion MRI data if the aim is to move across the gray/white matter boundary. We found strong relationships between myelin microstructure and DTI-based microstructure-sensitive measures. High FA values were linked to high myelin density and a sharply tuned histological orientation profile. Conversely, high values of mean diffusivity (MD) were linked to bimodal or diffuse orientation distributions and low myelin density. At high spatial resolution, DTI-based measures can be highly sensitive to white and gray matter microstructure despite being relatively unspecific to concrete microarchitectural aspects. PMID:26257612

  15. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  16. Intrasurgical Human Retinal Imaging With Manual Instrument Tracking Using a Microscope-Integrated Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Device

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Cunefare, David; Migacz, Justin; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the first in-human intraoperative imaging using a custom prototype spectral-domain microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) device during vitreoretinal surgery with instruments in the eye. Methods: Under institutional review board approval for a prospective intraoperative study, MIOCT images were obtained at surgical pauses with instruments held static in the vitreous cavity and then concurrently with surgical maneuvers. Postoperatively, MIOCT images obtained at surgical pauses were compared with images obtained with a high-resolution handheld spectral-domain OCT (HHOCT) system with objective endpoints, including acquisition of images acceptable for analysis and identification of predefined macular morphologic or pathologic features. Results: Human MIOCT images were successfully obtained before incision and during pauses in surgical maneuvers. MIOCT imaging confirmed preoperative diagnoses, such as epiretinal membrane, full-thickness macular hole, and vitreomacular traction and demonstrated successful achievement of surgical goals. MIOCT and HHOCT images obtained at surgical pauses in two cohorts of five patients were comparable with greater than or equal to 80% correlation in 80% of patients. Real-time video-imaging concurrent with surgical manipulations enabled, for the first time using this device, visualization of dynamic instrument-retina interaction with targeted OCT tracking. Conclusion: MIOCT is successful for imaging at surgical pauses and for real-time image guidance with implementation of targeted OCT tracking. Even faster acquisition speeds are currently being developed with incorporation of a swept-source MIOCT engine. Further refinements and investigations will be directed toward continued integration for real-time volumetric imaging of surgical maneuvers. Translational Relevance: Ongoing development of seamless MIOCT systems will likely transform surgical visualization, approaches, and decision-making. PMID

  17. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of mavoglurant (AFQ056) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Annamaria; Winter, Serge; Raccuglia, Marc; Picard, Frank; Dumitras, Swati; Woessner, Ralph; Mistry, Sanket; Chudasama, Jayraj; Guttikar, Swati; Kretz, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was validated for the identification and quantification of mavoglurant (AFQ056) in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Cosmosil 5 C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 40 ± 0.5 °C with a mobile phase consisting of acetic acid in water (0.1%, v/v)/methanol (10:90, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min followed by quantification with tandem mass spectrometry, operating with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and applying multiple reaction monitoring. The validated method described in this paper presents high absolute recovery with precision and accuracy meeting the acceptance criteria. The method was precise and accurate for 2- and 10-fold dilution of samples. The method was validated using sodium heparin as specific anticoagulant, and the anticoagulant effect was tested by lithium heparin and K(3)EDTA. The method was successfully cross-validated between two bioanalytical sites. The method was specific for mavoglurant within the given criteria for acceptance (apparent peak area at the retention time of mavoglurant in zero samples was less than 20% compared with the mean peak area at LLOQ) in human plasma. The method was fully validated for the quantitative determination of mavoglurant in human plasma between the range of 2.00 and 2,500 ng/mL.

  18. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this EPA design manual is to provide updated, state‐of‐the‐technology design guidance on nitrogen and phosphorus control at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Similar to previous EPA manuals, this manual contains extensive information on the principles ...

  19. KDYNA user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Levatin, J.A.L.; Attia, A.V.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1990-09-28

    This report is a complete user's manual for KDYNA, the Earth Sciences version of DYNA2D. Because most features of DYNA2D have been retained in KDYNA much of this manual is identical to the DYNA2D user's manual.

  20. Cross-validation of murine UV signal transduction pathways in human skin.

    PubMed

    Einspahr, Janine G; Bowden, G Timothy; Alberts, David S; McKenzie, Naja; Saboda, Kathylynn; Warneke, James; Salasche, Stuart; Ranger-Moore, James; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Nagle, Raymond B; Nickoloff, Brian J; Brooks, Christine; Dong, Zigang; Stratton, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    Acute UVB irradiation of mouse skin results in activation of phospatidyinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways leading to altered protein phosphorylation and downstream transcription of genes. We determined whether activation of these pathways also occurs in human skin exposed to 4x minimal erythemic dose of UVB in 23 volunteers. Biopsies were taken prior to, at 30 min, 1 and 24 h post-UVB. In agreement with mouse studies, the earliest UV-induced changes in epidermis were seen in phospho-CREB (two- and five-fold at 30 min and 1 h) and in phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (three-fold at both 30 min and 1 h). At 1 h, phospho-c-JUN and phospho-p38 were increased five- and two-fold, respectively. Moreover, phospho-c-JUN and phospho-p38 were further increased at 24 h (12- and six-fold, respectively). Phospho-GSK-3beta was similarly increased at all time points. Increases in phospho-p53 (12-fold), COX-2 (four-fold), c-FOS (14-fold) and apoptosis were not seen until 24 h. Our data suggest that UVB acts through MAPK p38 and PI-3 kinase with phosphorylation of MAPKAPK-2, CREB, c-JUN, p38, GSK-3beta and p53 leading to marked increases in c-FOS, COX-2 and apoptosis. Validation of murine models in human skin will aid in development of effective skin cancer chemoprevention and prevention strategies.

  1. Integrated Summary Report: Validation of Two Binding Assays Using Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor Alpha (hrERa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Integrated Summary Report (ISR) summarizes, in a single document, the results from an international multi-laboratory validation study conducted for two in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays. These assays both use human recombinant estrogen receptor, alpha subtype (h...

  2. Developing a Valid and Reliable Instrument to Predict the Protective Sexual Behaviors in Women at Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: One much needed tool to assist with the monitoring and evaluation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention programs is to provide a valid instrument to measure protective sexual behavior and related factors. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a valid and reliable instrument to predict the protective sexual behaviors of women at risk of HIV in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study was a sequential mixed cross-sectional and methodological research. Initially, via a qualitative research, constructs and factors associated with sexual protective behavior of women at risk were identified through 25 in-depth interviews. The questionnaire on predictors of protective sexual behaviors in women at risk of HIV (PSPB) was designed based on a qualitative study, and then its qualitative validity, content, and construct validity were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and 200 women at risk participated. Results: Seven concepts emerged after exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items. The content validity ratio (CVR) of the questionnaire constructs were 0.55 to 0.76, and content validity index (CVI) structure was 0.86 to 0.95. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire questionnaire was 0.78, and correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability for the constructs was from 0.73 to 0.89. Conclusions: The current study proved the capability of the predictors of sexual protective behavior in women at risk for HIV questionnaire as a valid and reliable instrument for the Iranian community. PMID:25593717

  3. Validated spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of tamsulosin in spiked human urine, pure and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Karasakal, A; Ulu, S T

    2014-05-01

    A novel, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of tamsulosin in spiked human urine and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is based on the reaction of tamsulosin with 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride in carbonate buffer pH 10.5 to yield a highly fluorescent derivative. The described method was validated and the analytical parameters of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, recovery and robustness were evaluated. The proposed method showed a linear dependence of the fluorescence intensity on drug concentration over the range 1.22 × 10(-7) to 7.35 × 10(-6)  M. LOD and LOQ were calculated as 1.07 × 10(-7) and 3.23 × 10(-7)  M, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of tamsulosin in pharmaceutical preparations and the obtained results were in good agreement with those obtained using the reference method.

  4. Iodonium Ylide Mediated Radiofluorination of 18F-FPEB and Validation for Human Use

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nickeisha A.; Holland, Jason P.; Kassenbrock, Alina; Yokell, Daniel L.; Livni, Eli; Liang, Steven H.; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Translation of new methodologies for labeling non-activated aromatic molecules with fluorine-18 remains a challenge. Here, we report a one-step, regioselective, metal-free 18F-labeling method that employs a hypervalent iodonium(III) ylide precursor, to prepare the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FPEB. Methods Automated radiosynthesis of 18F-FPEB was achieved by reaction of the ylide precursor (4 mg) with 18F-NEt4F in DMF at 80 °C for 5 minutes, and formulated for injection within 1 hour. Results 18F-FPEB was synthesized in 15 – 25% (n = 3) uncorrected radiochemical yields relative to 18F-fluoride, with specific activities of 666 ± 51.8 GBq/μmol (18 ± 1.4 Ci/μmol) at the end-of-synthesis (EOS). The radiopharmaceutical was validated for human use. Conclusions Radiofluorination of iodonium (III) ylides proved to be an efficient radiosynthetic strategy for synthesis of 18F-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:25655630

  5. Validation of the simplified UVB model to assess the pharmacodynamics of analgesics in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ing Lorenzini, Kuntheavy; Besson, Marie; Daali, Youssef; Salomon, Denis; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2012-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy human volunteers with the primary objective of exploring the existence of a positive interaction between paracetamol 1 g and ketorolac 20 mg intravenously on experimental pain models. Further, the simplified UVB model was validated as a screening tool for analgesics or a combination of analgesics in clinical drug development. It was observed that the UVB irradiation induced primary hyperalgesia, evidenced by significant decreases of the heat pain threshold from (mean ± SD) 46.9 ± 1.1 °C to 40.1 ± 1.7 °C (p <0.001) and of the mechanical pain threshold (62% decrease). A small intra- and inter-individual variability was observed as well as consistent intra-day stability for the heat pain threshold. The UVB irradiation also resulted in the development of an area of secondary hyperalgesia of 21.3 ± 11.3 cm(2). The mechanical pain threshold and area of secondary hyperalgesia showed small intra-individual variability and consistent intra-day stability. However, a greater variability was observed between subjects, which suggests that a crossover design would allow limiting the number of subjects.

  6. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  11. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  12. Mechanical dissociation of human embryonic stem cell colonies by manual scraping after collagenase treatment is much more detrimental to cellular viability than is trypsinization with gentle pipetting.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Ge, Zigang; Cao, Tong

    2007-05-01

    Because hESC (human embryonic stem cells) are 'social cells' that require co-operative interactions and intimate physical contact with each other, it is absolutely essential to dissociate hESC colonies into cellular clumps rather than into a single-cell suspension during serial passage. The present study compared two commonly used protocols for dissociating hESC colonies. The first protocol involved mild enzymatic treatment with collagenase type IV (1 mg/ml) for approx. 5-10 min, prior to mechanical dissociation into cellular clumps through manual scraping with a plastic pipette tip. The second protocol involved a short duration of exposure (2-3 min) to low concentrations of trypsin (0.05%), followed by gentle pipetting. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay was used to compare the recovery of viable cells after dissociating hESC colonies with these two protocols, before and after conventional freeze-thawing with 10% (v/v) DMSO. Besides undifferentiated hESC, the randomly differentiated fibroblastic progenies of hESC at various passages (P0-P4), together with an immortalized cell line (CRL-1486), were also utilized to compare the two protocols. The results demonstrated that the second protocol (trypsinization with gentle pipetting) is much less detrimental to cellular viability than is the first protocol (collagenase treatment with scratching). This in turn translated to higher freeze-thaw survival rates. It is hypothesized that scratching after collagenase treatment (first protocol) somehow induces physical damage to the cells, thereby leading to a lower recovery of viable cells, both before and after freeze-thawing.

  13. Quantitative MR Imaging of Hepatic Steatosis: Validation in Ex Vivo Human Livers

    PubMed Central

    Bannas, Peter; Kramer, Harald; Hernando, Diego; Agni, Rashmi; Cunningham, Ashley M.; Mandal, Rakesh; Motosugi, Utaroh; Sharma, Samir D.; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Fernandez, Luis; Reeder, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of hepatic steatosis have demonstrated tremendous promise for accurate quantification of hepatic triglyceride concentration. These methods quantify the “proton density fat-fraction” (PDFF), which reflects the concentration of triglycerides in tissue. Previous in vivo studies have compared MRI-PDFF with histologic steatosis grading for assessment of hepatic steatosis. However, the correlation of MRI-PDFF with the underlying hepatic triglyceride content remained unknown. The aim of this ex vivo study was to validate the accuracy of MRI-PDFF as an imaging biomarker of hepatic steatosis. Using ex vivo human livers, we compared MRI-PDFF with magnetic resonance spectroscopy-PDFF (MRS-PDFF), biochemical triglyceride extraction and histology as three independent reference standards. A secondary aim was to compare the precision of MRI-PDFF relative to biopsy for the quantification of hepatic steatosis. MRI-PDFF was prospectively performed at 1.5T in 13 explanted human livers. We performed co-localized paired evaluation of liver fat content in all nine Couinaud segments using single-voxel MRS-PDFF (n=117), tissue wedges for biochemical triglyceride extraction (n=117), and five core biopsies performed in each segment for histologic grading (n=585). Accuracy of MRI-PDFF was assessed through linear regression with MRS-PDFF, triglyceride extraction and histology. Intra-observer agreement, inter-observer agreement and repeatability of MRI-PDFF and histologic grading were assessed through Bland-Altman analyses. MRI-PDFF showed an excellent correlation with MRS-PDFF (r=0.984; CI: 0.978–0.989) and strong correlation with histology (r=0.850; CI: 0.791–0.894) and triglyceride extraction (r=0.871; CI: 0.818–0.909). Intra-observer agreement, inter-observer agreement and repeatability showed a significantly smaller variance for MRI-PDFF than for histologic steatosis grading (all p<0.001). Conclusion MRI-PDFF is an accurate

  14. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  15. Quantitative detection of caffeine in human skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy--A systematic in vitro validation study.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Anderski, Juliane; Windbergs, Maike

    2015-09-01

    For rational development and evaluation of dermal drug delivery, the knowledge of rate and extent of substance penetration into the human skin is essential. However, current analytical procedures are destructive, labor intense and lack a defined spatial resolution. In this context, confocal Raman microscopy bares the potential to overcome current limitations in drug depth profiling. Confocal Raman microscopy already proved its suitability for the acquisition of qualitative penetration profiles, but a comprehensive investigation regarding its suitability for quantitative measurements inside the human skin is still missing. In this work, we present a systematic validation study to deploy confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. After we validated our Raman microscopic setup, we successfully established an experimental procedure that allows correlating the Raman signal of a model drug with its controlled concentration in human skin. To overcome current drawbacks in drug depth profiling, we evaluated different modes of peak correlation for quantitative Raman measurements and offer a suitable operating procedure for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin as valuable alternative to destructive state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. Bigfoot Field Manual, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.L.; Burrows, S.; Gower, S.T.; Cohen, W.B.

    1999-09-01

    The BigFoot Project is funded by the Earth Science Enterprise to collect and organize data to be used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System (EOS) Validation Program. The data collected by the BigFoot Project are unique in being ground-based observations coincident with satellite overpasses. In addition to collecting data, the BigFoot project will develop and test new algorithms for scaling point measurements to the same spatial scales as the EOS satellite products. This BigFoot Field Manual will be used to achieve completeness and consistency of data collected at four initial BigFoot sites and at future sites that may collect similar validation data. Therefore, validation datasets submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center that have been compiled in a manner consistent with the field manual will be especially valuable in the validation program.

  17. The Model Human Processor and the Older Adult: Parameter Estimation and Validation Within a Mobile Phone Task

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20; Mage = 20) and older (N = 20; Mage = 69) adults. Older adult models fit keystroke-level performance at the aggregate grain of analysis extremely well (R = 0.99) and produced equivalent fits to previously validated younger adult models. Critical path analyses highlighted points of poor design as a function of cognitive workload, hardware/software design, and user characteristics. The findings demonstrate that estimated older adult information processing parameters are valid for modeling purposes, can help designers understand age-related performance using existing interfaces, and may support the development of age-sensitive technologies. PMID:18194048

  18. CSTEM User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  19. Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Cameron

    2010-09-01

    Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I contend that none of these criticisms currently succeed, nor are they likely to. However, the connection between validity and morality is important, suggesting that critical efforts would be instructive if they addressed it in a more nuanced way.

  20. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  1. Experimental validation of a reach-and grasp optimization algorithm inspired to human arm-hand control.

    PubMed

    Cordella, F; Zollo, L; Salerno, A; Guglielmelli, E; Siciliano, B

    2011-01-01

    Taking inspiration from neurophysiological studies on synergies in the human grasping action, this paper tries to demonstrate that it is possible to find a general rule for performing a stable, human-like cylindrical grasp with a robotic hand. To this purpose, the theoretical formulation and the experimental validation of a reach-and-grasp algorithm for determining the optimal hand position and the optimal finger configuration for grasping a cylindrical object with known features are presented. The proposed algorithm is based on the minimization of an objective function expressed by the sum of the distances of the hand joints from the object surface. Algorithm effectiveness has preliminarily been tested by means of simulation trials. Experimental trials on a real arm-hand robotic system have then been carried out in order to validate the approach and evaluate algorithm performance.

  2. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  3. Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  4. EMSL Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-03-25

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  5. EMSL Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-06-18

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  6. Instruct coders' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, J.

    1971-01-01

    A manual designed both as an instructional manual for beginning coders and as a reference manual for the coding language INSTRUCT, is presented. The manual includes the major programs necessary to implement the teaching system and lists the limitation of current implementation. A detailed description is given of how to code a lesson, what buttons to push, and what utility programs to use. Suggestions for debugging coded lessons and the error messages that may be received during assembly or while running the lesson are given.

  7. The canine model of human cognitive aging and dementia: pharmacological validity of the model for assessment of human cognitive-enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Studzinski, Christa M; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W

    2005-03-01

    For the past 15 years we have investigated the aged beagle dog as a model for human aging and dementia. We have shown that dogs develop cognitive deficits and neuropathology seen in human aging and dementia. These similarities increase the likelihood that the model will be able to accurately predict the efficacy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments as well as detect therapeutics with limited or no efficacy. Better predictive validity of cognitive-enhancing therapeutics (CETs) could lead to enormous cost savings by reducing the number of failed human clinical trials and also may reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes such as those recently observed in the AN-1792 clinical trials. The current review assesses the pharmacological validity of the canine model of human aging and dementia. We tested the efficacy of (1) CP-118,954 and phenserine, two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, (2) an ampakine, (3) selegiline hydrochloride, two drugs that have failed human AD trials, and (4) adrafinil, a putative CET. Our research demonstrates that dogs not only develop isomorphic changes in human cognition and brain pathology, but also accurately predict the efficacy of known AD treatments and the absence or limited efficacy of treatments that failed clinical trials. These findings collectively support the utilization of the dog model as a preclinical screen for identifying novel CETs for both age-associated memory disorder and dementia.

  8. Patient-specific finite element analysis of the human femur--a double-blinded biomechanical validation.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Wutte, Christof; Augat, Peter; Eberle, Sebastian

    2011-06-03

    Patient-specific finite element (PSFE) models based on quantitative computer tomography (qCT) are generally used to "predict" the biomechanical response of human bones with the future goal to be applied in clinical decision-making. However, clinical applications require a well validated tool that is free of numerical errors and furthermore match closely experimental findings. In previous studies, not all measurable data (strains and displacements) were considered for validation. Furthermore, the same research group performed both the experiments and PSFE analyses; thus, the validation may have been biased. The aim of the present study was therefore to validate PSFE models with biomechanical experiments, and to address the above-mentioned issues of measurable data and validation bias. A PSFE model (p-method) of each cadaver femur (n = 12) was generated based on qCT scans of the specimens. The models were validated by biomechanical in-vitro experiments, which determined strains and local displacements on the bone surface and the axial stiffness of the specimens. The validation was performed in a double-blinded manner by two different research institutes to avoid any bias. Inspecting all measurements (155 values), the numerical results correlated well with the experimental results (R(2) = 0.93, slope 1.0093, mean of absolute deviations 22%). In conclusion, a method to generate PSFE models from qCT scans was used in this study on a sample size not yet considered in the past, and compared to experiments in a douple-blinded manner. The results demonstrate that the presented method is in an advanced stage, and can be used in clinical computer-aided decision-making.

  9. Human liver finite element model validation using compressive and tensile experimental data - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Moreno, Daniel P; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Gayzik, F Scott

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes commonly result in blunt abdominal trauma. Approximately 19,000 such injuries occur each year in the United States. While finite element models of the human body are becoming an important tool for injury assessment, their reliability depends on the accuracy of the material models used. Recently, Samur et al. proposed a hyperelastic and viscoelastic material model of the liver. The aim of this study was to compare the results of a computational model using this material law to uniaxial tension and compression data from biomechanical tests on liver samples by Kemper et al. In this study, the liver samples were modeled using the finite element method. Both the tension and compression test specimen geometries were created from descriptions in the literature. Each sample was meshed using four approaches: fine hexahedral, coarse hexahedral, fine tetrahedral, and coarse tetrahedral. The average element edge lengths of the coarse and fine meshes were 5 mm and 2.5 mm respectively. The samples were loaded in both tension and compression at four rates: 0.01 strain/sec, 0.1 strain/sec, 1 strain/sec, and 10 strain/sec. For each mesh type (n=4), strain rate (n=4), and loading condition (n=2), 32 simulations in total, the results were plotted against the published experimental data. The results were quantitatively evaluated for magnitude and phase agreement with the experimental data using an objective comparison software package, CORA. The model predicted the tensile response of the liver sample more accurately than the compressive response with an average CORA size error factor of 0.66 versus 0.19 for the compressive model (1 is a perfect match). The fine tetrahedral, fine hexahedral, and coarse hexahedral meshes predicted a similar response. The worst performing mesh was the coarse tetrahedral mesh, which had an average size error factor of 8.6% higher than the fine tetrahedral simulations. The peak stress in both tension and compression varied as a

  10. Reassessing manual proportions in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Rolian, Campbell; Gordon, Adam D

    2013-11-01

    Previous analyses of hand morphology in Australopithecus afarensis have concluded that this taxon had modern human-like manual proportions, with relatively long thumbs and short fingers. These conclusions are based on the A.L.333 composite fossil assemblage from Hadar, Ethiopia, and are premised on the ability to assign phalanges to a single individual, and to the correct side and digit. Neither assignment is secure, however, given the taphonomy and sample composition at A.L.333. We use a resampling approach that includes the entire assemblage of complete hand elements at Hadar, and takes into account uncertainties in identifying phalanges by individual, side and digit number. This approach provides the most conservative estimates of manual proportions in Au. afarensis. We resampled hand long bone lengths in Au. afarensis and extant hominoids, and obtained confidence limits for distributions of manual proportions in the latter. Results confirm that intrinsic manual proportions in Au. afarensis are dissimilar to Pan and Pongo. However, manual proportions in Au. afarensis often fall at the upper end of the distribution in Gorilla, and very lower end in Homo, corresponding to disproportionately short thumbs and long medial digits in Homo. This suggests that manual proportions in Au. afarensis, particularly metacarpal proportions, were not as derived towards Homo as previously described, but rather are intermediate between gorillas and humans. Functionally, these results suggest Au. afarensis could not produce precision grips with the same efficiency as modern humans, which may in part account for the absence of lithic technology in this fossil taxon.

  11. Intra-Laboratory Pre-Validation of a Human Cell Based in vitro Angiogenesis Assay for Testing Angiogenesis Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Mannerström, Marika; Vuorenpää, Hanna; Uotila, Jukka; Ylikomi, Timo; Heinonen, Tuula

    2010-01-01

    The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory pre-validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis, e.g., pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using six reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory pre-validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation), batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability) were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory pre-validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests. PMID:21779245

  12. Psychiatry's new manual (DSM-5): ethical and conceptual dimensions.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual:(1) Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview (eg, binge eating disorder, internet gaming disorder, caffeine use disorder, hoarding disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder). Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of "construct validity" and "conceptual validity" and a failure to distinguish between "disorder" and "non disordered conditions for which we help people."(2) The role of claims about societal impact in changes in nosology: Several changes in the DSM-5 involved claims about societal impact in their rationales. This is due in part to a new online open comment period during DSM development. Examples include advancement of science, greater access to treatment, greater public awareness of condition, loss of identify or harm to those with removed disorders, stigmatization, offensiveness, etc. I identify and evaluate four importantly distinct ways in which claims about societal impact might operate in DSM development. (3) Categorisation nosology to spectrum nosology: The move to "degrees of severity" of mental disorders, a major change for DSM-5, raises concerns about conceptual clarity and uniformity concerning what it means to have a severe form of a disorder, and ethical concerns about communication.

  13. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  14. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  15. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  16. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  17. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  18. Police Robbery Control Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Richard H.; And Others

    The manual was designed as a practical guide for police department personnel in developing robbery control programs. An introductory chapter defines types of robberies and suggests administrative and operational uses of the manual. Research and control strategies are reported according to five robbery types: street (visible and non-visible),…

  19. Manual for Refugee Sponsorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Kathleen; Taran, Patrick A.

    This manual provides guidelines for religious congregations interested in setting up programs to sponsor refugees. The manual describes the psychological implications of the refugee experience and discusses initial steps in organizing for sponsorship. Detailed information is provided for sponsors regarding: finances and mobilization of resources;…

  20. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  1. School Reform Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, Aurora, CO.

    This manual is designed to help schools make successful school reform a reality. It provides the background and perspectives necessary for a school constituency to understand the current climate of education reform in the United States and what is known about successful school reform. The manual also provides inquiry-based techniques for…

  2. Boating Safety Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    The training manual serves as the text for the Coast Guard's boating safety 32-hour course and for the D-8 Qualification Code Recertification Course. The manual is designed for self-study or for use with an instructor-led course. Each chapter concludes with a quiz to be used as a review of chaper content. Opening chapters review the use of the…

  3. Learning Resources Evaluations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Evelyn H., Ed.

    This manual contains evaluations of 196 instructional products listed in Virginia's Adult Basic Education Curricula Resource Catalog. It is intended as a convenient reference manual for making informed decisions concerning materials for adult learners in adult basic education, English-as-a-Second-Language instruction, and general educational…

  4. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  5. Validating genetic markers of response to recombinant human growth hormone in children with growth hormone deficiency and Turner syndrome: the PREDICT validation study

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Adam; Murray, Philip; Wojcik, Jerome; Raelson, John; Koledova, Ekaterina; Chatelain, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the response to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) have previously been identified in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and Turner syndrome (TS) children in the PREDICT long-term follow-up (LTFU) study (Nbib699855). Here, we describe the PREDICT validation (VAL) study (Nbib1419249), which aimed to confirm these genetic associations. Design and methods Children with GHD (n = 293) or TS (n = 132) were recruited retrospectively from 29 sites in nine countries. All children had completed 1 year of r-hGH therapy. 48 SNPs previously identified as associated with first year growth response to r-hGH were genotyped. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between genotype and growth response using clinical/auxological variables as covariates. Further analysis was undertaken using random forest classification. Results The children were younger, and the growth response was higher in VAL study. Direct genotype analysis did not replicate what was found in the LTFU study. However, using exploratory regression models with covariates, a consistent relationship with growth response in both VAL and LTFU was shown for four genes – SOS1 and INPPL1 in GHD and ESR1 and PTPN1 in TS. The random forest analysis demonstrated that only clinical covariates were important in the prediction of growth response in mild GHD (>4 to <10 μg/L on GH stimulation test), however, in severe GHD (≤4 μg/L) several SNPs contributed (in IGF2, GRB10, FOS, IGFBP3 and GHRHR). Conclusions The PREDICT validation study supports, in an independent cohort, the association of four of 48 genetic markers with growth response to r-hGH treatment in both pre-pubertal GHD and TS children after controlling for clinical/auxological covariates. However, the contribution of these SNPs in a prediction model of first-year response is not sufficient for routine clinical use. PMID:27651465

  6. Immunohistochemical validation and expression profiling of NKG2D ligands in a wide spectrum of human epithelial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiromi; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Sutoh, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yuta; Oba, Koji; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Otsuka, Noriyuki; Fugo, Kazunori; Kasahara, Masanori; Matsuno, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The MHC class I-chain-related proteins (MICs) and the UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) are inducible stress response molecules that work as activators of a specific receptor, NKG2D, which is expressed on effector cells, such as NK cells and subsets of T cells. In this study, we sought to explore the biological significance of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms by comprehensively examining the immunohistochemical expression profile of NKG2D ligands in a variety of human epithelial neoplasms. Following careful validation of the immunohistochemical specificity and availability of anti-human ULBP antibodies for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, the expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed in FFPE tissue microarrays comprising 22 types of epithelial neoplastic tissue with their non-neoplastic counterpart from various organs. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated a positive relationship among ULBP2/6, ULBP3, ULBP1, and ULBP5, whose expression patterns were similar across all of the neoplastic tissues examined. In contrast, MICA/B, as well as ULBP4, did not appear to be related to any other ligand. These expression profiles of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms based on well-validated specific antibodies, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, should help to clarify some functional aspects of these molecules in cancer biology, and also provide a path to the development of novel tumor-type-specific treatment strategies.

  7. Immunohistochemical Validation and Expression Profiling of NKG2D Ligands in a Wide Spectrum of Human Epithelial Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiromi; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Sutoh, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yuta; Oba, Koji; Hatanaka, Kanako C.; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Otsuka, Noriyuki; Fugo, Kazunori; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I-chain-related proteins (MICs) and the UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) are inducible stress response molecules that work as activators of a specific receptor, NKG2D, which is expressed on effector cells, such as NK cells and subsets of T cells. In this study, we sought to explore the biological significance of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms by comprehensively examining the immunohistochemical expression profile of NKG2D ligands in a variety of human epithelial neoplasms. Following careful validation of the immunohistochemical specificity and availability of anti-human ULBP antibodies for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, the expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed in FFPE tissue microarrays comprising 22 types of epithelial neoplastic tissue with their non-neoplastic counterpart from various organs. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated a positive relationship among ULBP2/6, ULBP3, ULBP1, and ULBP5, whose expression patterns were similar across all of the neoplastic tissues examined. In contrast, MICA/B, as well as ULBP4, did not appear to be related to any other ligand. These expression profiles of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms based on well-validated specific antibodies, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, should help to clarify some functional aspects of these molecules in cancer biology, and also provide a path to the development of novel tumor-type-specific treatment strategies. PMID:25473094

  8. [Physiotherapy as manual therapy].

    PubMed

    Torstensen, T A; Nielsen, L L; Jensen, R; Reginiussen, T; Wiesener, T; Kirkesola, G; Mengshoel, A M

    1999-05-30

    Manual therapy includes methods where the therapist's hands are used to stretch, mobilize or manipulate the spinal column, paravertebral structures or extremity joints. The aims of these methods are to relieve pain and improve function. In Norway only specially qualified physiotherapists and chiropractors are authorized to perform manipulation of joints (high velocity thrust techniques). To become a qualified manual therapist in Norway one must have a minimum of two years of clinical practice as physiotherapist followed by two year full time postgraduate training in manual therapy (a total of six years). Historically the Norwegian manual therapy system was developed in the 1950s by physiotherapists and medical doctors in England (James Cyriax and James Mennell) and Norway. As a result doctors allowed physiotherapists to use manipulation as a treatment method of both spinal and peripheral joints. In 1957 the Norwegian health authorities introduced reimbursement for manual therapy performed by physiotherapists.

  9. Product Manuals: A Consumer Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Linda S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of insights from consumer focus groups on product manual usage reveals consumer perceptions and preferences regarding manual and safety message format. Results can be used to improve manual design and content. (JOW)

  10. Validation of In utero Tractography of Human Fetal Commissural and Internal Capsule Fibers with Histological Structure Tensor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitter, Christian; Jakab, András; Brugger, Peter C.; Ricken, Gerda; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Scharrer, Anke; Langs, Georg; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography offer the unique possibility to visualize the developing white matter macroanatomy of the human fetal brain in vivo and in utero and are currently under investigation for their potential use in the diagnosis of developmental pathologies of the human central nervous system. However, in order to establish in utero DTI as a clinical imaging tool, an independent comparison between macroscopic imaging and microscopic histology data in the same subject is needed. The present study aimed to cross-validate normal as well as abnormal in utero tractography results of commissural and internal capsule fibers in human fetal brains using postmortem histological structure tensor (ST) analysis. In utero tractography findings from two structurally unremarkable and five abnormal fetal brains were compared to the results of postmortem ST analysis applied to digitalized whole hemisphere sections of the same subjects. An approach to perform ST-based deterministic tractography in histological sections was implemented to overcome limitations in correlating in utero tractography to postmortem histology data. ST analysis and histology-based tractography of fetal brain sections enabled the direct assessment of the anisotropic organization and main fiber orientation of fetal telencephalic layers on a micro- and macroscopic scale, and validated in utero tractography results of corpus callosum and internal capsule fiber tracts. Cross-validation of abnormal in utero tractography results could be achieved in four subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and in two cases with malformations of internal capsule fibers. In addition, potential limitations of current DTI-based in utero tractography could be demonstrated in several brain regions. Combining the three-dimensional nature of DTI-based in utero tractography with the microscopic resolution provided by histological ST analysis may ultimately facilitate a more complete morphologic

  11. Validated spectrofluorimetric method for determination of two phosphodiesterase inhibitors tadalafil and vardenafil in pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Enin, Mohammed Abu Bakr; Al-Ghaffar Hammouda, Mohammed El-Sayed Abd; El-Sherbiny, Dina Tawfik; El-Wasseef, Dalia Rashad; El-Ashry, Saadia Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    A valid, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of both tadalafil (TAD) and vardenafil (VAR) either in their pure form, in their tablet dosage forms or spiked in human plasma. This method is based on measurement of the native fluorescence of both drugs in acetonitrile at λem 330 and 470 nm after excitation at 280 and 275 nm for tadalafil and vardenafil, respectively. Linear relationships were obtained over the concentration range 4-40 and 10-250 ng/mL with a minimum detection of 1 and 3 ng/mL for tadalafil and vardenafil, respectively. Various experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity were carefully studied and optimized. The developed method was applied successfully for the determination of tadalafil and vardenafil in bulk drugs and tablet dosage forms. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the proposed method permitted their determination in spiked human plasma. The developed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LOQ), lower limit of detection (LOD), precision and accuracy. The mean recoveries of the analytes in pharmaceutical preparations were in agreement with those obtained from the comparison methods, as revealed by statistical analysis of the obtained results using Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test.

  12. Advanced forensic validation for human spermatozoa identification using SPERM HY-LITER™ Express with quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Ayari; Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko

    2017-01-19

    Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited. In this study, we conducted more advanced validations of SPERM HY-LITER™ Express using our established image analysis method. Use of this method enabled objective and specific identification of fluorescent sperm's spots and quantitative comparisons of the sperm detection performance under complex experimental conditions. For body fluid mixtures, we examined interference with the fluorescence staining from other body fluid components. Effects of sample decomposition were simulated in high humidity and high temperature conditions. Semen with quite low sperm concentrations, such as azoospermia and oligospermia samples, represented the most challenging cases in application of the kit. Finally, the tolerance of the kit against various acidic and basic environments was analyzed. The validations herein provide useful information for the practical applications of the SPERM HY-LITER™ Express kit, which were previously unobtainable. Moreover, the versatility of our image analysis method toward various complex cases was demonstrated.

  13. Automated cortical bone segmentation for multirow-detector CT imaging with validation and application to human studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Chen, Cheng; Letuchy, Elena M.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Burns, Trudy L.; Torner, James C; Levy, Steven M.; Saha, Punam K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cortical bone supports and protects human skeletal functions and plays an important role in determining bone strength and fracture risk. Cortical bone segmentation at a peripheral site using multirow-detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is useful for in vivo assessment of bone strength and fracture risk. Major challenges for the task emerge from limited spatial resolution, low signal-to-noise ratio, presence of cortical pores, and structural complexity over the transition between trabecular and cortical bones. An automated algorithm for cortical bone segmentation at the distal tibia from in vivo MD-CT imaging is presented and its performance and application are examined. Methods: The algorithm is completed in two major steps—(1) bone filling, alignment, and region-of-interest computation and (2) segmentation of cortical bone. After the first step, the following sequence of tasks is performed to accomplish cortical bone segmentation—(1) detection of marrow space and possible pores, (2) computation of cortical bone thickness, detection of recession points, and confirmation and filling of true pores, and (3) detection of endosteal boundary and delineation of cortical bone. Effective generalizations of several digital topologic and geometric techniques are introduced and a fully automated algorithm is presented for cortical bone segmentation. Results: An accuracy of 95.1% in terms of volume of agreement with manual outlining of cortical bone was observed in human MD-CT scans, while an accuracy of 88.5% was achieved when compared with manual outlining on postregistered high resolution micro-CT imaging. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98 was obtained in cadaveric repeat scans. A pilot study was conducted to describe gender differences in cortical bone properties. This study involved 51 female and 46 male participants (age: 19–20 yr) from the Iowa Bone Development Study. Results from this pilot study suggest that, on average after adjustment for height

  14. Measuring the Monday Blues: Validation of a Job Satisfaction Scale for the Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeske, Gary F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Developed and validated Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS) in series of studies from 1980 to 1991 involving over 600 helping professionals. Across administrations, alpha reliabilities ranged between 0.83 and 0.91, and reliabilities of intrinsic and organizational satisfaction subscales ranged from 0.85 to 0.90 and 0.78 to 0.90, respectively. (Author/NB)

  15. Involvement of the left insula in the ecological validity of the human voice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yuri; Kuriki, Shinji; Nakano, Tamami

    2015-01-01

    A subtle difference between a real human and an artificial object that resembles a human evokes an impression of a large qualitative difference between them. This suggests the existence of a neural mechanism that processes the sense of humanness. To examine the presence of such a mechanism, we compared the behavioral and brain responses of participants who listened to human and artificial singing voices created from vocal fragments of a real human voice. The behavioral experiment showed that the song sung by human voices more often elicited positive feelings and feelings of humanness than the same song sung by artificial voices, although the lyrics, melody, and rhythm were identical. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significantly higher activation in the left posterior insula in response to human voices than in response to artificial voices. Insular activation was not merely evoked by differences in acoustic features between the voices. Therefore, these results suggest that the left insula participates in the neural processing of the ecological quality of the human voice. PMID:25739519

  16. The controversial existence of the human superior fronto-occipital fasciculus: Connectome-based tractographic study with microdissection validation.

    PubMed

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    The superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), a long association bundle that connects frontal and occipital lobes, is well-documented in monkeys but is controversial in human brain. Its assumed role is in visual processing and spatial awareness. To date, anatomical and neuroimaging studies on human and animal brains are not in agreement about the existence, course, and terminations of SFOF. To clarify the existence of the SFOF in human brains, we applied deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 healthy subjects and to 80 individual subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and validated the results with white matter microdissection of post-mortem human brains. The imaging results showed that previous reconstructions of the SFOF were generated by two false continuations, namely between superior thalamic peduncle (STP) and stria terminalis (ST), and ST and posterior thalamic peduncle. The anatomical microdissection confirmed this finding. No other fiber tracts in the previously described location of the SFOF were identified. Hence, our data suggest that the SFOF does not exist in the human brain.

  17. [Development of a Crisis Management Manual for Occupational Health Experts].

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Juri; Tateishi, Seiichiro; Igarashi, Yu; Ide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hara, Tatsuhiko; Kobashi, Masaki; Inoue, Megumi; Kawashima, Megumi; Okada, Takeo; Mori, Koji

    2015-12-01

    When crises such as natural disasters or industrial accidents occur in workplaces, not only the workers who are injured, but also those who engage in emergency or recovery work may be exposed to various health hazards. We developed a manual to enable occupational health (OH) experts to prevent health hazards. The manual includes detailed explanations of the characteristics and necessary actions for each need in the list of "OH Needs During Crisis Management" developed after an analysis of eight cases in our previous research. We changed the endings of explanatory sentences so that users could learn how often each need occurred in these eight cases. We evaluated the validity of the manual using two processes: 1) Providing the manual to OH physicians during an industrial accident; 2) Asking crisis management experts to review the manual. We made improvements based on their feedback and completed the manual. The manual includes explanations about 99 OH needs, and users can learn how and what to do for each need during various crisis cases. Because additional OH needs may occur in other crises, it is necessary to collect information about new cases and to improve the comprehensiveness of the manual continuously. It is critical that this crisis management manual be available when a crisis occurs. We need to inform potential users of the manual through various media, as well as by posting it on our website.

  18. Automation and validation of micronucleus detection in the 3D EpiDerm™ human reconstructed skin assay and correlation with 2D dose responses

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, K. E.; Thomas, A. D.; Jenkins, G. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals have resulted in the need to test the genotoxic potential of chemicals exclusively in vitro prior to licensing. However, as current in vitro tests produce some misleading positive results, sole reliance on such tests could prevent some chemicals with safe or beneficial exposure levels from being marketed. The 3D human reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay is a promising new in vitro approach designed to assess genotoxicity of dermally applied compounds. The assay utilises a highly differentiated in vitro model of the human epidermis. For the first time, we have applied automated micronucleus detection to this assay using MetaSystems Metafer Slide Scanning Platform (Metafer), demonstrating concordance with manual scoring. The RSMN assay’s fixation protocol was found to be compatible with the Metafer, providing a considerably shorter alternative to the recommended Metafer protocol. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) were observed for mitomycin-C at 4.8 µg/ml and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at 1750 µg/ml when applied topically to the skin surface. In-medium dosing with MMS produced a LOGEL of 20 µg/ml, which was very similar to the topical LOGEL when considering the total mass of MMS added. Comparisons between 3D medium and 2D LOGELs resulted in a 7-fold difference in total mass of MMS applied to each system, suggesting a protective function of the 3D microarchitecture. Interestingly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a positive clastogen in 2D systems, tested negative in this assay. A non-genotoxic carcinogen, methyl carbamate, produced negative results, as expected. We also demonstrated expression of the DNA repair protein N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase in EpiDerm™. Our preliminary validation here demonstrates that the RSMN assay may be a valuable follow-up to the current in vitro test battery, and together with its automation, could contribute to minimising unnecessary in

  19. Design and Validation of a Morphing Myoelectric Hand Posture Controller Based on Principal Component Analysis of Human Grasping

    PubMed Central

    Segil, Jacob L.; Weir, Richard F. ff.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately. PMID:23649286

  20. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán Oporto; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. METHODS The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18–24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. RESULTS The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). CONCLUSION This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. PMID:26768173

  1. CMS RATFOR System Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL.(U) U 79 S M CHOQUETTE, R J ORGASS AFOSR-79-O021 NCLASSIFIED VPI/SU-TM-79- AFOSR -TR-80-0277 NI MEhLlllllElIIIIIIII...GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA FAtheqsow, AC 20041 (703) 471-4600 CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL*t Stephen M. Choquette and Richard J. Orgass DTIO...the System Manual for the RATFOR preprocessor on the IBM CMS timesharing system . Included in this paper is a language description of RATPOR, an

  2. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  3. Validity and reliability of biostereometric measurement of the human female breast.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, D B; Price, T E; Loughry, C W; Bolyard, B L; Morek, W M; Varga, R S

    1986-01-01

    A measurement technique has been developed for application in the area of noninvasive breast cancer detection. The measurement process involves the use of close-range stereophotogrammetry as a data acquisition device necessary for determination of breast volume and volume distribution. This report details the methodology used to acquire and analyze stereopair photographs necessary to document the validity and reliability of this application. The volume of a test object was determined by both water displacement and stereophotogrammetric analysis to estimate the precision of the proposed methodology. Additionally, the reliability component of the study was documented by analyzing variability of coordinates representing a series of locations marked on the surface of an irregularly shaped object. Both tests confirm that this stereometric analysis is a reliable and valid method of measurement and may be well suited for further development in the field of breast cancer detection.

  4. Anisotropic composite human skull model and skull fracture validation against temporo-parietal skull fracture.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2013-12-01

    A composite material model for skull, taking into account damage is implemented in the Strasbourg University finite element head model (SUFEHM) in order to enhance the existing skull mechanical constitutive law. The skull behavior is validated in terms of fracture patterns and contact forces by reconstructing 15 experimental cases. The new SUFEHM skull model is capable of reproducing skull fracture precisely. The composite skull model is validated not only for maximum forces, but also for lateral impact against actual force time curves from PMHS for the first time. Skull strain energy is found to be a pertinent parameter to predict the skull fracture and based on statistical (binary logistical regression) analysis it is observed that 50% risk of skull fracture occurred at skull strain energy of 544.0mJ.

  5. Vegetation Change Analysis User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Diagnostic techniques are needed to identify thresholds of sustainable military use. A cooperative effort among U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense, and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on developing new techniques for monitoring and mitigating military impacts in arid lands. This manual focuses on the development of new monitoring techniques that have been implemented at Fort Irwin, California. New mitigation techniques are described in a separate companion manual. This User's Manual is designed to address diagnostic capabilities needed to distinguish between various degrees of sustainable and nonsustainable impacts due to military training and testing and habitat-disturbing activities in desert ecosystems. Techniques described here focus on the use of high-resolution imagery and the application of image-processing techniques developed primarily for medical research. A discussion is provided about the measurement of plant biomass and shrub canopy cover in arid. lands using conventional methods. Both semiquantitative methods and quantitative methods are discussed and reference to current literature is provided. A background about the use of digital imagery to measure vegetation is presented.

  6. Mathematical Capture of Human Data for Computer Model Building and Validation (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-03

    Mezzacappa April 3, 2014 Distribution A : Approved for Public Release Distribution A : Approved for Public Release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a ...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 APR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Conference

  7. Development and Validation of Protein Microarray Technology for Simultaneous Inflammatory Mediator Detection in Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Tubby, Carolyn; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J.; Harrison, Tim; Fairclough, Lucy C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-) 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the “gold standard” ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays. PMID:25382942

  8. Development and validation of protein microarray technology for simultaneous inflammatory mediator detection in human sera.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Senthooran; Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Tubby, Carolyn; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J; Harrison, Tim; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-) 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the "gold standard" ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays.

  9. Validation of radioimmunoassay for human lactalbumin in the serum by testing the endogenous antibodies interference.

    PubMed

    Zangerle, P F; Franchimont, P

    1985-10-01

    For re-establishing the value of human lactalbumin as a functional marker of normal and pathological activity of the breast a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was established with the prior important control of the interference of endogenous antibodies. The specificity of the assay was assessed by the absence of interference from other proteins in milk or in breast cyst fluid, various hormones and tumor markers. Bovine lactalbumin showed incomplete and weak cross-reactivity. By an enzymoimmunoassay method it was shown that all the 222 human sera studied contain IgG immunoglobulins which bind bovine and human lactalbumin with greater reactivity of children's serum and without relationship to the blood groups. The maximum affinity constant of these endogenous immunoglobulins determined by the radioimmunoassay method is 4.5 times greater for bovine (Kd = 18 X 4(-11) M) than for human (Kd = 4 X 10(-11) M) lactalbumin. These endogenous anti-lactalbumin immunoglobulins caused no interference in the radioimmunoassay as shown by the complete correlation between the concentrations of human lactalbumin previously incubated and added to sera containing high-affinity antibodies and those measured directly in the radioimmunoassay. This lack of interference was explained by the higher (22-fold) affinity constant of the rabbit antiserum against human lactalbumin (Kd = 9 X 10(-12) M). The study of endogenous antibodies by the two enzymes and radioimmunoassay methods is needed before assessing and using a radioimmunoassay of human lactalbumin in serum.

  10. Apparatus for Histological Validation of In Vivo and Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger M.; Bailey, Colleen; Johnston, Edward William; Pye, Hayley; Heavey, Susan; Whitaker, Hayley; Siow, Bernard; Freeman, Alex; Shaw, Greg L.; Sridhar, Ashwin; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Hawkes, David J.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Punwani, Shonit; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2017-01-01

    This article describes apparatus to aid histological validation of magnetic resonance imaging studies of the human prostate. The apparatus includes a 3D-printed patient-specific mold that facilitates aligned in vivo and ex vivo imaging, in situ tissue fixation, and tissue sectioning with minimal organ deformation. The mold and a dedicated container include MRI-visible landmarks to enable consistent tissue positioning and minimize image registration complexity. The inclusion of high spatial resolution ex vivo imaging aids in registration of in vivo MRI and histopathology data. PMID:28393049

  11. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  12. Salinas. Theory Manual Version 2.8

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.; Walsh, Timothy; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  13. Validation of murine and human placental explant cultures for use in sex steroid and phase II conjugation toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Brittany L; Ward, Monika A; Astern, Joshua M; Kendal-Wright, Claire E; Collier, Abby C

    2015-02-01

    Human primary placental explant culture is well established for cytokine signaling and toxicity, but has not been validated for steroidogenic or metabolic toxicology. The technique has never been investigated in the mouse. We characterized human and mouse placental explants for up to 96 h in culture. Explant viability (Lactate dehydrogenase) and sex steroid levels were measured in media using spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Expression and activities of the steroidogenic (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Cytochrome P45017A1, Cytochrome P45019), conjugation (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, sulfotransferase (SULT)), and regeneration (β-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase C (ASC)) enzymes were determined biochemically in tissues with fluorimetric and spectrophotometric assays, and western blot. Explants were viable up to 96 h, but progesterone, estrone, and 17β-estradiol secretion decreased. Steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities were stable in mouse explants and similar to levels in freshly isolated tissues, but were lower in human explants than in fresh tissue (P<0.01). Human and mouse explants exhibited significantly less conjugation after 96 h, SULT was not detected in the mouse, and neither explants had active ASC, although proteins were expressed. Mouse explants may be useful for steroid biochemistry and endocrine disruption studies, but not metabolic conjugation. In contrast, human explants may be useful for studying conjugation for <48 h, but not for steroid/endocrine studies.

  14. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  15. Geochemical engineering reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, processing spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)

  16. Case Resolution Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Case Resolution Manual (CRM) is intended to provide procedural guidance to ECRCO case managers to ensure EPA’s prompt, effective, and efficient resolution of civil rights cases consistent with science and the civil rights laws.

  17. MARSAME Manual and Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MARSAME provides technical information on survey approaches to determine proper disposition of materials and equipment (M&E). MARSAME is a supplement to the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM).

  18. Validation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells as a Model for Influenza A Infections in Human Distal Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Chertow, Daniel S.; Moyer, Jenna E.; Suzich, Jon; Sandouk, Aline; Dorward, David W.; Logun, Carolea; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells, derived from the distal-most aspect of the trachea at the bifurcation, have been used for a number of studies in respiratory disease research. Differences between the source tissue and the differentiated primary cells may impact infection studies based on this model. Therefore, we examined how well-differentiated NHBE cells compared with their source tissue, the human distal trachea, as well as the ramifications of these differences on influenza A viral pathogenesis research using this model. We employed a histological analysis including morphological measurements, electron microscopy, multi-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and microarray expression analysis to compare differentiated NHBEs to human distal tracheal epithelium. Pseudostratified epithelial height, cell type variety and distribution varied significantly. Electron microscopy confirmed differences in cellular attachment and paracellular junctions. Influenza receptor lectin histochemistry revealed that α2,3 sialic acids were rarely present on the apical aspect of the differentiated NHBE cells, but were present in low numbers in the distal trachea. We bound fluorochrome bioconjugated virus to respiratory tissue and NHBE cells and infected NHBE cells with human influenza A viruses. Both indicated that the pattern of infection progression in these cells correlated with autopsy studies of fatal cases from the 2009 pandemic. PMID:25604814

  19. A validated HPLC method with electrochemical detection for simultaneous assay of 5-aminosalicylic acid and its metabolite in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Giancarlo; Bacchi, Simona; Primavera, Luisa; Palumbo, Paola; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2005-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed, validated and applied to the simultaneous determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its acetylated metabolite (acetyl-5-ASA) in human plasma. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction with methanol followed by isocratic reversed-phase chromatography on a Kromasil KR100 C(18) column with electrochemical detection. The recovery, selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated from spiked human plasma samples. The effects of mobile phase composition, buffer concentration, mobile phase pH and concentration of organic modifiers on retention of 5-ASA, acetyl 5-ASA and internal standard were investigated. Limits' of detection were 5 ng/mL for 5-ASA and 10 ng/mL for acetyl-5-ASA, respectively. The method can be used for supporting therapeutical drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

  20. Manual control of unstable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Hogue, J. R.; Parseghian, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Under certain operational regimes and failure modes, air and ground vehicles can present the human operator with a dynamically unstable or divergent control task. Research conducted over the last two decades has explored the ability of the human operator to control unstable systems under a variety of circumstances. Past research is reviewed and human operator control capabilities are summarized. A current example of automobile directional control under rear brake lockup conditions is also reviewed. A control system model analysis of the driver's steering control task is summarized, based on a generic driver/vehicle model presented at last year's Annual Manual. Results from closed course braking tests are presented that confirm the difficulty the average driver has in controlling the unstable directional dynamics arising from rear wheel lockup.

  1. Validated HPLC method for determination of caffeine level in human plasma using synthetic plasma: application to bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Syed N; Hammami, Muhammad M

    2011-04-01

    Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been described for the determination of caffeine in human plasma. However, none have been cross validated using synthetic plasma. The present study describes a simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of the caffeine level in human plasma. Synthetic plasma was used to construct calibration curves and quality control samples to avoid interference by caffeine commonly present in donor's human plasma. After deproteination of plasma samples with perchloric acid, caffeine and antipyrine (internal standard, IS) were separated on a Waters Atlantis C18 column using a mobile phase of 15 mM potassium phosphate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v), and monitored by photodiode array detector, with the wavelength set at 274 nm. The relationship between caffeine concentrations and peak area ratio (caffeine-IS) was linear over the range of 0.05-20 μg/mL. Inter-run coefficient of variation was ≤ 5.4% and ≤ 6.0% and bias was ≤ 3% and ≤ 7% using human and synthetic plasma, respectively. Mean extraction recovery from human plasma of caffeine and the IS was 91% and 86%, respectively. Caffeine in human plasma was stable for at least 24 h at room temperature or 12 weeks at -20 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was successfully applied to monitor caffeine levels in healthy volunteers with correction of caffeine levels using the mean ratio of the slopes of the calibration's curves constructed using human and synthetic plasma.

  2. In-Depth Characterization and Validation of Human Urine Metabolomes Reveal Novel Metabolic Signatures of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ling; Greer, Tyler; Page, David; Shi, Yatao; Vezina, Chad M.; Macoska, Jill A.; Marker, Paul C.; Bjorling, Dale E.; Bushman, Wade; Ricke, William A.; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a range of irritative or obstructive symptoms that commonly afflict aging population. The diagnosis is mostly based on patient-reported symptoms, and current medication often fails to completely eliminate these symptoms. There is a pressing need for objective non-invasive approaches to measure symptoms and understand disease mechanisms. We developed an in-depth workflow combining urine metabolomics analysis and machine learning bioinformatics to characterize metabolic alterations and support objective diagnosis of LUTS. Machine learning feature selection and statistical tests were combined to identify candidate biomarkers, which were statistically validated with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation and absolutely quantified by selected reaction monitoring assay. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed highly-accurate prediction power of candidate biomarkers to stratify patients into disease or non-diseased categories. The key metabolites and pathways may be possibly correlated with smooth muscle tone changes, increased collagen content, and inflammation, which have been identified as potential contributors to urinary dysfunction in humans and rodents. Periurethral tissue staining revealed a significant increase in collagen content and tissue stiffness in men with LUTS. Together, our study provides the first characterization and validation of LUTS urinary metabolites and pathways to support the future development of a urine-based diagnostic test for LUTS. PMID:27502322

  3. Validation of an Immunodiagnostic Assay for Detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-Specific Polysaccharides in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Susanne M.; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults. PMID:22675155

  4. Validation of an immunodiagnostic assay for detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-specific polysaccharides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pride, Michael W; Huijts, Susanne M; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C; Bonten, Marc J M; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2012-08-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults.

  5. Determination of alpha-methyldopa in human plasma by validated high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Róna, K; Ary, K; Gachályi, B; Klebovich, I

    1996-04-12

    A sensitive reversed-phase gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection has been developed for the determination of alpha-methyldopa (AMD) in human plasma. Separation of the investigated compound and the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) internal standard was achieved on a Nucleosil 7 C18 column with a 5 mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt containing 0.05 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 3.2)-acetonitrile mobile phase. The composition of the mobile phase was changed according to a linear gradient time program. Detection was performed at 270 nm fluorimetric excitation and 320 nm emission. The compounds were isolated from plasma by Bond-Elut C18 solid-phase extraction. The limit of quantitation was found to be 10 ng/ml plasma. The assay was validated with respect to accuracy, precision and system suitability. All validated parameters were found to be within the 20% required limits. On the basis of the sensitivity, linearity and validation parameters the developed analytical method was found to be suitable for application in a bioequivalency study.

  6. In-Depth Characterization and Validation of Human Urine Metabolomes Reveal Novel Metabolic Signatures of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ling; Greer, Tyler; Page, David; Shi, Yatao; Vezina, Chad M.; Macoska, Jill A.; Marker, Paul C.; Bjorling, Dale E.; Bushman, Wade; Ricke, William A.; Li, Lingjun

    2016-08-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a range of irritative or obstructive symptoms that commonly afflict aging population. The diagnosis is mostly based on patient-reported symptoms, and current medication often fails to completely eliminate these symptoms. There is a pressing need for objective non-invasive approaches to measure symptoms and understand disease mechanisms. We developed an in-depth workflow combining urine metabolomics analysis and machine learning bioinformatics to characterize metabolic alterations and support objective diagnosis of LUTS. Machine learning feature selection and statistical tests were combined to identify candidate biomarkers, which were statistically validated with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation and absolutely quantified by selected reaction monitoring assay. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed highly-accurate prediction power of candidate biomarkers to stratify patients into disease or non-diseased categories. The key metabolites and pathways may be possibly correlated with smooth muscle tone changes, increased collagen content, and inflammation, which have been identified as potential contributors to urinary dysfunction in humans and rodents. Periurethral tissue staining revealed a significant increase in collagen content and tissue stiffness in men with LUTS. Together, our study provides the first characterization and validation of LUTS urinary metabolites and pathways to support the future development of a urine-based diagnostic test for LUTS.

  7. Attempts to validate a possible predictive animal model for human erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, H.M.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of Dorset sheep erythrocytes as a model for human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes was investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals were examined for oxidant stressor effects using a liver microsomal enzyme system to generate metabolites of the drugs. The pharmaceuticals examined were salicyclic acid, dapsone, naphthalene, B-naphtol, p-aminobenzoic acid, sulfanilamide and sulfapyridine. The test compounds were incubated with Dorset sheep erythrocytes and oxidant stressor effects were measured through reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and methemaglobin formation. The response of the Dorset sheep erythrocytes to the seven agents was compared to previous studies revealing the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes to these agents. The results indicated that metabolites of the pharmaceuticals, B-naphthol, dapsone, and sulfanilamide, are oxidant stressor agents towards sheep G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. These results agreed with studies on the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. The metabolized naphthalene and sulfapyridine did not cause oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, despite the fact that these two agents caused oxidizing effects in human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes in previous studies. None of the non-metabolized parent compounds caused oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, which agreed with the responses of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes.

  8. The importance of valid disclosures in the human embryonic stem cell research debate.

    PubMed

    Sherley, J L

    2008-02-01

    Misinformation erodes the legitimacy of any public debate. Since the start of human embryonic stem cell research deliberations in the USA, misinformation concerning the nature of human embryos, their availability for research, and the potential for using them to develop new medical therapies have been widespread and persistent. Basic facts, well understood by physicians and biologists, have been so misstated and misrepresented in the news media and political speeches that the general public has been put in a state of constant uncertainty. The solution to the present troubling condition is better education in the form of diligent, honest, and complete scientific disclosure by responsible scientists and physicians; and more care given to accurate reporting by news media. Several key aspects of newly emerging embryonic and non-embryonic stem cell technologies are defined and discussed as they relate to the debate over the use of human embryos for medical research. An important topic for consideration is how to disclose with clarity the scientific basis for human embryonic life. Thereafter, failings in proposed technologies for developing new therapies with human embryonic stem cells, that have been grossly under-reported, are examined. Finally, properties of adult stem cells are presented in contradistinction to embryonic stem cells, both in terms of adult stem cells as a scientifically better alternative to embryonic stem cells and in terms of the technological challenges that must be overcome to realize the potential of adult stem cells for new medical therapies.

  9. Validation of a HPLC/FLD Method for Quantification of Tocotrienols in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Che, Hui-Ling; Tan, Doryn Meam-Yee; Meganathan, Puvaneswari; Gan, Yee-Lin; Abdul Razak, Ghazali; Fu, Ju-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of tocotrienols in human plasma is critical when the attention towards tocotrienols on its distinctive properties is arising. We aim to develop a simple and practical normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify the amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. Using both the external and internal standards, tocotrienol homologues were quantified via a normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector maintained at the excitation wavelength of 295 nm and the emission wavelength of 325 nm. The four tocotrienol homologues were well separated within 30 minutes. A large interindividual variation between subjects was observed as the absorption of tocotrienols is dependent on food matrix and gut lipolysis. The accuracies of lower and upper limit of quantification ranged between 92% and 109% for intraday assays and 90% and 112% for interday assays. This method was successfully applied to quantify the total amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. PMID:26604927

  10. Relationship disruption stress in human infants: a validation study with experimental and control groups.

    PubMed

    Haley, David W

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined whether the psychological stress of the still-face (SF) task (i.e. stress resulting from a parent's unresponsiveness) is a valid laboratory stress paradigm for evaluating infant cortisol reactivity. Given that factors external to the experimental paradigm, such as arriving at a new place, may cause an elevation in cortisol secretion; we tested the hypothesis that infants would show a cortisol response to the SF task but not to a normal FF task (control). Saliva was collected for cortisol measurement from 6-month-old infants (n = 31) randomly assigned to either a repeated SF task or to a continuous FF task. Parent-infant dyads were videotaped. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at baseline, 20, and 30 min after the start of the procedure. Infant salivary cortisol concentrations showed a significant increase over time for the SF task but not for the FF task. The results provide new evidence that the repeated SF task provides a psychological challenge that is due to the SF condition rather than to some non-task related factor; these results provide internal validity for the paradigm. The study offers new insight into the role of parent-infant interactions in the activation of the infant stress response system.

  11. A validated new method for nevirapine quantitation in human plasma via high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Courtney F; Parsons, Teresa L

    2006-01-01

    A fully validated and clinically relevant assay was developed for the assessment of nevirapine concentrations in neonate blood plasma samples. Solid-phase extraction with an acid-base wash series was used to prepare subject samples for analysis. Samples were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and detected at 280 nm on a C8 reverse-phase column in an isocratic mobile phase. The retention times of nevirapine and its internal standard were 5.0 and 6.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by assessment of accuracy and precision (statistical values <15%), specificity, and stability. The assay was linear in the range 25-10,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.996) and the average recovery was 93% (n = 18). The lower limit of quantification (relative standard deviation <20%) was determined to be 25 ng/mL for 50 microL of plasma, allowing detection of as little as 1.25 ng of nevirapine in a sample. This value represents an increase in sensitivity of up to 30-fold over previously published methods.

  12. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  13. Concurrent and face validity of a capsulorhexis simulation with respect to human patients.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P Pat; Edward, Deepak P; Liang, Shun; Bouchard, Charles S; Bryar, Paul J; Ahuja, Richard; Dray, Phillip; Bailey, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    A prototype version of the ImmersiveTouch® virtual reality simulator was applied to capsulorhexis, the creation of circular tear or "rhexis" in the lens capsule of the eye during cataract surgery. Virtual and live surgery scores by residents were compared. The same three metrics are used in each mode: circularity of the rhexis, duration of surgery (sec), and number of forceps grabs of the capsule per completed rhexis (fewer is better). The average simulator circularity score correlated closely with the average live score (P = 0.0002; N = 4), establishing "concurrent validity" for this metric. Individuals performed similarly to each other in both modes, as shown by the low standard deviations for average circularity (virtual 0.92 ± 0.04; live 0.88 ± 0.04). By contrast, the standard deviations are high for the other two metrics, capsulorhexis duration (virtual 96.91 ± 44.23 sec; live 94.42 ± 65.74 sec, N = 8) and number of forceps grabs (virtual 10.66 ± 4.81; live 10.31 ± 5.23, N = 8). Nevertheless, the simulator was able to demonstrate that the surgeons with wide variations in total duration and number of capsular grabs in 2 to 4 trials of simulated surgery also had similar variations in live surgery, so that the simulator retains some realism or "face validity."

  14. Development and validation of an HPLC–MS/MS method to determine clopidogrel in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangyi; Dong, Chunxia; Shen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Mengqi; Gui, Yuzhou; Zhou, Qinyi; Yu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method for clopidogrel using online-SPE tandem LC–MS/MS was developed and fully validated according to the well-established FDA guidelines. The method achieves adequate sensitivity for pharmacokinetic studies, with lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) as low as 10 pg/mL. Chromatographic separations were performed on reversed phase columns Kromasil Eternity-2.5-C18-UHPLC for both methods. Positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed for signal detection and a deuterated analogue (clopidogrel-d4) was used as internal standard (IS). Adjustments in sample preparation, including introduction of an online-SPE system proved to be the most effective method to solve the analyte back-conversion in clinical samples. Pooled clinical samples (two levels) were prepared and successfully used as real-sample quality control (QC) in the validation of back-conversion testing under different conditions. The result showed that the real samples were stable in room temperature for 24 h. Linearity, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect on spiked QC samples and stability tests on both spiked QCs and real sample QCs stored in different conditions met the acceptance criteria. This online-SPE method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 75 mg single dose clopidogrel tablets in 48 healthy male subjects. PMID:26904399

  15. Method development and validation for ultra-high-pressure LC/MS/MS determination of hop prenylflavonoids in human serum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolic, Dejan; Dahl, Jeffrey H; van Breemen, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer, and hop extracts containing prenylated compounds, such as xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), are under investigation as dietary supplements for cancer chemoprevention and the management of hot flashes in menopausal women. To facilitate clinical studies of hop safety and efficacy, a selective, sensitive, and fast ultra-high-pressure LC (UHPLC) tandem MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the hop prenylflavonoids XN, isoxanthohumol (IX), 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and 8-PN in human serum. The analytical method requires 300 microL of human serum, which is processed using liquid-liquid extraction. UHPLC separation was carried out in 2.5 min with gradient elution using an RP C18 column containing 1.6 pm particle size packing material. Prenylflavonoids were measured using negative ion electrospray MS with collision-induced dissociation and selected reaction monitoring. The method was validated and showed good accuracy and precision with an LOQ of 0.50 ng/mL for XN (1.4 nM) and 1.0 ng/mL for 6-PN, 8-PN (2.94 nM), and IX (2.82 nM) in serum.

  16. Validated HPLC-UV method for determination of naproxen in human plasma with proven selectivity against ibuprofen and paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Filist, Monika; Szlaska, Iwona; Kaza, Michał; Pawiński, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the influence of interfering compounds present in the biological matrix on the determination of an analyte is one of the most important tasks during bioanalytical method development and validation. Interferences from endogenous components and, if necessary, from major metabolites as well as possible co-administered medications should be evaluated during a selectivity test. This paper describes a simple, rapid and cost-effective HPLC-UV method for the determination of naproxen in human plasma in the presence of two other analgesics, ibuprofen and paracetamol. Sample preparation is based on a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure with a short, 5 s mixing time. Fenoprofen, which is characterized by a similar structure and properties to naproxen, was first used as the internal standard. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.5-80.0 µg/mL, which is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies following a single 220 mg oral dose of naproxen sodium. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines and was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study in humans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Validation of an LC-MS bioanalytical method for quantification of phytate levels in rat, dog and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Tur, Fernando; Tur, Eva; Lentheric, Irene; Mendoza, Paula; Encabo, Maximo; Isern, Bernat; Grases, Felix; Maraschiello, Ciriaco; Perelló, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate, IP6) is a naturally occuring compound whose determination in biological matrices is chanllenging. Several benefitial properties have been attributed to IP6 in parallel with the development of suitable analytical methodologies for its analytical determination in urine and some tissues. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools for its determination in plasma samples. In this paper, a direct, sensitive and selective bioanalytical method for the determination of IP6 based on LC-MS is presented. It is the first method published to quantify IP6 in plasma matrices directly through its molecular weight, being consequently a highly specific methodology. The method has been validated in rat, dog and human plasma, according to the acceptance criteria laid down in the FDA guidance Bioanalytical Method Validation. Accuracy and precision were not greater than 15% at medium and high concentrations and not greater than 20% at the LLOQ concentration. The mean absolute recovery obtained ranged from 78.74 to 102.44%, 62.10 to 87.21% and 61.61 to 86.99% for rat, dog and human plasma respectively. The LLOQ was 500ngmL(-1) due to the presence of endogenous IP6 in blank plasma samples and the limit of detection was within the range 30-80ngmL(-1).

  18. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    PubMed

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Geldhof, Julie; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  19. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia suis Diagnosis in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates. PMID:24816542

  20. Integrative Annotation of 21,037 Human Genes Validated by Full-Length cDNA Clones

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Tadashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yutaka; O'Donovan, Claire; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Barrero, Roberto A; Tamura, Takuro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tanino, Motohiko; Yura, Kei; Miyazaki, Satoru; Ikeo, Kazuho; Homma, Keiichi; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hirakawa, Mika; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Ashurst, Jennifer; Jia, Libin; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Thomas, Michael A; Mulder, Nicola; Karavidopoulou, Youla; Jin, Lihua; Kim, Sangsoo; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Lenhard, Boris; Eveno, Eric; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Chisato; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Gough, Craig; Hilton, Phillip; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Susumu; Amid, Clara; Bellgard, Matthew; Bonaldo, Maria de Fatima; Bono, Hidemasa; Bromberg, Susan K; Brookes, Anthony J; Bruford, Elspeth; Carninci, Piero; Chelala, Claude; Couillault, Christine; de Souza, Sandro J.; Debily, Marie-Anne; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Dubchak, Inna; Endo, Toshinori; Estreicher, Anne; Eyras, Eduardo; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; R. Gopinath, Gopal; Graudens, Esther; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Han, Michael; Han, Ze-Guang; Hanada, Kousuke; Hanaoka, Hideki; Harada, Erimi; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hinz, Ursula; Hirai, Momoki; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Hopkinson, Ian; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kanapin, Alexander; Kaneko, Yayoi; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kelso, Janet; Kersey, Paul; Kikuno, Reiko; Kimura, Kouichi; Korn, Bernhard; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Makalowska, Izabela; Makino, Takashi; Mano, Shuhei; Mariage-Samson, Regine; Mashima, Jun; Matsuda, Hideo; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Minoshima, Shinsei; Nagai, Keiichi; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nagata, Naoki; Nigam, Rajni; Ogasawara, Osamu; Ohara, Osamu; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Okada, Norihiro; Okido, Toshihisa; Oota, Satoshi; Ota, Motonori; Ota, Toshio; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Piatier-Tonneau, Dominique; Poustka, Annemarie; Ren, Shuang-Xi; Saitou, Naruya; Sakai, Katsunaga; Sakamoto, Shigetaka; Sakate, Ryuichi; Schupp, Ingo; Servant, Florence; Sherry, Stephen; Shiba, Rie; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Shimoyama, Mary; Simpson, Andrew J; Soares, Bento; Steward, Charles; Suwa, Makiko; Suzuki, Mami; Takahashi, Aiko; Tamiya, Gen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Taylor, Todd; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Unneberg, Per; Veeramachaneni, Vamsi; Watanabe, Shinya; Wilming, Laurens; Yasuda, Norikazu; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Stodolsky, Marvin; Makalowski, Wojciech; Go, Mitiko; Nakai, Kenta; Takagi, Toshihisa; Kanehisa, Minoru; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Quackenbush, John; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hide, Winston; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Nishikawa, Ken; Sugawara, Hideaki; Tateno, Yoshio; Chen, Zhu; Oishi, Michio; Tonellato, Peter; Apweiler, Rolf; Okubo, Kousaku; Wagner, Lukas; Wiemann, Stefan; Strausberg, Robert L; Isogai, Takao; Auffray, Charles; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio

    2004-01-01

    The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for non-protein-coding RNA genes. In

  1. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  2. Hippocampal unified multi-atlas network (HUMAN): protocol and scale validation of a novel segmentation tool.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, N; Errico, R; Bruno, S; Chincarini, A; Garuccio, E; Sensi, F; Tangaro, S; Tateo, A; Bellotti, R

    2015-11-21

    In this study we present a novel fully automated Hippocampal Unified Multi-Atlas-Networks (HUMAN) algorithm for the segmentation of the hippocampus in structural magnetic resonance imaging. In multi-atlas approaches atlas selection is of crucial importance for the accuracy of the segmentation. Here we present an optimized method based on the definition of a small peri-hippocampal region to target the atlas learning with linear and non-linear embedded manifolds. All atlases were co-registered to a data driven template resulting in a computationally efficient method that requires only one test registration. The optimal atlases identified were used to train dedicated artificial neural networks whose labels were then propagated and fused to obtain the final segmentation. To quantify data heterogeneity and protocol inherent effects, HUMAN was tested on two independent data sets provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies. HUMAN is accurate and achieves state-of-the-art performance (Dice[Formula: see text] and Dice[Formula: see text]). It is also a robust method that remains stable when applied to the whole hippocampus or to sub-regions (patches). HUMAN also compares favorably with a basic multi-atlas approach and a benchmark segmentation tool such as FreeSurfer.

  3. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood.

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-05-01

    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  4. Are fixed limb inertial models valid for dynamic simulations of human movement?

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy; Hawkins, David

    2010-10-19

    During human movement, muscle activation and limb movement result in subtle changes in muscle mass distribution. Muscle mass redistribution can affect limb inertial properties and limb dynamics, but it is not currently known to what extent. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) how physiological alterations of muscle and tendon length affect limb inertial characteristics, and (2) how such changes affect dynamic simulations of human movement. To achieve these objectives, a digital model of a human leg, custom software, and Software for interactive musculoskeletal modeling were used to simulate mass redistribution of muscle-tendon structures within a limb segment during muscle activation and joint movement. Thigh and shank center of mass and moments of inertia for different muscle activation and joint configurations were determined and compared. Limb inertial parameters representing relaxed muscles and fully active muscles were input into a simulated straight-leg movement to evaluate the effect inertial parameter variations could have on movement simulation results. Muscle activation and limb movement altered limb segment center of mass and moments of inertia by less than 0.04 cm and 1.2%, respectively. These variations in limb inertial properties resulted in less than 0.01% change in maximum angular velocity for a simulated straight-leg hip flexion task. These data demonstrate that, for the digital human leg model considered, assuming static quantities for segment center of masses and moments of inertia in movement simulations appear reasonable and induce minimal errors in simulated movement dynamics.

  5. Hippocampal unified multi-atlas network (HUMAN): protocol and scale validation of a novel segmentation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, N.; Errico, R.; Bruno, S.; Chincarini, A.; Garuccio, E.; Sensi, F.; Tangaro, S.; Tateo, A.; Bellotti, R.; Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative,the

    2015-11-01

    In this study we present a novel fully automated Hippocampal Unified Multi-Atlas-Networks (HUMAN) algorithm for the segmentation of the hippocampus in structural magnetic resonance imaging. In multi-atlas approaches atlas selection is of crucial importance for the accuracy of the segmentation. Here we present an optimized method based on the definition of a small peri-hippocampal region to target the atlas learning with linear and non-linear embedded manifolds. All atlases were co-registered to a data driven template resulting in a computationally efficient method that requires only one test registration. The optimal atlases identified were used to train dedicated artificial neural networks whose labels were then propagated and fused to obtain the final segmentation. To quantify data heterogeneity and protocol inherent effects, HUMAN was tested on two independent data sets provided by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies. HUMAN is accurate and achieves state-of-the-art performance (Dice{{}\\text{ADNI}} =0.929+/- 0.003 and Dice{{}\\text{OASIS}} =0.869+/- 0.002 ). It is also a robust method that remains stable when applied to the whole hippocampus or to sub-regions (patches). HUMAN also compares favorably with a basic multi-atlas approach and a benchmark segmentation tool such as FreeSurfer.

  6. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide...

  17. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide...

  18. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... affect a member of the public are available for public disclosure. An index of all such manuals is... Information Public Reading Room, located in rm. 1050, at the same address. The index and all manuals...

  19. SHARP User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. Q.; Shemon, E. R.; Thomas, J. W.; Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.; Solberg, Jerome

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  20. Measurement and validation of GHz-band whole-body average SAR in a human volunteer using reverberation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Suzuki, Tokio; Fujiwara, Osamu; Harima, Katsushige

    2012-12-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation on the need for further research for radio-frequency dosimetry has promoted studies on the whole-body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) in various kinds of anatomical-based numerical models. For experimental validation of GHz-band WBA-SARs in a real human, however, there have not so far been any published papers, despite the fact that, in 1982, Hill measured WBA-SARs at frequencies less than 40 MHz in human volunteers using a TEM-cell exposure system. In this study, we provide a measurement technique with a reverberation chamber for validating numerical dosimetry results on GHz-band WBA-SARs in living humans. We measured WBA-SARs at 1, 1.5 and 2 GHz for a 22 year old male volunteer, with a height of 173 cm and a weight of 73 kg, in the reverberation chamber, and compared the results with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The reverberation chamber was excited by using a signal generator through an amplifier with an output power of 30-40 mW, which produced inside the chamber with the volunteer an average electric field strength of 5 V m-1 equivalent to an average power spectral density of 6.6 μW cm-2. The WBA-SARs were obtained from the measured S11 and S21 together with the power density. On the other hand, the WBA-SARs have been calculated using the FDTD method for an adult male model with almost the same physique as that of the volunteer exposed to the electromagnetic field in the reverberation chamber. From the comparison between the measured and the calculated WBA-SARs, we could confirm that the measured GHz-band WBA-SARs approximately agree with the FDTD calculated results.

  1. Development and validation of the Human Activity Profile into Chinese language: lessons in determining equivalence.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Ann; Wellard, Sally; Kenrick, Marita

    2006-03-01

    The Human Activity Profile (HAP), and associated Dyspnea Scale, is a self-report instrument for assessing levels of human activity. Although it has been used in studies examining the levels of activity in people, it is limited to people who are only able to understand English. However, many countries are multicultural with significant numbers of people whose native language is not English. This study sought to demonstrate the equivalence between the Chinese and English versions of the HAP and Dyspnea scales. Thirty-five bilingual university students completed both the Chinese and English versions of each questionnaire. There was 89% and 85% agreement between items across the HAP and Dyspnea Scale questionnaires, respectively. Although the psychometric evaluations suggested there was equivalence between the Chinese and English versions of both the HAP and Dyspnea Scale, lessons have been learnt regarding the different written forms of Chinese.

  2. Identification and Validation of Human DNA Ligase Inhibitors Using Computer-Aided Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shijun; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao; Dziegielewska, Barbara; Bachman, Kurtis E.; Ellenberger, Tom; Ballin, Jeff D.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    Linking together of DNA strands by DNA ligases is essential for DNA replication and repair. Since many therapies used to treat cancer act by causing DNA damage, there is growing interest in the development of DNA repair inhibitors. Accordingly, virtual database screening and experimental evaluation were applied to identify inhibitors of human DNA ligase I (hLigI). When a DNA binding site within the DNA binding domain (DBD) of hLigI was targeted, more than 1 million compounds were screened from which 192 were chosen for experimental evaluation. In DNA joining assays, 10 compounds specifically inhibited hLigI, 5 of which also inhibited the proliferation of cultured human cell lines. Analysis of the 10 active compounds revealed the utility of including multiple protein conformations and chemical clustering in the virtual screening procedure. The identified ligase inhibitors are structurally diverse and have druglike physical and molecular characteristics making them ideal for further drug development studies. PMID:18630893

  3. 21 CFR 868.1030 - Manual algesimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... manual algesimeter is a mechanical device intended to determine a patient's sensitivity to pain after... manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1030 - Manual algesimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... manual algesimeter is a mechanical device intended to determine a patient's sensitivity to pain after... manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with...

  5. The Intergenerational Caregiving Program: A Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marlene Cresci; And Others

    The Intergenerational Caregiving Program (ICP), a year long educational experience in human development and child care for older adults, is described in this replication manual. In its first year of operation, the ICP recruited older, usually retired adults from agencies and organizations in San Francisco that serve older people. The 22 older…

  6. 21 CFR 872.6855 - Manual toothbrush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... remove adherent plaque and food debris from the teeth to reduce tooth decay. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual toothbrush. 872.6855 Section 872.6855 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6855 - Manual toothbrush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... remove adherent plaque and food debris from the teeth to reduce tooth decay. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual toothbrush. 872.6855 Section 872.6855 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6855 - Manual toothbrush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual toothbrush. 872.6855 Section 872.6855 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... remove adherent plaque and food debris from the teeth to reduce tooth decay. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6855 - Manual toothbrush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual toothbrush. 872.6855 Section 872.6855 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... remove adherent plaque and food debris from the teeth to reduce tooth decay. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6855 - Manual toothbrush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual toothbrush. 872.6855 Section 872.6855 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... remove adherent plaque and food debris from the teeth to reduce tooth decay. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. Bioanalytical method development and validation for the determination of glycine in human cerebrospinal fluid by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; James, Christopher A; Wong, Philip

    2016-09-05

    A LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of glycine in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The validated method used artificial cerebrospinal fluid as a surrogate matrix for calibration standards. The calibration curve range for the assay was 100-10,000ng/mL and (13)C2, (15)N-glycine was used as an internal standard (IS). Pre-validation experiments were performed to demonstrate parallelism with surrogate matrix and standard addition methods. The mean endogenous glycine concentration in a pooled human CSF determined on three days by using artificial CSF as a surrogate matrix and the method of standard addition was found to be 748±30.6 and 768±18.1ng/mL, respectively. A percentage difference of -2.6% indicated that artificial CSF could be used as a surrogate calibration matrix for the determination of glycine in human CSF. Quality control (QC) samples, except the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) QC and low QC samples, were prepared by spiking glycine into aliquots of pooled human CSF sample. The low QC sample was prepared from a separate pooled human CSF sample containing low endogenous glycine concentrations, while the LLOQ QC sample was prepared in artificial CSF. Standard addition was used extensively to evaluate matrix effects during validation. The validated method was used to determine the endogenous glycine concentrations in human CSF samples. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated reproducibility of the method.

  12. Modeling of Depth Cue Integration in Manual Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Barbara T.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Davis, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Psychophysical research has demonstrated that human observers utilize a variety of visual cues to form a perception of three-dimensional depth. However, most of these studies have utilized a passive judgement paradigm, and failed to consider depth-cue integration as a dynamic and task-specific process. In the current study, we developed and experimentally validated a model of manual control of depth that examines how two potential cues (stereo disparity and relative size) are utilized in both first- and second-order active depth control tasks. We found that stereo disparity plays the dominate role for determining depth position, while relative size dominates perception of depth velocity. Stereo disparity also plays a reduced role when made less salient (i.e., when viewing distance is increased). Manual control models predict that position information is sufficient for first-order control tasks, while velocity information is required to perform a second-order control task. Thus, the rules for depth-cue integration in active control tasks are dependent on both task demands and cue quality.

  13. In vitro validation of self designed "universal human Influenza A siRNA".

    PubMed

    Jain, Bhawana; Jain, Amita; Prakash, Om; Singh, Ajay Kr; Dangi, Tanushree; Singh, Mastan; Singh, K P

    2015-08-01

    The genomic variability of Influenza A virus (IAV) makes it difficult for the existing vaccines or anti-influenza drugs to control. The siRNA targeting viral gene induces RNAi mechanism in the host and silent the gene by cleaving mRNA. In this study, we developed an universal siRNA and validated its efficiency in vitro. The siRNA was designed rationally, targeting the most conserved region (delineated with the help of multiple sequence alignment) of M gene of IAV strains. Three level screening method was adopted, and the most efficient one was selected on the basis of its unique position in the conserved region. The siRNA efficacy was confirmed in vitro with the Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line for IAV propagation using two clinical isolates i.e., Influenza A/H3N2 and Influenza A/pdmH1N1. Of the total 168 strains worldwide and 33 strains from India, 97 bp long (position 137-233) conserved region was identified. The longest ORF of matrix gene was targeted by the selected siRNA, which showed 73.6% inhibition in replication of Influenza A/pdmH1N1 and 62.1% inhibition in replication of Influenza A/H3N2 at 48 h post infection on MDCK cell line. This study provides a basis for the development of siRNA which can be used as universal anti-IAV therapeutic agent.

  14. A validated bioanalytical HPLC method for pharmacokinetic evaluation of 2-deoxyglucose in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Murugesan K; Lin, Hongxia; Stein, Mark; Goodin, Susan; Bertino, Joseph R; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; DiPaola, Robert S

    2012-05-01

    2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG), an analog of glucose, is widely used to interfere with glycolysis in tumor cells and studied as a therapeutic approach in clinical trials. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 2-DG, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive HPLC fluorescent method for the quantitation of 2-DG in plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol and the supernatant was dried at 45°C. The residues were dissolved in methanolic sodium acetate-boric acid solution. 2-DG and other monosaccharides were derivatized to 2-aminobenzoic acid derivatives in a single step in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride at 80°C for 45 min. The analytes were separated on a YMC ODS C₁₈ reversed-phase column using gradient elution. The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 360 and 425 nm. The 2-DG calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.63-300 µg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.5 µg/mL. The assay provided satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precision with RSD less than 9.8%, and the accuracy ranged from 86.8 to 110.0%. The HPLC method is reproducible and suitable for the quantitation of 2-DG in plasma. The method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics profile of 2-DG in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  15. Cellular automata model for human articular chondrocytes migration, proliferation and cell death: An in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Guevara, J M; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2016-01-07

    Articular cartilage is characterized by low cell density of only one cell type, chondrocytes, and has limited self-healing properties. When articular cartilage is affected by traumatic injuries, a therapeutic strategy such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is usually proposed for its treatment. This approach requires in vitro chondrocyte expansion to yield high cell number for cell transplantation. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, it is necessary to assess cell dynamics such as migration, proliferation and cell death during culture. Computational models such as cellular automata can be used to simulate cell dynamics in order to enhance the result of cell culture procedures. This methodology has been implemented for several cell types; however, an experimental validation is required for each one. For this reason, in this research a cellular automata model, based on random-walk theory, was devised in order to predict articular chondrocyte behavior in monolayer culture during cell expansion. Results demonstrated that the cellular automata model corresponded to cell dynamics and computed-accurate quantitative results. Moreover, it was possible to observe that cell dynamics depend on weighted probabilities derived from experimental data and cell behavior varies according to the cell culture period. Thus, depending on whether cells were just seeded or proliferated exponentially, culture time probabilities differed in percentages in the CA model. Furthermore, in the experimental assessment a decreased chondrocyte proliferation was observed along with increased passage number. This approach is expected to having other uses as in enhancing articular cartilage therapies based on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  16. Presentation and validation of "The Learning Game," a tool to study associative learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Navarro, Anton; Sanjuan, Maria del Carmen

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a 3-D science-fiction-based videogame method to study learning, and two experiments that we used to validate it. In this method, participants are first trained to respond to enemy spaceships (Stimulus 2, or S2) with particular keypresses, followed by transport to a new context (galaxy), where other manipulations can occur. During conditioning, colored flashing lights (Stimulus 1, or S1) can predict S2, and the response attached to S2 from the prior phase comes to be evoked by S1. In Experiment 1 we demonstrated that, in accord with previous findings from animals, conditioning in this procedure was positively related to the ratio of the time between trials to the time within a trial. Experiment 2 demonstrated the phenomena of extinction, timing, and renewal. Responding to S1 was slightly lost with a context change, and diminished over trials in the absence of S2. On early extinction trials, responding during S1 declined after the time that S2 normally occurred. Extinguished responding to S1 recovered robustly with a context change.

  17. Production, purification and functional validation of human secreted amyloid precursor proteins for use as neuropharmacological reagents.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul R; Bourne, Katie; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Tate, Warren P

    2007-08-15

    The secreted fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) generated following cleavage by alpha-secretase is an important mediator of cell function and is both neurotrophic and neuroprotective. HEK 293T cells have been stably integrated with a fragment of the APP gene to produce and secrete either sAPPalpha, or the alternative cleavage product sAPPbeta. Heparin binding domains on the proteins have been utilised to develop a one-step fast-performance-liquid-chromatography (FPLC) purification of sAPPs from the conditioned media. Immunoblotting analyses with a sAPP specific antibody coupled with highly sensitive silver staining techniques have validated the expression and purification strategy. Functional activity of the purified fragments was demonstrated by their ability to protect COS-7 and SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cells against the adverse effects of glucose deprivation in a cell viability assay. The purified sAPPs also activated the NFkappaB transcription factor in COS-7 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid, with sAPPalpha the more potent activator as expected. The simple protocol to produce these mammalian expressed proteins will facilitate their use as potential neuropharmacological reagents in the elucidation of biochemical pathways modulated by sAPPs, and in the study of Alzheimer's disease mechanisms in general.

  18. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  19. Severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and human psoriatic skin chimeras. Validation of a new animal model.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Kunkel, S L; Burdick, M; Strieter, R M

    1995-03-01

    Research into the cause and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying expression of psoriatric skin lesions has been hampered by lack of an appropriate animal model for this common and enigmatic cutaneous disease. These studies characterize normal skin, pre-psoriatic skin, and psoriatic plaque skin samples transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. In this report we document that 1), normal, prepsoriatic, and psoriatic plaque keratome skin samples can be transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice reliably with high rates of graft survival (> 85%) and with reproducible changes consistently observed over prolonged periods of engraftment; 2), after transplantation, by clinical assessment and routine light microscopy, normal skin remained essentially normal whereas pre-psoriatic skin became thicker, and psoriatic plaque skin retained its characteristic plaque-type elevation and scale; 3), by using a panel of antibodies and immunohistochemical analysis, the overall phenotype of human cell types (including immunocytes) that persisted in the transplanted skin was remarkably similar to the immunophenotype of pretransplanted skin samples; 4), clearly recognized interface zones between human and murine skin within the epidermal and dermal compartments could be identified by routine microscopy and immunostaining, with focal areas of chimerism; and 5), elevated interleukin 8 cytokine levels were present in transplanted pre-psoriatic and psoriatic plaque skin samples. We conclude that there are many similarities between pre- and post-transplanted human samples of normal and psoriatic skin that are grafted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Thus, we propose that this new animal model is appropriate for additional mechanistic-type studies designed to reveal the underlying genetic/etiological abnormality, as well as better illuminate the pathophysiological basis, for this important skin disease.

  20. Bayesian model selection validates a biokinetic model for zirconium processing in humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In radiation protection, biokinetic models for zirconium processing are of crucial importance in dose estimation and further risk analysis for humans exposed to this radioactive substance. They provide limiting values of detrimental effects and build the basis for applications in internal dosimetry, the prediction for radioactive zirconium retention in various organs as well as retrospective dosimetry. Multi-compartmental models are the tool of choice for simulating the processing of zirconium. Although easily interpretable, determining the exact compartment structure and interaction mechanisms is generally daunting. In the context of observing the dynamics of multiple compartments, Bayesian methods provide efficient tools for model inference and selection. Results We are the first to apply a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to compute Bayes factors for the evaluation of two competing models for zirconium processing in the human body after ingestion. Based on in vivo measurements of human plasma and urine levels we were able to show that a recently published model is superior to the standard model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The Bayes factors were estimated by means of the numerically stable thermodynamic integration in combination with a recently developed copula-based Metropolis-Hastings sampler. Conclusions In contrast to the standard model the novel model predicts lower accretion of zirconium in bones. This results in lower levels of noxious doses for exposed individuals. Moreover, the Bayesian approach allows for retrospective dose assessment, including credible intervals for the initially ingested zirconium, in a significantly more reliable fashion than previously possible. All methods presented here are readily applicable to many modeling tasks in systems biology. PMID:22863152

  1. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  2. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  3. Developing a policy manual.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  4. Influence of oxytocin on human memory processes: validation by a control study.

    PubMed

    Kennett, D J; Devlin, M C; Ferrier, B M

    1982-07-19

    An earlier report (1) of an adverse effect of high doses of oxytocin on human memory included results of studies on women receiving oxytocin as part of the treatment to induce 2nd trimester therapeutic abortion. These women served as their own controls. We have now been able to study a group of women who have been treated in all ways like the original group, with the exception that they did not receive oxytocin. The results from this external control corroborate the finding that oxytocin affected memory.

  5. Identification and experimental validation of damping ratios of different human body segments through anthropometric vibratory model in standing posture.

    PubMed

    Gupta, T C

    2007-08-01

    A 15 degrees of freedom lumped parameter vibratory model of human body is developed, for vertical mode vibrations, using anthropometric data of the 50th percentile US male. The mass and stiffness of various segments are determined from the elastic modulii of bones and tissues and from the anthropometric data available, assuming the shape of all the segments is ellipsoidal. The damping ratio of each segment is estimated on the basis of the physical structure of the body in a particular posture. Damping constants of various segments are calculated from these damping ratios. The human body is modeled as a linear spring-mass-damper system. The optimal values of the damping ratios of the body segments are estimated, for the 15 degrees of freedom model of the 50th percentile US male, by comparing the response of the model with the experimental response. Formulating a similar vibratory model of the 50th percentile Indian male and comparing the frequency response of the model with the experimental response of the same group of subjects validate the modeling procedure. A range of damping ratios has been considered to develop a vibratory model, which can predict the vertical harmonic response of the human body.

  6. Body segment parameter estimation of the human lower leg using an elliptical model with validation from DEXA.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jennifer L; Dowling, James J

    2006-09-01

    Accurate estimates of human body segment parameters (BSPs) are required for kinetic analyses of motion. The purpose of this study was to develop a geometric model of the human lower leg based on the mass distribution properties of the segment. Forty subjects were recruited from 4 human populations. Each population was randomly divided equally into model development (MD) and model validation (MV) groups. Participants underwent frontal and sagittal plane dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans and anthropometric measurements. Leg BSPs were calculated from the scan information and mass distribution properties in the two planes were determined. Further, a geometric model was developed based on the ensemble averages of the mass distribution information from the MD groups. The model was applied to the MV groups and mean absolute errors were calculated for each BSP and each population. Finally, BSP estimates from literature sources were also determined and compared against DEXA. The model developed produced the lowest errors overall. Additionally, the results showed that the model developed estimated BSPs for all four populations with consistent accuracy whereas the other 4 models tested provided different levels of accuracy depending on the age and gender categories of the group tested. The results of this study present a model that accurately estimates BSPs of the lower leg for individuals varying in age, gender, race, and morphology. This study also presents a modelling technique that may successfully provide similar results for other body segments.

  7. A theory of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Human error, a significant contributing factor in a very high proportion of civil transport, general aviation, and rotorcraft accidents is investigated. Correction of the sources of human error requires that one attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation operations is presented. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  8. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (Editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  9. Functional Validation of Rare Human Genetic Variants Involved in Homologous Recombination Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Mi; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Park, Geun-Hee; Kwack, KyuBum; Kim, Keun P.

    2015-01-01

    Systems for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are necessary to maintain genome integrity and normal functionality of cells in all organisms. Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in repairing accidental and programmed DSBs in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively. Failure to repair these DSBs causes genome instability and can induce tumorigenesis. Rad51 and Rad52 are two key proteins in homologous pairing and strand exchange during DSB-induced HR; both are highly conserved in eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human RAD51 and RAD52 using the Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) algorithms and observed the effect of mutations in highly conserved domains of RAD51 and RAD52 on DNA damage repair in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based system. We identified a number of rad51 and rad52 alleles that exhibited severe DNA repair defects. The functionally inactive SNPs were located near ATPase active site of Rad51 and the DNA binding domain of Rad52. The rad51-F317I, rad52-R52W, and rad52-G107C mutations conferred hypersensitivity to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage and were defective in HR-mediated DSB repair. Our study provides a new approach for detecting functional and loss-of-function genetic polymorphisms and for identifying causal variants in human DNA repair genes that contribute to the initiation or progression of cancer. PMID:25938495

  10. Functional Validation of Rare Human Genetic Variants Involved in Homologous Recombination Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Mi; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Park, Geun-Hee; Kwack, KyuBum; Kim, Keun P

    2015-01-01

    Systems for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are necessary to maintain genome integrity and normal functionality of cells in all organisms. Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in repairing accidental and programmed DSBs in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively. Failure to repair these DSBs causes genome instability and can induce tumorigenesis. Rad51 and Rad52 are two key proteins in homologous pairing and strand exchange during DSB-induced HR; both are highly conserved in eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human RAD51 and RAD52 using the Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) algorithms and observed the effect of mutations in highly conserved domains of RAD51 and RAD52 on DNA damage repair in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based system. We identified a number of rad51 and rad52 alleles that exhibited severe DNA repair defects. The functionally inactive SNPs were located near ATPase active site of Rad51 and the DNA binding domain of Rad52. The rad51-F317I, rad52-R52W, and rad52-G107C mutations conferred hypersensitivity to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage and were defective in HR-mediated DSB repair. Our study provides a new approach for detecting functional and loss-of-function genetic polymorphisms and for identifying causal variants in human DNA repair genes that contribute to the initiation or progression of cancer.

  11. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY OF HUMAN LUNG PARENCHYMA: TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT, THEORETICAL MODELING AND IN VIVO VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel MR-based method for visualizing the elastic properties of human lung parenchyma in vivo and to evaluate the ability of this method to resolve differences in parenchymal stiffness at different respiration states in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods A spin-echo MR Elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was developed to provide both high shear wave motion sensitivity and short TE for improved visualization of lung parenchyma. The improved motion sensitivity of this approach was modeled and tested with phantom experiments. In vivo testing was then performed on ten healthy volunteers at the respiratory states of residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC). Results Shear wave propagation was visualized within the lungs of all volunteers and was processed to provide parenchymal shear stiffness maps of all ten subjects. Density corrected stiffness values at TLC (1.83 ± 0.22 kPa) were higher than those at the RV (1.14 ± 0.14 kPa) with the difference being statistically significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion 1H-based MR Elastography can noninvasively measure the shear stiffness of human lung parenchyma in vivo and can quantitate the change in shear stiffness due to respiration. The values obtained were consistent with previously reported in vitro assessments of cadaver lungs. Further work is required to increase the flexibility of the current acquisition and to investigate the clinical potential of lung MRE. PMID:21591003

  12. RELAP-7 Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ray Alden; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Peterson, John William; Martineau, Richard Charles; Kadioglu, Samet Yucel; Andrs, David

    2016-03-01

    This document summarizes the physical models and mathematical formulations used in the RELAP-7 code. In summary, the MOOSE based RELAP-7 code development is an ongoing effort. The MOOSE framework enables rapid development of the RELAP-7 code. The developmental efforts and results demonstrate that the RELAP-7 project is on a path to success. This theory manual documents the main features implemented into the RELAP-7 code. Because the code is an ongoing development effort, this RELAP-7 Theory Manual will evolve with periodic updates to keep it current with the state of the development, implementation, and model additions/revisions.

  13. Manuals of Cultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

  14. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  15. Fastener Design Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    This manual was written for design engineers to enable them to choose appropriate fasteners for their designs. Subject matter includes fastener material selection, platings, lubricants, corrosion, locking methods, washers, inserts, thread types and classes, fatigue loading, and fastener torque. A section on design criteria covers the derivation of torque formulas, loads on a fastener group, combining simultaneous shear and tension loads, pullout load for tapped holes, grip length, head styles, and fastener strengths. The second half of this manual presents general guidelines and selection criteria for rivets and lockbolts.

  16. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms. Materials and Methods: Ten board-certified urologists recruited from a single institution underwent a didactic session on renal ultrasound imaging. Subjects completed technical skills modules in tissue phantoms, including kidney imaging, pushing a stone through a translucent maze, and repositioning a lower pole calyceal stone. Objective cognitive and technical performance metrics were recorded. Subjects completed a questionnaire to ascertain face and content validity on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Eight urologists (80%) had never attended a previous ultrasound course, and nine (90%) performed renal ultrasounds less frequently than every 6 months. Mean cognitive skills scores improved from 55% to 91% (p<0.0001) on pre- and post-didactic tests. In the kidney phantom, 10 subjects (100%) repositioned the lower pole calyceal stone to at least the lower pole infundibulum, while 9 (90%) successfully repositioned the stone to the renal pelvis. A mean±SD (15.7±13.3) pushes were required to complete the task over an average of 4.6±2.2 minutes. Urologists rated the curriculum's effectiveness and realism as a training tool at a mean score of 4.6/5.0 and 4.1/5.0, respectively. Conclusions: The curriculum for ultrasonic propulsion is effective and useful for training urologists with limited ultrasound proficiency in stone repositioning technique. Further studies in animate and human models will be required to assess predictive validity. PMID:24228719

  17. Automatic Segmentation of Human Cortical Layer-Complexes and Architectural Areas Using Ex vivo Diffusion MRI and Its Validation

    PubMed Central

    Bastiani, Matteo; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Seehaus, Arne; Brenner, Daniel; Möllenhoff, Klaus; Celik, Avdo; Felder, Jörg; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Shah, Nadim J.; Galuske, Ralf; Goebel, Rainer; Roebroeck, Alard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several magnetic resonance imaging contrast mechanisms have been shown to distinguish cortical substructure corresponding to selected cortical layers. Here, we investigate cortical layer and area differentiation by automatized unsupervised clustering of high-resolution diffusion MRI data. Several groups of adjacent layers could be distinguished in human primary motor and premotor cortex. We then used the signature of diffusion MRI signals along cortical depth as a criterion to detect area boundaries and find borders at which the signature changes abruptly. We validate our clustering results by histological analysis of the same tissue. These results confirm earlier studies which show that diffusion MRI can probe layer-specific intracortical fiber organization and, moreover, suggests that it contains enough information to automatically classify architecturally distinct cortical areas. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the automatic clustering approach and its appeal for MR-based cortical histology. PMID:27891069

  18. Fast chiral chromatographic method development and validation for the quantitation of eszopiclone in human plasma using LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Meng, Min; Rohde, Lisa; Cápka, Vladimír; Carter, Spencer J; Bennett, Patrick K

    2010-12-01

    Traditional chiral chromatographic separation method development is time consuming even for an experienced chromatographer. This paper describes the application of computer software ACD Lab to facilitate the development of chiral separation for the quantitation of eszopiclone using LC-MS/MS technology. Assisted by ACD/Chrom Manager and LC Simulator software, the optimal chiral chromatographic development was completed within hours. The baseline chiral separation was achieved with a total cycle time of 3 min. For sample extraction method development, a Waters Oasis Sorbent Selection Plate containing four different sorbents was utilized. Optimal conditions were determined using a single plate under various load, wash and elution conditions. This was followed by a GLP validation which demonstrated excellent intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for the quantitation of eszopiclone in human plasma at 1.00-100 ng/mL range using LC/MS/MS technology. This method was utilized to support multiple clinic bioequivalence studies.

  19. Validating cognitive support for operators of complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-10-01

    Modem nuclear power plants (NPPs) are complex systems whose performance is the result of an intricate interaction of human and system control. A complex system may be defined as one which supports a dynamic process involving a large number of elements that interact in many different ways. Safety is addressed through defense-in-depth design and preplanning; i.e., designers consider the types of failures that are most likely to occur and those of high consequence, and design their solutions in advance. However, complex interactions and their failure modes cannot always be anticipated by the designer and may be unfamiliar to plant personnel. These situations may pose cognitive demands on plant personnel, both individually and as a crew. Other factors may contribute to the cognitive challenges of NPP operation as well, including hierarchal processes, dynamic pace, system redundancy and reliability, and conflicting objectives. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  20. Human figure drawings: validity in assessing intellectual level and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Aikman, K G; Belter, R W; Finch, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a sample of 216 child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients, significant but low correlations were found between Goodenough-Harris (GH) drawing scores and both Full Scale IQs and academic achievement. The percentage of subjects correctly classified in appropriate IQ categories ranged from 35 to 44%; the percentage of misclassified subjects ranged from 56 to 65%. Consideration of visual-motor integration, using the Bender-Gestalt, did not improve the accuracy of G-H scores in predicting IQ scores in this sample. These results indicate that human figure drawings should not be substituted for other well-established intelligence and achievement tests nor used as an additional measure of these constructs when one is evaluating psychiatric patients.

  1. Experimental measurement of tympanic membrane response for finite element model validation of a human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tae-Soo; Baek, Moo-Jin; Lee, Dooho

    2013-01-01

    The middle ear consists of a tympanic membrane, ligaments, tendons, and three ossicles. An important function of the tympanic membrane is to deliver exterior sound stimulus to the ossicles and inner ear. In this study, the responses of the tympanic membrane in a human ear were measured and compared with those of a finite element model of the middle ear. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of the tympanic membrane, which had the measurement point on the cone of light of the tympanic membrane. The measured subjects were five Korean male adults and a cadaver. The tympanic membranes were stimulated using pure-tone sine waves at 18 center frequencies of one-third octave band over a frequency range of 200 Hz ~10 kHz with 60 and 80 dB sound pressure levels. The measured responses were converted into the umbo displacement transfer function (UDTF) with a linearity assumption. The measured UDTFs were compared with the calculated UDTFs using a finite element model for the Korean human middle ear. The finite element model of the middle ear consists of three ossicles, a tympanic membrane, ligaments, and tendons. In the finite element model, the umbo displacements were calculated under a unit sound pressure on the tympanic membrane. The UDTF of the finite element model exhibited good agreement with that of the experimental one in low frequency range, whereas in higher frequency band, the two response functions deviated from each other, which demonstrates that the finite element model should be updated with more accurate material properties and/or a frequency dependent material model.

  2. Electrophysiological Validation of a Human Prototype Auditory Midbrain Implant in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Lenarz, Minoo; Patrick, James F.; Anderson, David J.; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new treatment for hearing restoration in patients with neural deafness or surgically inaccessible cochleae who cannot benefit from cochlear implants (CI). This includes neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) patients who, due to development and/or removal of vestibular schwannomas, usually experience complete damage of their auditory nerves. Although the auditory brainstem implant (ABI) provides sound awareness and aids lip-reading capabilities for these NF2 patients, it generally only achieves hearing performance levels comparable with a single-channel CI. In collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Lane Cove, Australia), we developed a human prototype AMI, which is designed for electrical stimulation along the well-defined tonotopic gradient of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC). Considering that better speech perception and hearing performance has been correlated with a greater number of discriminable frequency channels of information available, the ability of the AMI to effectively activate discrete frequency regions within the ICC may enable better hearing performance than achieved by the ABI. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate if our AMI array could achieve low-threshold, frequency-specific activation within the ICC, and whether the levels for ICC activation via AMI stimulation were within safe limits for human application. We electrically stimulated different frequency regions within the ICC via the AMI array and recorded the corresponding neural activity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) using a multisite silicon probe in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Based on our results, AMI stimulation achieves lower thresholds and more localized, frequency-specific activation than CI stimulation. Furthermore, AMI stimulation achieves cortical activation with current levels that are within safe limits for central nervous system stimulation. This study confirms that our AMI design is sufficient for ensuring

  3. Genome-Wide Prediction and Validation of Peptides That Bind Human Prosurvival Bcl-2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DeBartolo, Joe; Taipale, Mikko; Keating, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is regulated by interactions between pro-apoptotic and prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family. Pro-apoptotic family members contain a weakly conserved BH3 motif that can adopt an alpha-helical structure and bind to a groove on prosurvival partners Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. Peptides corresponding to roughly 13 reported BH3 motifs have been verified to bind in this manner. Due to their short lengths and low sequence conservation, BH3 motifs are not detected using standard sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Thus, it is possible that many additional proteins harbor BH3-like sequences that can mediate interactions with the Bcl-2 family. In this work, we used structure-based and data-based Bcl-2 interaction models to find new BH3-like peptides in the human proteome. We used peptide SPOT arrays to test candidate peptides for interaction with one or more of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. For the 36 most promising array candidates, we quantified binding to all five human receptors using direct and competition binding assays in solution. All 36 peptides showed evidence of interaction with at least one prosurvival protein, and 22 peptides bound at least one prosurvival protein with a dissociation constant between 1 and 500 nM; many peptides had specificity profiles not previously observed. We also screened the full-length parent proteins of a subset of array-tested peptides for binding to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, we used the peptide binding data, in conjunction with previously reported interactions, to assess the affinity and specificity prediction performance of different models. PMID:24967846

  4. Determination of levocetirizine in human plasma by LC-MS-MS: validation and application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wichitnithad, Wisut; Jithavech, Ponsiree; Sanphanya, Kingkan; Vicheantawatchai, Petploy; Rojsitthisak, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple sample cleanup approach for levocetirizine in human was developed using protein precipitation coupled with LC-MS-MS. Samples were treated with 6% trichloroacetic acid in water prior to LC-MS-MS analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase column with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.5 (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The run time was 3.5 min. Mass parameters were optimized to monitor transitions at m/z [M+H](+) 389.0→201.0 for levocetirizine and m/z [M+H](+) 375.3→201.0 for hydroxyzine as internal standard. The lower limit of quantification and the dynamic range were 1.00 and 1.00-500 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity was good for intraday and interday validations (r(2) ≥ 0.995). The mean recoveries were 59 and 69% for levocetirizine and hydroxyzine, respectively. Matrix effect was acceptable with %CV < 15. Hemolytic effect was negligible. Levocetirizine was stable in human plasma for 27 h at room temperature (25°C), for 16 weeks frozen at -70°C, 4 weeks frozen at -20°C, for 24 h in an autosampler at 15°C and for three freeze/thaw cycles. The validated method was applied in a pharmacokinetic study to determine the concentration of levocetirizine in plasma samples. The study provides a fast and simple bioanalytical method for routine analysis and may be particularly useful for bioequivalence studies.

  5. Validation and Genotyping of Multiple Human Polymorphic Inversions Mediated by Inverted Repeats Reveals a High Degree of Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Cristina; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Villatoro, Sergi; Oliva, Meritxell; Izquierdo, David; Giner-Delgado, Carla; Montalvo, Víctor; García-González, Judit; Martínez-Fundichely, Alexander; Capilla, Laia; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Estivill, Xavier; Puig, Marta; Cáceres, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In recent years different types of structural variants (SVs) have been discovered in the human genome and their functional impact has become increasingly clear. Inversions, however, are poorly characterized and more difficult to study, especially those mediated by inverted repeats or segmental duplications. Here, we describe the results of a simple and fast inverse PCR (iPCR) protocol for high-throughput genotyping of a wide variety of inversions using a small amount of DNA. In particular, we analyzed 22 inversions predicted in humans ranging from 5.1 kb to 226 kb and mediated by inverted repeat sequences of 1.6–24 kb. First, we validated 17 of the 22 inversions in a panel of nine HapMap individuals from different populations, and we genotyped them in 68 additional individuals of European origin, with correct genetic transmission in ∼12 mother-father-child trios. Global inversion minor allele frequency varied between 1% and 49% and inversion genotypes were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. By analyzing the nucleotide variation and the haplotypes in these regions, we found that only four inversions have linked tag-SNPs and that in many cases there are multiple shared SNPs between standard and inverted chromosomes, suggesting an unexpected high degree of inversion recurrence during human evolution. iPCR was also used to check 16 of these inversions in four chimpanzees and two gorillas, and 10 showed both orientations either within or between species, providing additional support for their multiple origin. Finally, we have identified several inversions that include genes in the inverted or breakpoint regions, and at least one disrupts a potential coding gene. Thus, these results represent a significant advance in our understanding of inversion polymorphism in human populations and challenge the common view of a single origin of inversions, with important implications for inversion analysis in SNP-based studies. PMID:24651690

  6. Twenty-First Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Compiler); Jagacinski, R. J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the entitled conference are presented. Twenty-nine manuscripts and eight abstracts pertaining to workload, attention and errors, controller evaluation, movement skills, coordination and decision making, display evaluation and human operator modeling and manual control.

  7. Books and Pets: Our Friends for Life! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This reading program manual delineates the "Books and Pets" program, a project of Arizona Reads, which is a collaboration between the Arizona Humanities Council and the Arizona State Library, Archives, and Public Records. A CD-ROM version of the program accompanies the manual. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction;…

  8. Manual for developing EOC standard operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, K.F.

    1980-08-01

    This Emergency Operating Center (EOC) Procedure Manual is designed to provide guidelines on establishing, readying, and operating EOCs, and to serve as a model for locally developed procedure manuals or SOPs. The manual is also intended to be used as a training device for EOC staffs. EOCs and EOC staffs must be prepared to function in a wide range of operating situations. This manual reflects that requirement for EOC flexibility and adaptability, particularly in community shelter (CSP) and crisis relocation (CRP) operating modes. Some of the more common events that could require the central information-gathering and decision-making of an EOC are listed. The list does not cover all of the contingencies that might require a central control point. In addition, many of the disasters listed can be compounded by ensuing threats. Earthquakes, for instance, can cause landslides or dam failures. Blackouts can lead to civil disturbances. A train derailment can result in a hazardous materials incident. A resource boycott of the United States can escalate to conventional war and then to nuclear war. The emergency situation will determine, to a large extent, the direction and control function that the EOC will perform, and the human and material resources required to perform it. This manual reflects the differing requirements of the various disaster agents and emergency situations.

  9. Turkmen Language Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, David; Clark, Larry

    The manual of standard Turkmen language is designed to teach basic language skills that Peace Corps volunteers need during a tour in Turkmenistan. An introductory section gives information about the Turkmen language, including a brief history, notes on the alphabet, vowel and consonant sounds, rules of vowel harmony, and specific grammatical forms…

  10. NASCAP user's manual, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. J., III

    1978-01-01

    NASCAP simulates the charging process for a complex object in either tenuous plasma (geosynchronous orbit) or ground test (electron gun source) environment. Program control words, the structure of user input files, and various user options available are described in this computer programmer's user manual.

  11. Matematica 3. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alu, Maria Jose Miranda de Sousa

    This teachers manual accompanies a mathematics textbook, written in Portuguese, for third graders. It closely follows the objectives and methodology of the major curricula used throughout the schools in the United States. The 11 chapters deal with: numeration (0-999,999); addition with and without regrouping; subtraction with and without…

  12. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooyers, Cobina; And Others

    Designed for teachers to provide students with an awareness of the world of nature which surrounds them, the manual presents the philosophy of outdoor education, goals and objectives of the school program, planning for outdoor education, the Wildwood Programs, sequential program planning for students, program booking and resource list. Content…

  13. Manual for CLE Lecturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellaberger, Donna J.

    This manual is designed to help lawyers develop the skills needed to present effective, stimulating continuing legal education (CLE) lectures. It focuses on the particular purpose and nature of CLE lecturing, relationships and interplay of personalities in CLE, commitments and constraints which lecturers should observe, program structure and…

  14. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  15. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  16. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  17. Environmental Science Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobbe, Maurice A.

    The objective of this manual is to provide a set of basic analytical procedures commonly used to determine environmental quality. Procedures are designed to be used in an introductory course in environmental science and are explicit enough to allow them to be performed by both the non-science or beginning science student. Stressing ecology and…

  18. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  19. General Drafting. Technical Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The manual provides instructional guidance and reference material in the principles and procedures of general drafting and constitutes the primary study text for personnel in drafting as a military occupational specialty. Included is information on drafting equipment and its use; line weights, conventions and formats; lettering; engineering charts…

  20. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  1. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  2. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  3. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  4. Small Town Renewal Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Peter

    Over the last 2 decades, the loss of population and businesses in many small, inland, and remote Australian rural communities has intensified, largely because of the stress and uncertainty of volatile world commodity markets. This manual presents a range of survival and revival strategies that some communities have used to build resilient…

  5. HEMPDS user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.H.

    1983-02-01

    HEMPDS, the double-slide version of two-dimensional HEMP, allows the intersection of slide lines and slide lines in any direction, thus making use of triangular zones. this revised user's manual aids the physicist, computer scientist, and computer technician in using, maintaining, and coverting HEMPDS. Equations, EOS models, and sample problems are included.

  6. Rescue Manual. Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The third of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) forcible entry; (2) structure search and rescue; (3) rescue operations involving electricity; and (4) cutting torches. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive…

  7. Rescue Manual. Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The first of 10 modules contains 9 chapters: (1) introduction; (2) occupational stresses in rescue operations; (3) size-up; (4) critique; (5) reports and recordkeeping; (6) tools and equipment for rescue operations; (7) planning for…

  8. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  9. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  10. Rescue Manual. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The seventh of 10 modules contains information on extrication from vehicles. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, suggested tools and equipment for extrication procedures are…

  11. Rescue Manual. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The 10th of 10 modules contains a 16-page glossary of rescue terms and 3 appendices: (1) 4 computer programs and 32 other technical assistance materials available for hazardous materials; (2) hazardous materials resources--60 phone numbers,…

  12. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  13. Rescue Manual. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The ninth of 10 modules contains 7 chapters: (1) ice characteristics; (2) river characteristics and tactics for rescue; (3) water rescue techniques; (4) water rescue/recovery operations; (5) dive operations; (6) water rescue equipment; and…

  14. Southern Ductile Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This instructor's manual contains the materials required to conduct the competency-based workplace literacy program that was developed to help employees at a foundry that has evolved from a small, family-owned business into a major foundry group with several automated production systems. The workplace literacy program consists of 24 lessons in…

  15. Consumer Education Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.

    This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…

  16. Child Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk County Public Schools, Bartow, FL.

    This manual from the Polk County Public Schools in Bartow, Florida, was developed for school personnel and parents to aid in their efforts to develop successful behavioral and academic interventions to enhance the educational outcomes for students. Section 1 describes the child study team which is comprised of an administrator, guidance counselor,…

  17. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lydia J.

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  18. Sewer Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    Outlined are practices and procedures that should be followed in order to protect and fully realize the benefits of sewer systems and also to maximize service and minimize inconveniences to the public. Written in practical terms, the manual is designed to be of immediate use to municipal employees and others involved in sewer maintenance…

  19. Workplace ESL Teachers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Andy F.

    The manual is intended for teachers in workplace English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs, and contains ideas and techniques that both experienced and less experienced teachers in a wide variety of workplace ESL classes might find helpful. Sections address the following topics: (1) helpful hints for creating a successful educational environment…

  20. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  1. Affirmative Action Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Community Coll. District, CA.

    Guidelines relating to the affirmative action program of the Ventura County Community College District are provided in this manual. Affirmative action is defined as, "A set of specific and result-oriented procedures to which a contractor commits himself/herself to apply every good faith effort. The objective of those procedures, plus such efforts,…

  2. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  3. ALA Standards Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.

    This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

  4. Drywall Finishing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengert, Gerald

    This manual, a self-study guide for apprentices in the drywall finishing trade in British Columbia, attempts to establish standards for the trade. It tells how to produce a properly taped and filled drywall surface and describes what that surface should look like. The standards emphasize quality work that can be realistically achieved on the job.…

  5. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  6. Facilities Data System Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acridge, Charles W.; Ford, Tim M.

    The purposes of this manual are to set forth the scope and procedures for the maintenance and operation of the University of California facilities Data System (FDX) and to serve as a reference document for users of the system. FDX is an information system providing planning and management data about the existing physical plant. That is, it…

  7. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  8. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William W.; Stutts, Jane C.

    This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law…

  9. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  10. Ohio School Design Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus.

    This manual presents guidance to facility designers, school administrators, staff, and students for the development of school facilities being constructed under Ohio's Classroom Facilities Assistance Program. It provides critical analysis of individual spaces and material/system components necessary for the construction of elementary and secondary…

  11. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  12. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  13. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  14. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Teachers' Federation, Toronto.

    A guide and introduction to outdoor education for the classroom teacher, the manual lists 5 aims and objectives of outdoor education and discusses the means for reaching these objectives through field trips, camping, outdoor learning centers, and outdoor teaching in school environs. Selected activities are described by subject area: arts and…

  15. Graphics mini manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Randall, Donald P.; Bowen, John T.; Johnson, Mary M.; Roland, Vincent R.; Matthews, Christine G.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.; Nolf, Scott R.; Hammond, Dana P.

    1990-01-01

    The computer graphics capabilities available at the Center are introduced and their use is explained. More specifically, the manual identifies and describes the various graphics software and hardware components, details the interfaces between these components, and provides information concerning the use of these components at LaRC.

  16. Learning Resources Evaluations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Evelyn H., Ed.

    This Learning Resources Evaluation Manual (LREM) contains evaluations of 140 instructional products listed in the 1994 supplement to Virginia's Adult Education Curricula Resource Catalog. A table of contents lists topics/subjects and page numbers. Some titles that are useful under more than one category are cross-listed for easy reference. These…

  17. Program Evaluation: Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, David L.

    Intended for administrators and evaluators, the manual identifies models useful in evaluating special education programs in Maryland. An introduction to program evaluation, defines the concept of educational program evaluation, notes its purpose, and addresses its current status in the field of special education. Chapter 2 goes into greater depth…

  18. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lydia

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  19. CE Programmer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Brishkai; McGechaen, Sandy

    Designed as a reference guide for continuing education planners, this manual provides basic information about the process of developing and delivering programs and courses. Material is organized to match job skills described in the systematic approach called DACUM--Designing a Curriculum--which reflects all skills required to be a continuing…

  20. DFLOW USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    DFLOW is a computer program for estimating design stream flows for use in water quality studies. The manual describes the use of the program on both the EPA's IBM mainframe system and on a personal computer (PC). The mainframe version of DFLOW can extract a river's daily flow rec...

  1. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Creative ways to use the outdoors as a part of the regular school curriculum are outlined in this teacher's manual for the elementary grades. Presented for consideration are the general objectives of outdoor education, suggestions for evaluating outdoor education experiences, and techniques for teaching outdoor education. The purpose and functions…

  2. "Leader Attributes Inventory" Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…

  3. Manual on Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Graham D.

    This manual on occupational analysis, developed in Australia, is organized in three sections. The first section provides a framework for occupational analysis (OA) and a discussion of possible outputs from an OA from each of three phases: (1) determining the nature and scope of the occupational area; (2) developing a competencies list; and (3)…

  4. Manual for Youth Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Youth Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    This manual was designed primarily for use by coordinators responsible for developing comprehensive community youth opportunity programs of employment, education, and recreation, but the material may also be of assistance to community and business leaders, educators, and others involved in expanding local opportunities for young people. Contents…

  5. Day Care Evaluation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago, IL.

    This manual presents instruments for evaluating the program and facilities of day care centers and family day care homes serving nonhandicapped children aged 3-5. Chapter 1 discusses child care evaluation in general and outlines the rationale underlying this evaluation system (including the principle that day care evaluation should assess program…

  6. Collection Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Blaine H.

    This manual is designed to help bibliographers, librarians, and other materials selectors plan and conduct systematic collection evaluations using both collection centered and client centered techniques. Topics covered in five chapters are: (1) planning the assessment; (2) collection-centered techniques, comprising the compilation of statistics,…

  7. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  8. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  9. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  10. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  11. Cooperative Office Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This manual, intended for inexperienced and experienced coordinators, school administrators, and guidance personnel, is designed to provide practical suggestions for initiating, developing, operating, coordinating, improving, and evaluating cooperative office education programs. Major content is presented primarily in outline form under the…

  12. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  13. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  14. Volunteer Recording Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Braille and Talking Book Library, Phoenix.

    This manual for volunteers begins with a brief introduction to Arizona's Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, which is one of 56 libraries appointed by the Librarian of Congress to provide public library service to persons with visual or physical impairments. Introductory materials include explanations of the general policies and…

  15. Peer Leadership Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  16. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  17. Validation of internal reference genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397

  18. Dried blood spots, valid screening for viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus in real-life

    PubMed Central

    Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne; Lillevang, Søren Thue; Christensen, Peer B; Holm, Dorte Kinggaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment centers, a prison and outpatient clinics and included blood donors as negative controls. Five drops of finger capillary blood were spotted on filter paper, and a venous blood sample was obtained. The samples were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV levels as well as subjected to a combined nucleic acid test (NAT) for HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV RNA. RESULTS Samples from 404 subjects were screened (85 CHB, 116 CHC, 114 HIV and 99 blood donors). DBS had a sensitivity of > 96% and a specificity of > 98% for the detection of all three infections. NAT testing did not improve sensitivity, but correctly classified 95% of the anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic and past infections. Anti-HBc and anti-HBS showed low sensitivity in DBS (68% and 42%). CONCLUSION DBS sampling, combined with an automated analysis system, is a feasible screening method to diagnose chronic viral hepatitis and HIV infections outside of the health care system. PMID:27672281

  19. Simple and effective HPLC method development and its validation for Clindipine in human drug free plasma.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Kumar, Jaya raja; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2015-01-01

    Simple and effective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for estimation of Clindipine in drug free human drug free blank plasma. The internal standard used as Nifidipine (IS). The current method was used protein precipitating extraction of Clindipine from blank plasma. Separation was achieved on reversed-phase c18 column (25cm × 4.6mm, 5μ) and the detection was monitored by UV detector at 260 nm. The optimized mobile phase was used acetonitrile: 5mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 4.5), in the ratio of 60:40% v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. This linearity was achieved in this method range of 10.0-125.0 ng/ml with regression coefficient range is 0.99. The present method is suitable in terms of precise, accurate and specific during the study. The simplicity of the method allows for application in laboratories that lack sophisticated analytical instruments such as LC-MS/MS or GC-MS/MS that are complicated, costly and time consuming rather than a simple HPLC-UV method. The present method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic studies.

  20. Modelling of the binding site of the human m1 muscarinic receptor: Experimental validation and refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Hélène; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, Susanne; Schreuder, Herman; Hoflack, , Jan; Hibert, Marcel; Wermuth, Camille-Georges

    1997-07-01

    Our model of the human m1 muscarinic receptor has been refined on the basis of the recently published projection map of bovine rhodopsin. The refined model has a slightly different helix arrangement, which reveals the presence of an extra hydrophobic pocket located between helices 3, 4 and 5. The interaction of series of agonists and antagonists with the m1 muscarinic receptor has been studied experimentally by site-directed mutagenesis. In order to account for the observed results, three-dimensional models of m1 ligands docked in the target receptor are proposed. Qualitatively, the obtained models are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Agonists and partial agonists have a relatively small size. They can bind to the same region of the receptor using, however, different anchoring receptor residues. Antagonists are usually larger molecules, filling almost completely the same pocket as agonists. They can usually produce much stronger interactions with aromatic residues. Experimental data combined with molecular modelling studies highlight how subtle and diverse receptor-ligand interactions could be.

  1. A comprehensive simulator of the human respiratory system: validation with experimental and simulated data.

    PubMed

    Chiari, L; Avanzolini, G; Ursino, M

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive model of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, transport, and storage in the adult human is presented, and its ability to provide realistic responses under different physiological conditions is evaluated. The model comprises three compartments (i.e., lung, body tissue, and brain tissue) and incorporates a controller that adjusts alveolar ventilation and cardiac output dynamically integrating stimuli coming from peripheral and central chemoreceptors. A new realistic CO2 dissociation curve based on a two-buffer model of acid-base chemical regulation is included. In addition, the model explicitly considers relevant physiological factors such as buffer base, the nonlinear interaction between the O2 and CO2 chemoreceptor responses, pulmonary shunt, dead space, variable time delays, and Bohr and Haldane effects. Model simulations provide results consistent with both dynamic and steady-state responses measured in subjects undergoing inhalation of high CO2 (hypercapnia) or low O2 (hypoxia) and subsequent recovery. An analysis of the results indicates that the proposed model fits the experimental data of ventilation and gas partial pressures as some meaningful simulators now available and in a very large range of gas intake fractions. Moreover, it also provides values of blood concentrations of CO2, HCO3-, and hydrogen ions in good agreement with more complex simulators characterized by an implicit formulation of the CO2 dissociation curve. In the experimental conditions analyzed, the model seems to represent a single theoretical framework able to appropriately describe the different phenomena involved in the control of respiration.

  2. Use of proteomics for validation of the isolation process of clotting factor IX from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Clifton, James; Huang, Feilei; Gaso-Sokac, Dajana; Brilliant, Kate; Hixson, Douglas; Josic, Djuro

    2010-01-03

    The use of proteomic techniques in the monitoring of different production steps of plasma-derived clotting factor IX (pd F IX) was demonstrated. The first step, solid-phase extraction with a weak anion-exchange resin, fractionates the bulk of human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G, and other non-binding proteins from F IX. The proteins that strongly bind to the anion-exchange resin are eluted by higher salt concentrations. In the second step, anion-exchange chromatography, residual HSA, some proteases and other contaminating proteins are separated. In the last chromatographic step, affinity chromatography with immobilized heparin, the majority of the residual impurities are removed. However, some contaminating proteins still remain in the eluate from the affinity column. The next step in the production process, virus filtration, is also an efficient step for the removal of residual impurities, mainly high molecular weight proteins, such as vitronectin and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins. In each production step, the active component, pd F IX and contaminating proteins are monitored by biochemical and immunochemical methods and by LC-MS/MS and their removal documented. Our methodology is very helpful for further process optimization, rapid identification of target proteins with relatively low abundance, and for the design of subsequent steps for their removal or purification.

  3. [Validation of the Tekscan system for statistic and dynamic pressure measurements of the human femorotibial joint].

    PubMed

    Wirz, D; Becker, R; Li, S Feng; Friederich, N F; Müller, W

    2002-01-01

    In vitro dynamic pressure measurements in the healthy and pathologically altered knee joint help to improve our understanding of the loading pattern on femorotibial surfaces. The aim of the study was to evaluate a piezoresistive pressure measuring system. A human cadaveric knee was mounted in a material-testing machine (Bionix 858) using a specially designed knee-holding device. Axial loading of the knee, flexed at 20o, at 500 N, 1000N and 1500 N was then carried out. For the static investigations, the piezoresistive measuring system (Tekscan), was compared with the FUJI measuring system. In addition, dynamic measurements were also performed with the Tekscan System. With the exception of the lateral compartment at a load of 1500 N, no differences in maximum pressures were observed between the two systems. Nor were there any differences with regard to contact surfaces, either in the medial or lateral compartment (p > 0.05). However, the reproducibility of the data was significantly higher with the Tekscan System (p < 0.01). Dynamic pressure measurements obtained with the knee flexed 20 to 90o showed that the lateral contact area shifted from anterior to posterior, while the medial contact area remained virtually unchanged. The Tekscan System proved to be more reliable than the FUJI System, and permits simultaneous measurements in both compartments. The Tekscan System is suitable for dynamic measurement of the femorotibial joint, and permits measurements to be made under more physiological conditions.

  4. Next-Generation Assessment of Human Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ERBB2) Amplification Status: Clinical Validation in the Context of a Hybrid Capture-Based, Comprehensive Solid Tumor Genomic Profiling Assay.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Zehir, Ahmet; Cheng, Donavan T; Benayed, Ryma; Nafa, Khedoudja; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Weigelt, Britta; Razavi, Pedram; Hyman, David M; Baselga, José; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2017-03-01

    Establishing ERBB2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)] amplification status in breast and gastric carcinomas is essential to treatment selection. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) constitute the current standard for assessment. With further advancements in genomic medicine, new clinically relevant biomarkers are rapidly emerging and options for targeted therapy are increasing in patients with advanced disease, driving the need for comprehensive molecular profiling. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an attractive approach for up-front comprehensive assessment, including ERBB2 status, but the concordance with traditional methods of HER2 assessment is not well established. The Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) assay, a hybrid capture-based NGS assay interrogating the coding regions of 410 cancer-related genes, was performed on manually macrodissected unstained sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast (n = 213) and gastroesophageal (n = 39) tumors submitted for clinical mutation profiling. ERBB2 status was assessed using a custom bioinformatics pipeline, and NGS results were compared to IHC and FISH. NGS ERBB2 amplification calls had an overall concordance of 98.4% (248/252) with the combined IHC/FISH results in this validation set. Discrepancies occurred in the context of low tumor content and HER2 heterogeneity. ERBB2 amplification status can be reliably determined by hybridization capture-based NGS methods, allowing efficient concurrent testing for other potentially actionable genomic alterations, particularly in limited material.

  5. FKBP5 Moderates Alcohol Withdrawal Severity: Human Genetic Association and Functional Validation in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Schwandt, Melanie L; Chester, Julia A; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Kao, Chung-Feng; Liang, Tiebing; Tapocik, Jenica D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; George, David T; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone, FK506-binding protein 5, that exerts negative feedback on HPA axis function. This study aimed to examine the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FKBP5 gene in humans and the effect of Fkbp5 gene deletion in mice on alcohol withdrawal severity. We genotyped six FKBP5 SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs3777747, rs9380524, rs1360780, and rs9470080) in 399 alcohol-dependent inpatients with alcohol consumption 48 h before admission and recorded scores from the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol revised (CIWA-Ar). Fkbp5 gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for alcohol withdrawal using handling-induced convulsions (HICs) following both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. We found the minor alleles of rs3800373 (G), rs9296158 (A), rs1360780 (T), and rs9470080 (T) were significantly associated with lower CIWA-Ar scores whereas the minor alleles of rs3777747 (G) and rs9380524 (A) were associated with higher scores. The haplotype-based analyses also showed an association with alcohol withdrawal severity. Fkbp5 KO mice showed significantly greater HICs during withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure compared with WT controls. This study is the first to show a genetic effect of FKBP5 on the severity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In mice, the absence of the Fkbp5 gene enhances sensitivity to alcohol withdrawal. We suggest that FKBP5 variants may trigger different adaptive changes in HPA axis regulation during alcohol withdrawal with concomitant effects on withdrawal severity. PMID:24603855

  6. Validation of an individualised model of human thermoregulation for predicting responses to cold air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Frijns, Arjan J. H.; van Ooijen, Marieke J.; Fiala, Dusan; Kester, Arnold M.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.

    2007-01-01

    Most computer models of human thermoregulation are population based. Here, we individualised the Fiala model [Fiala et al. (2001) Int J Biometeorol 45:143 159] with respect to anthropometrics, body fat, and metabolic rate. The predictions of the adapted multisegmental thermoregulatory model were compared with measured skin temperatures of individuals. Data from two experiments, in which reclining subjects were suddenly exposed to mild to moderate cold environmental conditions, were used to study the effect on dynamic skin temperature responses. Body fat was measured by the three-compartment method combining underwater weighing and deuterium dilution. Metabolic rate was determined by indirect calorimetry. In experiment 1, the bias (mean difference) between predicted and measured mean skin temperature decreased from 1.8°C to -0.15°C during cold exposure. The standard deviation of the mean difference remained of the same magnitude (from 0.7°C to 0.9°C). In experiment 2 the bias of the skin temperature changed from 2.0±1.09°C using the standard model to 1.3±0.93°C using individual characteristics in the model. The inclusion of individual characteristics thus improved the predictions for an individual and led to a significantly smaller systematic error. However, a large part of the discrepancies in individual response to cold remained unexplained. Possible further improvements to the model accomplished by inclusion of more subject characteristics (i.e. body fat distribution, body shape) and model refinements on the level of (skin) blood perfusion, and control functions, are discussed.

  7. Validation of computational fluid dynamics methodology used for human upper airway flow simulations.

    PubMed

    Mylavarapu, Goutham; Murugappan, Shanmugam; Mihaescu, Mihai; Kalra, Maninder; Khosla, Sid; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2009-07-22

    An anatomically accurate human upper airway model was constructed from multiple magnetic resonance imaging axial scans. This model was used to conduct detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations during expiration, to investigate the fluid flow in the airway regions where obstruction could occur. An identical physical model of the same airway was built using stereo lithography. Pressure and velocity measurements were conducted in the physical model. Both simulations and experiments were performed at a peak expiratory flow rate of 200 L/min. Several different numerical approaches within the FLUENT commercial software framework were used in the simulations; unsteady Large Eddy Simulation (LES), steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) with two-equation turbulence models (i.e. k-epsilon, standard k-omega, and k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST)) and with one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The CFD predictions of the average wall static pressures at different locations along the airway wall were favorably compared with the experimental data. Among all the approaches, standard k-omega turbulence model resulted in the best agreement with the static pressure measurements, with an average error of approximately 20% over all ports. The highest positive pressures were observed in the retroglossal regions below the epiglottis, while the lowest negative pressures were recorded in the retropalatal region. The latter is a result of the airflow acceleration in the narrow retropalatal region. The largest pressure drop was observed at the tip of the soft palate. This location has the smallest cross section of the airway. The good agreement between the computations and the experimental results suggest that CFD simulations can be used to accurately compute aerodynamic flow characteristics of the upper airway.

  8. Validation of minimally invasive measurement of myocardial perfusion using electron beam computed tomography and application in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, M; Lerman, L; Rumberger, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To measure myocardial perfusion using an estimate of intramyocardial vascular volume obtained by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) in an animal model; to assess the feasibility and validity of measuring regional myocardial perfusion in human volunteers using the techniques developed and validated in the animal studies.
METHODS—Measurements of myocardial perfusion with EBCT employing intravenous contrast injections were compared with radioactive microsphere measurements (flow 57 to 346 ml/100 g/min) in seven closed chest dogs. Fourteen human volunteers then underwent EBCT scans using intravenous contrast injections.
RESULTS—Mean (SEM) global intramyocardial vascular volume by EBCT was 7.6 (1.1)%. The correlation between global EBCT (y) and microsphere (x) perfusion was y = 0.59x + 15.56 (r = 0.86) before, and y = 0.72x + 6.06 (r = 0.88) after correcting for intramyocardial vascular volume. Regional perfusion correlation was y = 0.75x + 23.84 (r = 0.82). Corresponding improvements in agreement between the two techniques were also seen using Bland-Altman plots. In the human subjects, mean resting global myocardial flow was 98 (6) ml/100 g/min, with homogeneous flow across all regions. In 10 of these subjects, perfusion was studied during coronary vasodilatation using intravenous adenosine. Global flow increased from 93 (5) ml/100 g/min at rest to 250 (19) ml/100 g/min during adenosine (p < 0.001), with an average perfusion reserve ratio of 2.8 (0.2). Similar changes in regional perfusion were observed and were uniform throughout all regions, with a mean regional perfusion reserve ratio of 2.8 (0.3).
CONCLUSIONS—Accounting for intramyocardial vascular volume improves the accuracy of EBCT measurements of myocardial perfusion when using intravenous contrast injections. The feasibility of providing accurate measurements of global and regional myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in people using this

  9. Development and validation of a novel, simple, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of lead in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shayesteh, Tavakol Heidari; Khajavi, Farzad; Khosroshahi, Abolfazl Ghafuri; Mahjub, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The determination of blood lead levels is the most useful indicator of the determination of the amount of lead that is absorbed by the human body. Various methods, like atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), have already been used for the detection of lead in biological fluid, but most of these methods are based on complicated, expensive, and highly instructed instruments. In this study, a simple and accurate spectroscopic method for the determination of lead has been developed and applied for the investigation of lead concentration in biological samples. In this study, a silica gel column was used to extract lead and eliminate interfering agents in human serum samples. The column was washed with deionized water. The pH was adjusted to the value of 8.2 using phosphate buffer, and then tartrate and cyanide solutions were added as masking agents. The lead content was extracted into the organic phase containing dithizone as a complexion reagent and the dithizone-Pb(II) complex was formed and approved by visible spectrophotometry at 538 nm. The recovery was found to be 84.6 %. In order to validate the method, a calibration curve involving the use of various concentration levels was calculated and proven to be linear in the range of 0.01-1.5 μg/ml, with an R (2) regression coefficient of 0.9968 by statistical analysis of linear model validation. The largest error % values were found to be -5.80 and +11.6 % for intra-day and inter-day measurements, respectively. The largest RSD % values were calculated to be 6.54 and 12.32 % for intra-day and inter-day measurements, respectively. Further, the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.002 μg/ml. The developed method was applied to determine the lead content in the human serum of voluntary miners, and it has been proven that there is no statistically significant difference between the data provided from this novel method and the data obtained from previously studied AAS.

  10. Production and validation of a good manufacturing practice grade human fibroblast line for supporting human embryonic stem cell derivation and culture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The development of reproducible methods for deriving human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP) is essential for the development of hESC-based therapies. Although significant progress has been made toward the development of chemically defined conditions for the maintenance and differentiation of hESCs, efficient derivation of new hESCs requires the use of fibroblast feeder cells. However, GMP-grade feeder cell lines validated for hESC derivation are not readily available. Methods We derived a fibroblast cell line (NclFed1A) from human foreskin in compliance with GMP standards. Consent was obtained to use the cells for the production of hESCs and to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We compared the line with a variety of other cell lines for its ability to support derivation and self-renewal of hESCs. Results NclFed1A supports efficient rates (33%) of hESC colony formation after explantation of the inner cell mass (ICM) of human blastocysts. This compared favorably with two mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. NclFed1A also compared favorably with commercially available foreskin fibroblasts and MEFs in promoting proliferation and pluripotency of a number of existing and widely used hESCs. The ability of NclFed1A to maintain self-renewal remained undiminished for up to 28 population doublings from the master cell bank. Conclusions The human fibroblast line Ncl1Fed1A, produced in compliance with GMP standards and qualified for derivation and maintenance of hESCs, is a useful resource for the advancement of progress toward hESC-based therapies in regenerative medicine. PMID:22472092

  11. Introduction to Hydraulics. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of individualized instructional materials for students. The manual is self-paced, but is designed to be used under the supervision of an instructor. The manual contains 10 assignments, each with all the information needed, a list of objectives that should be met, and exercise questions that can help in…

  12. A validated silver-nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak

    2014-05-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma. The method is based on the enhancement of the weak CL signal of the luminol-H2 O2 system. It was found that the CL signal arising from the reaction between alkaline luminol and H2 O2 was greatly increased by the addition of silver nanoparticles in the presence of citalopram. Prepared silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various experimental parameters affecting CL intensity were studied and optimized for the determination of citalopram. Under optimized experimental conditions, CL intensity was found to be proportional to the concentration of citalopram in the range 40-2500 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the devised method were 3.78 and 12.62 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the developed method was found to have excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.65% (n = 7). Potential interference by common excipients was also studied. The method was validated statistically using recovery studies and was successfully applied to the determination of citalopram in the pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations and in spiked human plasma samples. Percentage recoveries were found to range from 97.71 to 101.99% for the pure form, from 97.84 to 102.78% for pharmaceutical preparations and from 95.65 to 100.35% for spiked human plasma.

  13. Development and validation of a bioanalytical LC-MS method for the quantification of GHRP-6 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Cabrales, Ania; Reyes, Osvaldo; Morera, Vivian; Betancourt, Lázaro; Sánchez, Aniel; García, Gerardo; Moya, Galina; Padrón, Gabriel; Besada, Vladimir; González, Luis Javier

    2012-02-23

    Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6, His-(DTrp)-Ala-Trp-(DPhe)-Lys-NH₂, MW=872.44 Da) is a potent growth hormone secretagogue that exhibits a cytoprotective effect, maintaining tissue viability during acute ischemia/reperfusion episodes in different organs like small bowel, liver and kidneys. In the present work a quantitative method to analyze GHRP-6 in human plasma was developed and fully validated following FDA guidelines. The method uses an internal standard (IS) of GHRP-6 with ¹³C-labeled Alanine for quantification. Sample processing includes a precipitation step with cold acetone to remove the most abundant plasma proteins, recovering the GHRP-6 peptide with a high yield. Quantification was achieved by LC-MS in positive full scan mode in a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated, establishing the lower limit of quantification at 5 ng/mL and a range for the calibration curve from 5 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL. A dilution integrity test was performed to analyze samples at higher concentration of GHRP-6. The validation process involved five calibration curves and the analysis of quality control samples to determine accuracy and precision. The calibration curves showed R² higher than 0.988. The stability of the analyte and its internal standard (IS) was demonstrated in all conditions the samples would experience in a real time analyses. This method was applied to the quantification of GHRP-6 in plasma from nine healthy volunteers participating in a phase I clinical trial.

  14. Validation of cold chain shipping environment for transport of allografts as part of a human tissue bank returns policy.

    PubMed

    Rooney, P; Eagle, M J; Kearney, J N

    2015-12-01

    Human tissue is shipped to surgeons in the UK in either a freeze-dried or frozen state. To ensure quality and safety of the tissue, frozen tissue must be shipped in insulated containers such that tissue is maintained at an appropriate temperature. UK Blood Transfusion Service regulations state "Transportation systems must be validated to show maintenance of the required storage temperature" and also state that frozen, non-cryopreserved tissue "must be transported… at -20 °C or lower" (Guidelines for the Blood Transfusion Services in the United Kingdom, 8th Edn. 2013). To maintain an expiry date for frozen tissue longer than 6 months, the tissue must be maintained at a temperature of -40 °C or below. The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the capability of a commercially available insulated polystyrene carton (XPL10), packed with dry ice, to maintain tissue temperature below -40 °C. Tissue temperature of a single frozen femoral head or a single frozen Achilles tendon, was recorded over a 4-day period at 37 °C, inside a XPL10 carton with dry ice as refrigerant. The data demonstrate that at 37 °C, the XPL10 carton with 9.5 kg of dry ice maintained femoral head and tendon tissue temperature below -55 °C for at least 48 h; tissue temperature did not rise above -40 °C until at least 70 h. Data also indicated that at a storage temperature lower than 37 °C, tissue temperature was maintained for longer periods.

  15. Extensive validation of the global water resources model PCR-GLOBWB 2.0: the added value of human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peßenteiner, Stefanie; Van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    With growing populations, economic expansion, and rising standards of living the demand for water is increasing across the globe. Demographic developments and a changing climate will further aggravate the pressure on global water resources. In the EU FP7 project EartH2Observe in-situ data, earth observations, and models will be assimilated to provide a comprehensive reanalysis of the global water resources system, accounting for all components of the global water cycle including information on the impacts of human activities, e.g., through water consumption and man-made reservoirs. Synthesizing as many sources of information as possible bears great potential to improve global water balance estimates and to consequently allow for consistent and informed decisions in water management. One of the modelling suites participating in EartH2Observe is the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (Van Beek et al., 2011) which already accounts for anthropogenic perturbations in the water cycle. Here we present an extensive validation of the latest model version PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014) which comprises dynamic withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of ground- and surface water resources, irrigation, return flows of unconsumed water to surface water and groundwater resources, and more than 6000 reservoirs of the GRanD database. This study presents the first step towards a full reanalysis merging earth observations, in-situ data and models. We focus on human activities altering the hydrologic cycle over the past 30 years by evaluating PCR-GLOBWB 'natural' and 'humanly-modified' simulations in 0.5°× 0.5° spatial and daily temporal resolution. To this end our model is forced with the newly available WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data) data set. PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 simulations of river discharge, water abstraction and water use are validated against observations from the Global Runoff Data Centre as well as available national and

  16. IMAT graphics manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, Alan E.; Cooper, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) consists of a menu driven executive system coupled with a relational database which links commercial structures, structural dynamics and control codes. The IMAT graphics system, a key element of the software, provides a common interface for storing, retrieving, and displaying graphical information. The IMAT Graphics Manual shows users of commercial analysis codes (MATRIXx, MSC/NASTRAN and I-DEAS) how to use the IMAT graphics system to obtain high quality graphical output using familiar plotting procedures. The manual explains the key features of the IMAT graphics system, illustrates their use with simple step-by-step examples, and provides a reference for users who wish to take advantage of the flexibility of the software to customize their own applications.

  17. IAC user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  18. Force user's manual, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Ramanan, Aruna V.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for writing parallel programs for shared memory multiprocessors has been formalized as an extension to the Fortran language and implemented as a macro preprocessor. The extended language is known as the Force, and this manual describes how to write Force programs and execute them on the Flexible Computer Corporation Flex/32, the Encore Multimax and the Sequent Balance computers. The parallel extension macros are described in detail, but knowledge of Fortran is assumed.

  19. ASSIST internals reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) program was developed at NASA LaRC in order to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. A user manual was developed to detail its use. Certain technical specifics are of no concern to the end user, yet are of importance to those who must maintain and/or verify the correctness of the tool. This document takes a detailed look into these technical issues.

  20. RRFC hardware operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the {sup 235}U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the {sup 235}U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics.

  1. Inspection Manual for Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1940-05-01

    manual must not be considered as a thorinany action on the part of the inspector not warranted by the contract, ,_urchase order, drawings, or detail...specifications, Individual specifications and the contract or purchase order of which it is a part will, in each instance, form the sole basis for... part of the ingot. Discards should be weighed occasionally and a check must always be made when any doubt exists as to the amount of discard taken. If

  2. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  3. Bioculture System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Bioculture System first flight will be to validate the performance of the hardware and its automated and manual operational capabilities in the space flight environment of the International Space Station. Biology, Engineering, and Operations tests will be conducted in the Bioculture System fully characterize its automated and manual functions to support cell culturing for short and long durations. No hypothesis-driven research will be conducted with biological sample, and the science leads have all provided their concurrence that none of the data they collect will be considered as proprietary and can be free distributed to the science community. The outcome of the validation flight will be to commission the hardware for use by the science community. This presentation will provide non-proprietary details about the Bioculture System and information about the activities for the first flight.

  4. Brain Response to Primary Blast Wave Using Validated Finite Element Models of Human Head and Advanced Combat Helmet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a “signature injury” in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27–0.66 MPa) from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP) in the head ranged from 0.68 to 1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10–35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44%) was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%). The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence “iso-damage” curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen

  5. Validation of an optimized method for the determination of iodine in human breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) after tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Dao; Zhou, Shao Jia; Gibson, Robert; Palmer, Lyndon; Muhlhausler, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    In this study a novel method to determine iodine concentrations in human breast milk was developed and validated. The iodine was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) extraction at 90°C in disposable polypropylene tubes. While similar approaches have been used previously, this method adopted a shorter extraction time (1h vs. 3h) and used antimony (Sb) as the internal standard, which exhibited greater stability in breast milk and milk powder matrices compared to tellurium (Te). Method validation included: defining iodine linearity up to 200μgL(-1); confirming recovery of iodine from NIST 1549 milk powder. A recovery of 94-98% was also achieved for the NIST 1549 milk powder and human breast milk samples spiked with sodium iodide and thyroxine (T4) solutions. The method quantitation limit (MQL) for human breast milk was 1.6μgL(-1). The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation for the breast milk samples and NIST powder were <1% and <3.5%, respectively. NIST 1549 milk powder, human breast milk samples and calibration standards spiked with the internal standard were all stable for at least 2.5 months after extraction. The results of the validation process confirmed that this newly developed method provides greater accuracy and precision in the assessment of iodine concentrations in human breast milk than previous methods and therefore offers a more reliable approach for assessing iodine concentrations in human breast milk.

  6. Manual segmentation of the fornix, fimbria, and alveus on high-resolution 3T MRI: Application via fully-automated mapping of the human memory circuit white and grey matter in healthy and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Robert S C; Park, Min Tae M; Devenyi, Gabriel A; Lynn, Vivian; Pipitone, Jon; Winterburn, Julie; Chavez, Sofia; Schira, Mark; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Pruessner, Jens C; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2016-10-18

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at https://github.com/cobralab/atlases. Our segmentation methods demonstrated high inter- and intra-rater reliability, were validated as inputs in automated segmentation, and were used to analyze the trajectory of these regions in both healthy aging (OASIS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; using ADNI). We observed significant bilateral decreases in the fornix in healthy aging while the alveus and cornu ammonis (CA) 1 were well preserved (all p's<0.006). MCI and AD demonstrated significant decreases in fimbriae and fornices. Many hippocampal subfields exhibited decreased volume in both MCI and AD, yet no significant differences were found between MCI and AD cohorts themselves. Our results suggest a neuroprotective or compensatory role for the alveus and CA1 in healthy aging and suggest that an improved understanding of the volumetric trajectories of these structures is required.

  7. Method development and validation for rapid quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Ong, Rina Yue-Ling; Chin, Tan-Min; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Wan, Seow-Ching; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ho, Paul C; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2012-03-05

    A novel and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using its stable labeled isotope, hydroxychloroquine-d4 as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB - C8 analytical HPLC column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase comprising water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (94:6, v/v) was delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column effluent was detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring with positive mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 336 → 247 and m/z 340 → 251 were used to measure the analyte and IS, respectively. The assay demonstrated a good linear dynamic range of 5-2000 ng/mL for hydroxychloroquine in human blood, with coefficient of determination (r(2)) of =0.9999. The values for intra-day and inter-day precisions of hydroxychloroquine were ≤ 7.86% with the accuracies ranged from 93.8% to 107.6%. The chromatographic run time was 3 min, making it possible to achieve a high throughput analysis. This method was used as a bio-analytical tool in a phase I clinical trial to quantify blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving both hydroxychloroquine and gefitinib in their treatment.

  8. Mapping the distribution of serotonin transporter in the human brainstem with high-resolution PET: Validation using postmortem autoradiography data.

    PubMed

    Fazio, P; Schain, M; Varnäs, K; Halldin, C; Farde, L; Varrone, A

    2016-06-01

    The human brainstem is a complex structure with several small nuclei and neural pathways of interest in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In common with other monoaminergic systems, serotoninergic neurons originate from a group of nuclei located in the brainstem. The present study was designed to validate a user-independent approach for a detailed in vivo quantification of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in the human brainstem using a template-based approach that consisted of three steps. First, 3T-MR images and parametric binding potential (BPND) [(11)C]MADAM images of ten healthy subjects were used to generate a PET template of 5-HTT availability. In the second step, volumes of interest (VOIs) for different brainstem nuclei were obtained using a method in which VOIs are initially delineated on MRI images using anatomical landmarks and then are finally tailored on the distribution of 5-HTT binding using a thresholding approach applied to the 5-HTT template. In the final step, the VOIs were transformed and applied individually to BPND images of 16 healthy subjects (14M/2F, 20-64years). The in vivo distribution of BPND values obtained with the template-based method were in good agreement with an individual-based approach taken as gold standard. Results were also in agreement with 5-HTT quantification using in vitro binding data obtained with autoradiography (ARG) studies using [(3)H]MADAM. The proposed template-based method can be applied to PET data acquired in several CNS disorders in which serotonin neurons in the brainstem might be affected.

  9. The validation of a human force model to predict dynamic forces resulting from multi-joint motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.; Aldridge, Ann M.; Hasson, Scott M.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    The development and validation is examined of a dynamic strength model for humans. This model is based on empirical data. The shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were characterized in terms of maximum isolated torque, or position and velocity, in all rotational planes. This data was reduced by a least squares regression technique into a table of single variable second degree polynomial equations determining torque as a function of position and velocity. The isolated joint torque equations were then used to compute forces resulting from a composite motion, in this case, a ratchet wrench push and pull operation. A comparison of the predicted results of the model with the actual measured values for the composite motion indicates that forces derived from a composite motion of joints (ratcheting) can be predicted from isolated joint measures. Calculated T values comparing model versus measured values for 14 subjects were well within the statistically acceptable limits and regression analysis revealed coefficient of variation between actual and measured to be within 0.72 and 0.80.

  10. Validation and Application of a Simple UHPLC–MS-MS Method for the Enantiospecific Determination of Warfarin in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Alshogran, Osama Y.; Ocque, Andrew J.; Leblond, François A.; Pichette, Vincent; Nolin, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed and validated for the enantiospecific determination of R- and S-warfarin in human urine. Warfarin enantiomers were extracted from urine using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation of warfarin enantiomers and the internal standard d5-warfarin was achieved using a Astec Chirobiotic V column with gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 400 µL/min over 10 min. Detection was performed on a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a heated electrospray ionization source. Analytes were detected in negative ionization mode using selected reaction monitoring. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.996 for both enantiomers over a concentration range of 5–500 ng/mL. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision for both analytes were within ±9.0%. Excellent extraction efficiency and negligible matrix effects were observed. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful measurement of warfarin enantiomers in urine of patients with kidney disease. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and is currently being used to support warfarin pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26657732

  11. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: validation and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Aidong; Hang, Taijun; Chen, Suning; Wang, Zhirui; Ding, Likun; Tian, Yun; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Xinxin

    2008-11-04

    A rapid, simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma using clenbuterol as internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were subjected to a simple protein precipitation with methanol. Separation was achieved on a Lichrospher C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm ID, dp 5 microm) using methanol (containing 0.2% of formic acid) and water (containing 0.2% of formic acid) as a mobile phase by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring the ion transitions from m/z 365.9-->348.9 (amoxicillin), m/z 378.9-->263.6 (ambroxol) and m/z 277.0-->203.0 (IS). Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 5-20,000 ng/mL for amoxicillin, and 1-200 ng/mL for ambroxol, with the intra- and inter-run precisions of <9% and the accuracies of 100+/-7%. The method has been validated and applied to pharmacokinetic studies of compound amoxicillin and ambroxol hydrochloride tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  12. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  13. Affective components of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry: development and validation of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Jocelyne; Cousson-Gélie, Florence; Dantzer, Robert

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dimensions of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry and to test the hypothesis of a coherent system linking attitudes and feelings. A second objective was to assess interindividual differences which could be linked to socioenvironmental or personal factors. The 26-item questionnaire was administered to 197 animal farmers (143 men, 54 women, 3.8% under 25 years old, 45.2% under 40 years, 44.2% under 60 years and 7.1% over 60 years). To include even farmers not in the official agricultural registries, we used a random selection procedure. A principal component analysis of responses followed by varimax rotation yielded two factors accounting for 30.7% of the total variance, a Friendship factor and a Power relationship factor. Significant differences on the Friendship factor were observed between groups by sex of farmers, education, size of the production system, and region of production. There were also differences on the Power relationship factor between groups by age and education. These results validate a questionnaire with 21 items, allowing measurement of positive and negative affects of farmers towards their animals.

  14. A validated RP-HPLC method to investigate finasteride in human skin after in vitro topically applying vesicular nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feiyue; Rao, Yuefeng; Lou, Yan; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2014-05-01

    The pharmacotherapeutic efficiency of topical drug delivery systems is mainly dominated by the skin distribution of therapeutic agents. In this work, a sensitive, rapid and fully-validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to determine finasteride in human cadaver skin after different vesicular formulations were applied. Drug in different depth of skin layers were measured with an EclipseXDB-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 75% (v/v) methanol containing 0.2% phosphoric acid buffered to pH 3.0 with triethylamine under isocratic conditions. The system was operated at 40°C and the mobile phase flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The standard-calibration curve was linear within range of 5 to 200 ng/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9996. The intra-assay precision was less than 3.9% while the inter-assay precision was less than 7.1% with the bias range of -8.6 to 4.1%. This method was found to be specific, accurate, and sensitive and was successfully used to determine the accumulation of finasteride after in-vitro percutaneous delivery by liposomal or ethosomal drug delivery nanocarriers.

  15. Development and validation of the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative estimation of candesartan from human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shailesh T.; Patel, Pratik K.; Patel, Marmik; Chauhan, Vijendra B.; Patel, Chhaganbhai N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of candesartan in human plasma using the protein precipitation technique. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on reverse phase using a Betasil C8 (100 × 2.1 mm) 5-μm column, mobile phase of methanol:ammonium tri-floro acetate buffer with formic acid (60:40 v/v) and flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 441.2 → 263.2 and 260.2 → 116.1 were used to measure candesartan by using propranolol as an internal standard. Results: The linearity of the developed method was achieved in the range of 1.2–1030 ng/ml (r2 ≥ 0.9996) for candesartan. Conclusion: The developed method is simple, rapid, accurate, cost-effective and specific; hence, it can be applied for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23781443

  16. Development and validation of two subject-specific finite element models of human head against three cadaveric experiments.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Long Bin; Lee, Shu Jin; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    Head injury, being one of the main causes of death or permanent disability, continues to remain a major health problem with significant socioeconomic costs. Numerical simulations using the FEM offer a cost-effective method and alternative to experimental methods in the biomechanical studies of head injury. The present study aimed to develop two realistic subject-specific FEMs of the human head with detailed anatomical features from medical images (Model 1: without soft tissue and Model 2: with soft tissue and differentiation of white and gray matters) and to validate them against the intracranial pressure (ICP) and relative intracranial motion data of the three cadaver experimental tests. In general, both the simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental measured ICP and relative displacements, despite slight discrepancy in a few neutral density targets markers. Sensitivity analysis showed some variations in the brain's relative motion to the material properties or marker's location. The addition of soft tissue in Model 2 helped to damp out the oscillations of the model response. It was also found that, despite the fundamental anatomical differences between the two models, there existed little evident differences in the predicted ICP and relative displacements of the two models. This indicated that the advancements on the details of the extracranial features would not improve the model's predicting capabilities of brain injury.

  17. Walking biped humanoids that perform manual labour.

    PubMed

    Hirukawa, Hirohisa

    2007-01-15

    The Humanoid Robotics Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan realized that biped humanoid robots can perform manual labour. The project developed humanoid robot platforms, consisting of humanoid robot hardware and a package of fundamental software, and explored applications of humanoid robots on them. The applications include maintenance tasks of industrial plants, teleoperation of industrial vehicles, cooperative tasks with a human, guarding the home and office and the care of patients in beds.

  18. Cost-Effective Master Cell Bank Validation of Multiple Clinical-Grade Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines From a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Devito, Liani; Petrova, Anastasia; Miere, Cristian; Codognotto, Stefano; Blakely, Nicola; Lovatt, Archie; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub

    2014-01-01

    Standardization guidelines for human pluripotent stem cells are still very broadly defined, despite ongoing clinical trials in the U.S., U.K., and Japan. The requirements for validation of human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in general follow the regulations for other clinically compliant biologics already in place but without addressing key differences between cell types or final products. In order to realize the full potential of stem cell therapy, validation criteria, methodology, and, most importantly, strategy, should address the shortfalls and efficiency of current approaches; without this, hESC- and, especially, iPSC-based therapy will not be able to compete with other technologies in a cost-efficient way. We addressed the protocols for testing cell lines for human viral pathogens and propose a novel strategy that would significantly reduce costs. It is highly unlikely that the multiple cell lines derived in parallel from a tissue sample taken from one donor would have different profiles of endogenous viral pathogens; we therefore argue that samples from the Master Cell Banks of sibling lines could be safely pooled for validation. We illustrate this approach with tiered validation of two sibling clinical-grade hESC lines, KCL033 and KCL034 (stage 1, sterility; stage 2, specific human pathogens; and stage 3, nonspecific human pathogens). The results of all tests were negative. This cost-effective strategy could also be applied for validation of Master Cell Banks of multiple clinical-grade iPSC lines derived from a single donor. PMID:25122690

  19. CHRPR Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Windsor, Bradford T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2012-08-21

    proportional to the amplitude, via voltage to pulse width converters (VPW). These time widths are then digitized by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and transmitted over Ethernet to a data acquisition computer. The CHRPR records the magnitude of each pulse to a continuous event mode file on or each detector and occupancy sensor This manual begins with CHRPR installation instructions, then a section on CHRPR software. Afterward is a brief overview of how the TSA system works, then an explanation of the CHRPR. This manual is meant as a supplement to the TSA VM-250AGN manual, which can be found at http://tsasystems.com/library/manuals/pm700agn-vm250agn_manual.pdf . That manual is the manufacturer’s guide for the installation, programming, and maintenance of the portal system.

  20. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  1. The role of manual therapies in equine pain management.

    PubMed

    Haussler, Kevin K

    2010-12-01

    Manual therapy includes a diverse array of techniques, such as touch therapies, massage, physical therapy, osteopathy, and chiropractic, that were originally developed for use in humans and have been gradually applied to horses. All forms of manual therapy have variable reported levels of effectiveness for treating musculoskeletal issues in humans, but mostly only anecdotal evidence exists in horses. This article explores the scientific literature for evidence of efficacy, safety, and common mechanisms of action of the different forms of manual therapies for potential use in managing acute or chronic pain syndromes in horses. Currently, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of spinal mobilization and manipulation in reducing pain and muscle hypertonicity. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of specific manual therapy techniques and their contribution to multimodal protocols for managing specific somatic pain conditions in horses.

  2. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  3. TIA Software User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-01-01

    This user's manual describes the installation and operation of TIA, the Thermal-Imaging acquisition and processing Application, developed by the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. TIA is a user friendly graphical interface application for the Macintosh 2 and higher series computers. The software has been developed to interface with the Perceptics/Westinghouse Pixelpipe(TM) and PixelStore(TM) NuBus cards and the GW Instruments MacADIOS(TM) input-output (I/O) card for the Macintosh for imaging thermal data. The software is also capable of performing generic image-processing functions.

  4. RADTRAN 6 Technical Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O'Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  5. RADTRAN 6 technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O'Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  6. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  7. TALENT user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion John

    2012-01-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R and E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. The software tool used to capture and analyze the data collected from testing is called TALENT: Test and Analysis Evaluation Tool. This document is the manual for using TALENT. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007) and the algorithms employed in the test analysis (Merchant, 2011).

  8. Instrumentation Manuals On-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, E.

    This database will serve as an international clearing house for observatory manuals and information on how to access them. At present, CFHT, STScI, and IRTF are participating in this project. It is the author's intention that each observatory will submit electronically a pre-formatted template which is now available on NCSA Mosaic (URL http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/html/obs-manuals.html). The template describes the instrumentation manual in the following manner: location, version, revision, institution, description wavelength region, field, keywords, contact person, size of document, figures, tables and availability. In addition the template provides the user with a direct link to the manual if it is on-line. The project author will contact the individual or institution in charge of the template at six month intervals in order to insure the manual's accuracy. It is hoped the availability of this service will encourage all observatories to make information about their manuals available electronically.

  9. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  10. Quick-Eye: Examination of Human Performance Characteristics Using Eye Tracking and Manual-Based Control Systems for Monitoring Multiple Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    locating the pupil by detecting light reflected off the retina . Four pan-tilt-zoom Vivotek Inc. networked cameras were integrated with the system...interaction interface design human performance 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 64 19a...tracker plus four pan-tilt-zoom networked cameras into a simulated surveillance system, called Quick-Eye. However, the results of the study were

  11. Direct discovery and validation of a peptide/MHC epitope expressed in primary human breast cancer cells using a TCRm monoclonal antibody with profound antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bhavna; Hawkins, Oriana E; Neethling, Francisca A; Caseltine, Shannon L; Largo, Sherly R; Hildebrand, William H; Weidanz, Jon A

    2010-04-01

    The identification and validation of new cancer-specific T cell epitopes continues to be a major area of research interest. Nevertheless, challenges remain to develop strategies that can easily discover and validate epitopes expressed in primary cancer cells. Regarded as targets for T cells, peptides presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs are of special importance as they lend themselves to the detection of epitopes expressed in primary tumor cells. Here, we use an approach that has been successfully utilized in two different infectious disease applications (WNV and influenza). A direct peptide-epitope discovery strategy involving mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of peptide YLLPAIVHI in the context of MHC A*02 allele (YLL/A2) from human breast carcinoma cell lines. We then generated and characterized an anti-YLL/A2 mAb designated as RL6A TCRm. Subsequently, the TCRm mAb was used to directly validate YLL/A2 epitope expression in human breast cancer tissue, but not in normal control breast tissue. Moreover, mice implanted with human breast cancer cells grew tumors, yet when treated with RL6A TCRm showed a marked reduction in tumor size. These data demonstrate for the first time a coordinated direct discovery and validation strategy that identified a peptide/MHC complex on primary tumor cells for antibody targeting and provide a novel approach to cancer immunotherapy.

  12. COAL UTILITY EVIRONMENTAL COST (CUECOST) WORKBOOK USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for the Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) workbook (an interrelated set of spreadsheets) and documents its development and the validity of methods used to estimate installed capital ad annualize costs. The CUECost workbook produces rough-or...

  13. Small RNA and RNA-IP Sequencing Identifies and Validates Novel MicroRNAs in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Han; Liao, Ko-Hsun; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Chan, Chia-Hao; Hsieh, Jui-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Fong; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Chang, Shing-Jyh

    2016-03-01

    Organ regeneration therapies using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated for a variety of common complex diseases. Understanding the molecular regulation of MSC biology will benefit regenerative medicine. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as regulators in MSC stemness. There are approximately 2500 currently known human miRNAs that have been recorded in the miRBase v21 database. In the present study, we identified novel microRNAs involved in MSC stemness and differentiation by obtaining the global microRNA expression profiles (miRNomes) of MSCs from two anatomical locations bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) and from osteogenically and adipogenically differentiated progenies of BM-MSCs. Small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) and bioinformatics analyses predicted that 49 uncharacterized miRNA candidates had high cellular expression values in MSCs. Another independent batch of Ago1/2-based RNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) sequencing datasets validated the existence of 40 unreported miRNAs in cells and their associations with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Nine of these 40 new miRNAs were universally overexpressed in both MSC types; nine others were overexpressed in differentiated cells. A novel miRNA (UNI-118-3p) was specifically expressed in BM-MSCs, as verified using RT-qPCR. Taken together, this report offers comprehensive miRNome profiles for two MSC types, as well as cells differentiated from BM-MSCs. MSC transplantation has the potential to ameliorate degenerative disorders and repair damaged tissues. Interventions involving the above 40 new microRNA members in transplanted MSCs may potentially guide future clinical applications.

  14. SEM and microCT validation for en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Nica, Luminita; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Bradu, Adrian; Petrescu, Emanuela L.; Pop, Daniela M.; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-03-01

    Successful root canal treatment is based on diagnosis, treatment planning, knowledge of tooth anatomy, endodontic access cavity design, controlling the infection by thorough cleaning and shaping, methods and materials used in root canal obturation. An endodontic obturation must be a complete, three-dimensional filling of the root canal system, as close as possible to cemento-dentinal junction, without massive overfilling or underfilling. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of the endodontic sealing, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Using an time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of root canal fillings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the endodontic filling material and the root canal walls and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by μCT revealed also some defects inside the root-canal filling and at the interfaces between the material and the root canal walls. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the filling material and the dental hard tissue.

  15. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity.

  16. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  17. LCS Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Redd; D.W. Ignat

    1998-02-01

    The Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) is a computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field. Details of geometry, plasma profiles, and circuit equations are treated. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment. The LSC was originally written to be a module for lower hybrid current drive called by the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), which is a numerical model of an axisymmetric tokamak plasma and the associated control systems. The TSC simulates the time evolution of a free boundary plasma by solving the MHD equations on a rectangular computational grid. The MHD equations are coupled to the external circuits (representing poloidal field coils) through the boundary conditions. The code includes provisions for modeling the control system, external heating, and fusion heating. The LSC module can also be called by the TRANSP code. TRANSP represents the plasma with an axisymmetric, fixed-boundary model and focuses on calculation of plasma transport to determine transport coefficients from data on power inputs and parameters reached. This manual covers the basic material needed to use the LSC. If run in conjunction with TSC, the "TSC Users Manual" should be consulted. If run in conjunction with TRANSP, on-line documentation will be helpful. A theoretical background of the governing equations and numerical methods is given. Information on obtaining, compiling, and running the code is also provided.

  18. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  19. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  20. FUGM hardware operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, T.R.; Menlove, H.O.; Halbig, J.K.

    1997-05-01

    This manual describes the detector design features, performance, and operating characteristics of the Fugen reactor gate monitor for monitoring fresh and spent fuel transfers between the core and storage ponds. This system consists of two monitors located at each end of the transfer chute. The larger monitor contains two {sup 3}He tubes, two fission chambers, and two ion chambers. The smaller monitor, used for direction of motion redundancy, contains two ion chambers. All detectors provide information for identifying the type, fresh or spent UOX or MOX fuel, and direction of the fuel transfer. The gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRAND-3) electronics package supplies power to the radiation sensors and collects the radiation data for storage on a laptop computer. The system is designed to operate unattended with data collection by the inspectors occurring on 90-day time intervals. This manual also includes radiation data for the six types of fuel transfers and equipment transfers along with the direction of motion information collected during the installation at the Fugen reactor.