Science.gov

Sample records for manufacture micro light

  1. Design and Optimization of a Light-Emitting Diode Projection Micro-Stereolithography Three-Dimensional Manufacturing System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    involves the chemical kinetics of photo-polymerization of UV curable resins consisting of monomer, photo-initiator (PI), and photo-absorber. First, un... curable resins.17 The DMD offers improved contrast over the LCD and is better suited to handle UV light than LCD. However, DMD tends to mechanically...that of the UV curable resins. Other advantages include shorter starting time, longer lifes- pan, low cost, compact size, and low heat dissipation. Al

  2. Laser 3D micro-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Mathews, Scott A.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-based materials processing techniques are gaining widespread use in micro-manufacturing applications. The use of laser microfabrication techniques enables the processing of micro- and nanostructures from a wide range of materials and geometries without the need for masking and etching steps commonly associated with photolithography. This review aims to describe the broad applications space covered by laser-based micro- and nanoprocessing techniques and the benefits offered by the use of lasers in micro-manufacturing processes. Given their non-lithographic nature, these processes are also referred to as laser direct-write and constitute some of the earliest demonstrations of 3D printing or additive manufacturing at the microscale. As this review will show, the use of lasers enables precise control of the various types of processing steps—from subtractive to additive—over a wide range of scales with an extensive materials palette. Overall, laser-based direct-write techniques offer multiple modes of operation including the removal (via ablative processes) and addition (via photopolymerization or printing) of most classes of materials using the same equipment in many cases. The versatility provided by these multi-function, multi-material and multi-scale laser micro-manufacturing processes cannot be matched by photolithography nor with other direct-write microfabrication techniques and offer unique opportunities for current and future 3D micro-manufacturing applications.

  3. Laser-assisted manufacturing of micro-optical volume elements for enhancing the amount of light absorbed by solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peharz, Gerhard; Kuna, Ladislav; Leiner, Claude

    2015-03-01

    The laser-generation of micro-optical volume elements is a promising approach to decrease the optical shadowing of front side metal contacts of solar cells. Focusing a femtosecond laser beam into the volume of the encapsulation material causes a local modification its optical constants. Suchlike fabricated micro-optical elements can be used to decrease the optical shadowing of the front side metallization of c-Si solar cells. Test samples comprising of a sandwich structure of a glass sheet with metallic grid-lines, an Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant and another glass sheet were manufactured in order to investigate the optical performance of the volume optics. Transmission measurements show that the shadowing of the metalling grid-lines is substantially decreased by the micro-optical volume elements created in the EVA bulk right above the grid-fingers. A detailed investigation of the optical properties of these volume elements was performed: (i) experimentally on the basis of goniometric measurements, as well as (ii) theoretically by applying optical modelling and optimization procedures. This resulted in a better understanding of the effectiveness of the optical volume elements in decreasing the optical shadowing of metal grid lines on the active cell surfaces. Moreover, results of photovoltaic mini-modules with incorporated micro-optical volume elements are presented. Results of optical simulation and Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) experiments show that the losses due to the grid fingers can be reduced by about 50%, when using this fs-laser structuring approach for the fabrication of micro-optical volume elements in the EVA material.

  4. Improving metrology for micro-optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Angela D.; Bergner, Brent C.; Gardner, Neil W.

    2003-11-01

    Metrology is one of the critical enabling technologies for realizing the full market potential for micro-optical systems. Measurement capabilities are currently far behind present and future needs. Much of today"s test equipment was developed for the micro-electronics industry and is not optimized for micro-optic materials and geometries. Metrology capabilities currently limit the components that can be realized, in many cases. Improved testing will be come increasingly important as the technology moves to integration where it will become important to "test early and test often" to achieve high yields. In this paper, we focus on micro-refractive components in particular, and describe measurement challenges for this class of components and current and future needs. We also describe a new micro-optics metrology research program at UNC Charlotte under the Center for Precision Metrology and the new Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications to address these needs.

  5. Wafer-level micro-optics: trends in manufacturing, testing, packaging, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Gong, Li; Rieck, Juergen; Zheng, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology (KET) for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the last decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks (supercomputer, ROADM), bringing high-speed internet to our homes (FTTH). Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flashlight shaping elements, the secondary camera, and ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. We report on the state of the art in wafer-based manufacturing, testing, packaging and present examples and applications for micro-optical components and systems.

  6. Challenging micro-optical applications demand diverse manufacturing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Gregg; Weissbrodt, Peter; Schrenk, Manfred; Cumme, Matthias

    2007-02-01

    Many manufacturing techniques have been developed and implemented to fabricate a wide range of micro-optical products. The challenges of the micro-optics business are diverse and tend to resist a widely accepted manufacturing process such as has been implemented for CMOS fabrication. Many of the challenges that have been addressed with various solutions include optical waveband of operation from DUV through LWIR, material systems, cost of manufacturing for the intended application space, feature sizes based on device functionality, and fabrication technology based on the manufacturing volume. Some of the technologies to be discussed include device patterning by e-beam lithography, optical lithography, direct CNC machining and micro-polishing, and plastic replication.

  7. Manufacturing: 3D printed micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-08-01

    Uncompromised performance of micro-optical compound lenses has been achieved by high-fidelity shape definition during two-photon absorption microfabrication. The lenses have been made directly onto image sensors and even onto the tip of an optic fibre.

  8. Laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel micro fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Gianmario; Matilainen, Ville; Kanninen, Petri; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Kallio, Tanja; Franssila, Sami

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces laser additive manufacturing as a new method for the fabrication of micro fuel cells: The method opens up the capability of ultrafast prototyping, as the whole device can be produced at once, starting from a digital 3D model. In fact, many different devices can be produced at once, which is useful for the comparison of competing designs. The micro fuel cells are made of stainless steel, so they are very robust, thermally and chemically inert and long-lasting. This enables the researcher to perform a large number of experiments on the same cell without physical or chemical degradation. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we have produced three versions of a micro fuel cell with square pillar flowfield. All three have produced high current and power density, with maximum values of 1.2 A cm-2 for the current and 238 mW cm-2 for power.

  9. Micro-lens array design on a flexible light-emitting diode package for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    An advanced, ultra-thin, flexible LED (FLED) package technique is first proposed in this study, where a polyimide substrate was used as the lead frame package material due to its physical stability in thermal processing. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the mockup sample measured by a vernier caliper was 260 μm and 35% thinner than the Panasonic organic LED lighting panel announced on 4 March 2014 in Tokyo. Moreover, the flexible angle of the ultra-thin LED package was 200.54° when it surrounded a disk with a 1 cm radius. A design of a micro-lens array manufactured by silicone molding on the FLED is also proposed in this study. Finally, different types of micro-lenses were applied to different lighting regions to investigate their lighting effects.

  10. Solid State Lighting OLED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of OLED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  11. Solid State Lighting LED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of LED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  12. Capabilities Of Micro Powder Injection Molding For Microparts Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Micro-PIM processing technology satisfies the increasing demand in terms of smaller parts and miniaturization. Research works in this area have been carried out at FEMTO-ST Institute by performing the injection molding with 316L stainless steel fine powders and polymer binders. Several formulations with different proportion of powders and binders as well various polymers have been tested, and then a well adapted one has been selected. The process to select the well adapted formulation and the rheological characteristics of the feedstock realized according with the selected formulation are also detailed. Several test specimens have been successfully manufactured.

  13. Influence of Micro-Rivet Manufacturing Process on Quality of Micro-Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presz, Wojciech; Cacko, Robert

    2011-05-01

    One of the modern industry endeavors is to be able to manufacture smaller size components using traditional or new technologies. Smaller components usually need special assembly techniques. New course of mechanical joining improvement is to develop process modification for decreased scale, i.e. micro-joining. Very interesting problems arise with self-piercing riveting (SPR) method, because one of the factors influencing SPR joint strength is rivet material properties. Rivet production by forming produces certain distribution of stress/strain field within cross-section of a rivet, influencing the process of SPR joint formation in micro-joining. Results of initial analysis of micro-joint strength are presented in the paper. Stress/strain field obtained during rivet production is taken into account in numerical simulation of micro-riveting process. Joint loading test was numerically modeled. Simulations consisted of three phases: manufacturing of the rivet, forming a joint and strength test. Stress strain fields were superimposed over the joint on every stage. Influence of the manufacturing method of the rivet on the joint quality and strength was observed. The commercial FEM software MSC-Marc is used for numerical simulations.

  14. Light-Mediated Manufacture and Manipulation of Actuators.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Ma, Jia-Nan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Han, Bing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable growth of research interests in developing novel technologies that permit designable manufacture and controllable manipulation of actuators. Among various fabrication and driving strategies, light has emerged as an enabler to reach this end, contributing to the development of actuators. Several accessible light-mediated manufacturing technologies, such as ultraviolet (UV) lithography and direct laser writing (DLW), are summarized. A series of light-driven strategies including optical trapping, photochemical actuation, and photothermal actuation for controllable manipulation of actuators is introduced. Current challenges and future perspectives of this field are discussed. To generalize, light holds great promise for the development of actuators.

  15. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  16. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor (50). An optical fiber micro-light source (50) is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors (22) in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material (60). This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source (50). Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material (60) enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  17. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1994-11-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 4 figs.

  18. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1997-05-06

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 10 figs.

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2016-07-12

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2016-07-12

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  3. The proposed Institute for Micro-manufacturing, Louisiana Tech University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0958, evaluating the construction and equipping of two components of the proposed Institute for Micro-manufacturing at Louisiana Tech University (LTU), a proposed R and D facility to be located in Ruston, LA. and, the proposed installation of a beamline for micro-machining applications at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) facility at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA. The objective of the proposed project is to focus on the applied, rather than basic research emphasizing the design and development, metrology, inspection and testing, and the assembly and production of micron and submicron structures and devices. Also, the objective of the beamline at CAMD would be the fundamental study of processing and analysis technologies, including x-ray lithography, which are important to microstructures fabrication and electronic device development. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  4. Light-regulated microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2015-01-01

    In addition to exposure to passive diurnal cycles of sunlight, humans are also subjected to intentional acute exposure to other types of electromagnetic radiation (EM). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the physiological, pathological and therapeutic responses to exposure to radiation is an active area of research. With the advent of methods to readily catalog and identify patterns of changes in gene expression, many studies have reported changes in gene expression upon exposure of various human and mouse cells in vitro, whole experimental organisms such as mice and parts of human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these broad ranging changes in gene expression are not yet fully understood. MicroRNAs, which are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting many messenger RNAs, are also emerging as important mediators of radiation-induced changes in gene expression and hence critical for the manifestation of light-induced cellular phenotypes and physiological responses. In this article, we review available knowledge on microRNAs implicated in responses to various forms of solar and other EM radiation. Based on this knowledge, we elaborate some unifying themes in the regulation and functions of some of these miRNAs.

  5. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yee-Chun

    1993-01-01

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  6. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOEpatents

    Yeechun Lee.

    1993-01-19

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  7. Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Penna." This device turned seaplanes ninety degrees in their movement between storage in the hangars (to the left, out of view) and the Delaware River used for take-offs and landings. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  8. Light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on OLED with microcavity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Doo-Hee; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Park, Seung Koo; Moon, Jaehyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-10-20

    We examined the light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on microcavity designed OLEDs. The results of FDTD simulations and experiments showed that the pillar shaped nano-structure was more effective than the concave micro-structure for light diffusing of microcavity OLEDs. The sharp luminance distribution of the microcavity OLED was changed to near Lambertian luminance distribution by the nano-structure, and light diffusing effects increased with the height of the nano-structure. Furthermore, the nano-structure has advantages including light extraction of the substrate mode, reproducibility of manufacturing process, and minimizing pixel blur problems in an OLED display panel. The nano-structure is a promising candidate for a light diffuser, resolving the viewing angle problems in microcavity OLEDs.

  9. Micro spectrometer for parallel light and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spectrometer system includes an optical assembly for collimating light, a micro-ring grating assembly having a plurality of coaxially-aligned ring gratings, an aperture device defining an aperture circumscribing a target focal point, and a photon detector. An electro-optical layer of the grating assembly may be electrically connected to an energy supply to change the refractive index of the electro-optical layer. Alternately, the gratings may be electrically connected to the energy supply and energized, e.g., with alternating voltages, to change the refractive index. A data recorder may record the predetermined spectral characteristic. A method of detecting a spectral characteristic of a predetermined wavelength of source light includes generating collimated light using an optical assembly, directing the collimated light onto the micro-ring grating assembly, and selectively energizing the micro-ring grating assembly to diffract the predetermined wavelength onto the target focal point, and detecting the spectral characteristic using a photon detector.

  10. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester. Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2008-09-23

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  11. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Wing Manufacture and Force Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Thankfully, nature has already optimized micro air vehicles with the evolution of birds and insects, which become the instinctual inspirational candidates...properties to those wings found in nature. More specifically, with size comparable to a hummingbird , elastic modulus comparable to a cicada, and

  12. Light driven micro-robotics with holographic 3D tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    We recently pioneered the concept of light-driven micro-robotics including the new and disruptive 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time optically trapped and "remote-controlled" in a volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potential of this new drone-like 3D light robotics approach in challenging microscopic geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light coupling that can dynamically track a plurality of "light robots" in 3D to ensure continuous optimal light coupling on the fly. Our latest developments in this new and exciting area will be reviewed in this invited paper.

  13. Review of Polyimides Used in the Manufacturing of Micro Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Since their invention, polyimides have found numerous uses in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. Polyimides can act as photoresist, sacrificial layers, structural layers, and even as a replacement for silicon as the substrate during MEMS fabrication. They enable fabrication of both low and high aspect ratio devices. Polyimides have been used to fabricate expendable molds and reusable flexible molds. Development of a variety of devices that employ polyimides for sensor applications has occurred. Micro-robotic actuator applications include hinges, thermal actuators and residual stress actuators. Currently, polyimides are being used to create new sensors and devices for aerospace applications. This paper presents a review of some of the many uses of polyimides in the development of MEMS devices, including a new polyimide based MEMS fabrication process.

  14. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  15. Manufacturing of freeform micro-optical elements by mask-less laser direct write lithography and replication by imprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuna, L.; Leiner, C.; Ruttloff, S.; Nemitz, W.; Reil, F.; Hartmann, P.; Wenzl, F. P.; Sommer, C.

    2016-09-01

    Today, freeform micro-optical structures are desired components in many photonic and optical applications such as lighting and detection systems due to their compactness, ease of system integration and superior optical performance. The high complexity of a freeform structure's arbitrary surface profile and the need for high throughput upon fabrication require novel approaches for their integration into a manufacturing process. For the fabrication of polymer freeform optics, in this contribution we discuss two principal technologies, mask-less laser direct write lithography (MALA) and replication from the as-fabricated master by imprinting. We show the high flexibility in design and rapid-prototyping of freeform optical microstructures that can be achieved by such an approach. First, the original structures known as masters are fabricated using MALA. Because of the specific requirements on shape and height (>50μm) of the microstructures, laser writing and photoresist processing have to be performed within a narrow range of fabrication parameters. Subsequently, UV-soft lithography based replication is used for serial production of the freeform micro-optical elements within a batch process. Aided by profilometry, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the fidelity of the fabricated freeform microoptical elements to the design is characterised. Finally, the light intensity distribution on a target plane caused by the freeform micro-optical element illuminated with an LED is determined and compared with the predicted one.

  16. Analysis of Light Gathering Abilities of Dynamically Solidified Micro-lenses, and Their Implementation to Improve Sensitivity of Fluorescent PCR Micro-detectors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Guo, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Yu, Kuanxin; Chen, Tao; Li, Yinghui

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is becoming the preferred method of quantitative analysis due to its high specificity and sensitivity. We propose to use a new kind of micro-lens, dynamically solidified with optic glue, to improve the sensitivity of fluorescent PCR micro-detector. We developed light ray track equations for these lenses and used them to calculate relative light intensity distribution curve for stimulation lenses and illumination point probability distribution curve for detection lenses. We manufactured dynamically solidified micro-lenses using optic glue NOA61, and measured their light gathering ability. Lenses with radius/thickness (R/H) ratio of 4 reached light focusing ratio of 3.85 (stimulation lens) and photon collection efficiency of 0.86 (detection lens). We then used dynamically solidified lenses in PCR fluorescence micro-detector and analyzed their effect on the detector sensitivity. We showed that the use of dynamically solidified micro-lenses with R/H = 4 resulted in over 4.4-fold increased sensitivity of the detector.

  17. Monitoring of Airborne Tritium in Vicinity of Radioluminescent Light Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    Ilin, M.; Thompson, P.; Rabski, H.

    2005-07-15

    Passive diffusion samplers (PDS) composed of a vial with a solution of distilled water and ethylene glycol have an affinity to capture tritium oxide (tritiated water vapour, HTO) from surrounding air through an orifice in a lid. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of such samplers for tracking changes in the HTO air concentrations attributable to variations in tritium emission rates, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) measured the HTO concentrations in air for one year on a bi-weekly basis at various distances along four directions from an operating radioluminescent light manufacturing facility. The collected data demonstrate that the PDS are low cost and low maintenance means for reliable monitoring of airborne HTO emissions. The data indicate a rapid decrease of atmospheric HTO concentrations with increasing distance from the facility in all directions. A strong correlation (r=0.89) was found between reported releases of HTO from the facility and the HTO air concentrations observed at the monitoring locations. Distribution of HTO around the facility correlated strongly (r=0.99) with local wind distribution.

  18. Using artificial neural networks to model extrusion processes for the manufacturing of polymeric micro-tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekras, N.; Artemakis, I.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a methodology and an application example are presented aiming to show how Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can be used to model manufacturing processes when mathematical models are missing or are not applicable e.g. due to the micro- & nano-scaling, due to non-conventional processes, etc. Besides the ANNs methodology, the results of a Software System developed will be presented, which was used to create ANNs models for micro & nano manufacturing processes. More specifically results of a specific application example will be presented, concerning the modeling of extrusion processes for polymeric micro-tubes. ANNs models are capable for modeling manufacturing processes as far as adequate experimental and/or historical data of processes' inputs & outputs are available for their training. The POLYTUBES ANNs models have been trained and tested with experimental data records of process' inputs and outputs concerning a micro-extrusion process of polymeric micro-tubes for several materials such as: COC, PC, PET, PETG, PP and PVDF. The main ANN model of the extrusion application example has 3 inputs and 9 outputs. The inputs are: tube's inner & outer diameters, and the material density. The model outputs are 9 process parameters, which correspond to the specific inputs e.g. process temperature, die inner & outer diameters, extrusion pressure, draw speed etc. The training of the ANN model was completed, when the errors for the model's outputs, which expressed the difference between the training target values and the ANNs outputs, were minimized to acceptable levels. After the training, the micro-extrusion ANN is capable to simulate the process and can be used to calculate model's outputs, which are the process parameters for any new set of inputs. By this way a satisfactory functional approximation of the whole process is achieved. This research work has been supported by the EU FP7 NMP project POLYTUBES.

  19. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  20. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  1. Micro-hardness evaluation of a micro-hybrid composite resin light cured with halogen light, light-emitting diode and argon ion laser.

    PubMed

    Rode, Katia M; de Freitas, Patricia M; Lloret, Patricia R; Powell, Lynn G; Turbino, Miriam L

    2009-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine whether the micro-hardness of a composite resin is modified by the light units or by the thickness of the increment. Composite resin disks were divided into 15 groups (n = 5), according to the factors under study: composite resin thickness (0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm , 3 mm and 4 mm) and light units. The light activation was performed with halogen light (HL) (40 s, 500 mW/cm(2)), argon ion laser (AL) (30 s, 600 mW/cm(2)) or light-emitting diode (LED) (30 s, 400 mW/cm(2)). Vickers micro-hardness tests were performed after 1 week and were carried out on the top surface (0 mm-control) and at different depths of the samples. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (P < or = 0.05) revealed no statistically significant difference among the light units for the groups of 0 mm and 1 mm thickness. At 2 mm depth, the AL was not statistically different from the HL, but the latter showed higher micro-hardness values than the LED. In groups with 3 mm and 4 mm thickness, the HL also showed higher micro-hardness values than the groups activated by the AL and the LED. Only the HL presented satisfactory polymerization with 3 mm of thickness. With a 4 mm increment no light unit was able to promote satisfactory polymerization.

  2. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  3. Analysis of laser micro drilled holes through aluminium for micro-manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunna, L.; O'Neill, W.; Khan, A.; Sutcliffe, C.

    2005-09-01

    Conventional laser machining of aluminium with long wavelength lasers has its inherent problems due to the high reflectivity of aluminium to laser radiation (Handbook of Optics, vol 1, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1995). Laser processing at shorter wavelengths reduces the reflectivity of the workpiece to the incident laser radiation and can also reduce the dimensions of the obtainable machining geometries. This paper reviews the limiting factors in the micro machining of aluminium using a diode pumped solid state (DPSS) Nd:YAG laser operated at 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The geometries of the laser-machined samples were investigated using interferometric, and optical methods to assess how the processing fluence and wavelength will affect the obtainable precision for successful integration of the laser in a micromachining CAD/CAM system.

  4. Micro-Plasma Transferred Arc Additive Manufacturing for Die and Mold Surface Remanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhavar, Suyog; Paul, Christ Prakash; Jain, Neelesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Micro-plasma transferred arc ( µPTA) additive manufacturing is one of the newest options for remanufacturing of dies and molds surfaces in the near-millimeter range leading to extended usage of the same. We deployed an automatic micro-plasma deposition setup to deposit a wire of 300 µm of AISI P20 tool steel on the substrate of same material for the potential application in remanufacturing of the die and mold surface. Our present research effort is to establish µPTA additive manufacturing as a viable economical and cleaner methodology for potential industrial applications. We undertook the optimization of single weld bead geometry as the first step in our present study. Bead-on-plate trials were conducted to deposit single bead geometry at various processing parameters. The bead geometry (shape and size) and dilution were measured and the parametric dependence was derived. A set of parameters leading to reproducible regular and smooth single bead geometry were identified and used to prepare a thin wall for mechanical testing. The deposits were subjected to material characterization such as microscopic studies, micro-hardness measurements and tensile testing. The process was compared qualitatively with other deposition processes involving high-energy density beams and was found to be advantageous in terms of low initial and running costs with comparable properties. The outcome of the study confirmed the process capability of µPTA deposition leading to deployment of cost-effective and environmentally friendlier technology for die and mold remanufacturing.

  5. Light-drive biomedical micro-tools and biochemical IC chips fabricated by 3D micro/nano stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Koji; Maruo, Shoji; Hasegawa, Tadahiro; Itho, Suenobu; Korogi, Hayato; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2004-10-01

    New concept of micro/nano tools working in water solutuon has been proposed by the author. A real three dimensional micro fabrication process using photo curable polymer named "micro/nano stereolithography" has been also developed by the author's group. The latest version of this process achieved 100 nm in 3D resolution and freely movable micro/nano mechanism are easily fabricated within 20 min. Nano tweezers and nano needle with two degrees of freedom were successfully fabricated without any assembly process. Cell and delicate biological materials can be remotely handled with neither any micro actuators nor lead wire. It was verified that this light-driven micro tool has precise force control with 10 FtN. These light-driven micro tools contribute to cellular biology as well as medical tools. The second application of microstereolithography is the biochemical IC chips for both micro chemical analysis and synthesis. Unlike conventional "lab. on a chip" and "micro total analysis system" (micro-TAS), our biochemical IC has micro pumps and active valves in one chip. Users can construct their own micro chemical device by themselves. The advanced biochemical IC chip-set for "on chip cell-free protein synthesis" has been prototyped and verified experimentally. A luminous enzyme of fire fly so called "Luciferase" and useful bio-marker protein "GFP" were synthesized successfully. According to above results, the biomchemical IC chips will be useful to "Order-made medicine" in near future.

  6. Micro-fabricated integrated coil and magnetic circuit and method of manufacturing thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mihailovich, Robert E.; Papavasiliou, Alex P.; Mehrotra, Vivek; Stupar, Philip A.; Borwick, III, Robert L.; Ganguli, Rahul; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

    2017-03-28

    A micro-fabricated electromagnetic device is provided for on-circuit integration. The electromagnetic device includes a core. The core has a plurality of electrically insulating layers positioned alternatingly between a plurality of magnetic layers to collectively form a continuous laminate having alternating magnetic and electrically insulating layers. The electromagnetic device includes a coil embedded in openings of the semiconductor substrate. An insulating material is positioned in the cavity and between the coil and an inner surface of the core. A method of manufacturing the electromagnetic device includes providing a semiconductor substrate having openings formed therein. Windings of a coil are electroplated and embedded in the openings. The insulating material is coated on or around an exposed surface of the coil. Alternating magnetic layers and electrically insulating layers may be micro-fabricated and electroplated as a single and substantially continuous segment on or around the insulating material.

  7. A remotely driven and controlled micro-gripper fabricated from light-induced deformation smart material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chaolei; Lv, Jiu-an; Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Jie; Yu, Yanlei

    2016-09-01

    Micro-gripper is an important tool to manipulate and assemble micro-scale objects. Generally, as micro-gripper is too small to be directly driven by general motors, it always needs special driving devices and suitable structure design. In this paper, two-finger micro-grippers are designed and fabricated, which utilize light-induced deformation smart material to make one of the two fingers. As the smart material is directly driven and controlled by remote lights instead of lines and motors, this light-driven mode simplifies the design of the two-finger micro-gripper and avoids special drivers and complex mechanical structure. In addition, a micro-manipulation experiment system is set up which is based on the light-driven micro-gripper. Experimental results show that this remotely light-driven micro-gripper has ability to manipulate and assemble micro-scale objects both in air and water. Furthermore, two micro-grippers can also work together for cooperation which can further enhance the assembly ability. On the other hand, this kind of remotely controllable micro-gripper that does not require on-board energy storage, can be used in mobile micro-robot as a manipulation hand.

  8. US manufacturers of commercially available stand-alone photovoltaic lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P

    1994-05-01

    This report introduces photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems, gives some specifications for ordering these systems, and provides a list of some of the manufacturers of these systems in the United States. These PV lighting systems are all commercially available. They are stand-alone systems because they are not tied to the electric utility power grid.

  9. Manufacture of gradient micro-structures of magnesium alloys using two stage extrusion dies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Huang, Tze-Hui; Alexandrov, Sergei; Naimark, Oleg Borisovich; Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    2013-12-16

    This paper aims to manufacture magnesium alloy metals with gradient micro-structures using hot extrusion process. The extrusion die was designed to have a straight channel part combined with a conical part. Materials pushed through this specially-designed die generate a non-uniform velocity distribution at cross sections inside the die and result in different strain and strain rate distributions. Accordingly, a gradient microstructure product can be obtained. Using the finite element analysis, the forming temperature, effective strain, and effective strain rate distributions at the die exit were firstly discussed for various inclination angles in the conical die. Then, hot extrusion experiments with a two stage die were conducted to obtain magnesium alloy products with gradient micro-structures. The effects of the inclination angle on the grain size distribution at cross sections of the products were also discussed. Using a die of an inclination angle of 15°, gradient micro-structures of the grain size decreasing gradually from 17 μm at the center to 4 μm at the edge of product were achieved.

  10. Ultraminiature Broadband Light Source and Method of Manufacturing Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Collura, Joseph S. (Inventor); Helvajian, Henry (Inventor); Pocha, Michael D. (Inventor); Meyer, Glenn A. (Inventor); McConaghy, Charles F. (Inventor); Olsen, Barry L. (Inventor); Hansen, William W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultraminiature light source using a double-spiral shaped tungsten filament includes end contact portions which are separated to allow for radial and length-wise unwinding of the spiral. The double-spiral filament is spaced relatively far apart at the end portions thereof so that contact between portions of the filament upon expansion is avoided. The light ource is made by fabricating a double-spiral ultraminiature tungsten filament from tungsten foil and housing the filament in a ceramic package having a reflective bottom and a well wherein the filament is suspended. A vacuum furnace brazing process attaches the filament to contacts of the ceramic package. Finally, a cover with a transparent window is attached onto the top of the ceramic package by solder reflow in a second vacuum furnace process to form a complete hermetically sealed package.

  11. Environment for thin-film manufacturing process development for product engineering of micro and nano devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Popp, Jens; Schmidt, Thilo; Brück, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Product engineering of micro and nano technology (MNT) devices differs substantially from product engineering in more traditional industries. The general development approach is mostly bottom up, as it centers around the available fabrication techniques and is characterised by application specific fabrication flows, i.e. fabrication processes depending on the later product. In the first part of this paper we introduce a comprehensive customer-oriented product engineering methodology for MNT products that regards the customer as the driving force behind new product developments. The MNT product engineering process is analyzed with regard to application-specific procedures and interfaces. An environment for the development of MNT manufacturing processes has been identified as a technical foundation for the methodology and will be described in the second part of this paper.

  12. Nano/Micro-Manufacturing of Bioinspired Materials: a Review of Methods to Mimic Natural Structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Mcadams, Daniel A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-08-01

    Through billions of years of evolution and natural selection, biological systems have developed strategies to achieve advantageous unification between structure and bulk properties. The discovery of these fascinating properties and phenomena has triggered increasing interest in identifying characteristics of biological materials, through modern characterization and modeling techniques. In an effort to produce better engineered materials, scientists and engineers have developed new methods and approaches to construct artificial advanced materials that resemble natural architecture and function. A brief review of typical naturally occurring materials is presented here, with a focus on chemical composition, nano-structure, and architecture. The critical mechanisms underlying their properties are summarized, with a particular emphasis on the role of material architecture. A review of recent progress on the nano/micro-manufacturing of bio-inspired hybrid materials is then presented in detail. In this case, the focus is on nacre and bone-inspired structural materials, petals and gecko foot-inspired adhesive films, lotus and mosquito eye inspired superhydrophobic materials, brittlestar and Morpho butterfly-inspired photonic structured coatings. Finally, some applications, current challenges and future directions with regard to manufacturing bio-inspired hybrid materials are provided.

  13. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1] provides industry expectations for high volume computer chip fabrication a decade into the future. It provides expectations to anticipated performance and requisite specifications. While the roadmap provides a collective projection of what international industry expects to produce, it does not specify the technology that will be employed. Indeed, there are generally several competing technologies for each two or three year step forward—known as `nodes'. Recent successful technologies have been based on KrF (248 nm), and now ArF (193 nm) lasers, combined with ultraviolet transmissive refractive optics, in what are known as step and scan exposure tools. Less fortunate technologies in the recent past have included soft x-ray proximity printing and, it appears, 157 nm wavelength F2 lasers. In combination with higher numerical aperture liquid emersion optics, 193 nm is expected to be used for the manufacture of leading edge chip performance for the coming five years. Beyond that, starting in about 2009, the technology to be employed is less clear. The leading candidate for the 2009 node is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, however this requires that several remaining challenges, including sufficient EUV source power, be overcome in a timely manner. This technology is based on multilayer coated reflective optics [2] and an EUV emitting plasma. Following Moore's Law [3] it is expected, for example, that at the 2009 `32 nm node' (printable patterns of 32 nm half-pitch), isolated lines with 18 nm width will be formed in resist (using threshold effects), and that these will be further narrowed to 13 nm in transfer to metalized electronic gates. These narrow features are expected to provide computer chips of 19 GHz clock frequency, with of the order of 1.5 billion transistors per chip [1]. This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains a cluster of eight papers addressing the critical

  14. Micro-Structured Materials for Generation of Coherent Light and Optical Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-22

    within a laser linewidth of 1 GHz (matched to the doppler broadened bandwidth of the sodium layer) to provide enough return light to the wavefront...AND SUBTITLE Micro-Structured Materials for Generation of Coherent Light And Optical Signal Processing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...2008 3. TITLE OF PROPOSAL: Micro-Structured Matenals for Generation of Coherent Light And Optical Signal Processing 4. LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS

  15. PowerLight Corporation Lean Manufacturing, PV Manufacturing R&D Phase I Report: 6 December 2001--31 March 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, L; Botkin, J.

    2005-06-01

    PowerLight Corporation (PowerLight) has completed Phase I of its PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, ''PowerGuard Lean Manufacturing,'' Subcontract No. NDO-1-30628-04. The overall technical goal of this project was to reduce the cost of PowerGuard manufacturing while simultaneously improving product quality. This will enable PowerLight to scale up production capacity as the market for PowerGuard continues to grow. Through the introduction of world-class lean manufacturing techniques, PowerLight was to cut out waste in the manufacturing process of PowerGuard. The manufacturing process was to be overhauled with an objective of removing as much as possible those steps that do not add value to the product. Quality of finished goods was also to be improved through the use of statistical process control and error-proofing in the manufacturing process. Factory operations were also to be addressed to streamline those factory activities that support the manufacturing process. This report de tails the progress made toward the above listed goals during the first phase of this subcontract.

  16. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  17. Experimental Study of Red-, Green-, and Blue-Based Light Emitting Diodes Visible Light Communications for Micro-Projector Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, H.-H.; Liaw, S.-K.; Jiang, J.-S.; Teng, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this research, an experimental short-range visible light communication link using red-, green-, and blue-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for portable micro-projector applications is presented. A Reconfigurable design of a post-equalizer aimed to improve the inherent narrow modulation bandwidth of red-, green-, and blue-based LEDs has been experimentally implemented, and its effectiveness with optical filters at the receiver is investigated. Reflective liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based micro-projection architecture, widely used in portable micro-projectors, was set up to evaluate the proposed visible light communication system. The measurement results demonstrated that a significant aggregative bandwidth improvement of 162 MHz as well as an aggregative data transmission rate of nearly 400 Mb/s can be achieved by using a non-return-to-zero-on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme based on only one polarization state of incident light without any offline signal processing.

  18. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system.

  19. Numerical investigation on thermal properties at Cu-Al interface in micro/nano manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Ping; Chen, Min; Liao, Ningbo

    2012-02-01

    A hybrid model by integrating TTM (two-temperature model) and MD (molecular dynamics) is proposed to investigate the properties on interface of dissimilar materials under thermal flux conditions. This model can describe the electron phonon coupling and phonon scattering at the interface of different metals easily. By comparing the Cu-Cu interface and Cu-Al interface, the atoms of the Cu-Cu interface at different sides tend to move together; while, the atoms displacements of Cu and Al are opposite along the interface, which may cause stress and voids at the interface. Moreover, the propagation mechanisms of nanocracks and the corresponding change of temperature distribution and thermal flux are investigated. The results show that the interfaces of dissimilar materials are prone to crack initiations, leading to delaminations because of the high temperature. All these are useful for understanding the deformation and failure of the interfaces structures. It implies a potential method for design and analysis of interface structure in micro/nano manufacturing.

  20. Replicative manufacturing of complex lighting optics by non-isothermal glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreilkamp, Holger; Vu, Anh Tuan; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-09-01

    The advantages of LED lighting, especially its energy efficiency and the long service life have led to a wide distribution of LED technology in the world. However, in order to make fully use of the great potential that LED lighting offers, complex optics are required to distribute the emitted light from the LED efficiently. Nowadays, many applications use polymer optics which can be manufactured at low costs. However, due to ever increasing luminous power, polymer optics reach their technological limits. Due to its outstanding properties, especially its temperature resistance, resistance against UV radiation and its long term stability, glass is the alternative material of choice for the use in LED optics. This research is introducing a new replicative glass manufacturing approach, namely non-isothermal glass molding (NGM) which is able to manufacture complex lighting optics in high volumes at competitive prices. The integration of FEM simulation at the early stage of the process development is presented and helps to guarantee a fast development cycle. A coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to define the geometry of the glass preform as well as to define the mold surface geometry. Furthermore, simulation is used to predict main process outcomes, especially in terms of resulting form accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments conducted on a commercially available molding machine are presented to validate the developed simulation model. Finally, the influence of distinct parameters on important process outcomes like form accuracy, surface roughness, birefringence, etc. is discussed.

  1. Study of Selecting on Light Source Used for Micro-algae Cultivation in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Weidang; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang; Qin, Li-Feng

    To select suitable light source for micro-algae cultivation in future space station, the selected Spirulina plastensis(No.7) were cultured under different lightening qualities, including six light sources that were made up of different combinations of red and blue light-emitting diode(LED). The growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the experiments, the red light may promote the cumulation of biomass of the Spirulina, and the cumulating rate was the highest under all red light source, but the syntheses of protein, phycobiliprotein, β-carotene, VE and other nutrients needs a certain portion of blue light; yet, the complete blue light condition is not favorable to the growth of Spirulina, and may bring pollution by chlorella and other kinds of micro-algae. It is concluded that the LEDs can be used as the light resource of micro-algae cultivation. The normal growth and development of microalgae need two light sources of both red and blue LEDs. The comprehensive analyses of the various factors that affect the growth of Spirulina, such as nutrition quality and photosynthetic activities, etc., showed that the combination of 80% red and 20% blue LED is the optimum one among those tested combinations. Key word: light-emitting diode; micro-algae; controlled ecological life support system (CELSS); space cultivation

  2. Anisotropic micro-cloths fabricated from DNA-stabilized carbon nanotubes: one-stop manufacturing with electrode needles.

    PubMed

    Frusawa, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Among a variety of solution-based approaches to fabricate anisotropic films of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), we focus on the dielectrophoretic assembly method using AC electric fields in DNA-stabilized CNT suspensions. We demonstrate that a one-stop manufacturing system using electrode needles can draw anisotropic DNA-CNT hybrid films of 10 to 100 µm in size (i.e., free-standing DNA-CNT micro-cloths) from the remaining suspension into the atmosphere while maintaining structural order. It has been found that a maximal degree of polarization (ca. 40%) can be achieved by micro-cloths fabricated from a variety of DNA-CNT mixtures. Our results suggest that the one-stop method can impart biocompatibility to the downsized CNT films and that the DNA-stabilized CNT micro-cloths directly connected to an electrode could be useful for biofuel cells in terms of electron transfer and/or enzymatic activity.

  3. Anisotropic micro-cloths fabricated from DNA-stabilized carbon nanotubes: one-stop manufacturing with electrode needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Gen

    2015-03-01

    Among a variety of solution-based approaches to fabricate anisotropic films of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), we focus on the dielectrophoretic assembly method using AC electric fields in DNA-stabilized CNT suspensions. We demonstrate that a one-stop manufacturing system using electrode needles can draw anisotropic DNA-CNT hybrid films of 10 to 100 µm in size (i.e., free-standing DNA-CNT micro-cloths) from the remaining suspension into the atmosphere while maintaining structural order. It has been found that a maximal degree of polarization (ca. 40%) can be achieved by micro-cloths fabricated from a variety of DNA-CNT mixtures. Our results suggest that the one-stop method can impart biocompatibility to the downsized CNT films and that the DNA-stabilized CNT micro-cloths directly connected to an electrode could be useful for biofuel cells in terms of electron transfer and/or enzymatic activity.

  4. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  5. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres

    PubMed Central

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  6. High light extraction efficiency LEDs with asymmetric obtuse angle micro-structured roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Jiang; Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Yin, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    This study reports a high light extraction efficiency (LEE) light emitting diode (LED) by harnessing asymmetric obtuse angle micro-structured roofs. In comparison to conventional symmetric micro-structured roofs, the LEE has been improved from 62% to 73%. This represents an 11% improvement in LEE, which is significant for LED. It is speculated that this improvement is largely due to the increased surface area and better randomization on the direction of transmitted/reflected light, which enhances the escaping probability after multiple reflections.

  7. Mathieu beams as versatile light moulds for 3D micro particle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Alpmann, C; Bowman, R; Woerdemann, M; Padgett, M; Denz, C

    2010-12-06

    We present tailoring of three dimensional light fields which act as light moulds for elaborate particle micro structures of variable shapes. Stereo microscopy is used for visualization of the 3D particle assemblies. The powerful method is demonstrated for the class of propagation invariant beams, where we introduce the use of Mathieu beams as light moulds with non-rotationally-symmetric structure. They offer multifarious field distributions and facilitate the creation of versatile particle structures. This general technique may find its application in micro fluidics, chemistry, biology, and medicine, to create highly efficient mixing tools, for hierarchical supramolecular organization or in 3D tissue engineering.

  8. Study on micro-bend light transmission performance of novel liquid-core optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junyan; Zhao, Zhimin; Wang, Kaisheng; Guo, Linfeng

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing development of material technology and electronic integration technology, optical fiber and its using in smart structure have become hot in the field of material research. And liquid-core optical fiber is a special kind of optical fiber, which is made using liquid material as core and polymer material as optical layer and protective covering, and it has the characteristics of large core diameter, high numerical aperture, large-scope and efficient spectrum transmission and long life for using. So the liquid-core optical fiber is very suitable for spectrum cure, ultraviolet solidification, fluorescence detection, criminal investigation and evidence obtainment, etc, and especially as light transfer element in some new structures for the measurement of some signals, such as concentration, voltage, temperature, light intensity and so on. In this paper, the novel liquid-core optical fiber is self-made, and then through the test of its light transmission performance in free state, the relation between axial micro-bend and light-intensity loss are presented. When the liquid-core optical fiber is micro-bent axially, along with the axial displacement's increase, output power of light is reducing increasingly, and approximately has linear relation to micro-displacement in a range. According to the results liquid-core fiber-optic micro-bend sensor can be designed to measure micro-displacement of the tested objects. Experimental data and analysis provide experimental basis for further application of liquid-core optical fiber.

  9. Surface Roughness Measurement of Parts Manufactured by FDM Process using Light Sectioning Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, A. S.; Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a process of developing prototypes by depositing layers of material according to predetermined cross sectional geometry. Quality of the produced part is highly dependent on surface finish. This work describes a methodology to calculate the surface roughness of part manufactured using FDM process. The surface roughness values are measured using conventional stylus instrument and light sectioning vision system. In conventional stylus instrument method, diamond tipped stylus destroys the surface topography. Light sectioning method is non-contact method hence it overcomes this problem. In light sectioning method microscope and light source are arranged in such a manner, as both are inclined at an angle of 45° to the normal plane. The light section is projected on surface of profile at an incident angle of 45°. The reflected light can be observed using microscope. The camera is connected with microscope to capture the micrograph. These images are analyzed and processed using various image processing techniques. Experimental results are validated by comparing final results with conventional system.

  10. Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction

    PubMed Central

    Schuergers, Nils; Lenn, Tchern; Kampmann, Ronald; Meissner, Markus V; Esteves, Tiago; Temerinac-Ott, Maja; Korvink, Jan G; Lowe, Alan R; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Wilde, Annegret

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phototaxis was first recognized over a century ago, but the method by which such small cells can sense the direction of illumination has remained puzzling. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 moves with Type IV pili and measures light intensity and color with a range of photoreceptors. Here, we show that individual Synechocystis cells do not respond to a spatiotemporal gradient in light intensity, but rather they directly and accurately sense the position of a light source. We show that directional light sensing is possible because Synechocystis cells act as spherical microlenses, allowing the cell to see a light source and move towards it. A high-resolution image of the light source is focused on the edge of the cell opposite to the source, triggering movement away from the focused spot. Spherical cyanobacteria are probably the world’s smallest and oldest example of a camera eye. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12620.001 PMID:26858197

  11. Micro-electromechanical spatial light modulators with integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Steven; Bifano, Thomas G.; Bierden, Paul A.

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes design and development of a microelectromechanical, micromachined spatial light modulator ((mu) SLM) integrated with complementary metal- oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics, for control of optical phase in phase-only optical correlators. The (mu) SLM will consist of a large array of piston-motion MEMS mirror segments (pixels) each of which capable of altering the phase of reflected light by up to one wavelength for infrared (1.5 micrometers ) illumination. Results of a proof-of- concept study are presented along with an electromechanical model and details of the fabrication process for the (mu) SLM.

  12. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J D; Gu, Erdan; Chen, Zhizhong; Sun, Yongjian; Zhang, Guoyi; Dawson, Martin D; Liu, Ran

    2016-01-11

    Flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays have been fabricated and characterized for potential applications in flexible micro-displays and visible light communication. The LED epitaxial layers were transferred from initial sapphire substrates to flexible AuSn substrates by metal bonding and laser lift off techniques. The current versus voltage characteristics of flexible micro-LEDs degraded after bending the devices, but the electroluminescence spectra show little shift even under a very small bending radius 3 mm. The high thermal conductivity of flexible metal substrates enables high thermal saturation current density and high light output power of the flexible micro-LEDs, benefiting the potential applications in flexible high-brightness micro-displays and high-speed visible light communication. We have achieved ~40 MHz modulation bandwidth and 120 Mbit/s data transmission speed for a typical flexible micro-LED.

  13. Multiscale Micro-Nano Nested Structures: Engineered Surface Morphology for Efficient Light Escaping in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Dong, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Yun; Su, Wenming; Chen, Xiaolian; Zhu, Yufu; Shen, Su

    2015-12-09

    Various micro-to-nanometer scale structures are extremely attractive for light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes. To develop and optimize such structures, an innovative approach was demonstrated for the first time to fabricate multiscale micro-nano nested structures by photolithography with a well-designed mask pattern followed by a controllable thermal reflow process. The experimental and theoretical characterizations verify that these unique nested structures hold the capability of light concentration, noticeable low haze, and efficient antireflection. As a proof-of-concept, the incorporation of this pattern onto the glass substrate efficiently facilitates light escaping from the device, resulting in current efficiency 1.60 times and external quantum efficiency 1.63 times that of a control flat device, respectively. Moreover, compared to a hexagonally arranged microlens array and quasi-random biomimetic moth eye nanostructures, the nested structures proposed here can magically tune the spatial emission profile to comply with the Lambertian radiation pattern. Hence, this novel structure is expected to be of great potential in related ubiquitous optoelectronic applications and provide scientific inspiration to other novel multiscale micro-nanostructure research.

  14. Method of manufacturing a light emitting, photovoltaic or other electronic apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes depositing a first conductive medium within a plurality of channels of a base to form a plurality of first conductors; depositing within the plurality of channels a plurality of semiconductor substrate particles suspended in a carrier medium; forming an ohmic contact between each semiconductor substrate particle and a first conductor; converting the semiconductor substrate particles into a plurality of semiconductor diodes; depositing a second conductive medium to form a plurality of second conductors coupled to the plurality of semiconductor diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of lenses suspended in a first polymer over the plurality of diodes. In various embodiments, the depositing, forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  15. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark David (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes depositing a first conductive medium within a plurality of channels of a base to form a plurality of first conductors; depositing within the plurality of channels a plurality of semiconductor substrate particles suspended in a carrier medium; forming an ohmic contact between each semiconductor substrate particle and a first conductor; converting the semiconductor substrate particles into a plurality of semiconductor diodes; depositing a second conductive medium to form a plurality of second conductors coupled to the plurality of semiconductor diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of lenses suspended in a first polymer over the plurality of diodes. In various embodiments, the depositing, forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  16. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes forming at least one first conductor coupled to a base; coupling a plurality of substantially spherical substrate particles to the at least one first conductor; converting the substrate particles into a plurality of substantially spherical diodes; forming at least one second conductor coupled to the substantially spherical diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of substantially spherical lenses suspended in a first polymer. The lenses and the suspending polymer have different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. In various embodiments, the forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  17. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes forming at least one first conductor coupled to a base; coupling a plurality of substrate particles to the at least one first conductor; converting the plurality of substrate particles into a plurality of diodes; forming at least one second conductor coupled to the plurality of spherical diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of substantially spherical lenses suspended in a first polymer, with the lenses and the suspending polymer having different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. In various embodiments, the forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  18. High angular accuracy manufacture method of micro v-grooves based on tool alignment by on-machine measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Lili; Zeng, Zhen; Fang, Fengzhou; Liu, Xianlei

    2015-10-19

    Micro v-groove has found wide applications in optical areas as one of the most important structures. However, its performance is significantly affected by its angular geometry accuracy. The diamond cutting has been commonly used as the fabrication method of micro v-groove, but it is still difficult to guarantee the cutting tool angle, which is limited by the measurement accuracy in the manufacture and mounting of the diamond tool. A cutting tool alignment method based on the on-machine measurement is proposed to improve the fabricated quality of the v-groove angle. An on-machine probe is employed to scan the v-groove geometrical deviation precisely. The system errors model, data processing algorithm and tool alignment methods are analyzed in details. Experimental results show that the measurement standard deviation within 0.01° can be achieved. Retro-reflection mirrors are fabricated and measured finally by the proposed method for verification.

  19. UV light photo-Fenton degradation of polyphenols in oolong tea manufacturing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sabaikai, Waraluk; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The UV light photo-Fenton degradation of oolong tea polyphenols in tea manufacturing effluent that color the wastewater to a dark brown has been examined. In order to elucidate the photo-Fenton degradation mechanism of oolong tea polyphenols and find the optimal dosages of the Fenton reagents, systematic study has been conducted. For the UV light photo-Fenton degradation of oolong tea effluent being 70 mg-(polyphenol) L(-1), the optimum dosages of Fenton reagents were found to be 20 mgL(-1) of total Fe and 500 mgL(-1) of H2O2. The polyphenol degradation could be divided into two stages. The polyphenols concentration rapidly decreased to around 30% of the initial concentration within 2 min and the degradation rate significantly slowed down in the subsequent stage. After 60 min of UV light irradiation, 97% polyphenol removal was obtained. The initial quick degradation of oolong tea polyphenols suggests that hydroxyl radical generated by the photo-Fenton process might preferentially attack polyphenols having high antioxidant activity by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. Almost complete decolorization of the oolong tea effluent was achieved after 80 min. About 96% mineralization of 63 mgL(-1) TOC loading was achieved within 60 min and then further mineralization was rather slow. The complete COD removal of 239 mgL(-1) COD loading was obtained after 100 min. The present results indicate that the UV light photo-Fenton degradation process can treat tea manufacturing wastewaters very effectively.

  20. Light reflection control in biogenic micro-mirror by diamagnetic orientation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaka, Masakazu; Mizukawa, Yuri

    2013-04-02

    As has become known, most materials, such as proteins and DNA, show orientation under strong magnetic fields. However, the critical threshold for the magnetic field of the magnetomechanical phenomena is still unknown. We demonstrate that a thin micro-mirror from a fish scale with high reflectivity exhibits a distinct magnetic response at 100 mT. A dramatic event under a magnetic field is the decrease of light scattering from guanine crystals as well as rapid rotation against the applied magnetic field. Enhancement of light scattering intensity is also observed when the three vectors of light incidence, magnetic field, and observation are orthogonally directed. The results indicate that biogenic guanine crystals have a large diamagnetic anisotropy along the surface parallel and normal directions. The micrometer to submicrometer scale of thin biogenic plates can act as a noninvasively, magnetically controlled micro-mirror for light irradiation control in the micrometer-scale region.

  1. Repeatable Manufacture of Wings for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles Using Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Fabrication Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Micro- MAVs is a growing area across the country because of potential applications in intelligence gathering, search and rescue and exploration...This research will allow a lower price and higher quality Micro-MAV to be used for essential functions such as intelligence gathering, search and...flyers, for a myriad of uses, may be realizable (6). Such uses include surveillance/reconnaissance, search and rescue, hazardous environment

  2. DLP-based light engines for additive manufacturing of ceramic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenbichler, M.; Geppert, M.; Gruber, S.; Ipp, E.; Almedal, R.; Stampfl, J.

    2012-03-01

    In the framework of the European research project PHOCAM (http://www.phocam.eu) the involved partners are developing systems and materials for lithography-based additive manufacturing technologies (AMT) which are used for shaping advanced ceramic materials. In this approach a ceramic-filled photosensitive resin is selectively exposed layer by layer. By stacking up the individual layers with a typical layer thickness between 25 and 50μm, a three-dimensional part is built up. After structuring, a solid part consisting of a ceramic filled polymer is obtained. The polymer is afterwards burnt off and in a last step the part is sintered to obtain a fully dense ceramic part. The developed systems are based on selective exposure with DLP projection (Digital Light Processing). A key element of the developed systems is a light engine which uses digital mirror devices (DMD) in combination light emitting diodes (460nm) as light source. In the current setup DMDs with 1920x1080 pixels are used. The use of LEDs in combination with a customized optical projection system ensures a spatial and temporal homogeneity of the intensity at the build platform which is significantly better than with traditionally used light engines. The system has a resolution of 40μm and a build size of 79x43x100mm. It could be shown that this system can fabricate dense ceramic parts with excellent strength. In the case of alumina densities up to 99.6% of the theoretical density were achieved, yielding a biaxial strength of 510MPa. Besides technical ceramics like alumina it is also possible to structure bioceramics, e.g. tricalcium phosphate.

  3. Manipulation of Micro Scale Particles in Optical Traps Using Programmable Spatial Light Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibel, Robin E.; Decker, Arthur J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    1064 nm light, from an Nd:YAG laser, was polarized and incident upon a programmable parallel aligned liquid crystal spatial light modulator (PAL-SLM), where it was phase modulated according to the program controlling the PAL-SLM. Light reflected from the PAL-SLM was injected into a microscope and focused. At the focus, multiple optical traps were formed in which 9.975 m spheres were captured. The traps and the spheres were moved by changing the program of the PAL-SLM. The motion of ordered groups of micro particles was clearly demonstrated.

  4. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  5. Ionogel-based light-actuated valves for controlling liquid flow in micro-fluidic manifolds.

    PubMed

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Byrne, Robert; Răduţă, Ana Maria; Vrana, Nihal Engin; McGuinness, Garrett; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-21

    We present the fabrication, characterisation and performance of four novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) as photo-actuated valves incorporated into micro-fluidic manifolds. The ionogels incorporate benzospiropyran units and phosphonium-based ionic liquids. Each ionogel is photo-polymerised in situ in the channels of a poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-fluidic device, generating a manifold incorporating four different micro-valves. The valves are actuated by simply applying localised white light irradiation, meaning that no physical contact between the actuation impulse (light) and the valve structure is required. Through variation of the composition of the ionogels, each of the micro-valves can be tuned to open at different times under similar illumination conditions. Therefore, flows through the manifold can be independently controlled by a single light source. At present, the contraction process to open the channel is relatively rapid (seconds) while the recovery (expansion) process to re-close the channel is relatively slow (minutes), meaning that the valve, in its current form, is better suited for single-actuation events.

  6. Light-Driven Reversible Shaping of Individual Azopolymeric Micro-Pillars

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Federica; Angelini, Angelo; Frascella, Francesca; Rizzo, Riccardo; Ricciardi, Serena; Descrovi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Azopolymers are known to exhibit a strong light responsivity known as athermal photofluidization. Although the underlying physics is still under debate, athermal photofluidization has been demonstrated to trigger mass-migration according to the polarization of a proper illumination light. Here, a polymer blend is proposed wherein a commercial azo-polyelectrolyte is mixed with a passive polymer. The blend is patterned as an array of micro-pillars that are individually exposed to visible laser illumination. Thanks to the interplay between the two blend components, a reversible and controlled deformation of the micro-pillars by periodically tuning the laser polarization in time is demonstrated. A reduced mobility of the azo-compound allows to repeatibly elongate and rotate micro-pillars along specific directions, with no significant material flow outisde the initial volume and no significant degradation of the structure morphology over several cycles. The proposed work suggests new degrees of freedom in controlling the mechanical features of micro-patterned light-responsive materials that can be usefully exploited in many application fields. PMID:27531219

  7. Sensing nanometric displacement of a micro-/nano-fiber induced by optical forces by use of white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Weiqia; Huang, Hankai; Yu, Jianhui; Dong, Huazhuo; Chen, Zhe; Lu, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Sensing the nanometric displacement of a micro-/nano-fiber induced by optical forces is a key technology to study optical forces and optical momentum. When the gap between a micro-/nano-fiber and glass substrate becomes down to micrometer scale or less, a white light interference was observed. The gap changes when optical force arising from the propagating pump light along the micro-/nano-fiber causes a transversal nanometric displacement of a micro-/nanofiber, resulting in movement of the interferometric fringes. Therefore this movement of the interferometric fringes can be used to sense the nanometric displacement of the micro-/nano-fiber induced by optical forces. Experimental results show that the resolutions of this method can reach 7.27nm/pixel for tilted angle 0.8o between the micro-/nano-fiber and substrate. It is concluded that the white light interferometry method is suitable for measuring the weak optical force.

  8. micro-Hotplate enhanced optical heating by infrared light for single cell treatment.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Helke; Dittrich, Petra Stephanie; Manz, Andreas; Franzke, Joachim

    2007-11-01

    In this study we present a simple approach for fast and localised heating that relies on the strong absorbance of infrared light by microsized patterned surfaces ("micro-hotplates"). Two different materials, micro-arrays of carbon and gold, were tested with respect to their absorbance of the 830 nm diode laser light and their applicability. Both materials were found to be suitable for inducing controlled heating to a temperature increase of more than 10 degrees C within less than a second. The effect of optical heating on living cells (colon cancer cell line SW 480) was investigated with a modified fluorescence microscope. The temperature was controlled by varying the intensity and the exposure time of the laser light. Depending on temperature, induced death of cells in direct contact with the absorbent material was observed, or otherwise cells were kept alive. Cells survive the direct exposure of IR light without the use of the micro-hotplates. In contrast to common heating systems, the optical heating does not need direct contact to a temperature control device. Therefore, it is a very flexible method that can easily be implemented within any microchip. We believe that it will be a versatile tool for initiation and modulation of biochemical or cellular reactions, reversible cell membrane opening, and for control of cell growth.

  9. Structural design and manufacture of high packing density micro-thermoelectric power generators using thermoelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Jin, Yi-Teng; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liao, Xia; Xu, Han; Li, Huan; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2011-05-01

    A new micro-thermoelectric power generator module with high packing density of film thermoelectric legs has been proposed, in which a large number of p-type and n-type thin-film thermoelectric legs are electrically connected in series. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the output voltage and power of the proposed module, and the results shows that much higher output voltage and output power can be obtained simply by integrating more film thermoelectric components. Based on the proposed module, a micro-thermoelectric power generator containing 160 film thermocouples is fabricated with a size of 25mm (length) × 4mm (width) × 1mm (thickness). Its open-circuit voltage, maximum output power and corresponding power density at a temperature difference of 20K are 630mV, 35.73μW and 357.3μW·cm-3, respectively.

  10. Heat transport in polymer thin films for micro/nano-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ming-Tsung

    The rapid growth in micro/nanotechnology has opened a great opportunity for polymer thin films and polymer nanocomposites. Thermal management or thermal effects in those applications need to be carefully examined. For example, the local heating in electron-beam lithography, emersion lithography, and scanning near field optical lithography may cause the degradation of photoresists and reduce the resolution. The development of many organic electronics, polymer micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) devices, and polymer nanocomposites may require the knowledge of heat transport in micro/nano-sized polymers. Thermolithography, a novel lithography, uses controlled localized heating to transfer patterns and requires the thermal conductivity data to control. It is of considerable scientific and technological interests for study heat transport in polymer thin films. Unlike bulk polymers that can be measured using commercially available instruments, polymer thin films are difficult to measure. In this manuscript, we develop the measurement techniques suitable for measuring thermal conductivity of polymer thin films and polymer nanocomposites. Using a microfabricated membrane-based device, we study the heat conduction in photoresists at difference process stages. This data is used in our thermolithography study, where we use microheater to study the kinetic of crosslinking reaction of photoresist. The feasibility of thermolithography and potential three dimensional micro/nano-fabrication is presented. The uniqueness of thermolithography is also demonstrated by patterning amorphous fluoropolymers. A modified hot-wire technique is used to measure the thermal conductivity of graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) reinforced nanocomposites, one of the promising candidates for multifunctional materials. Thermal interface resistance in GNP nanocomposites is investigated, which shows a strong effect on energy transport in the nanocomposites and can be diminished through surface treatment.

  11. Light propagation in the micro-size capillary injected by high temperature liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-jun; Li, Edward; Xiao, Hai

    2016-11-01

    The high temperature liquid is injected into the micro-size capillary and its light propagation behavior is investigated. We focus on two different liquid pumping methods. The first method can pump the high temperature liquid tin into the micro-size capillary by using a high pressure difference system. After pumping, a single mode fiber (SMF) connected with the optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) system is used to measure different liquid tin levels in the micro-size capillary. The second method can pump the room temperature engine oil into the capillary by using a syringe pump. This method can avoid the air bubbles when the liquids are pumped into the capillary.

  12. Photon management in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes: a review of light outcoupling micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomard, Guillaume; Preinfalk, Jan B.; Egel, Amos; Lemmer, Uli

    2016-07-01

    To allow a greater acceptance in the display and lighting markets, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology is currently the subject of intensive research efforts aimed at manufacturing cost-effective devices with higher efficiencies. In this regard, strategies matured in the field of photonics and nanophotonics can be applied for photon management purposes to improve the outcoupling of the generated light and to control the emission pattern. In this review, we report on the recent experimental and numerical advances to pursue those goals by highlighting the example of bottom-emitting devices. The cases of periodical micro- and nanostructures, as well as of stochastic ensembles that can be easily implemented using printing techniques, are covered herein. It is shown that beyond the sole optical properties, such additional elements can simultaneously improve the electrical characteristics of solution-processed OLEDs, and thus enable an optimization of the devices at different levels.

  13. High speed GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays for data communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Scott; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Zhang, Shuailong; Massoubre, David; Rae, Bruce R.; Green, Richard P.; Gu, Erdan; Henderson, Robert K.; Kelly, A. E.; Dawson, Martin D.

    2012-10-01

    Micro light-emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays based on an AlInGaN structure have attracted much interest recently as light sources for data communications. Visible light communication (VLC), over free space or plastic optical fibre (POF), has become a very important technique in the role of data transmission. The micro-LEDs which are reported here contain pixels ranging in diameter from 14 to 84μm and can be driven directly using a high speed probe or via complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The CMOS arrays allow for easy, computer control of individual pixels within arrays containing up to 16×16 elements. The micro-LEDs best suited for data transmission have peak emissions of 450nm or 520nm, however various other wavelengths across the visible spectrum can also be used. Optical modulation bandwidths of over 400MHz have been achieved as well as error-free (defined as an error rate of <1x10-10) data transmission using on-off keying (OOK) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation at data rates of over 500Mbit/s over free space. Also, as a step towards a more practical multi-emitter data transmitter, the frequency response of a micro-LED integrated with CMOS circuitry was measured and found to be up to 185MHz. Despite the reduction in bandwidth compared to the bare measurements using a high speed probe, a good compromise is achieved from the additional control available to select each pixel. It has been shown that modulating more than one pixel simultaneously can increase the data rate. As work continues in this area, the aim will be to further increase the data transmission rate by modulating more pixels on a single device to transmit multiple parallel data channels simultaneously.

  14. Data report of hypervelocity micro-particle impact light flash data and MOS impact detector output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Patrick J.

    1995-06-01

    A series of hypervelocity impact tests were conducted at the Max-Plank Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany using the Institut's 2 MV Van De Graaff micro-particle accelerator. The purpose of this experimental effort was to collect impact flash data resulting from hypervelocity impact events. The results of these test experiments are to be correlated with actual waveforms obtained from on-orbit systems. Furthermore, these experimental results will supplement ongoing theoretical predictions being conducted within the Phillips Laboratory by the Space Kinetic Impact/Debris Branch (pLJWSCD). This report only describes the instrumentation configuration and presents data collected from light flash measurements and a MOS micro-particle impact detector. An analysis of the acquired light flash data is contained in a separate report authored by Allahdadi, Medina, Serna, and Long. Iron particles in the mass range of 1 x 10(exp -15) to 8 x 10(exp -18) kg were accelerated to velocities between 7 and 38 km/sec. Three targets were used for these impact test: spacecraft optical lens, spacecraft optical sunshade, and MOS spacecraft micro-particle impact detector. The hypervelocity particle impacted the lens and micro-particle impact detector targets normal to the target surface. The sunshade was impacted at a 25 degree angle measured from the particle direction of flight.

  15. Industrial applications of micro/nanofabrication at Singapore Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, L. K.; Casse, B. D. F.; Heussler, S. P.; Kong, J. R.; Saw, B. T.; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Moser, H. O.

    2006-04-01

    SSLS (Singapore Synchrotron Light Source) has set up a complete one-stop shop for micro/nanofabrication in the framework of the LIGA process. It is dubbed LiMiNT for Lithography for Micro and Nanotechnology and allows complete prototyping using the integral cycle of the LIGA process for producing micro/nanostructures from mask design/fabrication over X-ray lithography to electroplating in Ni, Cu, or Au, and, finally, hot embossing in a wide variety of plastics as one of the capabilities to cover a wide range of application fields and to go into higher volume production. The process chain also includes plasma cleaning and sputtering as well as substrate preparation processes including metal buffer layers, plating bases, and spin coating, polishing, and dicing. Furthermore, metrology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, and optical microscopy is available. LiMiNT is run as a research lab as well as a foundry. In this paper, several industrial applications will be presented, in which LiMiNT functions as a foundry to provide external customers the micro/nano fabrication services. These services include the fabrication of optical or X-ray masks, of micro/nano structures from polymers or from metals and of moulds for hot embossing or injection moulding.

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  17. Characterization of micro structure through hybrid interference and phase determination in broadband light interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Tang, Yan; Zhu, Jiangping; Deng, Qinyuan; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Lixin; Hu, Song

    2017-03-10

    Broadband light interferometry, which is a well-developed method for surface profiling, has been applied with great success in the past years. Conventional multi-wavelength interferometric surface profilers mostly utilize the light irradiance to locate the zero fringe order, but the accuracy and stability can be negatively influenced by intensity fluctuations and external light disturbance, which is a serious problem. In this paper we discuss a hybrid technique combining light intensity and spectral modulation to determine zero optical path difference in which the light instability can be effectively suppressed. Additionally, the phase evaluation at each pixel will provide a high vertical resolution to obtain the characterization of the micro structure. The hybrid-interference method will not only improve the sensitivity of the measurement system but also level up the robustness and stability. Both simulation and experiment on a micro-dome structure have been presented to verify the effectiveness. Furthermore, the proposed method may be promising to replace the previously intensity-based method, especially in a complex application environment.

  18. Fully integrated and encapsulated micro-fabricated vacuum diode and method of manufacturing same

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, Paul J.; Langlois, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Disclosed is an encapsulated micro-diode and a method for producing same. The method comprises forming a plurality columns in the substrate with a respective tip disposed at a first end of the column, the tip defining a cathode of the diode; disposing a sacrificial oxide layer on the substrate, plurality of columns and respective tips; forming respective trenches in the sacrificial oxide layer around the columns; forming an opening in the sacrificial oxide layer to expose a portion of the tips; depositing a conductive material in of the opening and on a surface of the substrate to form an anode of the diode; and removing the sacrificial oxide layer.

  19. Method of manufacturing a fully integrated and encapsulated micro-fabricated vacuum diode

    DOEpatents

    Resnick, Paul J.; Langlois, Eric

    2014-08-26

    Disclosed is an encapsulated micro-diode and a method for producing same. The method comprises forming a plurality columns in the substrate with a respective tip disposed at a first end of the column, the tip defining a cathode of the diode; disposing a sacrificial oxide layer on the substrate, plurality of columns and respective tips; forming respective trenches in the sacrificial oxide layer around the columns; forming an opening in the sacrificial oxide layer to expose a portion of the tips; depositing a conductive material in of the opening and on a surface of the substrate to form an anode of the diode; and removing the sacrificial oxide layer.

  20. 49 CFR 579.21 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of 5,000 or more light vehicles annually.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of 5,000 or more light vehicles annually. 579.21 Section 579.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. New developments in the manufacture of large freeform surfaces with micro-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblee, Jeff; Walter, Mark; Jacobs, Ben

    2015-10-01

    A new capability for simultaneously generating micro-structures and large freeform surfaces has been developed. Multiple axes of CNC coordinated motion have been integrated into an ultra precision machine platform, enabling a wide variety of optical mold masters to be created. Facilitated by a specially developed control system, freeform optical surfaces as large as 600 x 600 x 100 mm are possible. Some machine alignments are critical to the production of accurate parts and these will be discussed. A bridge construction reduces Abbe offsets, and oil hydrostatic linear slide ways provide sub-micron straightness. The linear axes are capable of accurate positioning by means of linear motors in combination with the non contact oil hydrostatic slide ways. Optical surface finishes are achieved with the stability of a large granite base supported by a high performance vibration isolation system. The machine includes a unique, self-compensating, patented oil bearing rotary axis. Critical machine errors are measured and corrected with integrated CNC machine compensation. The machine has accuracy and repeatability for the creation of precise, intersecting groove structures with multiple angles over large areas. Optical surfaces can be generated either by a ruling/shaping operation with a non-rotating tool, or by a flycutting tool rotating on a high speed air bearing spindle. The spindle can double as a positioning axis to generate variable angle grooves in ruling mode. A Fast Tool Servo can be utilized to create fine micro-structures. Work piece quality can be evaluated in-situ with metrology sensors.

  2. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of chip-on board light-emitting diodes through micro-lens array fabricated by ion wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jingcao; Lei, Xiang; Wu, Jiading; Peng, Yang; Liu, Sheng; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Huai

    2017-03-01

    Low light extraction efficiency (LEE) is a key challenge of chip-on board (COB) packaging light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a facile preparation of micro-lens array was proposed based on the ion wind patterning. The geometries and sizes of the micro-lens arrays were controlled through adjusting the voltage parameter of the ion wind generation. Consequently, the micro-lens array with the diameter of 180 μm and the gap distance of 15 μm has been fabricated. Benefitting from this micro-lens array, the LEE of COB packaging LEDs was enhanced by 9%. This facile fabrication of micro-lens array would be a promising method to improve the LEE of COB packaging LEDs.

  3. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Serša, I.; Poličnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanič, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-06-01

    Beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  4. Design of micro, flexible light-emitting diode arrays and fabrication of flexible electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Weibiao; Liang, Zhongzhu; Liang, Jingqiu; Qin, Yuxin; Lv, Jinguang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we design micro, flexible light-emitting diode (LED) array devices. Using theoretical calculations and finite element simulations, we analyze the deformation of the conventional single electrode bar. Through structure optimization, we obtain a three-dimensional (3D), chain-shaped electrode structure, which has a greater bending degree. The optimized electrodes not only have a bigger bend but can also be made to spin. When the supporting body is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the maximum bending degree of the micro, flexible LED arrays (4  ×  1 arrays) was approximately 230 µm this was obtained using the finite element method. The device (4  ×  1 arrays) can stretch to 15%. This paper describes the fabrication of micro, flexible LED arrays using microelectromechancial (MEMS) technology combined with electroplating technology. Specifically, the isolated grooves are made by dry etching which can isolate and protect the light-emitting units. A combination of MEMS technology and wet etching is used to fabricate the large size spacing.

  5. Multi-functional micro electromechanical devices and method of bulk manufacturing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of bulk manufacturing SiC sensors is disclosed and claimed. Materials other than SiC may be used as the substrate material. Sensors requiring that the SiC substrate be pierced are also disclosed and claimed. A process flow reversal is employed whereby the metallization is applied first before the recesses are etched into or through the wafer. Aluminum is deposited on the entire planar surface of the metallization. Photoresist is spun onto the substantially planar surface of the Aluminum which is subsequently masked (and developed and removed). Unwanted Aluminum is etched with aqueous TMAH and subsequently the metallization is dry etched. Photoresist is spun onto the still substantially planar surface of Aluminum and oxide and then masked (and developed and removed) leaving the unimidized photoresist behind. Next, ITO is applied over the still substantially planar surface of Aluminum, oxide and unimidized photoresist. Unimidized and exposed photoresist and ITO directly above it are removed with Acetone. Next, deep reactive ion etching attacks exposed oxide not protected by ITO. Finally, hot phosphoric acid removes the Al and ITO enabling wires to connect with the metallization. The back side of the SiC wafer may be also be etched.

  6. Non-destructive micro-analytical system for the study of the manufacturing processes of a group of gold jewels from "El Carambolo" treasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Ager, F. J.; de la Bandera, M. L.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The impressive gold treasure of El Carambolo, representative of the Tartesic culture and dated from the 8th to 6th century BCE, constitutes a typological and stylistic unity unparalleled in the archeological field. Due to the importance of this treasure and the interest in studying it in depth, a new micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) portable system has been developed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain). Eleven jewels of El Carambolo treasure have been analyzed in order to characterize the composition of the employed alloys, to identify the manufacturing processes and to discuss hypothesis about the production workshop of the treasure. Besides, the application of the new micro-XRF instrumentation allowed the analysis of small details like decoration elements and joining areas. This study permits the characterization of the joining methods and manufacturing procedures, thus, the construction stages of these highly complex jewels can be inferred. Many archeological and historical studies of the treasure have been performed during the last years but very few analytical results have been published. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the capability of the new developed portable micro-XRF setup to substitute satisfactorily other micro-analytical techniques, such as micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), when the sample cannot be brought to a laboratory.

  7. Investigation of Very Fast Light Detectors: Silicon Photomultiplier and Micro PMT for a Cosmic Ray Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Omar; Reyes, Liliana; Hooks, Tyler; Perez, Luis; Ritt, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    To construct a cosmic detector array using 4 scintillation detectors, we investigated 2 recent light sensor technologies from Hamamatsu, as possible readout detectors. First, we investigated several homemade versions of the multipixel photon counter (MPPC) light sensors. These detectors were either biased with internal or external high voltage power supplies. We made extensive measurements to confirm for the coincidence of the MPPC devices. Each sensor is coupled to a wavelength shifting fiber (WSF) that is embedded along a plastic scintillator sheet (30cmx60cmx1/4''). Using energetic cosmic rays, we evaluated several of these homemade detector modules placed above one another in a light proof enclosure. Next, we assembled 2 miniaturized micro photomultiplier (micro PMT), a device recently marketed by Hamamatsu. These sensors showed very fast response times. With 3 WSF embedded in scintillator sheets, we performed coincidence experiments. The detector waveforms were captured using the 5GS/sec domino ring sampler, the DRS4 and our workflow using the CERN PAW package and data analysis results would be presented. Title V Grant.

  8. Temperature-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Herrnsdorf, Johannes; Ferreira, Ricardo; Watson, Ian M.; Gu, Erdan Dawson, Martin D.; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Anthony E.

    2014-10-27

    Temperature-dependent trends in radiative and Auger recombination coefficients have been determined at different injection carrier concentrations using InGaN micro-light emitting diodes 40 μm in diameter. The differential lifetime was obtained first from the measured modulation bandwidth and was then employed to calculate the carrier concentration in the quantum well active region. When the temperature increases, the carrier concentration increases, but both the radiative and Auger recombination coefficients decrease. In addition, the temperature dependence of radiative and Auger recombination coefficients is weaker at a higher injection carrier concentration, which is strongly related to phase space filling.

  9. Photovoltaic device with increased light absorption and method for its manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Glatfelter, Troy; Vogeli, Craig; Call, Jon; Hammond, Ginger

    1993-07-20

    A photovoltaic cell having a light-directing optical element integrally formed in an encapsulant layer thereof. The optical element redirects light to increase the internal absorption of light incident on the photovoltaic device.

  10. Increasing the light extraction and longevity of TMDC monolayers using liquid formed micro-lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, C. S.; Roberts, J.; Noori, Y. J.; Cao, Y.; Bernardo-Gavito, R.; Tovee, P.; Kozikov, A.; Novoselov, K.; Young, R. J.

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of semiconducting two-dimensional materials is predicted to lead to the introduction of a series of revolutionary optoelectronic components that are just a few atoms thick. Key remaining challenges for producing practical devices from these materials lie in improving the coupling of light into and out of single atomic layers, and in making these layers robust to the influence of their surrounding environment. We present a solution to tackle both of these problems simultaneously, by deterministically placing an epoxy based micro-lens directly onto the materials’ surface. We show that this approach enhances the photoluminescence of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayers by up to 300%, and nearly doubles the imaging resolution of the system. Furthermore, this solution fully encapsulates the monolayer, preventing it from physical damage and degradation in air. The optical solution we have developed could become a key enabling technology for the mass production of ultra-thin optical devices, such as quantum light emitting diodes.

  11. Plasmofluidics: Merging Light and Fluids at the Micro-/Nano-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingsong; Zhao, Chenglong; Miao, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yanhui; Rufo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Plasmofluidics is the synergistic integration of plasmonics and micro/nano fluidics in devices and applications in order to enhance performance. There has been significant progress in the emerging field of plasmofluidics in recent years. By utilizing the capability of plasmonics to manipulate light at the nanoscale, combined with the unique optical properties of fluids, and precise manipulation via micro/nano fluidics, plasmofluidic technologies enable innovations in lab-on-a-chip systems, reconfigurable photonic devices, optical sensing, imaging, and spectroscopy. In this review article, we examine and categorize the most recent advances in plasmofluidics into plasmon-enhanced functionalities in microfluidics and microfluidics-enhanced plasmonic devices. The former focuses on plasmonic manipulations of fluids, bubbles, particles, biological cells, and molecules at the micro-/nano-scale. The latter includes technological advances that apply microfluidic principles to enable reconfigurable plasmonic devices and performance-enhanced plasmonic sensors. We conclude with our perspectives on the upcoming challenges, opportunities, and the possible future directions of the emerging field of plasmofluidics. PMID:26140612

  12. Effective micro-spray cooling for light-emitting diode with graphene nanoporous layers.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kok Keong; Cheong, Brian Mun Yew; Tong, Wei Li; Tan, Ming Kwang; Hung, Yew Mun

    2017-04-21

    A graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) coating is utilized as a functionalized surface in enhancing the evaporation rate of micro-spray cooling for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In micro-spray cooling, water is atomized into micro-sized droplets to reduce the surface energy and to increase the surface area for evaporation. The GNP coating facilitates the effective filmwise evaporation through the attribute of fast water permeation. The oxygenated functional groups of GNPs provide the driving force that initiates the intercalation of water molecules through the carbon nanostructure. The water molecules slip through the frictionless passages between the hydrophobic carbon walls, resulting an effective filmwise evaporation. The enhancement of evaporation leads to an enormous temperature reduction of 61.3 °C. The performance of the LED is greatly enhanced: a maximum increase in illuminance of 25% and an extension of power rating from 9 W to 12 W can be achieved. With the application of GNP coating, the high-temperature region is eliminated while maintaining the LED surface temperature for optimal operation. This study paves the way for employing the effective hybrid spray-evaporation-nanostructure technique in the development of a compact, low-power-consumption cooling system.

  13. Effective micro-spray cooling for light-emitting diode with graphene nanoporous layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong Lay, Kok; Yew Cheong, Brian Mun; Li Tong, Wei; Tan, Ming Kwang; Hung, Yew Mun

    2017-04-01

    A graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) coating is utilized as a functionalized surface in enhancing the evaporation rate of micro-spray cooling for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In micro-spray cooling, water is atomized into micro-sized droplets to reduce the surface energy and to increase the surface area for evaporation. The GNP coating facilitates the effective filmwise evaporation through the attribute of fast water permeation. The oxygenated functional groups of GNPs provide the driving force that initiates the intercalation of water molecules through the carbon nanostructure. The water molecules slip through the frictionless passages between the hydrophobic carbon walls, resulting an effective filmwise evaporation. The enhancement of evaporation leads to an enormous temperature reduction of 61.3 °C. The performance of the LED is greatly enhanced: a maximum increase in illuminance of 25% and an extension of power rating from 9 W to 12 W can be achieved. With the application of GNP coating, the high-temperature region is eliminated while maintaining the LED surface temperature for optimal operation. This study paves the way for employing the effective hybrid spray–evaporation–nanostructure technique in the development of a compact, low-power-consumption cooling system.

  14. Bone regeneration by the osteoconductivity of porous titanium implants manufactured by selective laser melting: a histological and micro computed tomography study in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Mayer, Kyrill; Schkommodau, Erik; Thoma, Daniel; Bredell, Marius; Kruse Gujer, Astrid; Grätz, Klaus W; Weber, Franz E

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of large bone defects still poses a major challenge in orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. One possible solution could be the development of personalized porous titanium-based implants that are designed to meet all mechanical needs with a minimum amount of titanium and maximum osteopromotive properties so that it could be combined with growth factor-loaded hydrogels or cell constructs to realize advanced bone tissue engineering strategies. Such implants could prove useful for mandibular reconstruction, spinal fusion, the treatment of extended long bone defects, or to fill in gaps created on autograft harvesting. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties and potential of bone formation of light weight implants generated by selective laser melting (SLM). We mainly focused on osteoconduction, as this is a key feature in bone healing and could serve as a back-up for osteoinduction and cell transplantation strategies. To that end, defined implants were produced by SLM, and their surfaces were left untreated, sandblasted, or sandblasted/acid etched. In vivo bone formation with the different implants was tested throughout calvarial defects in rabbits and compared with untreated defects. Analysis by micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry revealed that all generatively produced porous Ti structures were well osseointegrated into the surrounding bone. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that bone formation was significantly increased in all implant-treated groups compared with untreated defects and significantly increased in sand blasted implants compared with untreated ones. Bone bridging was significantly increased in sand blasted acid-etched scaffolds. Therefore, scaffolds manufactured by SLM should be surface treated. Bone augmentation beyond the original bone margins was only seen in implant-treated defects, indicating an osteoconductive potential of the implants that could be utilized clinically for bone

  15. Quantifying representative elementary volume of connectivity for translucent granular materials by light transmission micro-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Cheng, Zhou; Wu, Jianfeng; Wu, Jichun

    2017-02-01

    Aquifers composed of granular materials are major repositories of groundwater resource in which water can flow freely and be stored abundantly. Undoubtedly, exploring connectivity of granular materials is essential to understand the mechanism of water and contaminant migration in subsurface environment, while characterizing the connectivity remains a difficult task currently. This study proposes a new light transmission micro-tomography (LTM) with high resolution to address this problem. The new approach relies on scanning micro-structure by light transmission through translucent granular materials in given thickness. An experiment of light transmission through a two dimensional (2D) sandbox packed by heterogeneous translucent silica is conducted to examine the efficiency of LTM in capturing all the features of connectivity including porosity (n), density (ρ), solid phase-pores interface area (Asp), and tortuosity (τ). Considering the importance of representative elementary volume (REV) in characterizing the representativeness and reliability of connectivity, associated REV scales of characteristic variables are also estimated using a criterion of relative gradient error (εgi). Results suggest that the frequencies of minimum REV sizes of connectivity are close to Gaussian distribution in 0.0-12.0 mm and the REV size of approximately 10.0 mm is available to represent connectivity of translucent silica. Then the quantification of connectivity and the corresponding REV estimates are significant for accurate simulation of fluid migration and for associated optimal design of contaminant remediation in subsurface environment. More important, this study provides the possibility of rapid, handy and economical on-site measurements of connectivity for translucent materials.

  16. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M.; Dawson, Martin D.; Liu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm-2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC.

  17. Living Additive Manufacturing: Transformation of Parent Gels into Diversely Functionalized Daughter Gels Made Possible by Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Gu, Yuwei; Singh, Awaneesh; Zhong, Mingjiang; Jordan, Alex M; Biswas, Santidan; Korley, LaShanda T J; Balazs, Anna C; Johnson, Jeremiah A

    2017-02-22

    Light-initiated additive manufacturing techniques typically rely on layer-by-layer addition or continuous extraction of polymers formed via nonliving, free radical polymerization methods that render the final materials "dead" toward further monomer insertion; the polymer chains within the materials cannot be reactivated to induce chain extension. An alternative "living additive manufacturing" strategy would involve the use of photocontrolled living radical polymerization to spatiotemporally insert monomers into dormant "parent" materials to generate more complex and diversely functionalized "daughter" materials. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept study of living additive manufacturing using end-linked polymer gels embedded with trithiocarbonate iniferters that can be activated by photoinduced single-electron transfer from an organic photoredox catalyst in solution. This system enables the synthesis of a wide range of chemically and mechanically differentiated daughter gels from a single type of parent gel via light-controlled modification of the parent's average composition, strand length, and/or cross-linking density. Daughter gels that are softer than their parent, stiffer than their parent, larger but with the same modulus as their parent, thermally responsive, polarity responsive, healable, and weldable are all realized.

  18. Highly transparent sapphire micro-grating structures with large diffuse light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-08-01

    The highly transparent micro-grating structures (MGSs) of sapphire substrate with large diffuse light scattering were theoretically and experimentally studied. From the finite difference time domain simulation, it was found that the degree of diffuse light scattering is strongly dependent on the size of grating structures. For a highly transparent property, the sapphire MGSs were optimally designed by the theoretical calculations using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method. The order of taper, geometry (i.e., width and height), and pitch length of MGSs were optimized to maximize their average total transmittance over a wide wavelength range of 300-1800 nm. Additionally, the influence of the deposition of low-refractive index material such as SiO2 onto sapphire MGSs on the transmittance characteristics was investigated. To verify experimentally the feasibility, the sapphire MGSs were fabricated by the conventional lithography and dry etching processes. The SiO2 deposited sapphire MGS exhibited a further increase in the total transmittance due to its relatively more graded refractive index profile while maintaining a significantly enhanced diffuse light scattering. The experimental data were in a reasonable agreement with the theoretical results.

  19. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  20. Manufacturing Challenges Implementing Material Changes for the Super Light Weight External Tank: A Welding Process Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, K.; Jones, C.

    2001-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the manufacturing challenges in implementing welding material changes for the super lightweight external tank. Details are given on the external tank configuration, the weld purging equipment used, planning the selection of weld filler wire alloy, the initial weld microstructure, the wide panel tensile testing, and the dome cap welding.

  1. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  2. Automated image mosaics by non-automated light microscopes: the MicroMos software tool.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, F; Bevilacqua, A; Lucarelli, E

    2013-12-01

    Light widefield microscopes and digital imaging are the basis for most of the analyses performed in every biological laboratory. In particular, the microscope's user is typically interested in acquiring high-detailed images for analysing observed cells and tissues, meanwhile being representative of a wide area to have reliable statistics. The microscopist has to choose between higher magnification factor and extension of the observed area, due to the finite size of the camera's field of view. To overcome the need of arrangement, mosaicing techniques have been developed in the past decades for increasing the camera's field of view by stitching together more images. Nevertheless, these approaches typically work in batch mode and rely on motorized microscopes. Or alternatively, the methods are conceived just to provide visually pleasant mosaics not suitable for quantitative analyses. This work presents a tool for building mosaics of images acquired with nonautomated light microscopes. The method proposed is based on visual information only and the mosaics are built by incrementally stitching couples of images, making the approach available also for online applications. Seams in the stitching regions as well as tonal inhomogeneities are corrected by compensating the vignetting effect. In the experiments performed, we tested different registration approaches, confirming that the translation model is not always the best, despite the fact that the motion of the sample holder of the microscope is apparently translational and typically considered as such. The method's implementation is freely distributed as an open source tool called MicroMos. Its usability makes building mosaics of microscope images at subpixel accuracy easier. Furthermore, optional parameters for building mosaics according to different strategies make MicroMos an easy and reliable tool to compare different registration approaches, warping models and tonal corrections.

  3. Micro-light-pipe array with an excitation attenuation filter for lensless digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Nagasaki, Mizuki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for detecting various biomarkers with hypersensitivity. We have been developing compact systems by replacing the fluorescence microscope with a CMOS image sensor. Here, we propose a micro-light-pipe array structure made of metal filled with dye-doped resin, which can be used as a fabrication substrate of the micro-reaction-chamber array of digital ELISA. The possibility that this structure enhances the coupling efficiency for fluorescence was simulated using a simple model. To realize the structure, we fabricated a 30-µm-thick micropipe array by copper electroplating around a thick photoresist pattern. The typical diameter of each fabricated micropipe was 10 µm. The pipes were filled with yellow-dye-doped epoxy resin. The transmittance ratio of fluorescence and excitation light could be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration. We confirmed that an angled excitation light incidence suppressed the leakage of excitation light.

  4. Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with micro-cavity in tracking failure test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L.; Li, S.; Wang, S. B.; Lei, S. L.; Liu, S. X.

    2011-12-01

    Installation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joint possibly introduces defects into the XLPE-silicon rubber interface, such as micro-cavity and micro-wire. Those defects greatly decrease the interfacial breakdown strength and endanger the stability of power system. However, the traditional method only measures the breakdown strength, which alone is limited and can not provide detailed information to more clearly understand the dielectric performance and tracking failure mechanism. This paper investigated the effect of micro-cavity on tracking failure by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization. Interfaces with those defects were setup by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. A 50 Hz AC voltage was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm until tracking failure occurred. The evolution of both discharge light and carbonization at the interface from discharge to the failure was recorded with a video recorder and then their channel width was analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that micro-cavity at an XLPE-silicon rubber interface strengthens the transportation of charge and easily leads to interfacial discharge and tracking failure. The distribution of discharge light and carbonization at the interface with micro-wire proves this.

  5. White Light Modeling, Algorithm Development, and Validation on the Micro-arcsecond Metrology Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Regher, Martin; Shen, Tsae Pyng

    2004-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) scheduled for launch in early 2010, is an optical interferometer that will perform narrow angle and global wide angle astrometry with unprecedented accuracy, providing differential position accuracies of 1uas, and 4uas global accuracies in position, proper motion and parallax. The astrometric observations of the SIM instrument are performed via delay measurements provided by three Michelson-type, white light interferometers. Two 'guide' interferometers acquire fringes on bright guide stars in order to make highly precise measurements of variations in spacecraft attitude, while the third interferometer performs the science measurement. SIM derives its performance from a combination of precise fringe measurements of the interfered starlight (a few ten-thousandths of a wave) and very precise (tens of picometers) relative distance measurements made between a set of fiducials. The focus of the present paper is on the development and analysis of algorithms for accurate white light estimation, and on validating some of these algorithms on the MicroArcsecond Testbed.

  6. Feasibility investigations on a novel micro-manufacturing process for fabrication of fuel cell bipolar plates: Internal pressure-assisted embossing of micro-channels with in-die mechanical bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç, Muammer; Mahabunphachai, Sasawat

    In this paper, we present the results of our studies on conceptual design and feasibility experiments towards development of a novel hybrid manufacturing process to fabricate fuel cell bipolar plates that consists of multi-array micro-channels on a large surface area. The premises of this hybrid micro-manufacturing process stem from the use of an internal pressure-assisted embossing process (cold or warm) combined with mechanical bonding of double bipolar plates in a single-die and single-step operation. Such combined use of hydraulic and mechanical forming forces and in-process bonding will (a) enable integrated forming of micro-channels on both surfaces (as anode and cathode flow fields) and at the middle (as cooling channels), (b) reduce the process steps, (c) reduce variation in dimensional tolerances and surface finish, (d) increase the product quality, (e) increase the performance of fuel cell by optimizing flow-field designs and ensuring consistent contact resistance, and (f) reduce the overall stack cost. This paper explains two experimental investigations that were performed to characterize and evaluate the feasibility of the conceptualized manufacturing process. The first investigation involved hydroforming of micro-channels using thin sheet metals of SS304 with a thickness of 51 μm. The width of the channels ranged from 0.46 to 1.33 mm and the height range was between 0.15 and 0.98 mm. Our feasibility experiments resulted in that different aspect ratios of micro-channels could be fabricated using internal pressure in a controllable manner although there is a limit to very sharp channel shapes (i.e., high aspect ratios with narrow channels). The second investigation was on the feasibility of mechanical bonding of thin sheet metal blanks. The effects of different process and material variables on the bond quality were studied. Successful bonding of various metal blanks (Ni201, Al3003, and SS304) was obtained. The experimental results from both

  7. Living Additive Manufacturing: Transformation of Parent Gels into Diversely Functionalized Daughter Gels Made Possible by Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Light-initiated additive manufacturing techniques typically rely on layer-by-layer addition or continuous extraction of polymers formed via nonliving, free radical polymerization methods that render the final materials “dead” toward further monomer insertion; the polymer chains within the materials cannot be reactivated to induce chain extension. An alternative “living additive manufacturing” strategy would involve the use of photocontrolled living radical polymerization to spatiotemporally insert monomers into dormant “parent” materials to generate more complex and diversely functionalized “daughter” materials. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept study of living additive manufacturing using end-linked polymer gels embedded with trithiocarbonate iniferters that can be activated by photoinduced single-electron transfer from an organic photoredox catalyst in solution. This system enables the synthesis of a wide range of chemically and mechanically differentiated daughter gels from a single type of parent gel via light-controlled modification of the parent’s average composition, strand length, and/or cross-linking density. Daughter gels that are softer than their parent, stiffer than their parent, larger but with the same modulus as their parent, thermally responsive, polarity responsive, healable, and weldable are all realized. PMID:28280779

  8. Micro-pixel array of organic light-emitting diodes applying imprinting technique with a polymer replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Hyun; Kim, Young Min; Park, Young Wook; Choi, Jin Hwan; Jeong, Jin-Wook; Dong, Ki Young; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2009-08-01

    Efficient micro-pixel array of small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has been fabricated by an imprinting technique which uses a polymer replica. To confirm the effect of the oxygen plasma for removing the residual layer, the performance of two kinds of OLEDs with varying thicknesses of resin as the micro-pixel array, have been compared. The measured results of the OLEDs have shown comparable device performances that are significantly characterized depending on the residues on the substrate. The performance of enhanced device has achieved efficiencies of 3.6 cd/A and 1.9 lm/W at 20 mA/cm2.

  9. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

  10. Activation of microcomponents with light for micro-electro-mechanical systems and micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems applications.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Robert C; Tait, R Niall; Ubriaco, Mike

    2002-04-20

    We examine the light-activation properties of micrometer-sized gear structures fabricated with polysilicon surface micromachining techniques. The gears are held in place on a substrate through a capped anchor post and are free to rotate about the post. The light-activation technique is modeled on photon radiation pressure, and the equation of motion of the gear is solved for this activation technique. Experimental measurements of torque and damping are found to be consistent with expected results for micrometer-scale devices. Design optimization for optically actuated microstructures is discussed.

  11. Spatiotemporal control of microRNA function using light-activated antagomirs.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Colleen M; Uprety, Rajendra; Hemphill, James; Deiters, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene regulators and have been shown to regulate many biological processes including embryonal development, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. Variations in the expression of certain miRNAs have been linked to a wide range of human diseases - especially cancer - and the diversity of miRNA targets suggests that they are involved in various cellular networks. Several tools have been developed to control the function of individual miRNAs and have been applied to study their biogenesis, biological role, and therapeutic potential; however, common methods lack a precise level of control that allows for the study of miRNA function with high spatial and temporal resolution. Light-activated miRNA antagomirs for mature miR-122 and miR-21 were developed through the site-specific installation of caging groups on the bases of selected nucleotides. Installation of caged nucleotides led to complete inhibition of the antagomir-miRNA hybridization and thus inactivation of antagomir function. The miRNA-inhibitory activity of the caged antagomirs was fully restored upon decaging through a brief UV irradiation. The synthesized antagomirs were applied to the photochemical regulation of miRNA function in mammalian cells. Moreover, spatial control over antagomir activity was obtained in mammalian cells through localized UV exposure. The presented approach enables the precise regulation of miRNA function and miRNA networks with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution using UV irradiation and can be extended to any miRNA of interest.

  12. Floating Light-Activated Micro Electrical Stimulators Tested in the Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Ammar; Sahin, Mesut; Freedman, David S.; Cevik, Elif; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Unlu, M. Selim

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrodes of neural stimulation utilize fine wires for electrical connections to driving electronics. Breakage of these wires and the neural tissue response due to their tethering forces are major problems encountered with long term implantation of microelectrodes. The lifetime of an implant for neural stimulation can be substantially improved if the wire interconnects are eliminated. Thus, we proposed a floating light-activated micro electrical stimulator (FLAMES) for wireless neural stimulation. In this paradigm, a laser beam at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths will be used as a means of energy transfer to the device. In this study, microstimulators of various sizes were fabricated, with two cascaded GaAs p-i-n photodiodes, and tested in the rat spinal cord. A train of NIR pulses (0.2 ms, 50 Hz) was sent through the tissue to wirelessly activate the devices and generate the stimulus current. The forces elicited by intraspinal stimulation were measured from the ipsilateral forelimb with a force transducer. The largest forces were around 1.08N, a significant level of force for the rat forelimb motor function. These in vivo tests suggest that the FLAMES can be used for intraspinal microstimulation even for the deepest implant locations in the rat spinal cord. The power required to generate a threshold arm movement was investigated as the laser source was moved away from the microstimulator. The results indicate that the photon density does not decrease substantially for horizontal displacements of the source that are in the same order as the beam radius. This gives confidence that the stimulation threshold may not be very sensitive to small displacement of the spinal cord relative to the spine-mounted optical power source. PMID:21914931

  13. First long term in vivo study on subdurally implanted micro-ECoG electrodes, manufactured with a novel laser technology.

    PubMed

    Henle, C; Raab, M; Cordeiro, J G; Doostkam, S; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Stieglitz, T; Rickert, J

    2011-02-01

    A novel computer aided manufacturing (CAM) method for electrocorticography (ECoG) microelectrodes was developed to be able to manufacture small, high density microelectrode arrays based on laser-structuring medical grade silicone rubber and high purity platinum. With this manufacturing process, we plan to target clinical applications, such as presurgical epilepsy monitoring, functional imaging during cerebral tumor resections and brain-computer interface control in paralysed patients, in the near future. This paper describes the manufacturing, implantation and long-term behaviour of such an electrode array. In detail, we implanted 8-channel electrode arrays subdurally over rat cerebral cortex over a period of up to 25 weeks. Our primary objective was to ascertain the electrode's stability over time, and to analyse the host response in vivo. For this purpose, impedance measurements were carried out at regular intervals over the first 18 weeks of the implantation period. The impedances changed between day 4 and day 7 after implantation, and then remained stable until the end of the implantation period, in accordance with typical behaviour of chronically implanted microelectrodes. A post-mortem histological examination was made to assess the tissue reaction due to the implantation. A mild, chronically granulated inflammation was found in the area of the implant, which was essentially restricted to the leptomeninges. Overall, these findings suggest that the concept of the presented ECoG-electrodes is promising for use in long-term implantations.

  14. Advanced manufacturing technologies for light-weight post- polished snap-together reflective optical system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael N.

    2002-09-01

    Fast, light weight, off-axis, aspheric, reflective optical designs are increasingly being designed and built for space-based remote sensing, fire control systems, aerial reconnaissance, cryovac instrumentation and laser scanning. Diamond point turning (DPT) is the technology of first resort for many of these applications. In many cases the best diamond machining technologies available cannot meet the desired requirements for system wavefront error and scatter. Aluminum, beryllium, AlBeMet and silicon carbide mirrors, layered with thin films of electroless nickel or silicon can be first diamond machined and then post polished to achieve greatly enhanced performance levels for surface scatter, wavefront error (WFE), and alignment registration. By application of post polishing using precise null testing techniques, the objectives of snap-together, or limited compensation alignment of aggressive reflective optical systems can be achieved that are well beyond the performance envelope achievable by diamond machining alone. This paper discusses the tradeoffs among materials and processes selection for post polished reflective systems and illustrates actual applications including telescopes for earth and Mars orbit, and a commercial, high speed, flat field scan engine.

  15. Light Chain Deposition Disease Diagnosed with Laser Micro-dissection, Liquid Chromatography, and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Nodular Glomerular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kasagi, Tomomichi; Nobata, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Takami, Akiyoshi; Yamashita, Taro; Ando, Yukio; Imai, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old man developed nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive renal failure. Kidney biopsy demonstrated nodular glomerulosclerosis, negative Congo red staining, and no deposition of light or heavy chains. Laser micro-dissection and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry of nodular lesions revealed the presence of a kappa chain constant region and kappa III variable region, which signified light chain deposition disease. Dexamethasone and thalidomide were effective in decreasing the serum levels of free kappa light chain from 147.0 to 38.0 mg/L, eliminating proteinuria, and halting the worsening of the kidney dysfunction, with serum creatinine levels stable around 4.0 mg/dL for 3 years. PMID:28050001

  16. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization. PMID:25587389

  17. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units.

    PubMed

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  18. Adaptation of an evaporative light-scattering detector to micro and capillary liquid chromatography and response assessment.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Karen; Baillet, Arlette; Chaminade, Pierre

    2004-10-08

    A commercially available evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) system was adapted for micro and capillary LC. Therefore the various parameters involved in the droplet formation during the nebulization step in the ELSD system were studied. It was shown that the velocity term in the Nukiyama Tanasawa equation remains constant, leading to droplets of the same order of magnitude for narrow bore and capillary columns. Consequently, the ELSD modification was performed by decreasing the internal diameter of the effluent capillary tube in the nebulizer nozzle and by keeping its external diameter constant. Next, response curves for a conventional and the developed micro and capillary LC were compared as to investigate why a linear ELSD response is often obtained when used in micro or capillary LC. By splitting the flow rate post column, we showed that the nebulization process was not at the origin of the phenomenon. For ceramide III and tripalmitin, the response curves were found to be non-linear. However the curvature was less significant when the columns internal diameter decreased. Calculated particle size profiles for micro or capillary LC suggest that the particle entering the detection chamber are bigger than under conventional LC conditions. Last, triethylamine and formic acid were used to increase the response of the detector. The response enhancement, expected from previous studies, was established for the two lipids involved in this study.

  19. Contour scanning of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2008-04-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are particularly suitable for components where light-weight structures with advanced mechanical properties are required, e.g. for aerospace parts. Nevertheless, many manufacturing processes for FRP include manual production steps without an integrated quality control. A vital step in the process chain is the lay-up of the textile preform, as it greatly affects the geometry and the mechanical performance of the final part. In order to automate the FRP production, an inline machine vision system is needed for a closed-loop control of the preform lay-up. This work describes the development of a novel laser light-section sensor for optical inspection of textile preforms and its integration and validation in a machine vision prototype. The proposed method aims at the determination of the contour position of each textile layer through edge scanning. The scanning route is automatically derived by using texture analysis algorithms in a preliminary step. As sensor output a distinct stage profile is computed from the acquired greyscale image. The contour position is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a sigmoid function. The whole contour position is generated through data fusion of the measured edge points. The proposed method provides robust process automation for the FRP production improving the process quality and reducing the scrap quota. Hence, the range of economically feasible FRP products can be increased and new market segments with cost sensitive products can be addressed.

  20. X27A - A New Hard X-ray Micro-Spectroscopy Facility at the National Synchrtron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ablett,J.; Kao, C.; Reeder, R.; Tang, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline has recently been installed at bending-magnet beamline X27A at the National Synchrotron Light Source, where the focus of research is primarily directed towards the environmental, geological and materials science communities. This instrument delivers moderate, {approx}10 {micro}m spatial resolution using achromatic dynamically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors, in addition to providing high X-ray flux throughput and selectable energy resolution. The balance between moderate spatial resolution and high flux throughput, in combination with a liquid nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector, is particularly well suited to the investigation of dilute and thin-film systems using the fluorescence X-ray absorption fine-structure mode of detection. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of this instrument and highlight a recent experimental study undertaken at this facility.

  1. Micro optical power meter for direct in situ measurement of light transmitted from microscopic systems and focused on micro-samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gangping; Huang, Yao-Xiong

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports a micro optical power meter which is able to perform effective and precise measurement on the optical power at the focus of different microscopic systems. The power meter can be easily placed on the stages of different microscopes and even partly immersed into solution to directly measure the optical power transmitted from the microscope objective and focused on the sample suspended in solution. The testing experiments demonstrated that the power meter has the characteristics of high precision, excellent linearity, high sensitivity, good stability, and high responding speed. It can accurately measure power levels from 0.1 to 50 mW in visible wavelength in various conditions and environments, which may encounter in practical applications. The optical power measurements using the power meter performed in some biological cell culturing solutions and in air for the same laser light reveal the first time that the powers measured in solutions were about 5%-8% greater than that measured in air at the same position. This not only suggests the necessity of performing direct measurement in situ in solution to obtain the real optical power projected on the suspended samples, but also indicates that such a micro optical power meter can meet almost all the requirements of optical power measurement in different fields from biomedicine to material sciences.

  2. A process to control light in a micro resonator through a coupling modulation by surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guofang; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chunguang; Lei, Lihua; Guo, Yanchuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to control light through the coupling modulation by surface acoustic wave (SAW) is presented in an optical micro resonator. An optical waveguide modulator of a racetrack resonator on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is took as an example to explore the mechanism. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is developed to simulate the acousto-optical (AO) modulator using the mechanism. An analytical method is presented to verify our proposal. The results show that the process can work well as an optical modulator by SAW. PMID:27485470

  3. A process to control light in a micro resonator through a coupling modulation by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guofang; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chunguang; Lei, Lihua; Guo, Yanchuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel process to control light through the coupling modulation by surface acoustic wave (SAW) is presented in an optical micro resonator. An optical waveguide modulator of a racetrack resonator on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is took as an example to explore the mechanism. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is developed to simulate the acousto-optical (AO) modulator using the mechanism. An analytical method is presented to verify our proposal. The results show that the process can work well as an optical modulator by SAW.

  4. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly-efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the past decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks, bringing high-speed internet to our homes. Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flash light shaping elements, the secondary camera, ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by the semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. This review paper recapitulates major steps and inventions in wafer-scale micro-optics technology. The state-of-the-art of fabrication, testing and packaging technology is summarized.

  5. UV micro-imprint patterning for tunable light trapping in p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Han, Bing; Bai, Lisha; Zhao, Huixu; Yang, Fu; Liang, Junhui; Huang, Qian; Chen, Xinliang; Zhao, Ying

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we used UV micro-imprint lithography periodic patterning combined with self-textured BZO films with a wide range of texture distributions for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. It was found that the feature size of the periodic textures has a significant influence on the light trapping capacity of the glass substrate and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon solar cells, deposited on periodic textures of 5 μm, showed an improved photocurrent density without any loss in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor; hence, resulting in an overall efficiency increase of 6.28%.

  6. Effects of amount of graphene oxide and the times of LightScribe on the performance of all-solid-state flexible graphene-based micro-supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fenglian; Tao, Cheng-an; Li, Yujiao; Yin, Wenchang; Wang, Xueye; Wang, Jianfang

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the preparation of flexible graphene-based micro-supercapacitors has attracted considerable attention. In this paper, a flexible and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitor was fabricated by LightScribe technology. Additionally, the influences of the drop-cast amount of graphene oxide (GO) and the numbers of LightScribe times on the performance of the supercapacitor were systematically investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge. It was determined that the electrochemical performance of the micro-supercapacitor was optimal when the drop-cast amount was 0.38 mg cm‑2. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the capacitance and the number of LightScribe times. The maximum capacitance was 2.9 mF cm‑2, which was reached with 20 rounds of LightScribe.

  7. Novel light-curable materials containing experimental bioactive micro-fillers remineralise mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic remineralising effects of innovative light-curable materials (LCMs) containing two experimental calcium silicate-based micro-fillers (TCS) modified with β-TCP only or β-TCP, zinc oxide (ZnO)/polyacrylic acid (PAA) on mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces in simulated body fluids (SBFS). Three experimental LCMs were formulated: (1) resin A, containing a β-TCP-modified TCS (βTCS) micro-filler; (2) resin B, containing a polycarboxylated β-TCP/ZnO-modified TCS (βZn-TCS) micro-filler; and 3) resin C, containing no filler (control). Acid-etched (35% H3PO4) dentine specimens were bonded using the three LCMs and submitted to atomic force microscope (AFM)/nano-indentation analysis to evaluate the modulus of elasticity (Ei) and hardness (Hi) across the interface after SBFS storage (24 h/1 m/3 m). The ultramorphology and micropermeability of the resin-dentine interface were evaluated using confocal laser microscopy. Resin-dentine sticks were created and submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test (SBFS: 24 h/3 m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed after de-bonding. The LCMs containing the experimental bioactive micro-fillers reduced the micropermeability and induced a significant increase of the Ei and Hi along the bonding interface. The specimens created using the resin B (βZn-TCS) attained the highest μTBS values both after 24 h and 3 m of SBFS storage. In conclusion, the innovative bioactive light-curable materials tested in this study are able to induce a therapeutic remineralising effect on the nano-mechanical properties and on the sealing ability of mineral-depleted resin-dentine interfaces. The contemporary idea of minimally invasive operative treatment, where therapeutic restorations are performed to combat the carious process and remineralise the dental hard tissues, may be satisfied by using such resin-base systems, containing βTCS or βZn-TCS bioactive micro-fillers.

  8. Laser processing of SnO2 electrode materials for manufacturing of 3D micro-batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-03-01

    The material development for advanced lithium-ion batteries plays an important role in future mobile applications and energy storage systems. It is assumed that electrode materials made of nano-composited materials will improve battery lifetime and will lead to an enhancement of lithium diffusion and thus improve battery capacity and cyclability. A major problem concerning thin film electrodes is, that increasing film thickness leads to an increase in lithium diffusion path lengths and thereby a decrease in power density. To overcome this problem, the investigation of a 3D-battery system with an increased surface area is necessary. UV-laser micromachining was applied to create defined line or grating structures via mask imaging. SnO2 is a highly investigated anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet, the enormous volume changes occurring during electrochemical cycling lead to immense loss of capacity. The formation of micropatterns via laser ablation to create structures which enable the compensation of the volume expansion was investigated in detail. Thin films of SnO2 were deposited in Ar:O2 atmosphere via r.f. magnetron sputtering on silicon and stainless steel substrates. The thin films were studied with X-ray diffraction to determine their crystallinity. The electrochemical properties of the manufactured films were investigated via electrochemical cycling against a lithium anode.

  9. Process induced transformations during tablet manufacturing: phase transition analysis of caffeine using DSC and low frequency micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Sébastien; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hedoux, Alain; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Fessi, Hatem; Puel, François

    2011-11-25

    The phase transition of a model API, caffeine Form I, was studied during tableting process monitored with an instrumented press. The formulation used had a plastic flow behavior according to the Heckel model in the compression pressure range of 70-170 MPa. The quantitative methods of analysis used were Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and low frequency Micro Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) which was used for the first time for the mapping of polymorphs in tablets. They brought complementary contributions since MRS is a microscopic spectral analysis with a spatial resolution of 5 μm(3) and DSC takes into account a macroscopic fraction (10mg) of the tablet. Phase transitions were present at the surfaces, borders and center of the tablets. Whatever the pressure applied during the compression process, the transition degree of caffeine Form I toward Form II was almost constant. MRS provided higher transition degrees (50-60%) than DSC (20-35%). MRS revealed that caffeine Form I particles were partially transformed in all parts of the tablets at a microscopic scale. Moreover, tablet surfaces showed local higher transition degree compared to the other parts.

  10. Light intensity modulation by coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi as a micro-photo-regulator.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Yuri; Miyashita, Yuito; Satoh, Manami; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwasaka, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence showing that coccoliths have light-scattering anisotropy that contributes to a possible control of solar light exposure in the ocean. Changing the angle between the incident light and an applied magnetic field causes differences in the light-scattering intensities of a suspension of coccoliths isolated from Emiliania huxleyi. The magnetic field effect is induced by the diamagnetic torque force directing the coccolith radial plane perpendicular to the applied magnetic fields at 400 to 500 mT. The developed technique reveals the light-scattering anisotropies in the 3-μm-diameter floating coccoliths by orienting themselves in response to the magnetic fields. The detached coccolith scatters radially the light incident to its radial plane. The experimental results on magnetically oriented coccoliths show that an individual coccolith has a specific direction of light scattering, although the possible physiological effect of the coccolith remains for further study, focusing on the light-scattering anisotropies of coccoliths on living cells.

  11. Light intensity modulation by coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi as a micro-photo-regulator

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yuri; Miyashita, Yuito; Satoh, Manami; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwasaka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence showing that coccoliths have light-scattering anisotropy that contributes to a possible control of solar light exposure in the ocean. Changing the angle between the incident light and an applied magnetic field causes differences in the light-scattering intensities of a suspension of coccoliths isolated from Emiliania huxleyi. The magnetic field effect is induced by the diamagnetic torque force directing the coccolith radial plane perpendicular to the applied magnetic fields at 400 to 500 mT. The developed technique reveals the light-scattering anisotropies in the 3-μm-diameter floating coccoliths by orienting themselves in response to the magnetic fields. The detached coccolith scatters radially the light incident to its radial plane. The experimental results on magnetically oriented coccoliths show that an individual coccolith has a specific direction of light scattering, although the possible physiological effect of the coccolith remains for further study, focusing on the light-scattering anisotropies of coccoliths on living cells. PMID:26323524

  12. Photocatalytic degradation efficacy of Bi4Ti3O12 micro-scale platelets over methylene blue under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Jia, Zhen; Lei, E.; Wang, Liguo; Li, Zhaoyang; Dai, Yejing

    2013-11-01

    <001> textured Bi4Ti3O12 platelets with micro scale size were synthesized by a facile molten salt method. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were measured with the photodegradation of methylene blue at room temperature under visible light irradiation. The Bi4Ti3O12 with the aspect ratio of 35 exhibited good absorption in the visible light region and the photodegradation against methylene blue was higher than that of anatase TiO2 reference, showing that the high degree of preferred {001} facets on the plate surface benefits the electronic transmission. In addition, the layer-pervoskite structure facilitates the mobility of the photogenerated carriers and hampers their recombination. The above results indicated that the large specific surface area of the as-prepared samples could attribute to the presence of a number of oxygen vacancies and then lead to the good photo-electric property. This work proposed an alternative way to tailor the structure of micro-sized platelets to get excellent properties comparable to the nano materials.

  13. Pattern-Directed Ordering of Spin-Dewetted Liquid Crystal Micro- or Nanodroplets as Pixelated Light Reflectors and Locomotives.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Bolleddu; Chakraborty, Snigdha; Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Mitra, Shirsendu; Ghosh, Abir; Gooh Pattader, Partho Sarathi; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-01-11

    Chemical pattern directed spin-dewetting of a macroscopic droplet composed of a dilute organic solution of liquid crystal (LC) formed an ordered array of micro- and nanoscale LC droplets. Controlled evaporation of the spin-dewetted droplets through vacuum drying could further miniaturize the size to the level of ∼90 nm. The size, periodicity, and spacing of these mesoscale droplets could be tuned with the variations in the initial loading of LC in the organic solution, the strength of the centripetal force on the droplet, and the duration of the evaporation. A simple theoretical model was developed to predict the spacing between the spin-dewetted droplets. The patterned LC droplets showed a reversible phase transition from nematic to isotropic and vice versa with the periodic exposure of a solvent vapor and its removal. A similar phase transition behavior was also observed with the periodic increase or reduction of temperature, suggesting their usefulness as vapor or temperature sensors. Interestingly, when the spin-dewetted droplets were confined between a pair of electrodes and an external electric field was applied, the droplets situated at the hydrophobic patches showed light-reflecting properties under the polarization microscopy highlighting their importance in the development of micro- or nanoscale LC displays. The digitized LC droplets, which were stationary otherwise, showed dielectrophoretic locomotion under the guidance of the external electric field beyond a threshold intensity of the field. Remarkably, the motion of these droplets could be restricted to the hydrophilic zones, which were confined between the hydrophobic patches of the chemically patterned surface. The findings could significantly contribute in the development of futuristic vapor or temperature sensors, light reflectors, and self-propellers using the micro- or nanoscale digitized LC droplets.

  14. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  15. Visible Light Driven Photocatalytic Reactor Based on Micro-structured Polymer Optical Fiber Preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-Dong; She, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Chang-Shun; Peng, Bo

    2014-05-01

    A novel visible light driven photocatalytic reactor with 547 pieces of Ag/AgBr-film-modified capillaries is reported and it is derived from a microstructured polymer optical fiber (MPOF) preform. The MPOF preform not only plays the role of a light-transmitting media, but it is also a Ag/AgBr supporting and waste-water pipe to supply the photocatalytic degradation of dyes solute. The photocatalytic reactor has such a large surface area for Ag/AgBr loading, which is a visible light driven photocatalyst that photodegradation efficiency is enhanced.

  16. The bio-gripper: a fluid-driven micro-manipulator of living tissue constructs for additive bio-manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Blanche C; Cui, Francis; Tripathi, Anubhav; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-25

    thirty times with Q(c) corresponding to our simulation. Our bio-gripper was capable of stacking and aligning twenty microtissues. In summary, we successfully engineered a robust controllable fluid-driven bio-gripper to efficiently manipulate living microtissues and micro-objects in an aqueous environment.

  17. Enabling high volume manufacturing of double patterning immersion lithography with the XLR 600ix ArF light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokitski, Rostislav; Fleurov, Vladimir; Bergstedt, Robert; Ye, Hong; Rafac, Robert; Jacques, Robert; Trintchouk, Fedor; Ishihara, Toshihiko; Rao, Rajasekhar; Cacouris, Theodore; Brown, Daniel; Partlo, William

    2009-03-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography improvements have been focused on two paths: further increases in the effective numerical aperture (NA) beyond 1.3, and double patterning (DP). High-index solutions for increasing the effective NA have not gained significant momentum due to several technical factors, and have been eclipsed by an aggressive push to make DP a high-volume manufacturing solution. The challenge is to develop a cost-effective solution using a process that effectively doubles the lithography steps required for critical layers, while achieving a higher degree of overlay performance. As a result, the light source requirements for DP fall into 3 main categories: (a) higher power to enable higher throughput on the scanner, (b) lower operating costs to offset the increased number of process steps, and (c) high stability of optical parameters to support more stringent process requirements. The XLR 600i (6kHz, 90W @15mJ) was introduced last year to enable DP by leveraging the higher performance and lower operating costs of the ring architecture XLR 500i (6kHz, 60W @10mJ) platform currently used for 45nm immersion lithography in production around the world. In February 2009, the XLR 600ix was introduced as a 60/90W switchable product to provide flexibility in the transition to higher power requirements as scanner capabilities are enhanced. The XLR 600ix includes improved optics materials to meet reliability requirements while operating at higher internal fluences. In this paper we will illustrate the performance characteristics during extended testing. Examples of performance include polarization stability, divergence and pointing stability, which enable consistent pupil fill under extreme illumination conditions, as well as overall thermal stability which maintains constant beam performance under large changes in laser operating modes. Furthermore, the unique beam uniformity characteristics that the ring architecture generates result in lower peak energy

  18. Spatio-angular light control in microscopes using micro mirror arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückerl, F.; Bellow, S.; Berndt, D.; Tinevez, J.-Y.; Heber, J.; Wagner, M.; Shorte, S.

    2015-03-01

    Micromirror arrays (MMA) are spatial light modulators (SLM) used in a wide variety of applications for structured light manipulation i.e. structured illumination microscopy. In our setup, we use a combination of two micromirror arrays, which allow not only to spatially structure the light in the field of view, but also to control the direction and angle of the incident light. In order to achieve this, a first MMA is imaged in the focal plane and used as a black and white (or even greyscale) mask. With a fully illuminated objective, this image would normally be formed from the complete light cone. By imaging the second MMA onto the backfocal plane of the objective only a portion of the light cone is used to form the image. This enables avoiding the unwanted illumination of out of focus objects. The MMAs in our setup consist of an array of 256x256 micromirrors, that can each be individually and continuously tilted up to 450nm, allowing the creation of greyscale images in real time in the illumination pattern. The mirrors themselves can be tilted for times as short as 10μs up to several seconds. This gives unprecedented control over the illumination times and intensities in the sample. Furthermore, our enhanced coating technology yields a high reflectivity over a broad optical spectrum (240- 1000nm). Overall, the setup allows targetted illumination of subcellular regions enabling the precise, localized activation of optogenetic probes or the activation and deactivation of signaling cascades using photo-activated ion-channels.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring micro structures, anisotropy and birefringence in polymers using laser scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Grek, Boris; Bartolick, Joseph; Kennedy, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring microstructures, anistropy and birefringence in polymers using laser scattered light includes a laser which provides a beam that can be conditioned and is directed at a fiber or film which causes the beam to scatter. Backscatter light is received and processed with detectors and beam splitters to obtain data. The data is directed to a computer where it is processed to obtain information about the fiber or film, such as the birefringence and diameter. This information provides a basis for modifications to the production process to enhance the process.

  20. Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Hua; Yu, Peichen; Hsu, Min-Hsiang; Tseng, Ping-Cheng; Chang, Wei-Lun; Sun, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2011-03-01

    As silicon photovoltaics evolve towards thin-wafer technologies, efficient optical absorption for the near-infrared wavelengths has become particularly challenging. In this work, we present a solution that employs combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures to increase light harvesting in the near-infrared for crystalline silicon photovoltaics, and discuss the associated antireflection and scattering mechanisms. The surface textures are achieved by uniformly depositing a layer of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers on micro-grooved silicon substrates using electron-beam evaporation. The nanowhiskers facilitate optical transmission in the near-infrared by functioning as impedance matching layers with effective refractive indices gradually varying from 1 to 1.3. Materials with such unique refractive index characteristics are not readily available in nature. As a result, the solar cell with combined textures achieves over 90% external quantum efficiencies for a broad wavelength range of 460-980 nm, which is crucial to the development of advanced thin-substrate silicon solar cells.

  1. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimon, G.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-09-01

    A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D) in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS) spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk's diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks' aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius) is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  2. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  3. A correlative method for imaging identical regions of samples by micro-CT, light microscopy, and electron microscopy: imaging adipose tissue in a model system.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Tufa, Sara F; Sakai, Lynn Y; Zulliger, Martin A; Keene, Douglas R

    2013-04-01

    We present a method in which a precise region of interest within an intact organism is spatially mapped in three dimensions by non-invasive micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT), then further evaluated by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tissues are prepared as if for TEM including osmium fixation, which imparts soft tissue contrast in the micro-CT due to its strong X-ray attenuation. This method may therefore be applied to embedded, archived TEM samples. Upon selection of a two-dimensional (2-D) projection from a region of interest (ROI) within the three-dimensional volume, the epoxy-embedded sample is oriented for microtomy so that the sectioning plane is aligned with the micro-CT projection. Registration is verified by overlaying LM images with 2-D micro-CT projections. Structures that are poorly resolved in the micro-CT may be evaluated at TEM resolution by observing the next serial ultrathin section, thereby accessing the same ROI by all three imaging techniques. We compare white adipose tissue within the forelimbs of mice harboring a lipid-altering mutation with their littermate controls. We demonstrate that individual osmium-stained lipid droplets as small as 15 µm and separated by as little as 35 µm may be discerned as separate entities in the micro-CT, validating this to be a high-resolution, non-destructive technique for evaluation of fat content.

  4. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Thomas; Schultheiss, Katrin; Obry, Björn; Hillebrands, Burkard; Schultheiss, Helmut; Obry, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties. For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions. For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical technique BLS do

  5. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision.

  6. 49 CFR 579.21 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of 5,000 or more light vehicles annually.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... power train, 11 electrical system, 12 exterior lighting, 13 visibility, 14 air bags, 15 seat belts, 16 structure, 17 latch, 18 vehicle speed control, 19 tires, 20 wheels, 22 seats, 23 fire, 24 rollover, 98...

  7. Tunable multicolor and white-light upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Xu, Dekang; Teng, Dongdong; Yang, Shenghong; Zhang, Yueli

    2015-09-01

    NaYF4 micro-crystals with various concentrations of Yb(3+) /Tm(3+) /Ho(3+) were prepared successfully via a simple and reproducible hydrothermal route using EDTA as the chelating agent. Their phase structure and surface morphology were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns revealed that all the samples were pure hexagonal phase NaYF4. SEM images showed that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 were hexagonal micro-prisms. Upconversion photoluminescence spectra of Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals with various dopant concentrations under 980 nm excitation with a 665 mW pump power were studied. Tunable multicolor (purple, purplish blue, yellowish green, green) and white light were achieved by simply adjusting the Ho(3+) concentration in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/xHo(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals. Furthermore, white-light emissions could be obtained using different pump powers in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/1%Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals at 980 nm excitation. The pump power-dependent intensity relationship was studied and relevant energy transfer processes were discussed in detail. The results suggest that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals have potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaic, plasma display panel and white-light-emitting diodes.

  8. Mechanism of light emission and manufacturing process of vertical-type light-emitting diode grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gang Seok; Jeon, Hunsoo; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yu, Young Moon; Lee, Sang Chil; Honda, Yoshio; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Kim, Suck-Whan

    2017-01-01

    We developed a vertical-type light-emitting diode (LED) in which the substrate is removed using a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) apparatus consisting of a multi-graphite boat filled with a mixed source and a high-temperature (T ≈ 900 °C) RF heating coil outside the source zone. The new chip-growth process with a significant reduction in the number of production steps is completed in only four steps, namely, photolithography, epitaxial layer growth, sorting, and metallization. We analyze the emission mechanism of these lights from measurement results to validate the characteristics of the light emitted from these vertical-type blue LEDs and white LEDs (WLEDs) without substrates, and propose that this mixed-source HVPE method may be a promising production technique for LEDs.

  9. Application of light-weight filtration media in an anoxic biofilter for nitrate removal from micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Fei, Xiang; He, Shengbing; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili

    The research investigated nitrate removal from micro-polluted surface water by the single-stage process of anoxic biofilter using light-weight polystyrene beads as filtration media. In this study, sodium acetate was used as an external carbon source and the nitrate removal efficiency under different regimes of hydraulic loading rate (HLR), water temperature, and C/N ratio was studied. In addition, the effect of backwash on denitrification efficiency was investigated. The results show that the biofilter achieved a high nitrate removal efficiency in 2 weeks at water temperatures ranging between 22 and 25 °C at a C/N ratio (COD:NO3(-)-N) of 6:1. Besides, the average removal efficiency of nitrate at HLRs of 5.66, 7.07 and 8.49 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) were 87.5, 87.3 and 87.1%, respectively. The average removal efficiency of nitrate nitrogen was 13.9% at a HLR of 5.66 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) at water temperatures of 12-14 °C, then it increased to 93.7% when the C/N ratio increased to 10. It suggests that the optimal hydraulic retention time is at water temperatures of 8-10 °C. The water consumption rate of backwash was about 0.2-0.3%, and denitrification efficiency returned to the normal level in 12 h after backwash.

  10. InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Malinverni, M. Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-08-03

    GaN tunnel junctions (TJs) are grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy. High doping levels are achieved with a net acceptor concentration close to ∼10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}, thanks to the low growth temperature. This allows for the realization of p-n junctions with ultrathin depletion width enabling efficient interband tunneling. n-p-n structures featuring such a TJ exhibit low leakage current densities, e.g., <5 × 10{sup −5} A cm{sup −2} at reverse bias of 10 V. Under forward bias, the voltage is 3.3 V and 4.8 V for current densities of 20 A cm{sup −2} and 2000 A cm{sup −2}, respectively. The specific series resistance of the whole device is 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}. Then micro-light emitting diodes (μ-LEDs) featuring buried TJs are fabricated. Excellent current confinement is demonstrated together with homogeneous electrical injection, as seen on electroluminescence mapping. Finally, the I-V characteristics of μ-LEDs with various diameters point out the role of the access resistance at the current aperture edge.

  11. Manufactures and Characterizations of Photodiode Thin Film Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Doped by Niobium and Iron as Light Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahrul, Muhammad; Syafutra, Heriyanto; Arif, Ardian; Irzaman, Indro; Nur, Muhammad; Siswadi

    2010-12-01

    Pure Ba0,5Sr0,5TiO3 (BST) thin film, BST doped by niobium (BNST) and BST doped by iron (BFST) have been synthesized on p-type Si (100) substrates using Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) methods followed by spin coating and annealing techniques. Current-voltage characterizations on these sample result in agreement that all of the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films have photodiode properties. Electrical conductivity values of BST, BNST, and BFST are in the range of conductivity values of semiconductor materials. Niobium or iron doping on the BST samples increase their conductivity value their dielectric constant. This conductivity values may change when a light is exposed on the film surface. Absorbance and reflectance characterizations show that the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films absorb certain range of visible and infrared light. It is convincing that the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films might be used as photodiode light sensor.

  12. Low-cost, high-precision micro-lensed optical fiber providing deep-micrometer to deep-nanometer-level light focusing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Sy-Bor; Sundaram, Vijay M; McBride, Daniel; Yang, Yu

    2016-04-15

    A new type of micro-lensed optical fiber through stacking appropriate high-refractive microspheres at designed locations with respect to the cleaved end of an optical fiber is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. This new type of micro-lensed optical fiber can be precisely constructed with low cost and high speed. Deep micrometer-scale and submicrometer-scale far-field light spots can be achieved when the optical fibers are multimode and single mode, respectively. By placing an appropriate teardrop dielectric nanoscale scatterer at the far-field spot of this new type of micro-lensed optical fiber, a deep-nanometer near-field spot can also be generated with high intensity and minimum joule heating, which is valuable in high-speed, high-resolution, and high-power nanoscale detection compared with traditional near-field optical fibers containing a significant portion of metallic material.

  13. Improving the -3 dB bandwidth of medium power GaN-based LEDs through periodic micro via-holes for visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Yan, Bing; Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Medium power GaN-based light emitting diode (LED) chips with periodic micro via-holes are designed and fabricated. The active area of each chip is 200 μm×800 μm and the diameter of each micro via-hole is 50 μm. For comparison, an LED chip with only one big via-hole (Diameter=86.6 μm) is also fabricated under the same conditions as the control partner. Both kinds of LED chips have an equal effective PN junction area. Experimentally, the LED with periodic via-holes exhibits higher output optical power and the -3 dB modulation bandwidth by about 33% and 48%, respectively, than the LED with only one bigger via-hole. The method of concurrently improving modulation and optical performances of power-type LED chips through periodic micro via-holes take the advantages of easy fabrication, suitable for mass-production.

  14. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water

  15. Study on visible-light-curable polycarprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate for LCD-projected maskless additive manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Kao, Hao-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Photopolymers have been applied in many Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems and mostly are cured by UV light. Biodegradable photo-curable polymers are very limited and are not commercially available. DLP-projected maskless AM systems become more and more popular nowadays, but its working area is limited if the part resolution is required. For larger working envelope purpose, liquid crystal display (LCD) panel has great potentials, and LCD's resolution has been improved significantly in the past few years due to the smart phone application. Therefore, in this research, LCD panel is used to replace DLP for a maskless AM system to cure biodegradable materials, Polycarprolactone (PCL) and Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA). Due to the characteristics of LCD panel, the material systems should be sensitive and photo-polymerized in visible-light range, particularly in RGB. In this study, various percentages of visiblelight photoinitiator, Irgacure 784, in the material systems were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized to characterize cured biomaterials. Because of the use of photoinitiator, the biocompatibility of the cured materials was also concerned, and hence, MTT assay tests were performed. The preliminary tests of fabrication, using the LCD-projected maskless AM system, cured grid patterns to illustrate the feasibility. The visible-light-curable PCL and PEG-DA will be able to be adopted in tissue engineering scaffold applications in the future.

  16. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (˜10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (˜3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon-electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good antireflection

  17. MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Chen-Zi; Chao, Shiuh

    2010-05-10

    Multi-quantum wells (MQWs) InGaN/GaN LEDs, 300 microm x 300 microm chip size, were fabricated with Ta(2)O(5) / SiO(2) dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) embedded in the epitaxiallateral- overgrowth (ELOG) gallium nitride (GaN) on the c-plane sapphire substrate. MQWs InGaN/GaN LEDs with ELOG embedded patterned SiO(2) array (P-SiO(2)) of the same dimension as the MMA were also fabricated for comparison. Dislocation density was reduced for the ELOG samples. 75.2% light extraction enhancement for P-SiO(2)-LED and 102.6% light extraction enhancement for MMA-LED were obtained over the standard LED. We showed that multiple-diffraction with high intensity from the MMA redirected the trap lights to escape from the LED causing the light extraction enhancement.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  19. Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. G.

    2016-09-01

    Preface; 1. Historical; 2. Waves and wave-motion; 3. The behaviour of ripples; 4. The behaviour of light; 5. Refraction through glass blocks and prisms; 6. The imprinting of curvatures; 7. Simple mathematical treatment; 8. More advanced mathematical treatment; 9. The velocity of light; 10. The spectrum and colour; 11. Geometrical optics; 12. The eye and optical instruments; 13. Sources of light; 14. Interference, diffraction and polarisation; 15. Suggestions for class experiments; Index.

  20. Characterization of digital textile printing and polymer blend (PFO-DMP:P3HT) for application in manufacture of organic diodes emitting white light - WOLEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Marco A. T.; Thomazini, Emanuelle F.; Albertini, Madson; Renzi, Wesley; Franchello, Flavio; Dias, Ivan F. L.; Duarte, José Leonil; Poças, Luiz C.; Lourenço, Sidney A.

    2016-12-01

    The research of materials and structures for the manufacture of organic diodes emitting white light WOLEDS has been very intense nowadays mainly due to the possibilities of its use in obtaining low-energy light consuming. The energy transfer between polymer materials has proven to be a great allied to search organic devices with emitting white light. Polymers such as PFO-DMP (donor) and P3HT (acceptor) are candidates for this application. In this work, P3HT, PFO-DMP and blends (PFO-DMP:P3HT (5%)) films were deposited by spin-coating on digital textile printing substrates. The optical properties of the digital textile printing, polymers and blend were studied by UV-VIS, steady-state photoluminescence (PL), PL quantum yield (PLQY) and Raman (all at 298 K) spectroscopy techniques. The digital textile printing were acquired from Isoliner, a Brazilian company specialized in this kind of textile. In the blend a strongly energy transfer from PFO-DMP to P3HT was observed. The PL spectrum of the PFO-DMP:P3HT (5%) covers the 430-730 nm range. From integrated PL spectra in the range of 13-643 K, it was obtained the temperature at which the phosphor loses 50% of its initial emission intensity, T1/2 = 430 K. Gaussian fits were performed, and the peaks were identified. Raman measurements were performed on substrates with and without polymers deposited and the results are in agreement with those found in the literature. Vibrational modes of textile increase the full width half maximum (FWHM), due to electron-phonons interaction. Results obtained through the coordinate calculation CIE from blend emission for various types of textile digital printing tested, showed the more appropriate combinations (substrate/blend) for emission in white.

  1. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  2. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  3. Development of ultrafast laser-based x-ray in-vivo phase-contrast micro-CT beamline for biomedical applications at Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS).

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Russell; Krol, Andrzej; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Serbanescu, Cristina; Servol, Marina; Vogelsang, Levon; Wilkins, Steve; Stevenson, Andrew; Nesterets, Yakov; Lipson, Edward; Ye, Hongwei; Pogany, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We are developing and exploring the imaging performance of, an in vivo, in-line holography, x-ray phase-contrast, micro-CT system with an ultrafast laser-based x-ray (ULX) source. By testing and refining our system, and by performing computer simulations, we plan to improve system performance in terms of contrast resolution and multi-energy imaging to a level beyond what can be obtained using a conventional microfocal x-ray tube. Initial CT projection sets at single energy (Mo K(alpha) and K(beta) lines) were acquired in the Fresnel regime and reconstructed for phantoms and a euthanized mouse. We also performed computer simulations of phase-contrast micro-CT scans for low-contrast, soft-tissue, tumor imaging. We determined that, in order to perform a phase-contrast, complete micro-CT scan using ULX, the following conditions must be met: (i) the x-ray source needs to be stable during the scan; (ii) the laser focal spot size needs to be less than 10 mum for source-to-object distance greater than 30 cm; (iii) the laser light intensity on the target needs to be in the range of 5 x 10(17) to 5 x 10(19) W/cm(2); (iv) the ablation protection system needs to allow uninterrupted scans; (v) the laser light focusing on the target needs to remain accurate during the entire scan; (vi) a fresh surface of the target must be exposed to consecutive laser shots during the entire scan; (vii) the effective detector element size must be less than 12 mum. Based on the results obtained in this research project, we anticipate that the new 10 Hz, 200 TW laser with 50 W average power that is being commissioned at ALLS will allow us practical implementation of in vivo x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT.

  4. Adaptive PSF fitting - a highly performing photometric method and light curves of the GLS H1413+117: time delays and micro-lensing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhunov, T. A.; Wertz, O.; Elyiv, A.; Gaisin, R.; Artamonov, B. P.; Dudinov, V. N.; Nuritdinov, S. N.; Delvaux, C.; Sergeyev, A. V.; Gusev, A. S.; Bruevich, V. V.; Burkhonov, O.; Zheleznyak, A. P.; Ezhkova, O.; Surdej, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present new photometric observations of H1413+117 acquired during seasons between 2001 and 2008 in order to estimate the time delays between the lensed quasar images and to characterize at best the on-going micro-lensing events. We propose a highly performing photometric method called the adaptive point spread function fitting and have successfully tested this method on a large number of simulated frames. This has enabled us to estimate the photometric error bars affecting our observational results. We analysed the V- and R-band light curves and V-R colour variations of the A-D components which show short- and long-term brightness variations correlated with colour variations. Using the χ2 and dispersion methods, we estimated the time delays on the basis of the R-band light curves over the seasons between 2003 and 2006. We have derived the new values: ΔtAB = -17.4 ± 2.1, ΔtAC = -18.9 ± 2.8 and ΔtAD = 28.8 ± 0.7 d using the χ2 method (B and C are leading, D is trailing) with 1σ confidence intervals. We also used available observational constraints (resp. the lensed image positions, the flux ratios in mid-IR and two sets of time delays derived in the present work) to update the lens redshift estimation. We obtained z_l = 1.95^{+0.06}_{-0.10} which is in good agreement with previous estimations. We propose to characterize two kinds of micro-lensing events: micro-lensing for the A, B, C components corresponds to typical variations of ∼10-4 mag d-1 during all the seasons, while the D component shows an unusually strong micro-lensing effect with variations of up to ∼10-3 mag d-1 during 2004 and 2005.

  5. Light-curing efficiency of dental adhesives by gallium nitride violet-laser diode determined in terms of ultimate micro-tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Kato, Junji; De Munck, Jan; Hatayama, Hitoshi; Haruyama, Akiko; Yoshinari, Masao; Takase, Yasuaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether violet-laser diode (VLD) can be used as light-curing source. The ultimate (micro-)tensile strength (μTS) of three adhesives was determined when cured by VLD in comparison with curing by two different types of commercial LED light-curing units. One VLD (VLM 500) and two LED units (Curenos and G-Light Prima) were used to cure the adhesive resin of the two-step self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE Bond, Tokuso Mac Bond II, and FL-Bond II. A 0.6-mm thick acrylic mould was filled with adhesive resin and cured for 60 s. After 24-h water storage, specimens were trimmed into an hourglass shape with a width of 1.2 mm at the narrowest part, after which the μTS was determined (n=10). In addition, the light transmittance of each adhesive was characterized using a UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. No significant difference in curing efficiency between VLD and LED were observed for both Tokuso Mac Bond II and FL-Bond II (p>0.05). For Clearfil SE Bond, the μTS of VLD-cured specimens was higher than that of the specimens cured by the LED Curenos unit (p<0.05). Spectrometry revealed that this marked difference must be attributed to a different light transmittance of Clearfil SE Bond for visible blue light versus for the lower area of UV and visible violet light. In conclusion, A GaN-based violet laser diode can be used as light-curing source to initiate polymerization of dental resins.

  6. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  7. Evaluation of Manufacturing Processes for Microfluidic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laura Jáuregui, Ana; Siller, Héctor R.; Rodriguez, Ciro A.; Elías-Zúñiga, Alex

    2009-11-01

    In this paper several micro-mechanical manufacturing technologies were studied in order to characterize their performance for making miniaturized geometries known as micro-channels, which are the main geometric features of micro-fluidic devices. The technologies used were Micro-End Milling, Wire Electro Discharge Machiningesol Sandblasting and Abrasive Water Jet. Their capabilities were compared with Lithography capabilities, which is the conventional process for micro-channel manufacturing. The evaluation consists in a comprehensive study of surface quality and topography, made with the help of advanced contact and non-contact devices over each prototype made by each technology. Also economical considerations have been taken into account in order to choose the most appropriate manufacturing process for the prototyping of micro-fluidic devices. The results show that Micro-End Milling process can compete with Lithography, in terms of achieving acceptable levels of product quality and economics.

  8. Identification of unwanted photoproducts of cosmetic preservatives in personal care products under ultraviolet-light using solid-phase microextraction and micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2015-04-17

    The photochemical transformation of widely used cosmetic preservatives including benzoates, parabens, BHA, BHT and triclosan has been investigated in this work applying an innovative double-approach strategy: identification of transformation products in aqueous photodegradation experiments (UV-light, 254nm), followed by targeted screening analysis of such photoproducts in UV-irradiated cosmetic samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, using different fiber coatings, in order to widen the range of detectable photoproducts in water, whereas UV-irradiated personal care products (PCPs) containing the target preservatives were extracted by micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD). Both SPME and micro-MSPD-based methodologies were successfully optimized and validated. Degradation kinetics of parent species, and photoformation of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty nine photoproducts were detected in aqueous photodegradation experiments, being tentatively identified based on their mass spectra. Transformation pathways between structurally related by-products, consistent with their kinetic behavior were postulated. The photoformation of unexpected photoproducts such as 2- and 4-hydroxybenzophenones, and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in PCPs are reported in this work for the first time.

  9. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs and their targets in wild type and phyB mutant provides a key link between microRNAs and the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway in rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xu, Xiao Hui; Wu, Xiu; Wang, Yong; Lu, Xingbo; Sun, Hongwei; Xie, Xianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB), a member of the phytochrome family in rice, plays important roles in regulating a range of developmental processes and stress responses. However, little information about the mechanisms involved in the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway has been reported in rice. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) also perform important roles in plant development and stress responses. Thus, it is intriguing to explore the role of miRNAs in the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway in rice. In this study, comparative high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis were used to identify candidate miRNAs and their targets that participate in the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway. A total of 720 known miRNAs, 704 novel miRNAs and 1957 target genes were identified from the fourth leaves of wild-type (WT) and phyB mutant rice at the five-leaf stage. Among them, 135 miRNAs showed differential expression, suggesting that the expression of these miRNAs is directly or indirectly under the control of phyB. In addition, 32 out of the 135 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to slice 70 genes in the rice genome. Analysis of these target genes showed that members of various transcription factor families constituted the largest proportion, indicating miRNAs are probably involved in the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway mainly by regulating the expression of transcription factors. Our results provide new clues for functional characterization of miRNAs in the phyB-mediated light signaling pathway, which should be helpful in comprehensively uncovering the molecular mechanisms of phytochrome-mediated photomorphogenesis and stress responses in plants. PMID:26074936

  10. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  11. Metal alloys, matrix inclusions and manufacturing techniques of Moinhos de Golas collection (North Portugal): a study by micro-EDXRF, SEM-EDS, optical microscopy and X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Joana; Figueiredo, Elin; Silva, Rui J. C.; Araújo, M. Fátima; Fonte, João; Bettencourt, Ana M. S.

    2016-09-01

    A collection of 35 metallic artefacts comprising various typologies, some of which can be attributed to the Bronze Age and others to later periods, were studied to provide detailed information on elemental composition, manufacturing techniques and preservation state. Elemental analysis by micro-EDXRF and SEM-EDS was performed to investigate the use of different alloys and to study the presence of microstructural heterogeneities, as inclusions. X-ray radiography, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS were used to investigate manufacturing techniques and degradation features. Results showed that most of the artefacts were produced in a binary bronze alloy (Cu-Sn) with 10-15 wt% Sn and a low concentration of impurities. Other artefacts were produced in copper or in brass, the latest with varying contents of Zn, Sn and Pb. A variety of inclusions in the metal matrices were also found, some related to specific types of alloys, as (Cu-Ni)S2 in coppers, or ZnS in brasses. Microstructural observations revealed that the majority of the artefacts were subjected to cycles of thermomechanical processing after casting, being evident that among some artefacts different parts were subjected to distinct treatments. The radiographic images revealed structural heterogeneities related to local corrosion processes and fissures that seem to have developed in wear-tension zones, as in the handle of some daggers. Radiographic images were also useful to detect the use of different materials in one particular brass artefact, revealing the presence of a possible Cu-Sn solder.

  12. Correlative Imaging of the Murine Hind Limb Vasculature and Muscle Tissue by MicroCT and Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schaad, Laura; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Barré, Sébastien; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Haberthür, David; Banfi, Andrea; Djonov, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    A detailed vascular visualization and adequate quantification is essential for the proper assessment of novel angiomodulating strategies. Here, we introduce an ex vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT)-based imaging approach for the 3D visualization of the entire vasculature down to the capillary level and rapid estimation of the vascular volume and vessel size distribution. After perfusion with μAngiofil®, a novel polymerizing contrast agent, low- and high-resolution scans (voxel side length: 2.58–0.66 μm) of the entire vasculature were acquired. Based on the microCT data, sites of interest were defined and samples further processed for correlative morphology. The solidified, autofluorescent μAngiofil® remained in the vasculature and allowed co-registering of the histological sections with the corresponding microCT-stack. The perfusion efficiency of μAngiofil® was validated based on lectin-stained histological sections: 98 ± 0.5% of the blood vessels were μAngiofil®-positive, whereas 93 ± 2.6% were lectin-positive. By applying this approach we analyzed the angiogenesis induced by the cell-based delivery of a controlled VEGF dose. Vascular density increased by 426% mainly through the augmentation of medium-sized vessels (20–40 μm). The introduced correlative and quantitative imaging approach is highly reproducible and allows a detailed 3D characterization of the vasculature and muscle tissue. Combined with histology, a broad range of complementary structural information can be obtained. PMID:28169309

  13. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  14. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2017-03-13

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  15. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  16. Hybrid optical fiber add-drop filter based on wavelength dependent light coupling between micro/nano fiber ring and side-polished fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhui; Jin, Shaoshen; Wei, Qingsong; Zang, Zhigang; Lu, Huihui; He, Xiaoli; Luo, Yunhan; Tang, Jieyuan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experimental study on directly coupling a micro/nano fiber (MNOF) ring with a side-polished fiber(SPF). As a result of the study, the behavior of an add-drop filter was observed. The demonstrated add-drop filter explored the wavelength dependence of light coupling between a MNOF ring and a SPF. The characteristics of the filter and its performance dependence on the MNOF ring diameter were investigated experimentally. The investigation resulted in an empirically obtained ring diameter that showed relatively good filter performance. Since light coupling between a (MNOF) and a conventional single mode fiber has remained a challenge in the photonic integration community, the present study may provide an alternative way to couple light between a MNOF device and a conventional single mode fiber based device or system. The hybridization approach that uses a SPF as a platform to integrate a MNOF device may enable the realization of other all-fiber optical hybrid devices. PMID:25578467

  17. Design, development and use of the spectrometer for investigating coherent THz radiation produced by micro-bunching instabilities at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Aiveen; Karataev, Pavel; Rehm, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are known for their low noise, ultra-fast response and excellent sensitivity. They are often implemented as detectors in the millimetre wavelength regime. Micro-bunch instabilities (MBI) have been detected at many light sources around the world including the Diamond Light Source, UK. These MBI can result in bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with millimetre wavelengths. More research needs to be carried out with regards to the dynamics of MBI in order to confirm the simulations and to eventually harness the power of the CSR bursts. A single shot spectrometer has been designed and is under operation at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). It is composed of eight SBDs ranging from 33-1000 GHz. Unlike previous measurements carried out, each of the SBDs has been individually characterised thus making the results obtained comparable to simulations. In this paper, we present the assessment of each SBD in the spectrometer and the first results of the spectrometer's use in the beam.

  18. Stray light control for asteroid detection at low solar elongation for the NEOSSat micro-satellite telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbrucker, Victor; Stauder, John; Laurin, Denis; Hollinger, Allan

    2012-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small satellite dedicated to finding near Earth asteroids. Its surveying strategy consists of imaging areas of the sky to low solar elongation, while in a sun synchronous polar orbit (dawn-dusk). A high performance baffle will control stray light mainly due to Earth shine. Observation scenarios require solar shielding down to 45 degree solar elongation over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes. In order to detect the faintest objects (approx 20th v mag) given a 15 cm telescope and CCD detection system, background from stray light is a critical operational concern. The required attenuation is in the order of 10-12. The requirement was verified by analyses; testing was not attempted because the level of attenuation is difficult to measure reliably. We report consistent results of stray light optical modelling from two independent analyses. Launch is expected for late 2012.

  19. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  20. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  1. Influence of increment thickness on light transmission, degree of conversion and micro hardness of bulk fill composites.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka; Shinya, Akikazu; Lassila, Lippo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated characteristics of light transmission, degree of monomer conversion and surface microhardness of bulk fill, conventional and fiber-reinforced resin based composites (RBCs) through different incremental thicknesses of resin composite. Working hypotheses was that there are differences in transmission of blue light through RBCs of different kinds and that the thickness of the increments influence the degree of monomer conversion of RBCs. Six bulk fill, three conventional nanohybrid, one short fiber reinforced and one flowable RBCs were evaluated. For each material, four different incremental thicknesses (1, 2, 3 and 4 mm) were considered (n = 5). The specimens were prepared in cylindrical Teflon molds that are open at the top and the bottom sides and cured for 40 s by applying the curing unit. After curing process, the specimens were ground with a silicon carbide paper with a grit size of 1200 and 4000, and then stored dry at 37 °C for 24 h. Light transmission, degree of monomer conversion, surface microhardness were measured and data were analyzed using ANOVA (p = 0.05). There were differences in light transmission of resin composites of various types and brands. Low-viscous bulk fill and short fiber-reinforced RBCs presented higher light transmission compared to resin composites of higher viscosity. Reduced light transmission and lower surface microhardness and DC % at bottom side of the specimen suggests that more attention needs to be paid to ensure proper curing of the resin composite in deep cavities.

  2. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aushev, A. A.; Barinov, S. P.; Vasin, M. G.; Drozdov, Yu M.; Ignat'ev, Yu V.; Izgorodin, V. M.; Kovshov, D. K.; Lakhtikov, A. E.; Lukovkina, D. D.; Markelov, V. V.; Morovov, A. P.; Shishlov, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples.

  3. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat'ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)

  4. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  6. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source.

    PubMed

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R

    2013-09-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  7. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  8. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro ExposureTool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 {micro}m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features.

  9. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  10. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  11. Multi-scale and angular analysis of ray-optical light trapping schemes in thin-film solar cells: micro lens array, V-shaped configuration, and double parabolic trapper.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2013-03-11

    An efficient light trapping scheme is a key to enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells by compensating for the insufficient light absorption. To handle optical components from nano-scale to micro-scale seamlessly, a multi-scale optical simulation is carefully designed in this study and is used to qualitatively analyze the light trapping performances of a micro lens array (MLA), a V-shaped configuration, and the newly proposed scheme, which is termed a double parabolic trapper (DPT) according to both daily and annual movement of the sun. DPT has the potential to enhance the PCE significantly, from 5.9% to 8.9%, for PCDTBT:PC(70)BM-based polymer solar cells by perfectly trapping the incident light between two parabolic PV cells.

  12. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, Debra; Chung, Donald; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret; Engel-Cox, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  13. Developments in synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography for in-situ materials analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, A. A.; Parkinson, D. Y.; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Panerai, F.; Mansour, N. N.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third-generation synchrotron X-ray source that operates as a user facility with more than 40 beamlines hosting over 2000 users per year. Synchrotron sources like the ALS provide high quality X-ray beams, with flux that is several orders of magnitude higher than lab-based sources. This is particularly advantageous for dynamic applications because it allows for high-speed, high-resolution imaging and microscale tomography. The hard X-ray beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source enables imaging of samples at high temperatures and pressures, with mechanical loading and other realistic conditions using environmental test cells. These test cells enable experimental observation of samples undergoing dynamic microstructural changes in-situ. We present recent instrumentation developments that allow for continuous tomography with scan rates approaching 1 Hz per 3D image. In addition, our use of iterative reconstruction techniques allows for improved image quality despite fewer images and low exposure times used during fast tomography compared to traditional Fourier reconstruction methods.

  14. Applications of the BAE SYSTEMS MicroIR uncooled infrared thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Heather A.; Henebury, John J., Jr.; Long, Dennis R.

    2003-09-01

    MicroIR uncooled infrared imaging modules (based on VOx microbolometers), developed and manufactured at BAE SYSTEMS, are integrated into ruggedized, weatherproof camera systems and are currently supporting numerous security and surveillance applications. The introduction of uncooled thermal imaging has permitted the expansion of traditional surveillance and security perimeters. MicroIR cameras go beyond the imagery limits of visible and low-light short wavelength infrared sensors, providing continual, uninterrupted, high quality imagery both day and night. Coupled with an appropriate lens assembly, MicroIR cameras offer exemplary imagery performance that lends itself to a more comprehensive level of surveillance. With the current increased emphasis on security and surveillance, MicroIR Cameras are evolving as an unquestionably beneficial instrument in the security and surveillance arenas. This paper will elaborate on the attributes of the cameras, and discuss the development and the deployment, both present and future, of BAE SYSTEMS MicroIR Cameras.

  15. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  16. Stereological assessment of mouse lung parenchyma via nondestructive, multiscale micro-CT imaging validated by light microscopic histology.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Dragos M; Klinge, Christine; Knudsen, Lars; Yin, Leilei; Wang, Ge; Weibel, Ewald R; Ochs, Matthias; Hoffman, Eric A

    2013-03-15

    Quantitative assessment of the lung microstructure using standard stereological methods such as volume fractions of tissue, alveolar surface area, or number of alveoli, are essential for understanding the state of normal and diseased lung. These measures are traditionally obtained from histological sections of the lung tissue, a process that ultimately destroys the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of the tissue. In comparison, a novel X-ray-based imaging method that allows nondestructive sectioning and imaging of fixed lungs at multiple resolutions can overcome this limitation. Scanning of the whole lung at high resolution and subsequent regional sampling at ultrahigh resolution without physically dissecting the organ allows the application of design-based stereology for assessment of the whole lung structure. Here we validate multiple stereological estimates performed on micro-computed tomography (μCT) images by comparing them with those obtained via conventional histology on the same mouse lungs. We explore and discuss the potentials and limitations of the two approaches. Histological examination offers higher resolution and the qualitative differentiation of tissues by staining, but ultimately loses 3-D tissue relationships, whereas μCT allows for the integration of morphometric data with the spatial complexity of lung structure. However, μCT has limited resolution satisfactory for the sterological estimates presented in this study but not for differentiation of tissues. We conclude that introducing stereological methods in μCT studies adds value by providing quantitative information on internal structures while not curtailing more complex approaches to the study of lung architecture in the context of physiological or pathological studies.

  17. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  18. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical-feasibility of additive manufacturing by comparing the accuracy of four different manufacturing methods for metal coping: the conventional lost wax technique (CLWT); subtractive methods with wax blank milling (WBM); and two additive methods, multi jet modeling (MJM), and micro-stereolithography (Micro-SLA). MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty study models were created using an acrylic model with the maxillary upper right canine, first premolar, and first molar teeth. Based on the scan files from a non-contact blue light scanner (Identica; Medit Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), thirty cores were produced using the WBM, MJM, and Micro-SLA methods, respectively, and another thirty frameworks were produced using the CLWT method. To measure the marginal and internal gap, the silicone replica method was adopted, and the silicone images obtained were evaluated using a digital microscope (KH-7700; Hirox, Tokyo, Japan) at 140X magnification. Analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean marginal gaps and internal gaps showed significant differences according to tooth type (P<.001 and P<.001, respectively) and manufacturing method (P<.037 and P<.001, respectively). Micro-SLA did not show any significant difference from CLWT regarding mean marginal gap compared to the WBM and MJM methods. CONCLUSION The mean values of gaps resulting from the four different manufacturing methods were within a clinically allowable range, and, thus, the clinical use of additive manufacturing methods is acceptable as an alternative to the traditional lost wax-technique and subtractive manufacturing. PMID:26330976

  19. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm(-2) ) in the presence of 100 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm(-2) ) and 1000 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria.

  20. Thermal Response of an Additive Manufactured Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tong; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, Hsin; Ozpineci, Burak; Ayers, Curtis William

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impacts of abnormal thermal property introduced by additive manufacture has been analysis based on simulation and experiment of a 3D printed liquid-cooled heat sink. Comparisons to the heat sink with identical geometry and conventionally manufactured by Aluminum 6061 are presented. Micro-structure analysis is implemented and solutions to eliminate the impacts by different manufacture methods are proposed.

  1. Micro/Nanomanufacturing in Support of Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, L. K.; Chen, A.; Heussler, S. P.; Liu, G.; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.; Maniam, S. M.; Virasawmy, Selven; Ren, Y. P.; Moser, H. O.; Barrett, M. D.; Dhanapaul, A. L.

    2009-01-29

    With its LiMiNT facility (Lithography for Micro- and Nanotechnology), Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS) provides a one-stop shop for micro/nano fabrication on large areas (typically 4'' diameter). Synchrotron deep X-ray lithography, eventually enhanced by the super-resolution process, is used to simultaneously pattern large numbers of micro/nano structures into a resist. Laser direct writer or electron beam serve as primary pattern generators, in particular, for mask making. Structure heights of >1 mm, aspect ratios of >200, and minimum sizes of <200 nm have been achieved, not necessarily simultaneously. Such structures may be replicated into a variety of metals and plastics. Tilting, rotating of the mask-substrate stack during exposure enables the parallel production of nearly 3D structures. Application fields include electromagnetic metamaterials, X-ray and infrared optics, photonics, lasers, quantum technology, precision manufacturing, and fluidics. SSLS is serving a growing community of users and customers.

  2. Micro/Nanomanufacturing in Support of Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, L. K.; Moser, H. O.; Chen, A.; Heussler, S. P.; Liu, G.; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.; Maniam, S. M.; Virasawmy, Selven; Ren, Y. P.; Barrett, M. D.; Dhanapaul, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    With its LiMiNT facility (Lithography for Micro- and Nanotechnology), Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS) provides a one-stop shop for micro/nano fabrication on large areas (typically 4" diameter). Synchrotron deep X-ray lithography, eventually enhanced by the super-resolution process, is used to simultaneously pattern large numbers of micro/nano structures into a resist. Laser direct writer or electron beam serve as primary pattern generators, in particular, for mask making. Structure heights of >1 mm, aspect ratios of >200, and minimum sizes of <200 nm have been achieved, not necessarily simultaneously. Such structures may be replicated into a variety of metals and plastics. Tilting, rotating of the mask-substrate stack during exposure enables the parallel production of nearly 3D structures. Application fields include electromagnetic metamaterials, X-ray and infrared optics, photonics, lasers, quantum technology, precision manufacturing, and fluidics. SSLS is serving a growing community of users and customers.

  3. Automated Surface Inspection of Micro Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz-Reiter, Bernd; Thamer, Hendrik; Lütjen, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This chapter presents a machine vision system for detecting surface imperfections on micro parts. It is part of a quality control concept for micro production. Because of increasing product miniaturization, the mechanical manufacturing of micro components is becoming more and more important. The combination of high manufacturing rates and low tolerances in manufacturing processes enables the economical production of micro components. Due to the small component sizes and the difficulties associated with the handling process, the manual visual inspection retires as testing procedure. A customized surface inspection technology with an efficient image processing and classification system is needed. The objective of our concept is to identify surface imperfections such as raisings, laps and bulges on micro parts. The implementation of the system is explained by reference to a micro deep-drawn component, which is manufactured within the German Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 747.

  4. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Madami, M. Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Siracusano, G.; Finocchio, G.; Carpentieri, M.

    2015-05-07

    We employed micro-focused Brillouin light scattering to study the amplification of the thermal spin wave eigenmodes by means of a pure spin current, generated by the spin-Hall effect, in a transversely magnetized Pt(4 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/SiO{sub 2}(5 nm) layered nanowire with lateral dimensions 500 × 2750 nm{sup 2}. The frequency and the cross section of both the center (fundamental) and the edge spin wave modes have been measured as a function of the intensity of the injected dc electric current. The frequency of both modes exhibits a clear redshift while their cross section is greatly enhanced on increasing the intensity of the injected dc. A threshold-like behavior is observed for a value of the injected dc of 2.8 mA. Interestingly, an additional mode, localized in the central part of the nanowire, appears at higher frequency on increasing the intensity of the injected dc above the threshold value. Micromagnetic simulations were used to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results and to investigate the complex non-linear dynamics induced by the spin-Hall effect, including the modification of the spatial profile of the spin wave modes and the appearance of the extra mode above the threshold.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  6. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  7. Passive solar manufactured buildings development and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.

    1983-11-01

    Manufactured buildings which are cost effective residential and light commercial buildings are discussed. The solar energy research institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) worked with building manufacturers design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process lead to valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. The scope and content are described.

  8. Micro-laser

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    A micro-laser is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide and at least one amplifying medium in the waveguide. PBG features are positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings and allow introduction of amplifying mediums into the highly resonant guided micro-laser microcavity. The micro-laser may be positioned on a die of a bulk substrate material with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a micro-laser is disclosed. A method for tuning the micro-laser is also disclosed. The micro-laser may be used as an optical regenerator, or a light source for data transfer or for optical computing.

  9. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2010-12-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  10. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2011-05-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  11. High-efficiency approach for fabricating MTE rotor by micro-EDM and micro-extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xuesong; Chi, Guanxin; Wang, Yukui; Wang, Zhenlong

    2014-07-01

    Micro-gas turbine engine (MTE) rotor is an important indicator of its property, therefore, the manufacturing technology of the microminiature rotor has become a hot area of research at home and abroad. At present, the main manufacturing technologies of the MTE rotor are directed forming fabrication technologies. However, these technologies have a series of problems, such as complex processing technology high manufacturing cost, and low processing efficiency, and so on. This paper takes advantage of micro electric discharge machining (micro-EDM) in the field of microminiature molds manufacturing, organizes many processing technologies of micro-EDM reasonably to improve processing accuracy, presents an integrated micro-EDM technology and its process flow to fabricate MTE rotor die, and conducts a series of experiments to verify efficiency of this integrated micro-EDM. The experiments results show that the MTE rotor die has sharp outline and ensure the good consistency of MTE rotor blades. Meanwhile, the MTE rotor die is applied to micro extrusion equipment, and technologies of micro-EDM and micro forming machining are combined based on the idea of the molds manufacturing, so the MTE rotor with higher aspect ratio and better consistency of blades can be manufactured efficiently. This research presents an integrated micro-EDM technology and its process flow, which promotes the practical process of MTE effectively.

  12. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  13. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  14. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  15. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Radecsky, Kristen; Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2008-12-14

    superior lighting services to low income people in off-grid areas of developing countries, many of whom currently rely on fuel based lighting sources such as kerosene. If this potential is to be achieved in the near term, however, manufacturers must produce off-grid lighting products that are inexpensive, perform well, and meet the needs of potential end users. At present, relatively few products meet all three of these goals. In this article, we report results from a detailed study of lighting use by micro-enterprises in two small towns in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. The work included a survey about lighting use by 50 small businesses, careful measurements of kerosene lighting use patterns and associated costs for 23 of these businesses, and a subsequent field trial in which 14 of the 23 businesses purchased and used low cost LED lamps over a number of months.

  16. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  17. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  18. 49 CFR 579.27 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of fewer than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 5,000 light vehicles, medium-heavy vehicles (other than buses and emergency vehicles... buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers...

  19. 49 CFR 579.27 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of fewer than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 5,000 light vehicles, medium-heavy vehicles (other than buses and emergency vehicles... buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers...

  20. 49 CFR 579.27 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of fewer than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 5,000 light vehicles, medium-heavy vehicles (other than buses and emergency vehicles... buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers...

  1. 49 CFR 579.27 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of fewer than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 100 buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 5,000 light vehicles, medium-heavy vehicles (other than buses and emergency vehicles... buses annually, for manufacturers of fewer than 500 emergency vehicles annually, for manufacturers...

  2. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamlinefor photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger R.; Hulbert L.; Johnson P.D.; Sadowski, J.T.; Starr, D.E.; Chubar, O.; Valla, T.; Vescovo, E.

    2012-02-13

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({micro}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {micro}m for ARPES and 0.5 {micro}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  3. Micro and nano patternable magnetic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Swati; Rostas, Arpad M.; Bordonali, Lorenzo; MacKinnon, Neil; Weber, Stefan; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon is conventionally not associated with magnetism, causing much of the discussion of its perspectives in nanotechnology to be centred on its electron-transport properties. Among the few existing examples of magnetic carbon production, none has found a direct route into scalable micro- and nanofabrication. Here we introduce a magnetic form of carbon whose precursor polymers can be lithographically patterned into micro- and nano-structures prior to pyrolysis. This unreactive and thermally robust material features a strong, room-temperature magnetism owing to a large number of unpaired electron spins with restricted mobility, which is achieved by controlling the progression of bond dissociation and formation during pyrolysis. The micro-manufacture of pyrolytic magnetic carbon, having (3.5 ±0.7 )×1015 spins/mg, can immediately benefit a number of spintronic and magnetic-microelectromechanical system applications, and the fabrication of composite magnetic materials. The material could also complement the magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging techniques. Additionally, this contribution sheds light on the controversial theories concerning the existence and mechanism of magnetic phenomena in carbon.

  4. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's Manufacturing R&D Initiative, which supports projects aimed at developing better-performing, lower-cost solid-state lighting while encouraging engineering and manufacturing in the United States.

  5. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  6. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  7. All-inkjet-printed flexible ZnO micro photodetector for a wearable UV monitoring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van-Thai; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Hongyi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Du, Hejun

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of small-sized patterns of inorganic semiconductor onto flexible substrates is a major concern when manufacturing wearable devices for measuring either biometric or environmental parameters. In this study, micro-sized flexible ZnO UV photodetectors have been thoroughly prepared by a facile inkjet printing technology and followed with heat treatments. A simple ink recipe of zinc acetate precursor solution was investigated. It is found that the substrate temperature during zinc precursor ink depositing has significant effects on ZnO pattern shape, film morphology, and crystallization. The device fabricated from the additive manufacturing approach has good bendability, Ohmic contact, short response time as low as 0.3 s, and high on/off ratio of 3525. We observed the sensor’s dependence of response/decay time by the illuminating UV light intensity. The whole process is based on additive manufacturing which has many benefits such as rapid prototyping, saving material, being environmentally friendly, and being capable of creating high-resolution patterns. In addition, this method can be applied to flexible substrates, which makes the device more applicable for applications requiring flexibility such as wearable devices. The proposed all-inkjet-printing approach for a micro-sized ZnO UV photodetector would significantly simplify the fabrication process of micro-sized inorganic semiconductor-based devices. A potential application is real-time monitoring of UV light exposure to warn users about unsafe direct sunlight to implement suitable avoidance solutions.

  8. All-inkjet-printed flexible ZnO micro photodetector for a wearable UV monitoring device.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van-Thai; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Hongyi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Du, Hejun

    2017-03-03

    Fabrication of small-sized patterns of inorganic semiconductor onto flexible substrates is a major concern when manufacturing wearable devices for measuring either biometric or environmental parameters. In this study, micro-sized flexible ZnO UV photodetectors have been thoroughly prepared by a facile inkjet printing technology and followed with heat treatments. A simple ink recipe of zinc acetate precursor solution was investigated. It is found that the substrate temperature during zinc precursor ink depositing has significant effects on ZnO pattern shape, film morphology, and crystallization. The device fabricated from the additive manufacturing approach has good bendability, Ohmic contact, short response time as low as 0.3 s, and high on/off ratio of 3525. We observed the sensor's dependence of response/decay time by the illuminating UV light intensity. The whole process is based on additive manufacturing which has many benefits such as rapid prototyping, saving material, being environmentally friendly, and being capable of creating high-resolution patterns. In addition, this method can be applied to flexible substrates, which makes the device more applicable for applications requiring flexibility such as wearable devices. The proposed all-inkjet-printing approach for a micro-sized ZnO UV photodetector would significantly simplify the fabrication process of micro-sized inorganic semiconductor-based devices. A potential application is real-time monitoring of UV light exposure to warn users about unsafe direct sunlight to implement suitable avoidance solutions.

  9. No-Light Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  10. Fabrication of Micro/Nano optical Fiber by Electrospinning Direct-writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifang, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Because of the excellent performance, Micro/Nano optical fiber has been more and more widely applied in passive photonic devices, micro-optical sensors, field of atomic manipulation, etc. Currently the main manufacturing mode of Micro/Nano optical fiber is the stretching method which is susceptible to air impact, vulnerable to contaminant and has poor reproducibility. In order to solve these problems, the fabrication of the Micro/Nano optical fiber by electrospinning direct-writing is researched in this article. The experimental platform is set up after the scheme of electrospinning direct-writing is designed. A series of comparative experiments are carried out with changing three experimental variables. The PMMA Micro/Nano optical fiber of controllable diameter is fabricated by regulating the distance between the sprinkler head and collecting plate, flow rate and concentration of PMMA solution. The testing results indicate that the light transmission power loss rate of the PMMA Micro/Nano optical fiberis 0.41dB/mmexcited by a 633-nm-wavelength light. The problem is expected to be solved by further optimization of the experimental process and parameters.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  12. Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate defects on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks at the blank state of manufacturing, we developed a micro-coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (micro-CSM). The illumination source is coherent EUV light with a 140 nm focus diameter on the defect using a Fresnel zone plate. This system directly observes the reflection and diffraction signals from a phase defect. The phase and the intensity image of the defect are reconstructed with the diffraction images using ptychography, which is an algorithm of the coherent diffraction imaging. We observed programmed phase defect on a blank EUV mask. Phase distributions of these programmed defects were well reconstructed quantitatively. The micro-CSM is a very powerful tool to review an EUV phase defect.

  13. Micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  14. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  15. A modular assembling platform for manufacturing of microsystems by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Aumann, Andreas; Ghadiri, Reza; Prüfer, Michael; Baer, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Due to the increased complexity in terms of materials and geometries for microsystems new assembling techniques are required. Assembling techniques from the semiconductor industry are often very specific and cannot fulfill all specifications in more complex microsystems. Therefore, holographic optical tweezers are applied to manipulate structures in micrometer range with highest flexibility and precision. As is well known non-spherical assemblies can be trapped and controlled by laser light and assembled with an additional light modulator application, where the incident laser beam is rearranged into flexible light patterns in order to generate multiple spots. The complementary building blocks are generated by a two-photon-polymerization process. The possibilities of manufacturing arbitrary microstructures and the potential of optical tweezers lead to the idea of combining manufacturing techniques with manipulation processes to "microrobotic" processes. This work presents the manipulation of generated complex microstructures with optical tools as well as a storage solution for 2PP assemblies. A sample holder has been developed for the manual feeding of 2PP building blocks. Furthermore, a modular assembling platform has been constructed for an `all-in-one' 2PP manufacturing process as a dedicated storage system. The long-term objective is the automation process of feeding and storage of several different 2PP micro-assemblies to realize an automated assembly process.

  16. Manufacturers use of business services

    SciTech Connect

    Calzonetti, F.; Allison, T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper summarized findings from a Colorado and Utah survey of manufacturing and business service establishments which provided information on the use of business services among different types of firms in this interior region of the United States. The paper provides information which helps to shed light on various areas of inquiry on the relationship between manufacturers and producer services, but certainly calls for additional investigation. Most of the findings are consistent with those found by studies in other areas. Manufacturers are not a major source of sales for business service firms and the availability of business services is not cited as an important location consideration for manufacturers. Given the strong mining and agricultural sectors in these states, the fact that so little trade was with the primary sector may have been surprising. However, most of the responses in the surveys were from the urban areas of Denver and Salt Lake City. One of the hypotheses in the literature, as defined by Perry and Goe, concerns whether the growth in business services and the decline in manufacturing employment is a result of the trend toward the use of contracted services by manufacturers. The aggregate results of the study do not provide much evidence to support the proposition that this occurs. However, the results show that the larger firms internalize certain specialized business services more so than the smaller firms. The greater use company-provided legal services by the larger manufacturers is a case in point. This finding is consistent with Scott`s finding in the printed circuits industry in which larger establishments provided more functions internally than did the smaller establishments. In the case of engineering, architectural, and business management services it appears that many smaller manufacturers do not use such services at all, but that the larger establishments have more needs for professional services.

  17. Diffractive micro-optical element with nonpoint response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Victor A.; Golub, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    Common-use diffractive lenses have microrelief zones in the form of simple rings that provide only an optical power but do not contain any image information. They have a point-image response under point-source illumination. We must use a more complicated non-point response to focus a light beam into different light marks, letter-type images as well as for optical pattern recognition. The current presentation describes computer generation of diffractive micro- optical elements with complicated curvilinear zones of a regular piecewise-smooth structure and grey-level or staircase phase microrelief. The manufacture of non-point response elements uses the steps of phase-transfer calculation and orthogonal-scan masks generation or lithographic glass etching. Ray-tracing method is shown to be applicable in this task. Several working samples of focusing optical elements generated by computer and photolithography are presented. Using the experimental results we discuss here such applications as laser branding.

  18. The micro spectral measurement of micro integrated filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Sheng; Cai, Yuan; Liu, Dingquan

    2016-10-01

    Theory of micro spectral transmittance measurement and its characteristics have been analyzed. Measurement procedures and data processing method have been introduced. Micro spectral transmittance of micro integrated filters has been measured using PerkinElmer Lambda 1050 spectrophotometer with the combination of a Schwarzschild optical system microscope accessory, and the measured quantitative analysis results have been obtained. The incidence focused light spot size is about 20*40 um2. At last, micro spectral transmittance results for micro integrated filters have been compared with the spectral transmittance for large size samples, which are fabricated under the same condition and measured at normal incidence. The focused incidence for micro spectral measurement will cause a wavelength shift towards the shorter and a deformation transmittance curve, but those changes are in agreement with their theoretical simulations.

  19. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  20. A 3D Split Manufacturing Approach to Trustworthy System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Acıiçmez, J.P. Seifert, and C.K. Koc. Micro -architectural cryptanalysis. IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, 5(4), July-August 2007. [4] Daniel J...International Symposium on Microarchitecture ( MICRO ), Orlando, FL, December 2006. VALAMEHR et al.: A 3D SPLIT MANUFACTURING APPROACH TO TRUSTWORTHY SYSTEM...IEEE Micro , 27(3), May-June 2007. [16] Gian Luca Loi, Banit Agrawal, Navin Srivastava, Sheng-Chih Lin, Timothy Sherwood, and Kaustav Banerjee. A

  1. Development of ultra-precision micro-cavity measurement technique in HIT-UOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiwen; Li, Lei; Tan, Jiubin

    2010-08-01

    Micro cavities with high aspect ratio are widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries with the development of manufacturing technology. So how to measure the dimension of these cavities has become one of the major research subjects in the field of measurement and instrument. This paper describes some activities of the precision micro cavity measurement technique in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). The key issue of micro cavity measurement in UOI is called touch-trigger measurement method. The first scheme is double optical fiber coupling, in which light coming from the incident optical fiber is transmitted in the reversal direction via the optical fiber coupling into the effluent optical fiber, the lateral displacement of the touch-trigger sensor is transformed into the deflexion of light coming out from the effluent optical fiber, and the deflexion is transformed into an image signal by the object lens and CCD capturing system. And the second scheme is micro focal-length collimation, in which a fiber stem with a ball mounted on its end is used as a probe and a small segment of it is used as a cylindrical lens to collimate a point light source and image it to a camera, the deflection of the fiber stem can be inferred from the change in image acquired by the camera with ultrahigh displacement sensitivity. Experiments for these activities will be given with a focus on the measurement results and repeatability uncertainty.

  2. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  3. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  4. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  5. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamline for photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, R.; Hulbert, S. L.; Chubar, O.; Vescovo, E.; Johnson, P. D.; Valla, T.; Sadowski, J. T.; Starr, D. E.

    2012-02-15

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({mu}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {mu}m for ARPES and 0.5 {mu}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  6. The Use of Light/Chemically Hardened Polymethylmethacrylate, Polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and Calcium Hydroxide Graft Material in Combination With Polyanhydride Around Implants and Extraction Sockets in Minipigs: Part II: Histologic and Micro-CT Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ghattas, Mazen; Dangaria, Smit J.; Abdallah, Rima; Morgan, Elise F.; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ashman, Arthur; Van Dyke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background This report is the second part of the previously published study on the impact of light/chemical hardening technology and a newly formulated composite graft material for crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement. Methods A total of 48 implants were placed into the sockets of the mesial roots of freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth in three minipigs. Crestal areas and intrabony spaces were randomly augmented with light-hardened graft materials including a composite graft consisting of polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide (PPCH) plus polyanhydride (PA); PPCH graft; and PA graft, or left untreated. Distal sockets not receiving implants and the sockets of first molars (n = 60) were randomly treated with one of the graft materials or left empty. In addition, two molar sockets were treated with the original PPCH graft material. Quantitative microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to assess alveolar bone structure and tissue compositions. Histologic evaluations included descriptive histology to assess the peri-implant wound healing, as well as histomorphometric measurements to determine bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Results Both trabecular and cortical bone measurements by micro-CT did not reveal any significant differences among the groups. Sites augmented with PPCH+PA resulted in significantly greater BIC surface than PPCH alone and no-graft-treated implants (P <0.05) histologically. Stained ground sections showed complete bone formation between bone and implant surface in the PPCH+PA group, whereas sites without augmentation showed large gaps between bone and implant surfaces, indicating a slower bone apposition and less BIC surface compared to all other groups. Similar to implant sections, all materials showed positive outcome on trabecular and cortical bone formation in extraction sockets with an intact crestal cortical bone. Conclusion Histologic evaluations supported the previous findings

  7. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  9. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  10. A micro-coupling for micro mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bi; Xiao, Yunya

    2016-05-01

    The error motions of micro mechanical systems, such as micro-spindles, increase with the increasing of the rotational speed, which not only decreases the rotational accuracy, but also promotes instability and limits the maximum operational speed. One effective way to deal with it is to use micro-flexible couplings between the drive and driven shafts so as to reduce error motions of the driven shaft. But the conventional couplings, such as diaphragm couplings, elastomeric couplings, bellows couplings, and grooved couplings, etc, cannot be directly used because of their large and complicated structures. This study presents a novel micro-coupling that consists of a flexible coupling and a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based clamp for micro mechanical systems. It is monolithic and can be directly machined from a shaft. The study performs design optimization and provides manufacturing considerations, including thermo-mechanical training of the SMA ring for the desired Two-Way-Shape-Memory effect (TWSMe). A prototype micro-coupling and a prototype micro-spindle using the proposed coupling are fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the prototype micro-coupling can bear a torque of above 5 N • mm and an axial force of 8.5 N and be fitted with an SMA ring for clamping action at room temperature (15 °C) and unclamping action below-5 °C. At the same time, the prototype micro-coupling can work at a rotational speed of above 200 kr/min with the application to a high-speed precision micro-spindle. Moreover, the radial runout error of the artifact, as a substitute for the micro-tool, is less than 3 μm while that of turbine shaft is above 7 μm. It can be concluded that the micro-coupling successfully accommodates misalignment errors of the prototype micro-spindle. This research proposes a micro-coupling which is featured with an SMA ring, and it is designed to clamp two shafts, and has smooth transmission, simple assembly, compact structure, zero-maintenance and

  11. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  12. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-0221 CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) Nainesh B. Rathod Imaginestics, LLC SEPTEMBER 2013...SUBTITLE CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-C-5515 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63680F 6...Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM) initiative sought to improve participation of small manufacturers in building components for the military by

  13. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  14. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  15. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  16. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  17. Ceramic components manufacturing by selective laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Bayle, F.; Combe, C.; Goeuriot, P.; Smurov, I.

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, technology of selective laser sintering/melting is applied to manufacture net shaped objects from pure yttria-zirconia powders. Experiments are carried out on Phenix Systems PM100 machine with 50 W fibre laser. Powder is spread by a roller over the surface of 100 mm diameter alumina cylinder. Design of experiments is applied to identify influent process parameters (powder characteristics, powder layering and laser manufacturing strategy) to obtain high-quality ceramic components (density and micro-structure). The influence of the yttria-zirconia particle size and morphology onto powder layering process is analysed. The influence of the powder layer thickness on laser sintering/melting is studied for different laser beam velocity V ( V = 1250-2000 mm/s), defocalisation (-6 to 12 mm), distance between two neighbour melted lines (so-called "vectors") (20-40 μm), vector length and temperature in the furnace. The powder bed density before laser sintering/melting also has significant influence on the manufactured samples density. Different manufacturing strategies are applied and compared: (a) different laser beam scanning paths to fill the sliced surfaces of the manufactured object, (b) variation of vector length (c) different strategies of powder layering, (d) temperature in the furnace and (e) post heat treatment in conventional furnace. Performance and limitations of different strategies are analysed applying the following criteria: geometrical accuracy of the manufactured samples, porosity. The process stability is proved by fabrication of 1 cm 3 volume cube.

  18. Coagulation-flocculation as pre-treatment for micro-scale Fe/Cu/O3 process (CF-mFe/Cu/O3) treatment of the coating wastewater from automobile manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhaokun; Cao, Jinyan; Yang, Dan; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation as pre-treatment combined with mFe/Cu/O3 (CF-mFe/Cu/O3) process was developed to degrade the pollutants in automobile coating wastewater (ACW). In coagulation-flocculation (CF) process, high turbidity removal efficiency (97.1%) and low COD removal efficiency (10.5%) were obtained under the optimal conditions using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O and CaO. The effluent of CF process (ECF) was further disposed by mFe/Cu/O3 process, and its key operating parameters were optimized by batch experiments. Optimally, COD removal efficiency of ECF obtained by the mFe/Cu/O3 process (i.e., 87.6% after 30 min treatment) was much higher than those of mFe/Cu alone (8.3%), ozone alone (46.6%), and mFe/Cu/air (6.1%), which confirms the superiority of the mFe/Cu/O3 process. In addition, the analysis results of UV-vis, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and GC/MS further confirm that the phenol pollutants of ECF had been effectively decomposed or transformed after CF-mFe/Cu/O3 process treatment. Meanwhile, B/C ratio of ACW increased from 0.19 to 0.56, which suggests the biodegradability was improved significantly. Finally, the operating cost of CF-mFe/Cu/O3 process was about 1.83 USD t(-1) for ACW treatment. Therefore, the combined process is a promising treatment technology for the coating wastewater from automobile manufacturing.

  19. Laser Material Processing in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marshall

    2014-03-01

    This presentation will address some of the past, present, and potential uses of lasers for material processing in manufacturing. Laser processing includes welding, drilling, cutting, cladding, etc. The U.S. was the hot bed for initial uses of lasers for material processing in the past with Europe, especially Germany, presently leading the way. The future laser processing leader may still be Germany. Selected uses, past and present, of lasers within GE will also be highlighted as seen in such business units as Aviation, Lighting, Power and Water, Healthcare, and Transportation.

  20. Micro/nanoscale self-aligned optical couplings of the self-organized lightwave network (SOLNET) formed by excitation lights from outside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo; Nawata, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    The self-organized lightwave network (SOLNET) provides "optical solder," which enables self-aligned optical couplings between misaligned optical devices with different core sizes. We propose a low-cost SOLNET formation method, in which write beams are generated within optical devices by excitation lights from outside. Simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method reveal that the two-photon processes enhance optical-solder capabilities. In couplings between 600-nm-wide waveguides opposed with 32-μm distance a wide lateral misalignment tolerance of 2 μm to maintain <1 dB loss at 650 nm in wavelength is obtained. The coupling loss at 1-μm lateral misalignment is 0.4 dB. In couplings between 3-μm-wide and 600-nm-wide waveguides, losses at 650 nm are 0.1 dB for no misalignments and 0.9 dB for 1-μm misalignment. These results suggest that SOLNETs provide optical solder with mode size converting functions.

  1. The energy transfer phenomena and colour tunability in Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) micro-fibers for white emission in solid state lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Som, S; Mitra, P; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Terblans, J J; Swart, H C; Sharma, S K

    2014-07-14

    This paper reports on the structural, optical and photometric characterization of an Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor (Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+)) for near white emission in solid state lighting. A series of Y2O2S phosphors doped with Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The microstructures of the as-synthesized phosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results reveal that the obtained powder phosphors have a single-phase hexagonal structure and also indicate that the incorporation of the dopants/co-dopants did not affect the crystal structure. The SEM images reveal the morphology of the prepared phosphors as an intense interpenetrating network of interconnected micro-fibers with a diameter of about 0.15 μm. The band gap of the phosphors was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. The Eu(3+), Dy(3+) doped and Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) co-doped phosphors illuminated with ultraviolet light showed characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the (5)D0→(7)FJ transitions of Eu(3+) and characteristic blue and yellow luminescence corresponding to the (4)F9/2→(6)H15/2 or (4)F9/2→(6)H13/2 transitions of Dy(3+). The luminescence spectra, the energy transfer efficiency and the decay curves of the phosphors indicated that there exists a strong energy transfer from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) and this was demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole reaction. Furthermore, the critical distance of the Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) ions have also been calculated. By utilizing the principle of energy transfer it was also demonstrated that with an appropriate tuning of the activator content the Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors can exhibit a great potential to act as single-emitting component phosphors for white light emission in solid state lighting technology.

  2. Micro-Discharge Micro-Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Micro -discharge Micro -thruster John...This paper summarizes the experiments and analysis of the micro -discharge micro - thruster developed jointly by Ewing Technology Associates and the...University of Washington. The key experimental result has been the demonstration of a sustained discharge in a very simple micro -discharge type of

  3. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  4. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  5. Micro-optofluidic Lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a systematic perspective on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses. The progress on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses are illustrated by example from recent literature. The advantage of micro-optofluidic lenses over solid lens systems is their tunability without the use of large actuators such as servo motors. Depending on the relative orientation of light path and the substrate surface, micro-optofluidic lenses can be categorized as in-plane or out-of-plane lenses. However, this review will focus on the tunability of the lenses and categorizes them according to the concept of tunability. Micro-optofluidic lenses can be either tuned by the liquid in use or by the shape of the lens. Micro-optofluidic lenses with tunable shape are categorized according to the actuation schemes. Typical parameters of micro-optofluidic lenses reported recently are compared and discussed. Finally, perspectives are given for future works in this field. PMID:20714369

  6. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  7. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  8. Manufacturer Tier 3 Questions and EPA Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a record of EPA responses to manufacturer questions received prior to October 16, 2015 with respect to implementation of the Tier 3 final rule intended to aid regulated parties in achieving compliance with regulations for light-duty

  9. Manufacturing of high performance, low cost dual mirror lamp reflector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li

    The Lamp Reflector Module (LRM) is a key component in every micro display projection system, which has played a dominant role in the large-screen display market today. The goal of this research is to (1) improve the Dual Mirror prototype's light output performance, (2) investigate the underlying principles of its slow output deterioration so as to help develop effective and efficient LRM thermal management for maximized lifetime performance, and (3) improve/enable low cost mass LRM manufacturing for the projection display market. The first part of this research addresses the prototype's low output problem. More sophisticated 3D Optical Ray Tracing (ORT) models were generated to provide the output prediction depending on the arc gap, system collection etendue, etc. It was concluded that upgrading the manufacturing processes, particularly the reflector shape, surface and cold mirror coating, could effectively improve the output performance. Additionally, these theoretical models are shown to be used to design a LRM with 16% output gain for the consumer Rear Projection display market. The second part of this research focuses on the issue of lifetime performance. The electrode, arc attachment and envelope evolution were monitored by camera systems. The upgraded ORT models confirmed the arc length insensitivity property of the Dual Mirror LRM being one of the major reasons for its longer native lifetime. The third part of this research focuses on issues related to the entire LRM manufacturing. A series of quality control tools were developed to help implement manufacturing process optimization. LRMs made with the upgraded manufacturing processes showed about 25% output gain over the previous prototypes. Based on the imaging property of the Dual Mirror LRM, a lower cost lamp reflector alignment method, called cold alignment, was developed. In this method, the etendue efficiency is maintained and a slower degrading and more stable lifetime output performance are achieved

  10. Nanoimprint lithography for microfluidics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreindl, Gerald; Matthias, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The history of imprint technology as lithography method for pattern replication can be traced back to 1970's but the most significant progress has been made by the research group of S. Chou in the 1990's. Since then, it has become a popular technique with a rapidly growing interest from both research and industrial sides and a variety of new approaches have been proposed along the mainstream scientific advances. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel method for the fabrication of micro/nanometer scale patterns with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. Unlike traditional optical lithographic approaches, which create pattern through the use of photons or electrons to modify the chemical and physical properties of the resist, NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional lithographic techniques. The ability to fabricate structures from the micro- to the nanoscale with high precision in a wide variety of materials is of crucial importance to the advancement of micro- and nanotechnology and the biotech- sciences as a whole and will be discussed in this paper. Nanoimprinting can not only create resist patterns, as in lithography, but can also imprint functional device structures in various polymers, which can lead to a wide range of applications in electronics, photonics, data storage, and biotechnology.

  11. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  13. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  14. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  15. Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstattd, William D.

    The Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project's feasibility study concerned with industrial arts curriculum development in manufacturing for the senior high school level is described. The need for an industrial arts curriculum which meets and reflects present and future trends is discussed in the introduction, followed by a review of the…

  16. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  17. CNT reinforced epoxy foamed and electrospun nano-fiber interlayer systems for manufacturing lighter and stronger featherweight(TM) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakonakis, Vasileios M.

    Multiple works have been performed in improving carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites especially in terms of strength so delamination, which is the major defect in laminated composites, is prevented. Nevertheless, there is not much focus on improving conventional CFRP systems in terms of weight especially when these are used in primary structures. This work questions whether lighter and at the same time stronger CFRP composites can be manufactured in order to replace conventional CFRP systems in major applications. Under this perspective, this study demonstrates that inducing controlled porosity may offer a systemic approach for manufacturing light weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Additionally, towards this scope, this work has focused on analyzing and describing the related matrix systems utilizing mostly classic viscoelastic theory. An in-depth characterization of the thermosetting matrix systems viscoelasticity kinetics as well as of the impregnation process towards its improvement in terms of lower cost is explored. Overall, this work makes an effort to establish the fundamentals for creating the next generation of light weight structural composites, the featherweight composites, by introducing porosity through several controlled reinforcements in a systemic and reproducible manner at the macro- micro- and nano- scales in the interlayer. By extensively describing the matrix system and the manufacturing processes and focusing on analytically testing the interlayer reinforcement systems, it is expected that featherweight CFRP will achieve lighter weight and at the same time higher mechanical properties.

  18. Micro Computer Tomography for medical device and pharmaceutical packaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Hindelang, Florine; Zurbach, Raphael; Roggo, Yves

    2015-04-10

    Biomedical device and medicine product manufacturing are long processes facing global competition. As technology evolves with time, the level of quality, safety and reliability increases simultaneously. Micro Computer Tomography (Micro CT) is a tool allowing a deep investigation of products: it can contribute to quality improvement. This article presents the numerous applications of Micro CT for medical device and pharmaceutical packaging analysis. The samples investigated confirmed CT suitability for verification of integrity, measurements and defect detections in a non-destructive manner.

  19. Recent developments in light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R W

    1920-01-01

    This report is intended to cover the progress that has been made in both the manufacture and utility of light alloys in the United States since the first part of 1919. Duralumin is extensively discussed both as to manufacture and durability.

  20. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Terry C.

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  1. Chemical micro-sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2005-05-03

    An integrated optical capillary electrophoresis system for analyzing an analyte. A modulated optical pump beam impinges on an capillary containing the analyte/buffer solution which is separated by electrophoresis. The thermally-induced change in the index of refraction of light in said electrophoresis capillary is monitored using an integrated micro-interferometer. The interferometer includes a first interferometer arm intersecting the electrophoresis capillary proximate the excitation beam and a second, reference interferometer arm. Changes in index of refraction in the analyte measured by interrogating the interferometer state using white light interferometry and a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique. Background thermo-optical activity in the buffer solution is cancelled by splitting the pump beam and exciting pure buffer solution in a second section of capillary where it crosses the reference arm of the interferometer.

  2. Manufacturing process of nanofluidics using afm probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karingula, Varun Kumar

    A new process for fabricating a nano fluidic device that can be used in medical application is developed and demonstrated. Nano channels are fabricated using a nano tip in indentation mode on AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The nano channels are integrated between the micro channels and act as a filter to separate biomolecules. Nano channels of 4 to7 m in length, 80nm in width, and at varying depths from 100nm to 850 nm allow the resulting device to separate selected groups of lysosomes and other viruses. Sharply developed vertical micro channels are produced from a deep reaction ion etching followed by deposition of different materials, such as gold and polymers, on the top surface, allowing the study of alternative ways of manufacturing a nanofluidic device. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) bonding is performed to close the top surface of the device. An experimental setup is used to test and validate the device by pouring fluid through the channels. A detailed cost evaluation is conducted to compare the economical merits of the proposed process. It is shown that there is a 47:7% manufacturing time savings and a 60:6% manufacturing cost savings.

  3. FPGA Control System for the Automated Test of MicroShutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyness, Eric; Rapchun, David A.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to replace the Hubble in 2013, must simultaneously observe hundreds of faint galaxies. This requirement has led to the development of a programmable transmission mask which can be adapted to admit light from an arbitrary pattern of galaxies into its spectrograph. This programmable mask will contain a large array of micro-electromechanical (MEMs) devices called MicroShutters. These microscopic shutters physically open and close like the shutter on a camera, except each shutter is microscopic in size and an array 365 by 171 is used to select the objects under spectroscopic observation at a given time, and to block the unwanted background light from other areas. NASA developed and is currently refining the exceptionally difficult process of manufacturing these shutters. This paper describes how the authors used LabVIEW FPGA and a reconfigurable I/O board to control the shutters in a test chamber and how the flexibility of the system allows us to continue to modify the control algorithms as NASA optimizes the performance of the MicroShutter arrays.

  4. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  5. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... the Manufacturing Council (Council). The March 16, 2010 notice provided that all applications must...

  6. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The November 23, 2010 notice provided that...

  7. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wasley, T.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ta, V. D.; Shephard, J. D.; Stringer, J.; Smith, P.; Esenturk, E.; Connaughton, C.; Kay, R.

    2016-10-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10-4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability.

  8. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  9. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  10. Human Issues in Manufacturing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    conventional mass- production manufacturing and the benefits of lean manufacturing . The text details the results of a five-year, multi national study...data and comparisons between mass and lean manufacturing . The key objective is to "illustrate the transition from mass to lean production with...of reference for the transition from current manufacturing systems to the goal state of lean manufacturing . Manufacturing before change is referred to

  11. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  12. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  13. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  14. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  15. Micro-vision-based displacement measurement with high accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qinghua; Zhang, Xianmin; Fan, Yanbin

    2011-12-01

    The micro-motion stages are widely used in micro/nano manufacturing technology. In this paper, an integrated approach for measuring micro-displacement of micro-motion stage that incorporates motion estimation algorithm into the computer microvision is proposed. At first, the basic principle of the computer microvision measurement is analyzed. Then, a robust multiscale motion estimation algorithm for micro-motion measurement is proposed. Finally, the microdisplacement of the micro-motion stage based on the piezoelectric ceramic actuators and the compliant mechanisms is measured using the integrated approach. The maximal bias of the proposed approach reached 13 nm. Experimental results show that the new integrated method can measure micro-displacement with nanometer accuracy.

  16. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  17. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  18. Manufacturing polymer thin films in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    This project represents Venezuela's first scientific experiment in space. The apparatus for the automatic casting of two polymer thin films will be contained in NASA's Payload No. G-559 of the Get Away Special program for a future orbital space flight in the U.S. Space Shuttle. Semi-permeable polymer membranes have important applications in a variety of fields, such as medicine, energy, and pharmaceuticals and in general fluid separation processes, such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis. The casting of semi-permeable membranes in space will help to identify the roles of convection in determining the structure of these membranes.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small volume manufacturer...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume manufacturer certification procedures. (a) The small-volume manufacturers certification procedures described...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small volume manufacturer...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume manufacturer certification procedures. (a) The small-volume manufacturers certification procedures described...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer-supplied production...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01 Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing. Any manufacturer obtaining certification under this subpart...

  2. National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinton, Clare

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

  3. Low-cost thermoforming of micro fluidic analysis chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Rummler, Z.; Schaller, Th; Schomburg, W. K.

    2002-07-01

    We present a new method for the low-cost manufacture of micro fluidic devices from polymers for single use. Within a one-step or two-step process inside a hot embossing press, micro channels are thermoformed into a thin plastic film and welded on to a thicker plastic film or sheet. Sterile, hermetically sealed micro fluidic structures were fabricated from polystyrene for easy opening immediately before use. It even appears to be possible to produce micro fluidic analysis chips from polymers on a coil from which single devices are cut off for use.

  4. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  5. Layered Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014215 TITLE: Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities ...Research Society LL1.4 Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities Khershed P. Cooper Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research...Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5343, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Layered Manufacturing (LM) refers to computer-aided manufacturing processes in which parts are made

  6. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  7. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  8. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  9. COHERENT LIGHT-RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    On the basis of diffraction theory, quantum-mechanics and information theory, it is shown that the principle of coherent light recording is the...mechanical, magnetic or electric approaches. Photographic coherent light recording tests were made by the dynamic sweep tests on 16 mm Recordak Micro-File

  10. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Computers in manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hudson, C A

    1982-02-12

    Computers are now widely used in product design and in automation of selected areas in factories. Within the next decade, the use of computers in the entire spectrum of manufacturing applications, from computer-aided design to computer-aided manufacturing and robotics, is expected to be practical and economically justified. Such widespread use of computers on the factory floor awaits further advances in computer capabilities, the emergence of systems that are adaptive to the workplace, and the development of interfaces to link islands of automation and to allow effective user communications.

  12. Production Equipment and Processes for Bulk Formed Micro Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paldan, N. A.; Arentoft, M.; Eriksen, R. S.

    2007-04-01

    Manufacturing techniques for production of small precise metallic parts has gained interest during recent years, an interest led by an industrial demand for components for integrated products like mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3-players and in the future for spare parts for the human body. Micro components have also found several applications within the medical, audiological and dental industry, applications that impose increased demands for biocompatible and corrosion-resistant materials and cleanness. So far these micro components have mainly been manufactured by traditional machining techniques or chemical etching. However, these traditional machining and etching techniques are generally not well suited for mass production of advanced micro components, due to handling problems, waste of expensive material and long machining times. This calls for development of a novel production system that can meet the demands for high productivity, high reliability, low cost, while being environmental acceptable. Bulk metal forming meets these demands to a great extent, but the technology cannot directly be transferred to the micro scale. A flexible machine system for bulk micro forming has been developed and used to form a number of industrial micro parts in aluminium and silver, with ongoing work on forming of titanium. Manufacture of billets by cropping has been examined using a simple test rig and an automatic cropping device has been designed, manufactured and tested.

  13. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  14. Face equipment lighting: integrated vs. add-on

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, F.E.

    1982-10-01

    The problems of providing lighting on face equipment are examined. In the US, some equipment manufacturers are building-in lighting systems to their machinery; others will install lighting systems as add-on or retrofitted items. The pros and cons of each method are examined and the views of manufacturers are quoted.

  15. Advances in gamma titanium aluminides and their manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Wereley, Norman M.

    2012-11-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides display attractive properties for high temperature applications. For over a decade in the 1990s, the attractive properties of titanium aluminides were outweighed by difficulties encountered in processing and machining at room temperature. But advances in manufacturing technologies, deeper understanding of titanium aluminides microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and advances in micro-alloying, has led to the production of gamma titanium aluminide sheets. An in-depth review of key advances in gamma titanium aluminides is presented, including microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and alloy development. Traditional manufacturing techniques such as ingot metallurgy and investment casting are reviewed and advances via powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques are discussed. Finally, manufacturing challenges facing gamma titanium aluminides, as well as avenues to overcome them, are discussed.

  16. Fabrication of micro-lens array on convex surface by meaning of micro-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Yunlong; Wang, Bo; Shan, Debin

    2014-08-01

    In order to develop the application of the micro-milling technology, and to fabricate ultra-precision optical surface with complex microstructure, in this paper, the primary experimental research on micro-milling complex microstructure array is carried out. A complex microstructure array surface with vary parameters is designed, and the mathematic model of the surface is set up and simulated. For the fabrication of the designed microstructure array surface, a micro three-axis ultra-precision milling machine tool is developed, aerostatic guideway drove directly by linear motor is adopted in order to guarantee the enough stiffness of the machine, and novel numerical control strategy with linear encoders of 5nm resolution used as the feedback of the control system is employed to ensure the extremely high motion control accuracy. With the help of CAD/CAM technology, convex micro lens array on convex spherical surface with different scales on material of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and pure copper is fabricated using micro tungsten carbide ball end milling tool based on the ultra-precision micro-milling machine. Excellent nanometer-level micro-movement performance of the axis is proved by motion control experiment. The fabrication is nearly as the same as the design, the characteristic scale of the microstructure is less than 200μm and the accuracy is better than 1μm. It prove that ultra-precision micro-milling technology based on micro ultra-precision machine tool is a suitable and optional method for micro manufacture of microstructure array surface on different kinds of materials, and with the development of micro milling cutter, ultraprecision micro-milling complex microstructure surface will be achieved in future.

  17. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  18. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles , unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes... Recycling .............................. B1-FB7-1 Warehouse Layout Design at Shady Peeps...Analysis and Recommendations .......................................... B1-FB11-1 NextStep Recycling Supply Chain and Ops Analysis and

  19. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  20. Manufacturing Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, manufacturing technology. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests activities that allow students (1) to become familiar with and use some of the tools, materials, and processes…

  1. Drug development and manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  2. Advanced Computing for Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erisman, Albert M.; Neves, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways that supercomputers are being used in the manufacturing industry, including the design and production of airplanes and automobiles. Describes problems that need to be solved in the next few years for supercomputers to assume a major role in industry. (TW)

  3. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  4. Illinois Manufacturing Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger; And Others

    This manufacturing technology curriculum involves students in learning problem-solving, communication, team building, quality control, safety, math, science, and technical skills. The document begins with a section on implementation, which gives background information on the purposes and development of the curriculum, explains its rationale,…

  5. Manufacturing (Industrial) Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 35 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of manufacturing (industrial) technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  6. Industrialization of OLEDs for Lighting Applications and Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Klemens

    2005-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are an extremely versatile technology that can be tailored to specific applications. The flexibility and adaptability of OLED technology is a result of the variety of material systems and fabrication technologies that can be applied. In this contribution we investigate and compare several material systems and fabrication technologies from an application point of view. Applications without the need of micro-scale structuring open a new window of opportunity for evaporated small molecules. Small molecular OLEDs have the potential for high efficiencies at high brightness rendering them ideal for lighting applications . The first part of our contribution will establish the boundary conditions for lighting applications and we will introduces the current status of our industrialization program for OLEDs for lighting and present our perspective of the OLED lighting market. In the second part of the contribution we will focus on alternative OLED technologies that offer interesting perspectives for industrial fabrication. The light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) is a type of organic electroluminescent device that has all the attractive features of the OLED but does not have the drawbacks of reactive cathodes and thin active layers. The crucial difference with OLEDs is that the active layer of a LEC contains mobile ions. This results in two very important advantages for large-area lighting applications compared with traditional OLEDs: (i) thick electroactive layers (ii) and matching of the work function of the electrodes with the energy levels of the electroluminescent material is not required. This means that non-reactive metals such as Ag or Au can be used instead of e.g. Ba. We have studied several types of LECs with the aim to assess the above-mentioned benefits for large-area lighting . Finally to show the immense spectrum of production methods for OLEDs we will conclude the contribution with a manufacturing technique for

  7. High quality factor trapezoidal subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Yaguo; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, silicon photonics has attracted intensive research interest in optical communications due to its advantageous compact dimensions and high-volume manufacturability. Particularly, micro-ring resonators on silicon-oninsulator (SOI) platform have been widely exploited as a basic building block for a vast range of applications such as switches, modulators, and sensors. A majority of these applications involve light-matter interaction, which can be substantially enhanced by the high quality factor micro-ring resonators. However, conventional strip waveguide based micro-ring resonators suffer from the intrinsic dilemma in achieving high light confinement and strong light-matter interaction simultaneously. Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides, comprised of periodically interleaved high and low refractive index materials with a pitch less than one wavelength, have been demonstrated as a promising alternative. For SWG waveguides built on SOI wafers, the ratio of silicon and cladding materials can be engineered microscopically to achieve desired macroscopic properties. The control of these properties could potentially lead to significant performance improvements compared with conventional micro-ring resonators based photonic devices, such as filters and sensors. However, SWG waveguide based micro-ring resonators (SWGMRs) that have been demonstrated so far can only provide a moderate quality factor (~5600) with a large radius (e.g. 15 μm), which greatly jeopardize the wide spread research efforts in this area. In this paper, we propose to use trapezoidal silicon pillars to reduce the bend loss of SWGMRs to improve the quality factor. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the smallest SWGMR (the micro-ring radius equals to 5 μm) with an applicable quality factor as high as 11,500. This approach also can be applied to SWGMRs with larger radii for higher quality factors. We also experimentally demonstrated a 10 μm radius SWGMR that can provide

  8. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-04 Manufacturer.... For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks...

  11. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  12. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  13. Fabrication of micro-rotating structure by micro reciprocated wire-EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yukui; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Zhenlong; Li, Huichao; Liu, Hongzheng

    2016-11-01

    Micro rotating-structure manufacture has been largely carried out using a variety of processing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the high-precise machining of the micro rotating structure due to the material constraints and the geometrical limitation of the free-form profile. This paper discusses the fabrication of micro-rotating structure using micro reciprocated wire electrical discharge machining (wire-EDM). To ensure machining accuracy, a gravity takeup for maintaining constant wire tension and a unit for suppressing the wire vibration are designed and fabricated, respectively. Besides, the effects of processing parameters on rotating groove width are investigated by conducting preliminary experiments, showing that high open voltage, discharge capacitance and revolving speed, and low discharge resistance and wire tension cause larger rotating groove width. Nevertheless, the rotating groove width firstly decreases with the reference voltage and feed rate increase in the initial stage and then increases when applying higher values. Based on the preliminary experiments, the proper processing parameters are determined and are used for machining micro bellows core-mould. Ultimately, the micro bellows core-mould is successfully machined by micro reciprocated wire-EDM, exhibiting high machining accuracy, excellent geometric shape and uniformity. Specifically, the machining errors along the axial direction and the radial direction of the micro bellows core-mould are less than 1.4 µm and 2.3 µm, respectively.

  14. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  15. Optical selection, manipulation, trapping, and activation of a microgear structure for applications in micro-optical-electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, R C; Tait, R N; Mende, H; Pawlowicz, C

    2001-02-20

    The optical processes involved in laser trapping and optical manipulation are explored theoretically and experimentally as a means of activating a micrometer-size gear structure. We modeled the structure by using an enhanced ray-optics technique, and results indicate that the torque present on the gear can induce the gear to rotate about the gear-arm plane center with light as the driving energy source. We confirmed these findings experimentally by using gears manufactured with conventional semiconductor techniques and from a layer of polyimide. It is expected that such a simple gear design activated by use of light could lead to an entire new class of micro-optical-electromechanical systems.

  16. Inspection of additive-manufactured layered components.

    PubMed

    Cerniglia, D; Scafidi, M; Pantano, A; Rudlin, J

    2015-09-01

    Laser powder deposition (LPD) is a rapid additive manufacturing process to produce, layer upon layer, 3D geometries or to repair high-value components. Currently there is no nondestructive technique that can guarantee absence of flaws in LPD products during manufacturing. In this paper a laser ultrasonic technique for in-line inspection of LPD components is proposed. Reference samples were manufactured from Inconel and machined flaws were created to establish the sensitivity of the technique. Numerical models of laser-generated ultrasonic waves have been created to gain a deeper understanding of physics, to optimize the set-up and to verify the experimental measurements. Results obtained on two sets of reference samples are shown. A proof-of-concept prototype has been demonstrated on some specific deposition samples with induced flaws, that were confirmed by an ultra-high sensitivity X-ray technique. Experimental outcomes prove that typical micro-defects due to the layer-by-layer deposition process, such as near-surface and surface flaws in a single layer deposit, can be detected.

  17. Further Structural Intelligence for Sensors Cluster Technology in Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mekid, Samir

    2006-01-01

    With the ever increasing complex sensing and actuating tasks in manufacturing plants, intelligent sensors cluster in hybrid networks becomes a rapidly expanding area. They play a dominant role in many fields from macro and micro scale. Global object control and the ability to self organize into fault-tolerant and scalable systems are expected for high level applications. In this paper, new structural concepts of intelligent sensors and networks with new intelligent agents are presented. Embedding new functionalities to dynamically manage cooperative agents for autonomous machines are interesting key enabling technologies most required in manufacturing for zero defects production.

  18. Passive-solar manufactured buildings development and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.; Taylor, R.; Brant, S.; Simms, D.

    1982-06-01

    Manufactured passive-solar buildings development and analysis are discussed. Manufactured buildings are quickly becoming the most cost-effective residential and light commercial buildings in the American marketplace. Over the past three years the Solar Energy Research Institute and the Department of Energy worked with building manufacturers to design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process led to extremely valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. Because of the tight cost/marketing restrictions in this industry, the lessons learned in this program are beneficial to all sections of the design and building community. The scope and content of this data is described by using a case study developed for the program.

  19. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  20. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-26

    structural and armor alloys and their weldments, as well as the development of agile, reconfigurable automated manufacturing environments. These...included construction of a work cell around the Fanuc M16 robot to simulate the installation of a window or windshield panel. The vacuum grip end effecter...lower strength alloys would further increase productivity of the tandem wire time twin process. The use of a double -V- groove joint for both welding

  1. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  2. Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor); Poon, Hak Fei (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An stable electrohydrodynamic filament is obtained by causing a straight electrohydrodynamic filament formed from a liquid to emerge from a Taylor cone, the filament having a diameter of from 10 nm to 100.mu.m. Such filaments are useful in electrohydrodynamic printing and manufacturing techniques and their application in liquid drop/particle and fiber production, colloidal deployment and assembly, and composite materials processing.

  3. Simulator manufacturers' requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Simulator manufacturers must continue to provide the customers the latest wind shear models available for pilot training. The release of the JAWS data package enabled the provision of a much more realistic wind shear package to the customer rather than just the standard six SRI wind shear profiles currently in use. In this brief presentation, the steps taken in implementing the JAWS data into the FAA 727 simulator are highlighted.

  4. The collection of MicroED data for macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dan; Nannenga, Brent L; de la Cruz, M Jason; Liu, Jinyang; Sawtelle, Steven; Calero, Guillermo; Reyes, Francis E; Hattne, Johan; Gonen, Tamir

    2016-05-01

    The formation of large, well-ordered crystals for crystallographic experiments remains a crucial bottleneck to the structural understanding of many important biological systems. To help alleviate this problem in crystallography, we have developed the MicroED method for the collection of electron diffraction data from 3D microcrystals and nanocrystals of radiation-sensitive biological material. In this approach, liquid solutions containing protein microcrystals are deposited on carbon-coated electron microscopy grids and are vitrified by plunging them into liquid ethane. MicroED data are collected for each selected crystal using cryo-electron microscopy, in which the crystal is diffracted using very few electrons as the stage is continuously rotated. This protocol gives advice on how to identify microcrystals by light microscopy or by negative-stain electron microscopy in samples obtained from standard protein crystallization experiments. The protocol also includes information about custom-designed equipment for controlling crystal rotation and software for recording experimental parameters in diffraction image metadata. Identifying microcrystals, preparing samples and setting up the microscope for diffraction data collection take approximately half an hour for each step. Screening microcrystals for quality diffraction takes roughly an hour, and the collection of a single data set is ∼10 min in duration. Complete data sets and resulting high-resolution structures can be obtained from a single crystal or by merging data from multiple crystals.

  5. The collection of MicroED data for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dan; Nannenga, Brent L; de la Cruz, M Jason; Liu, Jinyang; Sawtelle, Steven; Calero, Guillermo; Reyes, Francis E; Hattne, Johan; Gonen, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    The formation of large, well-ordered crystals for crystallographic experiments remains a crucial bottleneck to the structural understanding of many important biological systems. To help alleviate this problem in crystallography, we have developed the MicroED method for the collection of electron diffraction data from 3D microcrystals and nanocrystals of radiation-sensitive biological material. In this approach, liquid solutions containing protein microcrystals are deposited on carbon-coated electron microscopy grids and are vitrified by plunging them into liquid ethane. MicroED data are collected for each selected crystal using cryo-electron microscopy, in which the crystal is diffracted using very few electrons as the stage is continuously rotated. This protocol gives advice on how to identify microcrystals by light microscopy or by negative-stain electron microscopy in samples obtained from standard protein crystallization experiments. The protocol also includes information about custom-designed equipment for controlling crystal rotation and software for recording experimental parameters in diffraction image metadata. Identifying microcrystals, preparing samples and setting up the microscope for diffraction data collection take approximately half an hour for each step. Screening microcrystals for quality diffraction takes roughly an hour, and the collection of a single data set is ~10 min in duration. Complete data sets and resulting high-resolution structures can be obtained from a single crystal or by merging data from multiple crystals. PMID:27077331

  6. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  7. The system analysis of light field information collection based on the light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Li, Wenhua; Hao, Chenyang

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality(AR) technology is becoming the study focus, and the AR effect of the light field imaging makes the research of light field camera attractive. The micro array structure was adopted in most light field information acquisition system(LFIAS) since emergence of light field camera, micro lens array(MLA) and micro pinhole array(MPA) system mainly included. It is reviewed in this paper the structure of the LFIAS that the Light field camera commonly used in recent years. LFIAS has been analyzed based on the theory of geometrical optics. Meanwhile, this paper presents a novel LFIAS, plane grating system, we call it "micro aperture array(MAA." And the LFIAS are analyzed based on the knowledge of information optics; This paper proves that there is a little difference in the multiple image produced by the plane grating system. And the plane grating system can collect and record the amplitude and phase information of the field light.

  8. Manufacturing a Superconductor in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, John

    1989-01-01

    Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

  9. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  10. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  11. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  12. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  13. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  14. MicroED data collection and processing

    PubMed Central

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; de la Cruz, M. Jason; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges. PMID:26131894

  15. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  16. Biological inspiration in optics and photonics: harnessing nature's light manipulation strategies for multifunctional optical materials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolle, Mathias; Sandt, Joseph D.; Nagelberg, Sara N.; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Kreysing, Moritz; Vukusic, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The precise control of light-matter interactions is crucial for the majority of known biological organisms in their struggle to survive. Many species have evolved unique methods to manipulate light in their environment using a variety of physical effects including pigment-induced, spectrally selective absorption or light interference in photonic structures that consist of micro- and nano-periodic material morphologies. In their optical performance, many of the known biological photonic systems are subject to selection criteria not unlike the requirements faced in the development of novel optical technology. For this reason, biological light manipulation strategies provide inspiration for the creation of tunable, stimuli-responsive, adaptive material platforms that will contribute to the development of multifunctional surfaces and innovative optical technology. Biomimetic and bio-inspired approaches for the manufacture of photonic systems rely on self-assembly and bottom-up growth techniques often combined with conventional top-down manufacturing. In this regard, we can benefit in several ways from highly sophisticated material solutions that have convergently evolved in various organisms. We explore design concepts found in biological photonic architectures, seek to understand the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of bio-optical systems, aim to devise viable manufacturing strategies that can benefit from insight in biological formation processes and the use of established synthetic routines alike, and ultimately strive to realize new photonic materials with tailor-made optical properties. This talk is focused on the identification of biological role model photonic architectures, a brief discussion of recently developed bio-inspired photonic structures, including mechano-sensitive color-tunable photonic fibers and reconfigurable fluid micro-lenses. Potentially, early-stage results in studying and harnessing the structure-forming capabilities of living cells that

  17. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  18. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  19. 77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... ] Manufacturing Council (Council) for a two-year term to begin in fall 2012. The purpose of the Council is...

  20. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  1. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  2. 77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... appointment of 25 members of the Manufacturing Council (Council) for a two-year term to begin in fall...

  3. 77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... manufacturing council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... of 25 members of the Manufacturing Council (Council) for a two-year term to begin in fall 2012....

  4. Manufacturers' Views of Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ann R.; Russell, Jill Frymier

    A survey of manufacturers was conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and the National Center for Research in Vocational Education to elicit the views of NAM members about vocational education--the effectiveness of vocational education, the collaborative activities between manufacturers and vocational education, and…

  5. Reconfigurable and responsive droplet-based compound micro-lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelberg, Sara; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Nicolas, Natalie; Subramanian, Kaushikaram; Kalow, Julia A.; Sresht, Vishnu; Blankschtein, Daniel; Barbastathis, George; Kreysing, Moritz; Swager, Timothy M.; Kolle, Mathias

    2017-03-01

    Micro-scale optical components play a crucial role in imaging and display technology, biosensing, beam shaping, optical switching, wavefront-analysis, and device miniaturization. Herein, we demonstrate liquid compound micro-lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths. We employ bi-phase emulsion droplets fabricated from immiscible hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon liquids to form responsive micro-lenses that can be reconfigured to focus or scatter light, form real or virtual images, and display variable focal lengths. Experimental demonstrations of dynamic refractive control are complemented by theoretical analysis and wave-optical modelling. Additionally, we provide evidence of the micro-lenses' functionality for two potential applications--integral micro-scale imaging devices and light field display technology--thereby demonstrating both the fundamental characteristics and the promising opportunities for fluid-based dynamic refractive micro-scale compound lenses.

  6. Reconfigurable and responsive droplet-based compound micro-lenses

    PubMed Central

    Nagelberg, Sara; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Nicolas, Natalie; Subramanian, Kaushikaram; Kalow, Julia A.; Sresht, Vishnu; Blankschtein, Daniel; Barbastathis, George; Kreysing, Moritz; Swager, Timothy M.; Kolle, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Micro-scale optical components play a crucial role in imaging and display technology, biosensing, beam shaping, optical switching, wavefront-analysis, and device miniaturization. Herein, we demonstrate liquid compound micro-lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths. We employ bi-phase emulsion droplets fabricated from immiscible hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon liquids to form responsive micro-lenses that can be reconfigured to focus or scatter light, form real or virtual images, and display variable focal lengths. Experimental demonstrations of dynamic refractive control are complemented by theoretical analysis and wave-optical modelling. Additionally, we provide evidence of the micro-lenses' functionality for two potential applications—integral micro-scale imaging devices and light field display technology—thereby demonstrating both the fundamental characteristics and the promising opportunities for fluid-based dynamic refractive micro-scale compound lenses. PMID:28266505

  7. Self-assembly micro optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping (Cerina); Le, Kevin; Malalur-Nagaraja-Rao, Smitha; Hsu, Lun-Chen; Chiao, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical communication and sensor industry face critical challenges in manufacturing for system integration. Due to the assembly complexity and integration platform variety, micro optical components require costly alignment and assembly procedures, in which many required manual efforts. Consequently, self-assembly device architectures have become a great interest and could provide major advantages over the conventional optical devices. In this paper, we discussed a self-assembly integration platform for micro optical components. To demonstrate the adaptability and flexibility of the proposed optical device architectures, we chose a commercially available MEMS fabrication foundry service - MUMPs (Multi-User MEMS Process). In this work, polysilicon layers of MUMPS are used as the 3-D structural material for construction of micro component framework and actuators. However, because the polysilicon has high absorption in the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges, it is not suitable for optical interaction. To demonstrate the required optical performance, hybrid integration of materials was proposed and implemented. Organic compound materials were applied on the silicon-based framework to form the required optical interfaces. Organic compounds provide good optical transparency, flexibility to form filters or lens and inexpensive manufacturing procedures. In this paper, we have demonstrated a micro optical filter integrated with self-assembly structures. We will discuss the self-assembly mechanism, optical filter designs, fabrication issues and results.

  8. Laser based micro forming and assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Steyskal, Michele D.; Lehecka, Tom; Scherzinger, William Mark; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that thermal energy imparted to a metallic substrate by laser heating induces a transient temperature gradient through the thickness of the sample. In favorable conditions of laser fluence and absorptivity, the resulting inhomogeneous thermal strain leads to a measurable permanent deflection. This project established parameters for laser micro forming of thin materials that are relevant to MESA generation weapon system components and confirmed methods for producing micrometer displacements with repeatable bend direction and magnitude. Precise micro forming vectors were realized through computational finite element analysis (FEA) of laser-induced transient heating that indicated the optimal combination of laser heat input relative to the material being heated and its thermal mass. Precise laser micro forming was demonstrated in two practical manufacturing operations of importance to the DOE complex: micrometer gap adjustments of precious metal alloy contacts and forming of meso scale cones.

  9. Quantitation of protein particles in parenteral solutions using micro-flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ting; Sharma, Deepak; Oma, Peter; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. and European Pharmacopeias require subvisible (> or =10 and > or =25 microm) and visible particulate testing of therapeutics to ensure their safety and suitability for clinical use. The objective of this article is to compare the sizing and counting accuracies of light obscuration, which is the standard technique used to measure subvisible particulate matter, and Micro-Flow Imaging (MFI), a new imaging-based technology. An immunoconjugate was selected as the model protein for this study since it could be induced to form particulate matter in PBS. Light obscuration was performed as described in USP chapter <788> while MFI measurements were conducted per the manufacturer's procedures. The two techniques yielded similar results when polystyrene standards were analyzed. However, the MFI measurements indicated the presence of significantly more particles in the protein-containing solution compared to the light obscuration measurements. The presence of nonspherical protein particles as well as particles that possess a refractive index similar to the solvent that they are in appear to be detected by MFI, but not by light obscuration, leading to the difference in the results. Imaging-based technologies could aid in developing formulations and processes that would minimize the formation of protein particulates.

  10. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  11. New Approaches for Printed Electronics Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ankit

    overlay alignment, which is the most significant challenge of printed electronics manufacturing. Multi-layered electronic devices require alignment of multiple layers of different materials with micron-level tolerances, which is a daunting task to accomplish on deformable, moving substrates in R2R production formats. This thesis describes a novel, self-aligned manufacturing strategy for printed electronics that relies on capillary flow of inkjet-printed inks within open micro-channels. Multi-level trench networks, pre-engineered on the substrate surface, are sequentially filled with different inks which, upon drying, form stacked layers of electronic materials. Using this approach, fully self-aligned fabrication of all the major building blocks of an integrated circuit is demonstrated. Overall, this thesis presents several new manufacturing avenues for realizing high-performing and dense electronics on plastic by R2R processing.

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  14. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  15. The study of double flank micro gear roll testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Chih; An, Nai-Chun; Yang, Shu-Han; Yan, Sheng-Zhan; Chen, Shih-Lu

    2011-12-01

    The recent fast development of multifunctional portable electronic devices results in the obvious requirement of micro mechanical components. Due to the popular application of the micro actuators and the micro gearboxes, micro gears become the frequently used micro mechanical component in a small device such as small intelligent robots or dental surgical devices. Metal Industries Research & Development Centre (MIRDC) has successfully developed a small speed reducer that comprises several micro planetary gear trains. The module of this micro planetary gear train is 0.12mm. Since all gears are small, no commercial instrument is available for inspection. How to evaluate the manufacturing quality of micro gears becomes an important issue. This study focuses on the double flank gear rolling test and a specialized apparatus is built referring to the testing requirements in the international standards. The center distance variation during the rolling test is recorded and two indices, the total radial composite deviation and the maximum tooth-to-tooth radial composite deviation, are calculated to evaluate the accuracy grade of the micro gears. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the micro gear made by the cold forging process conforms to grade 7 defined in the ISO 1328-2 while grade 2 is achieved if the JGMA 116-02 is specified.

  16. Evaporation in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    'Normal evaporation' equations for predicting the compositional changes with time and temperature have been developed and correlated with actual experimental data. An evaporative congruent temperature is defined and used to explain, predict, or plan space experiments on anomalous constitutional melting (on cooling) or solidification (on heating). Uneven evaporation causes reactive jetting forces capable of initiating new convection currents, nongravitational accelerations, surface vibrations, or other disturbances. Applications of evaporation to space manufacturing are described concerning evaporative purification, surface cooling, specimen selection, particles splitting, freezing data interpretation, material loss and dimensional control, and surface contamination or compositional changes.

  17. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  18. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  19. Assessing impact of manufacturing and package configurations to photosensitive compounds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago C; Escotet, Megerle L; Lin, Judy; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-01-01

    Determining liability of photosensitive compounds during manufacturing, packaging, and storage remains a challenge for formulation scientists prior to the confirmatory photostability studies as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Q1B guideline. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light exposure to bulk process intermediates and drug product in the manufacturing environment as well as to evaluate package configurations for tablets containing Compound A. Samples were analyzed for both photodegradant levels and tablet appearance. Final blend, uncoated tablets, and coated tablets were exposed to fluorescent light relevant to the manufacturing environment. Final blend presented linear photodegradant growth from 6 to 72 h of equivalent light exposure in the manufacturing environment. Change in color of uncoated tablets occurred before quantifiable levels of photodegradant were reached. The film-coated tablets did not show photodegradation above quantifiable levels or a color shift for up to 48 h. Tablets in open conditions and packaged in HPDE bottles and PVC/Aclar (clear and opaque) were exposed to light at 1 × and 3 × the cumulative light exposure as defined in the ICH Q1B using Option 2 as the light source. The results showed that photodegradation is not a concern for all package configurations investigated and that extreme light exposure may cause a slight color shift for tablets in packages made of transparent materials. Most importantly, the study design presented herein provided a framework for an end-to-end evaluation of risks of manufacturing and packaging of tablets containing photolabile compounds prior to performing confirmatory photostability studies.

  20. 75 FR 38129 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Hardware/Software Design and Manufacturing A Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing A Including On-Site Leased Workers From TAC Worldwide, GDA Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion..., GDA Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion Design, Design Solutions, Inc., Veriseo, SilconElite and Micro... Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion Design, Design Solutions, Inc., Veriseo, SiliconElite and MicroLogic,...

  1. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  2. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  3. Micro Flow Cytometry Miniaturisation - Towards in-situ Optical Phytoplankton Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijan, R.; Abi Kaed Bey, S.; Mowlem, M. C.; Morgan, H.

    2012-04-01

    The use of flow cytometry for studies of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations is a valuable tool contributing to research relating carbon biogeochemistry and climate change. Early designs and marine deployments of such devices started over two decades ago [1-3]. Miniaturisation and cost reduction without sacrificing performance remains a major challenge but would enable mass production and deployment. Large numbers of measurement nodes (e.g. as part of a global ocean observation system) would be possible which would increase data available over both spatial and temporal scales. This research presents two different design approaches for miniaturisation and integration of optics into a microfluidic cytometer chip. The proposed solutions are suitable for micro cytometers with external components coupled with optical fibres and were simulated and optimised using ray tracing software (Zemax). The two designs address light delivery for excitation of particles within the measurement region of the cytometer. One uses an integrated micro lens (fabricated in the chip) and the other a ball shaped micro lens manufactured separately and then inserted into the chip. Both approaches collimate the excitation light beam (from an off chip diode laser coupled with an optical fibre) into the fluidic channel. The predicted (by ray tracing) excitation beam widths are 70 and 80 µm for the integrated and the ball lens respectively, and are in agreement with experimental data presented. The proposed cytometer chip design is compatible with low cost materials (acrylic glass, cyclo-olefines) and manufacturing methods (micro milling, hot embossing, injection moulding). 1. Dubelaar, G.B.J. and P.L. Gerritzen, CytoBuoy: a step forward towards using flow cytometry in operational oceanography. Scientia Marina, 2000. 64(2): p. 255-265. 2. Peeters, J.C.H., et al., Optical Plankton Analyzer - a Flow Cytometer for Plankton Analysis .1. Design Considerations. Cytometry, 1989

  4. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  5. Magnet cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.

    1990-10-01

    The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

  6. Materials Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRC's Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  7. Material Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRCs Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  8. Circulation (Organs). MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT (Except for the Evaluation Summary Table): PRODUCER: Micro Power and Light Company, Keystone Park, Suite 1108, 13773 N. Central Expressway, Dallas, TX 75243. LOCAL DISTRIBUTORS: Contact producer for list. EVALUATION COMPLETED: Fall 1981. VERSION: Apple II. COST: $29.95. ABILITY LEVEL: Grades 5-12.…

  9. Fuel-Free Synthetic Micro-/Nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tailin; Gao, Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Shutao

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the swimming of natural microorganisms, synthetic micro-/nanomachines, which convert energy into movement, are able to mimic the function of these amazing natural systems and help humanity by completing environmental and biological tasks. While offering autonomous propulsion, conventional micro-/nanomachines usually rely on the decomposition of external chemical fuels (e.g., H2 O2 ), which greatly hinders their applications in biologically relevant media. Recent developments have resulted in various micro-/nanomotors that can be powered by biocompatible fuels. Fuel-free synthetic micro-/nanomotors, which can move without external chemical fuels, represent another attractive solution for practical applications owing to their biocompatibility and sustainability. Here, recent developments on fuel-free micro-/nanomotors (powered by various external stimuli such as light, magnetic, electric, or ultrasonic fields) are summarized, ranging from fabrication to propulsion mechanisms. The applications of these fuel-free micro-/nanomotors are also discussed, including nanopatterning, targeted drug/gene delivery, cell manipulation, and precision nanosurgery. With continuous innovation, future autonomous, intelligent and multifunctional fuel-free micro-/nanomachines are expected to have a profound impact upon diverse biomedical applications, providing unlimited opportunities beyond one's imagination.

  10. Integrating post-manufacturing issues into design and manufacturing decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, Charles F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation is conducted on research into some of the fundamental issues underlying the design for manufacturing, service and recycling that affect engineering decisions early in the conceptual design phase of mechanical systems. The investigation focuses on a system-based approach to material selection, manufacturing methods and assembly processes related to overall product requirements, performance and life-cycle costs. Particular emphasis is placed on concurrent engineering decision support for post-manufacturing issues such as serviceability, recyclability, and product retirement.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF TITANIUM BONDED GRAPHITE FOAM COMPOSITES FOR MICRO ELECTRONIC MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    PiMEMS Inc. (Santa Barbara, CA) in collaboration with ORNL investigated the use of Titanium Bonded Graphite Foam Composites (TBGC) for thermal mitigation in Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications. Also considered were potentially new additive manufacturing routes to producing novel high surface area micro features and diverse shaped heat transfer components for numerous lightweight MEMs applications.

  12. Transfer printing and micro-scale hybrid materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Matthew Alexander

    Micro- and nano-scale engineering, especially as it applies to integrated circuits, has impacted society in revolutionary ways. These integrated circuits are characterized by huge numbers of small electronic devices manufactured on semiconductor wafers. Some emerging technologies will require assemblies of these micro/nano-devices on substrates that are very different from semiconductor wafers in terms of processing schemes and properties. Integration of high quality semiconductors and devices onto large, low-cost, mechanically- deformable, polymeric (plastic or elastomer), and/or functional substrates for unconventional electronics applications (displays, systems-on-a-chip) are a few examples. This dissertation presents methods for assembling small-scale (˜nm to ˜mm) materials elements and devices on many classes of substrate (planar or simply-curved with nearly arbitrary composition) via transfer printing, a form of soft lithography. The approach uses rubber stamps to manipulate arrays of small-scale objects including but not limited to carbon nanotubes, metal thin films, single-crystal silicon and III-V semiconductor microstructures and devices, few-layer graphene, and silica microspheres. Presented here are the techniques for preparing printable materials elements and devices from solution (e.g. surfactant stabilized aqueous carbon nanotube solutions) and from donor/source substrates (e.g. semiconductor wafers) as well as the mechanical phenomena that govern the transfer of materials to and from the stamp. Among these are kinetically-switchable adhesion to a viscoelastic stamp and stress focusing via sharp geometries for controlling fracture. Also presented here are thin-film transistors, photodiodes, and inorganic light-emitting diodes on plastic substrates as well as semiconductor woodpile structures and silicon-III-V heterogeneous integration, examples of the capabilities of the transfer printing approach.

  13. Experimental study on resonator micro-optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng; Shi, Bang-ren; Chen, Chen; Guo, Li-jun; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Qiu-e.

    2011-08-01

    Resonator optic gyroscope (ROG) based on Sagnac effect has been investigated over the past years and developed as an attractive device for many applications. Resonator micro-optic gyroscope (R-MOG) with an only several-cm-long ring on a wafer is a promising candidate for the new generation inertial rotation sensor. Using micro machining process, R-MOG was manufactured on the silicon or LiNbO3 wafer by etching passive optical ring resonator devices. It has great advantages by realizing the minitype. R-MOG is a kind of optic gyroscope by detecting the resonance frequency difference of the clockwise and counterclockwise resonance to measure the angular velocity. The Sagnac effect is extremely weak, so the detection method has been the key point in researching R-MOG. Using the multi-beam superposition principle, we theoretically analyzed the signal detection scheme based on laser frequency modulation and experimentally investigated the equivalent open-loop signals of a R-MOG chip. The passive ring resonator (PRR), the core component of R-MOG, was composed of a ring waveguide with a radius of 2cm and an optical coupler with the coupling ratio of 12%. The resonance curve showed that the free spectral range (FSR), full width at half maximum (FWHM) and fineness were 3.0378GHz, 74.09MHz and 41, respectively. In the equivalent open-loop experiment, the counterclockwise (CCW) light frequency was locked to its resonant point, and the clockwise (CW) optical frequency changed around the CW resonant point. The experimental results illustrated that the sensitivity of the R-MOG was 6.15 rad/s.

  14. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  15. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-10-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

  17. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  18. Eye vision system using programmable micro-optics and micro-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Mehdi N.

    2014-02-01

    Proposed is a novel eye vision system that combines the use of advanced micro-optic and microelectronic technologies that includes programmable micro-optic devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF) and optical wireless communication and control links, energy harvesting and storage devices and remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. This portable light weight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under test, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. Described is the basic design of the proposed system and its first stage system experimental results for vision spherical lens refractive error correction.

  19. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  20. Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-01-06

    Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  1. Performance Characterization of the Free Molecule Micro-Resistojet Utilizing Water Propellant (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-24

    missions are currently being conceived as a result of the development of micro - and nano - technologies. The general agreement in the spacecraft...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Performance Characterization of the Free Molecule Micro -Resistojet...Submitted for publication in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 14. ABSTRACT Advances in micro -technology manufacturing and capability have led

  2. Designing the Very Small: Micro and Nanotechnology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1996-01-01

    This learning activity is designed to increase knowledge of materials science; engineering; and technology design and the manufacture of the very small devices used in watches, computers, and calculators. It looks at possible innovations to come from micro- and nanotechnology. Includes a student quiz. (Author/JOW)

  3. Managing the Manpower Aspects of Applying Micro-Electronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, P.; Routledge, C.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines major effects that the application of micro-electronics devices in products/processes and in office systems will have on future manpower and skill requirements in manufacturing organizations. Identifies the type of problems these changes will pose for manpower managers. Provides general guidelines for the successful management of these…

  4. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  5. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae Jin; Seo, Tae Il; Park, Dong Sam

    2008-02-22

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  6. Optical design including characteristics of manufactured nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Christoph; Müller, Martin; Förster, Erik; Oliva, Maria; Michaelis, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Micro- and nanostructures enable specific optical functionalities, which rely on diffractive effects or effective medium features, depending on pattern dimension and wavelength. Performance predictions of optical systems which make use of nanostructured materials require having an accurate description of these materials ready to hand within the optical design. At the one hand, nanostructure characteristics which result from rigorous electromagnetic modeling can be used for the optical design. At the other hand, manufactured nanostructures may deviate from their idealized geometry, which will affect the performance of the optical system, wherein these artificial structures will be used. Thus, detailed optical characterization of the micro- or nanostructure functionality is prerequisite for accurate optical design and performance prediction. To this end, several characterization techniques can be applied depending on the scope of the optical design, finally. We report on a general route to include all accessible and required optical information about the nanostructured material within a corresponding model of the nanostructure as a specific optical component which can be used within a ray-trace engine, finally. This is illustrated by a meta-material with asymmetric transmission properties in some more detail.

  7. MANUFACTURING METHODS FOR PHASE SHIFTERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MANUFACTURING), (*PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, FERRITES , GARNET, DIGITAL SYSTEMS, X BAND, C BAND, S BAND, RADAR EQUIPMENT, MAGNETIC MATERIALS, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, GADOLINIUM COMPOUNDS, ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, IRON COMPOUNDS, OXIDES.

  8. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  9. Micro-micro hierarchy replacing micro-nano hierarchy: a precisely controlled way to produce wear-resistant superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Eero; Hirvi, Janne; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2012-10-16

    Superhydrophobic polymer surfaces are typically fabricated by combining hierarchical micro-nanostructures. The surfaces have a great technological potential because of their special water-repellent and self-cleaning properties. However, the poor mechanical robustness of such surfaces has severely limited their use in practical applications. This study presents a simple and swift mass production method for manufacturing hierarchically structured polymer surfaces at micrometer scale. Polypropylene surface structuring was done using injection molding, where the microstructured molds were made with a microworking robot. The effect of the micro-microstructuring on the polymer surface wettability and mechanical robustness was studied and compared to the corresponding properties of micro-nanostructured surfaces. The static contact angles of the micro-microstructured surfaces were greater than 150° and the contact angle hysteresis was low, showing that the effect of hierarchy on the surface wetting properties works equally well at micrometer scale. Hierarchically micro-microstructured polymer surfaces exhibited the same superhydrophobic wetting properties as did the hierarchically micro-nanostructured surfaces. Micro-microstructures had superior mechanical robustness in wear tests as compared to the micro-nanostructured surfaces. The new microstructuring technique offers a precisely controlled way to produce superhydrophobic wetting properties to injection moldable polymers with sufficiently high intrinsic hydrophobicity.

  10. Electrophoretic separation of lunar soils in a space manufacturing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. D.; Snyder, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of electrophoretic separation of lunar soil into its mineral constituents is discussed in this paper. The process and its applicability to lunar soil separation are considered in light of the special requirements of a space manufacturing effort. Data generated in studies at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, which assess the efficiency of electrophoretic separation of lunar soil, are discussed and evaluated.

  11. 46 CFR 161.013-17 - Manufacturer notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturer notification. 161.013-17 Section 161.013-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-17...

  12. 46 CFR 161.013-17 - Manufacturer notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer notification. 161.013-17 Section 161.013-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-17...

  13. 46 CFR 161.013-17 - Manufacturer notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturer notification. 161.013-17 Section 161.013-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-17...

  14. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night Visual Distress Signal for Boats Complies with U. S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 161.013. For Emergency Use Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise...

  15. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night Visual Distress Signal for Boats Complies with U. S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 161.013. For Emergency Use Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise...

  16. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night Visual Distress Signal for Boats Complies with U. S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 161.013. For Emergency Use Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise...

  17. Micro-assembly using optically controlled bubble microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenqi; Ishii, Kelly S.; Ohta, Aaron T.

    2011-08-01

    Bubbles controlled by optically induced heating were made to function as novel microrobots for micromanipulation and micro-assembly. Using light patterns generated by a commercial computer projector, bubble microrobots were controlled and used to manipulate glass microbeads and perform the micro-assembly of micro-blocks and cell-encapsulating hydrogel beads. Two manipulation modes, pulling and pushing, were used to move micro-objects into place and manipulate glass beads with a velocity of up to 350 μm/s. The simultaneous independent control of three bubble robots was also demonstrated.

  18. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    1993-01-01

    New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

  19. Introduction to Micro/Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaie, Babak; Baldi, Antonio; Atashbar, Massood

    This chapter outlines and discusses important micro- and nanofabrication techniques. We start with the most basic methods borrowed from the integrated circuit (IC) industry, such as thin film deposition, lithography and etching, and then move on to look at MEMS and nanofabrication technologies. We cover a broad range of dimensions, from the micron to the nanometer scale. Although most of the current research is geared towards the nanodomain, a good understanding of top-down methods for fabricating micron-sized objects can aid our understanding of this research. Due to space constraints, we have focused here on the most important technologies; in the microdomain these include surface, bulk and high aspect ratio micromachining; in the nanodomain we concentrate on e-beam lithography, epitaxial growth, template manufacturing and self-assembly. MEMS technology is maturing rapidly, with some new technologies displacing older ones that have proven to be unsuited to manufacture on a commercial scale. However, the jury is still out on methods used in the nanodomain, although it appears that bottom-up methods are the most feasible, and these will have a major impact in a variety of application areas such as biology, medicine, environmental monitoring and nanoelectronics.

  20. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  1. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  2. Exploring Manufacturing Occupations. Instructor's Guide. The Manufacturing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Rutherford, NJ.

    The major focus of this guide and its accompanying student manual (CE 010 397) is to help the student understand the manufacturing enterprise. (The guide and student manual are part of a manufacturing cluster series which addresses itself to career awareness, orientation, exploration, and preparation.) Seven sections are included. An overview of…

  3. Exploring Manufacturing Occupations. Student's Manual. The Manufacturing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Rutherford, NJ.

    This student manual and the accompanying instructor's guide (CE 010 376) are directed toward exploring manufacturing occupations. It is designed to help the student explore the various career, occupational, and job related fields found within the manufacturing occupations. Four sections are included. An overview of career education and…

  4. Flexible intramuscular micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical interface.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Chang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Du, Jing-Cheng; Kang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly developed micromachining technology, various kinds of sophisticated microelectrodes integrated with micro fluidic channels are design and fabricated for not only electrophysiological recording and stimulation, but also chemical drug delivery. As many efforts have been devoted to develop rigid microprobes for neural research of brain, few researchers concentrate on fabrication of flexible microelectrodes for intramuscular electrophysiology and chemical interfacing. Since crude wire electrodes still prevail in functional electrical stimulation (FES) and electromyography (EMG) recording of muscle, here we introduce a flexible micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical pathway. The proposed micro tube electrode is manufactured based on polymer capillary, which provide circumferential electrode site contacting with electro-active tissue and is easy to manufactured with low cost.

  5. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  6. 3D light robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Banas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale domains gradually demand the development of a new generation of disruptive tools, not only for passively observing at nanoscopic scales, but also for actively reaching into and effectively handling constituents in this size domain. This intriguing mindset has recently led to the emergence of a novel research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short.

  7. Laser micro-bending for precise micro-fabrication of magnetic disk drive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Naohisa

    2003-11-01

    Laser Micro-Bending technology attracts attention as one of the laser processing technology promising from now on. It has the feature that does not contact and does not have the spring back that fabrication in high accuracy can be performed. In our company, Laser Micro-Bending technology development is tackled about ten years before, and the laser bending fabrication technology of a sheet metal and ceramic material has so far been established. It has utilized as rapid prototyping of the sheet metal. But, by re-examination of laser oscillation control etc., it finds out that it is the excellent processing method for manufacture of the high precision mechanism parts for magnetic disk drives. This report explains the technology and machines of the roll and pitch adjustment of a magnetic head suspension, and flatting or crowning of the air bearing surface of a magnetic head slider by using Laser Micro-Bending technology.

  8. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  9. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer.... (a) General requirements. (1) A manufacturer of LDVs, LDTs and/or MDPVs must test, or cause testing to be conducted, under this section when the emission levels shown by a test group sample...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1714-99 - Small volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small volume manufacturers certification procedures. 86.1714-99 Section 86.1714-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1714-99 Small volume manufacturers certification...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1714-99 - Small volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small volume manufacturers certification procedures. 86.1714-99 Section 86.1714-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1714-99 Small volume manufacturers certification...

  12. Manufactured Homes as Affordable Housing in Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Robert, Comp.

    This bibliography includes citations of approximately 60 books and articles pertaining to manufactured housing or "mobile homes," an important segment of the national housing industry. The availability of manufactured homes for low and moderate income groups is significant in light of skyrocketing new-housing costs. The South leads the nation with…

  13. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  14. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the transfer of aerospace technology to solve key problems in the manufacturing sector of the economy is reported. Potential RTOP programs are summarized along with dissemination activities. The impact of transferred NASA manufacturing technology is discussed. Specific areas covered include aircraft production, robot technology, machining of alloys, and electrical switching systems.

  15. 75 FR 12507 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the...

  16. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  17. Silicon photonics manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Watts, Michael R

    2010-11-08

    Most demonstrations in silicon photonics are done with single devices that are targeted for use in future systems. One of the costs of operating multiple devices concurrently on a chip in a system application is the power needed to properly space resonant device frequencies on a system's frequency grid. We asses this power requirement by quantifying the source and impact of process induced resonant frequency variation for microdisk resonators across individual die, entire wafers and wafer lots for separate process runs. Additionally we introduce a new technique, utilizing the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes in microdisks, to extract thickness and width variations across wafers and dice. Through our analysis we find that a standard six inch Silicon on Insulator (SOI) 0.35 μm process controls microdisk resonant frequencies for the TE fundamental resonances to within 1 THz across a wafer and 105 GHz within a single die. Based on demonstrated thermal tuner technology, a stable manufacturing process exhibiting this level of variation can limit the resonance trimming power per resonant device to 231 μW. Taken in conjunction with the power to compensate for thermal environmental variations, the expected power requirement to compensate for fabrication-induced non-uniformities is 17% of that total. This leads to the prediction that thermal tuning efficiency is likely to have the most dominant impact on the overall power budget of silicon photonics resonator technology.

  18. Superconducting wire manufactured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuexian; Sun, Yue; Xu, Shiming; Peng, Ying

    1985-10-01

    The MF Nb/Cu Extrusion Tube Method was used to manufacture 3 kg of stable practical MF Nb2Sn composite superconducting wire containing pure Cu(RRR approx. 200)/Ta. The draw state composite wire diameter was 0.56 mm, it contained 11,448 x 2.6 micron Nb core, and the twist distance was 1.5 cm. The composite wire cross-section was pure Cu/Ta/11,448 Nb core/Cu/ 91Sn-Cu; containing 22.8 v. % pure Cu, 13.3 v. % Ta; within the Ta layer to prevent Sn diffusion. The wire was sheathed in nonalkaline glass fiber as an insulating layer. A section of wire weighing 160 g was cut off and coiled it into a small solenoid. After reaction diffusion processing at 675 C/30 and curing by vacuum dipping in paraffin, it was measured in a Nb-Ti backfield of 7.2 T intensity, a current of 129 A was passed through the Nb3Sn solenoid and produced a strength of 2.5 T, the overall magnetic field intensity of the composite magnet reached 9.7 T. At this time, the wire full current density J sub c.w. = 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm; the effective current density J sub c (Nb + Sn - Cu) = 8.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm.

  19. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Roger

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  20. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  1. Light Sources 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. Q.; Devonshire, R.

    2007-04-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China in the period May 20th to 24th, 2007. In the 32 years since the first symposium was held in Loughborough, UK, the LS series has established itself as the major international event which brings together on a regular basis the world's leading scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of light source technologies. The participants come from the R&D laboratories of the world’s leading light source manufacturing companies and from research groups in universities, government laboratories and research institutes. The highly multi-disciplinary nature of the field results in a unique mix of physicists, chemists, chemical physicists, materials scientists and electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers attending the symposia. The more than 250 papers in these LS:11 proceedings provide an excellent overview of the current status of light source science and technology. The energy efficiency and light emission characteristics of existing technologies continue to be improved, solid state technologies are advancing rapidly and innovation flourishes generally. Audience Professional scientists and engineers involved in light source related R&D. Postgraduate-level students in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. The contents will also be of interest to anyone with a background in science and engineering wishing to gain an overview of current activity in this important global industry and research field.

  2. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  3. Advantages of micro-optics over holograms for document authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenblik, Richard A.; Hurt, Mark J.; Knotts, Michael E.

    2002-04-01

    Holograms have been utilized to authenticate financial instruments and high value products for many years. The security provided by embossed holograms is limited by their low surface relief, typically 0.25 micron, which makes them susceptible to counterfeiting: stripping the hologram from the substrate exposes the complete holographic microstructure which can be easily used to create counterfeit tooling. A large improvement in counterfeit deterrence can be gained by the use of high precision non-holographic micro-optics and microstructures having a surface relief greater than a few microns. An unlimited range of distinctive optical effects can be obtained from micro-optic systems. Many of the possible optical effects, such as optical interactions between discrete elements, cannot be effectively simulated by any other means, including holography. We present descriptions of five Visual Physics document authentication micro-optic systems that provide sophisticated optical effects: Virtual Image, BackLite, Encloak, Optical Black, and Structural Color . Visual Physics document authentication micro-optics impose an additional level of counterfeit deterrence because the production of polymer films incorporating these microstructures requires unconventional manufacturing methods; conventional holographic reproduction processes, typical of hologram counterfeiting operations, are inadequate to faithfully reproduce the details and the function of these micro-optic elements. We have developed mastering, tooling, and high precision/high speed manufacturing processes that can faithfully replicate these complex surface relief micro-optics at low cost.

  4. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  5. Roll-To-Roll Process for Transparent Metal Electrodes in OLED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Slafer, W. Dennis

    2010-06-02

    This program will develop and demonstrate a new manufacturing technology that can help to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing the next generation solid-state lighting (OLEDs)for a broad range of commercial applications. This will not only improve US competitiveness in the manufacturing sector but will also result in a positive impact in meeting the Department of Energy’s goal of developing high efficiency lighting while reducing the environmental impact.

  6. Approach to characterize manufacture tolerances of two-dimensional cross-phase grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Ke

    2013-10-01

    Two-dimensional cross-phase grating (CPG), diffracting the incident wave into (+1,+1), (+1,-1), (-1,-1), and (-1,+1) orders diffraction light, is used as a wavefront shearing element in cross-phase grating lateral shearing interferometer. However, the manufacture errors always exist, and they produce unwanted diffraction orders in the process of CPG manufacture. The appearance of the unwanted orders will increase the background noise of the interferogram and may affect the accuracy of the interferogram analysis. So, it is necessary to analyze the influences of manufacture errors and to determine the manufacture tolerances to remove the effect. A method based on Fourier transform analysis is presented to characterize manufacture tolerances of CPG. In this method, first, the normalized intensity distribution produced by CPG with manufacture errors in the far field is obtained. In addition, relative intensity of other unwanted orders to (+1,-1) order diffraction light of the four replicas is calculated, respectively. According to the relative intensity, the influences due to different types of manufacture errors can be evaluated, and the manufacture tolerances can also be determined. Using the proposed method, the manufacture tolerances of CPG at 632.8 nm are determined. Experimental evaluation of the proposed method using the manufactured CPG at 632.8 nm is also carried out.

  7. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. MicroSight Optics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Relativistic Laser Pulse Intensification with 3D Printed Micro-Tube Plasma Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liangliang; Snyder, Joseph; Pukhov, Alexander; Akli, Kramer

    2015-11-01

    The potential and applications of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) are restricted by the parameter space of existing lasers and targets. Advancing the laser intensity to the extreme regime is motivated by the production of energetic particle beams and by the quest to explore the exotic regimes of light-matter interaction. Target density and dimensions can always be varied to optimize the outcome. Here, we propose to create another degree of freedom in the parameter space of LPI using recent advances in 3D printing of materials. Fine structures at nm scale with high repetition and accuracy can nowadays be manufactured, allowing for a full precise control of the target. We demonstrate, via particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, that 3D-printed micro-tube plasma (MTP) targets yield an intensity enhancement factor of 2-5. The novel MTP targets not only act as a plasma optical device to reach the 1023W/cm2 threshold based on today's intensities, but can also boost the generation of secondary particle and radiation sources. This work demonstrates that the combination of high contrast high power lasers and nano-3D printing techniques opens new paths in the intensity frontier and LPI micro-engineering.

  10. Micro-organ device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); von Gustedt-Gonda, legal representative, Iris (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  11. Micro-Organ Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  12. Micro-PROUST.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    essence of PROUST. Micro-PROUST is a 1500 line LISP program and runs on an IBM PC (with 512K). ’In this document we present, the inner workings of Micro...computed by the inner goaL. quenc ofpuitverube sop ptgs e is ieadn expe GThus thi goal requires that the pro- the average of these numbers. Do Igam...Micro-PROUST Code Pg 1. Introduction In this document we present the inner workings of Micro-PROUST. Our intent is to enable those who so are inclined to

  13. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  14. GaAs micro-pyramids serving as optical micro-cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, M.; Beck, T.; Li, S.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M.

    2010-01-04

    An efficient light-matter coupling requires high-quality (Q) micro-cavities with small mode volume. We suggest GaAs micro-pyramids placed on top of AlAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors to be promising candidates. The pyramids were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy, electron-beam lithography and a subsequent wet-chemical etching process using a sacrificial AlAs layer. Measured Q-factors of optical modes in single pyramids reach values up to 650. A finite-difference time-domain simulation assuming a simplified cone-shaped geometry suggests possible Q-factors up to 3600. To enhance the light confinement in the micro-pyramids we intend to overgrow the pyramidal facets with a Bragg mirror--results of preliminary tests are given.

  15. High strength fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouard, Yves; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Bado, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Flexures are mechanical elements used in micro- and precision-engineering to precisely guide the motion of micro-parts. They consist of slender bodies that deform elastically upon the application of a force. Although counter-intuitive at first, fused silica is an attractive material for flexure. Pending that the machining process does not introduce surface flaws that would lead to catastrophic failure, the material has a theoretically high ultimate tensile strength of several GPa. We report on high-aspect ratio fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser combined with chemical etching. Notch-hinges with thickness as small as twenty microns and aspect ratios comparable to aspect ratios obtained by Deep- Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) were fabricated and tested under different loading conditions. Multiple fracture tests were performed for various loading conditions and the cracks morphologies were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The manufactured elements show outstanding mechanical properties with flexural strengths largely exceeding those obtained with other technologies and materials. Fused silica flexures offer a mean to combine integrated optics with micro-mechanics in a single monolithic substrate. Waveguides and mechanical elements can be combined in a monolithic devices opening new opportunities for integrated opto-mechatronics devices.

  16. Manufacturing Ultra-Precision Meso-scale Products by Coining

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Davis, P J; Rickens, K; Osmer, J; Brinksmeier, E

    2010-02-18

    A method for replicating ultra-precision, meso-scale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank has been demonstrated. The 'coining' technology can be used to imprint a wide range of features and/or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The instrumented system provides the ability to measure and control the product thickness and total thickness variation (TTV). The coining mechanism relies on kinematic principles to accurately and efficiently produce ultra-precision work pieces without the production of by products such as machining chips, or grinding swarf while preserving surface finish, material structure and overall form. Coining has been developed as a niche process for manufacturing difficult to machine, millimeter size components made from materials that may present hazardous conditions. In the case described in this paper a refractory metal part, tantalum (Ta) was produced with 4 {micro}m peak to valley 50 {micro}m special wavelength sine wave coined into the surface of 50 {micro}m blank. This technique shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling and/or has strict requirements on subsurface damage, surface impurities and grain structure. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required and produce parts out of hazardous materials without generating added waste.

  17. New analysis strategies for micro aspheric lens metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugsa, Solomon Abebe

    Effective characterization of an aspheric micro lens is critical for understanding and improving processing in micro-optic manufacturing. Since most microlenses are plano-convex, where the convex geometry is a conic surface, current practice is often limited to obtaining an estimate of the lens conic constant, which average out the surface geometry that departs from an exact conic surface and any addition surface irregularities. We have developed a comprehensive approach of estimating the best fit conic and its uncertainty, and in addition propose an alternative analysis that focuses on surface errors rather than best-fit conic constant. We describe our new analysis strategy based on the two most dominant micro lens metrology methods in use today, namely, scanning white light interferometry (SWLI) and phase shifting interferometry (PSI). We estimate several parameters from the measurement. The major uncertainty contributors for SWLI are the estimates of base radius of curvature, the aperture of the lens, the sag of the lens, noise in the measurement, and the center of the lens. In the case of PSI the dominant uncertainty contributors are noise in the measurement, the radius of curvature, and the aperture. Our best-fit conic procedure uses least squares minimization to extract a best-fit conic value, which is then subjected to a Monte Carlo analysis to capture combined uncertainty. In our surface errors analysis procedure, we consider the surface errors as the difference between the measured geometry and the best-fit conic surface or as the difference between the measured geometry and the design specification for the lens. We focus on a Zernike polynomial description of the surface error, and again a Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate a combined uncertainty, which in this case is an uncertainty for each Zernike coefficient. Our approach also allows us to investigate the effect of individual uncertainty parameters and measurement noise on both the best

  18. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  19. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  20. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOEpatents

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  1. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  2. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome; and (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use, and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. The basic program goals were achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered.

  3. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  4. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, Brenor

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  5. Analysis of curved shape micro-mirrors for on-chip communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiu, Roxana Mariana; Mnerie, Corina; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2016-12-01

    New ways of employing optics at the micro and nanometer scale are of interest. This study analyses the most common two micro-mirror shapes (i.e., spherical and parabolic) that can be used for on-chip communication - in conjunction with fiber optics/waveguides. The classical conic sections that can be used for micro-mirrors are described and a technological approach to design and manufacture such devices is presented. Finally an optimization of the parabolic micro-mirror is achieved. Other micro-mirror shapes (e.g., elliptical and hyperbolic) can be approached and compared using the same procedure. The large area of applications of such micro-mirrors includes intra- or inter-chips communications, as well as free-space optics used for various optical systems: micro-optics, optical amplifiers, lasers, and wavelength converters.

  6. A New Approach For The Validation Of Filling Simulations In Micro Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gava, A.; Tosello, G.; Hansen, H. N.; Salvador, M.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-05-01

    In manufacturing polymer micro products, numerical simulations are used with the same purposes as in conventional injection moulding, mainly the optimization of micro components design, the optimization of process parameters and the decrease of production costs. Dedicated simulations softwares fail to correctly describe the melt flow in microstructures, mainly because phenomena such as tendency of polymers to slip in micro-channels, micro scale surface effects, and micro scale rheological behaviour are not considered. Therefore, accuracy of computer aided engineering simulations still needs to be improved. The main objective of this work is to evaluate whether the present numerical codes are suitable to characterize melt flow patterns in a micro cavity. In order to test the accuracy of the software, real and simulated experiments were performed and used to investigate the filling of a micro moulded component.

  7. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  8. Fringe stabilizers and their application to telecommunication device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2000-10-01

    The ability to create stable holographic grating is an important part of the production of many telecommunication products. The stability problem is increased by the need to use ultra-violet light for close fringe spacing and long exposure times on phot-resist - a relatively low sensitivity material. Active fringe locking increases the modulation depth and efficiency of these holographic gratings. A discussion of how fringe lockers work and how they can be incorporated into a manufacturing set-up is followed by results of using fringe lockers in the manufacturing of some telecommunication devices.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  10. An analysis of buildings-related energy use in manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Niefer, M.J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop improved estimates of buildings-related energy use in US manufacturing facilities. The research was supported by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The research scope includes only space conditioning and lighting end uses. In addition, this study also estimates the energy savings potential for application of selected commercial buildings technologies being developed by the BTS office to manufacturing and other industrial process facilities. 17 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 27029 - The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing... Manufacturing Council (Council). The agenda may change to accommodate Council business. The final agenda will be... Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230, telephone...

  12. Light Visor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder is a form of depression brought on by reduced light. For some people, this can lead to clinical depression. NASA has conducted research in light therapy and employs it to help astronauts adjust internal rhythms during orbital flight. Dr. George Brainard, a medical researcher and NASA consultant, has developed a portable light therapy device, which is commercially available. The Light Visor allows continuous light therapy and can be powered by either batteries or electricity. Dr. Brainard continues to research various aspects of light therapy.

  13. Electrochemical micro/nano-machining: principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongping; Han, Lianhuan; Zhang, Jie; He, Quanfeng; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2017-03-06

    Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM. This comprehensive review presents the state-of-art of EC-MNM techniques for direct writing, surface planarization and polishing, and 3D-MNS fabrications. The key point of EC-MNM is to confine electrochemical reactions at the micro/nano-meter scale. This review will bring together various solutions to "confined reaction" ranging from electrochemical principles through technical characteristics to relevant applications.

  14. 7 CFR 1170.5 - Manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.5 Manufacturer. Manufacturer means any person engaged in the business of buying milk in commerce for the purpose of manufacturing dairy products in one or more locations....

  15. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-15

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  16. Wear behavior of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite manufactured by a centrifugal method

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamanaka, Noboru; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a wear-resistant, light Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite material. An Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite specimen was machined from a thick-walled tube of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material (FGM) manufactured by the centrifugal method from a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was heated to a temperature where solid Al{sub 3}Ti particles resided in a liquid Al matrix, and then the centrifugal method was carried out. Al{sub 3}Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot exist as platelets, and this shape was maintained through the casting. Three kinds of wear specimens were prepared, taking into account the morphology of the Al{sub 3}Ti particles in the thick-walled FGM tube; the Al{sub 3}Ti particles were arranged with their platelet planes nearly normal to the radial direction as a result of the applied centrifugal force. The wear resistance of the Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite was significantly higher than that of pure Al. Wear-resistance anisotropy and dissolution of the Al{sub 3}Ti into the Al matrix at the near-surface region, around 100 {micro}m in depth, were also observed. The mechanism of the supersaturated-layer formation and the origin of the anisotropic wear resistance are discussed.

  17. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  18. Manufacturing: workers, technology, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumia, Ronald

    1995-11-01

    Manufacturing is a challenging activity. One must coordinate many activities to achieve success. There appears to be no magic formula which ensure quality. Simple prescriptions for all of manufacturing ills have been suggested, but the theory works better than the practice. This paper explores manufacturing from the standpoint of the interactions of workers, management, and the technology they use in their jobs. These three factors form a complex system, and to optimize the system is virtually impossible without a greater level of understanding. Technology is clearly one factor which makes a company excel, but it is not the only factor. Technology cannot be looked upon as the savior of manufacturing, but as one component of a complex system.

  19. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  20. E3 Sustainable Manufacturing Curriculum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A short E3 course containing three modules on Environmental Sustainability; Lean Manufacturing and Pollution Prevention; and Energy and Carbon. Each module includes slides, a facilitator's guide with handouts, activities, quizzes, and facilitator's notes.