Science.gov

Sample records for manufacturing ceramic products

  1. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05

    This final report summarizes the activities of the DOE Inventions and Innovations sponsored project, ''A New Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Waste Glass.'' The project involved an innovative method of lowering energy costs of manufacturing ceramic products by substituting traditional raw materials with waste glass. The processing method is based on sintering of glass powder at {approx}750 C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 C. The key to the new method is the elimination of previous processing problems, which have greatly limited the use of recycled glass as a ceramic raw material. The technology is aligned with the DOE-OIT Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap, and offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits compared to current technologies. A U.S. patent (No. 6,340,650) covering the technology was issued on January 22, 2002. An international PCT Patent Application is pending with designations made for all PCT regions and countries. The goal of the project was to provide the basis for the design and construction of an energy-efficient manufacturing plant that can convert large volumes of waste glass into high-quality ceramic tile. The main objectives of the project were to complete process development and optimization; construct and test prototype samples; and conduct market analysis and commercialization planning. Two types of ceramic tile products were targeted by the project. The first type was developed during the first year (Phase I) to have a glazed-like finish for applications where slip resistance is not critical, such as wall tile. The processing method optimized in Phase I produces a glossy surface with a translucent appearance, without the extra glazing steps required in traditional tile manufacturing. The second type of product was developed during the second year (Phase II). This product was designed to have an unglazed appearance

  2. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  3. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 17. Refractories, glass, and other ceramic materials; manufactured carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The standards are assembled in each part in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designation numbers. Each part has two tables of contents: a list of the standards in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designations; and a list of the standards classified according to subject. A subject index of the standards and tentatives in each part appears at the back of each volume. This part contains standards concerning refractories; glass and glass products; ceramic whitewares; porcelain enamel and related ceramic-metal systems; ceramics for electronics; manufactured carbon and graphite products; and general methods of testing.

  4. Utilization of sludge waste from natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for clay-ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Vichaphund, S; Intiya, W; Kongkaew, A; Loykulnant, S; Thavorniti, P

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of utilization of the sludge waste obtained from the natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for producing clay ceramics was investigated. To prepared clay-based ceramic, the mixtures of traditional clay and sludge waste (10-30 wt%) were milled, uniaxilly pressed and sintered at a temperature between 1000 and 1200 degrees C. The effect of sludge waste on the properties of clay-based ceramic products was examined. The results showed that the amount of sludge waste addition had an effect on both sinterability and properties of the clay ceramics. Up to 30 wt% of sludge waste can be added into the clay ceramics, and the sintered samples showed good properties. PMID:23437647

  5. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  6. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  7. Manufacturing tailored property ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.; Harrison, L.W.

    1994-11-14

    Composite materials are desirable for many advanced engineering applications where the properties of a single phase material cannot meet all of the service requirements; however, existing process technology has limited the development and commercialization of composites. Lack of reproducible sintering to high density is one of the major obstacles to commercializing ceramic composites. Final-stage, non-reactive liquid phase sintering (NLPS) theory provides metrics for sinterability that can be used as guidelines to design and manufacture dense ceramic-filled-glass (CFG) composites. Additionally, within the constraints defined by the NLPS theory, sum-property models can be used to predict CFG composite properties, and to design composites with properties tailored to specific applications. By integrating composite process models with composite property models, processable, application-tailored CFG composites for microelectronics packaging have been designed and fabricated.

  8. Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

  9. Method of manufacturing ceramic shaped articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of manufacturing ceramic shaped articles, wherein tapes of ceramic powder material in mixture with a binder material and special additives are shaped and then articles are stamped out from said tapes and sintered in a sintering furnace is described.

  10. Manufacture of high-density ceramic sinters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibata, Y.

    1986-01-01

    High density ceramic sinters are manufactured by coating premolded or presintered porous ceramics with a sealing material of high SiO2 porous glass or nitride glass and then sintering by hot isostatic pressing. The ceramics have excellent abrasion and corrosion resistances. Thus LC-10 (Si3N2 powder) and Y2O3-Al2O3 type sintering were mixed and molded to give a premolded porous ceramic (porosity 37%, relative bulk density 63%). The ceramic was dipped in a slurry containing high SiO2 porous glass and an alcohol solution of cellulose acetate and dried. The coated ceramic was treated in a nitrogen atmosphere and then sintered by hot isostatic pressing to give a dense ceramic sinter.

  11. Utilization of by-products from western (US) coal combustion in the manufacture of mineral wool and other ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1984-07-01

    The ash by-products from combustion or gasification of western US coals have chemical and mineralogical characteristics that lend themselves to utilisation in ceramic materials. Laboratory and pilot-scale fabrication of four such materials has been studied. Cyclone slag from four lignite-fired power plants and a dry scrubber ash has been fabricated into mineral wool insulation in a pilot-scale cupola. Extended and fired mixtures of fly ash, clay and ground glass have produced ceramics with very high flexural strength. Ceramic glazed wall tiles utilising fly ash in place of clay have been prepared and shown to meet most specifications for fired clay tile. Both fired and unfired dry-pressed brick containing 100% western fly ash have met ASTM specifications for fired clay brick.

  12. Defect production in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  13. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  14. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging. PMID:26721993

  15. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  16. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  17. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  18. Additive manufacturing of ceramic structures by laser engineered net shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fangyong; Wu, Dongjiang; Ma, Guangyi; Zhang, Bi

    2015-11-01

    Ceramic is an important material with outstanding physical properties whereas impurities and porosities generated by traditional manufacturing methods limits its further industrial applications. In order to solve this problem, direct fabrication of Al2O3 ceramic structures is conducted by laser engineered net shaping system and pure ceramic powders. Grain refinement strengthening method by doping ZrO2 and dispersion strengthening method by doping SiC are proposed to suppress cracks in fabricating Al2O3 structure. Phase compositions, microstructures as well as mechanical properties of fabricated specimens are then analyzed. The results show that the proposed two methods are effective in suppressing cracks and structures of single-bead wall, arc and cylinder ring are successfully deposited. Stable phase of α-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 are obtained in the fabricated specimens. Micro-hardness higher than 1700 HV are also achieved for both Al2O3 and Al2O3/ZrO2, which are resulted from fine directional crystals generated by the melting-solidification process. Results presented indicate that additive manufacturing is a very attractive technique for the production of high-performance ceramic structures in a single step.

  19. HF emissions in manufacturing traditional ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) evolves in kiln drafts during the preheating of clay-based ceramics. The fluorine source is clay dehydroxylation, i.e., the decomposition of clay crystals. Fluorine evolution can continue in the kiln soak zone as fluorine compounds formed during the initial fluorine-evolution period eventually decompose. Because North America clays exhibit a wide range of fluorine content--typically 200--1,200 ppm--the quantity of HF emitted varies considerably from one manufacturing site to another. Variables in firing--such as preheat rate, soak temperature and exit gas temperature--also affect the emission quantity. Because HF is classified as a hazardous air pollutant under the US Clean Air Act, it is subject to federal regulation, and individual states can impose more stringent regulations than the federal standards. Several states already have imposed such regulations.

  20. Investigation of the usage of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW), contaminated with phenol and formaldehyde, in manufacturing of ceramic products.

    PubMed

    Kizinievič, Olga; Balkevičius, Valdas; Pranckevičienė, Jolanta; Kizinievič, Viktor

    2014-08-01

    Large amounts of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW) are created during the production of mineral wool. CMWW is technogenic aluminum silicate raw material, formed from the particles of undefibred melt (60-70%) and mineral wool fibers (30-40%). 0.3-0.6% of organic binder with phenol and formaldehyde in its composition exists in this material. Objective of the research is to investigate the possibility to use CMWW as an additive for the production of ceramic products, by neutralising phenol and formaldehyde existing in CMWW. Formation masses were prepared by incorporating 10%, 20% and 30% of CMWW additive and burned at various temperatures. It was identified that the amount of 10-30% of CMWW additive influences the following physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic body: lowers drying and firing shrinkage, density, increases compressive strength and water absorption. Investigations carried out show that CMWW waste can be used for the production of ceramic products of various purposes.

  1. Ceramic heat exchangers: Manufacturing techniques and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrigan, M. A.; Sandstrom, D. J.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the ceramic heat pipe program being conducted at Los Alamos is demonstration of the practical feasibility of this technology for the solution of severe high temperature recuperation functions. Ceramic heat pipe recuperators were theoretically shown to offer distinct advantages over conventional ceramic heat exchangers from the standpoint of efficiency of heat recuperation and economics. The main stumbling block to their widespread utilization is related to the problems of materials for construction and the details of fabrication and assembly. The performance objectives of ceramic heat pipes and some aspects of the materials technology program aimed at solving the problem of economic ceramic heat pipe fabrication are described.

  2. Investigation of the usage of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW), contaminated with phenol and formaldehyde, in manufacturing of ceramic products.

    PubMed

    Kizinievič, Olga; Balkevičius, Valdas; Pranckevičienė, Jolanta; Kizinievič, Viktor

    2014-08-01

    Large amounts of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW) are created during the production of mineral wool. CMWW is technogenic aluminum silicate raw material, formed from the particles of undefibred melt (60-70%) and mineral wool fibers (30-40%). 0.3-0.6% of organic binder with phenol and formaldehyde in its composition exists in this material. Objective of the research is to investigate the possibility to use CMWW as an additive for the production of ceramic products, by neutralising phenol and formaldehyde existing in CMWW. Formation masses were prepared by incorporating 10%, 20% and 30% of CMWW additive and burned at various temperatures. It was identified that the amount of 10-30% of CMWW additive influences the following physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic body: lowers drying and firing shrinkage, density, increases compressive strength and water absorption. Investigations carried out show that CMWW waste can be used for the production of ceramic products of various purposes. PMID:24569044

  3. Fabrication of ceramic components using mold shape deposition manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Alexander G.

    Mold Shape Deposition Manufacturing (Mold SDM) is a new process for the fabrication of geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. This thesis describes the development of the Mold SDM process, including process steps, materials selection, planning strategies and automation. Initial characterization results are presented and these are used to compare the process to competing manufacturing processes. A range of current and potential applications for ceramic, as well as metal and polymer parts are discussed. The benefits and limitations of ceramic materials for structural applications are discussed to motivate the need for a manufacturing process capable of rapidly producing high quality, geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. The Mold SDM process was developed to address this need. Mold SDM is based on Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) and uses SDM techniques to build fugitive wax molds which can then be used to build ceramic parts by gelcasting. SDM is an additive-subtractive layered manufacturing process which allows it to build geometrically complex parts. The subtraction step differentiates Mold SDM from other layered manufacturing processes and allows accurate, high quality surfaces to be produced. The performance of the process was increased by identifying the key material properties and then selecting improved materials combinations. Candidate materials were evaluated in terms of machinability, shrinkage, heat resistance and chemical compatibility. A number of preferred materials combinations were developed and used to produce ceramic, metal and polymer parts. A number of new process planning strategies and build techniques were developed. The manufacturability analysis determines whether a part is manufacturable and the orientation selection guidelines help in the selection of optimum build directions. New decomposition techniques take advantage of process capabilities to improve part quality and build rate. Initial process

  4. Silicon carbide ceramic production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.

  5. The Ceramic Manufacturability Center: A new partnership with US industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Morris, T.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Ceramic Manufacturability Center (CMC) is a new facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established as a direct response to current US industry needs. It was created as part of a highly integrated program jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Defense Programs, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and Energy Research divisions. The CMC is staffed by personnel from ORNL and the Y-12 Plant, both managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Its mission is to improve the technology needed to manufacture high-precision ceramic components inexpensively and reliably. This mission can be accomplished by strengthening the US machine tool industry and by joining with ceramic material suppliers and end users to provide a path to commercialization of these ceramic components.

  6. Ceramic component manufacturing process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.

    1996-09-30

    Ceramic materials are well suited for applications where temperature, wear, and corrosion resistance are necessary. The toughness and wear resistance properties that make ceramics desirable, also make fabrication of parts difficult. The objective of this CRADA was to increase the grinding efficiency on Ceradyne Incorporated silicon nitride. This was to be accomplished through optimization of grinding wheel life and increasing silicon nitride material removal rates. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between grinding parameters, wheel wear, and material removal rates. Due to excessive, unexplained variation in the experimental results, a consistent relationship between the selected grinding parameters and wheel wear could not be established. Maximum material removal rates were limited by spindle and table drive power. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate high speed grinding. When compared to conventional grinding speeds, the material removal rates using high speed grinding (13,000 SFM) increased by a factor of five to ten with no degradation of fracture strength.

  7. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  8. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  9. Novel Nanotube Manufacturing Streamlines Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nanotubes have novel qualities that make them uniquely qualified for a plethora of uses, including applications in electronics, optics, and other scientific and industrial fields. The NASA process for creating these nanostructures involves using helium arc welding to vaporize an amorphous carbon rod and then form nanotubes by depositing the vapor onto a water-cooled carbon cathode, which then yields bundles, or ropes, of single-walled nanotubes at a rate of 2 grams per hour using a single setup. This eliminates costs associated with the use of metal catalysts, including the cost of product purification, resulting in a relatively inexpensive, high-quality, very pure end product. While managing to be less expensive, safer, and simpler, the process also increases the quality of the nanotubes. Goddard's Innovative Partnerships Program (IPP) Office promoted the technology, and in 2005, Boise-based Idaho Space Materials Inc. (ISM) was formed and applied for a nonexclusive license for the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing technology. ISM commercialized its products, and the inexpensive, robust nanotubes are now in the hands of the scientists who will create the next generation of composite polymers, metals, and ceramics that will impact the way we live. In fact, researchers are examining ways for these newfound materials to be used in the manufacture of transistors and fuel cells, large screen televisions, ultra-sensitive sensors, high-resolution atomic force microscopy probes, supercapacitors, transparent conducting films, drug carriers, catalysts, and advanced composite materials, to name just a few of the myriad technologies to benefit.

  10. Hydridosiloxanes as precursors to ceramic products

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gusman, Michael I.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing ceramic precursors from hydridosiloxane starting materials and then pyrolyzing these precursors to give rise to silicious ceramic materials. Si--H bonds present in the hydridosiloxane starting materials are catalytically activated, and the activated hydrogen atoms may then be replaced with nonhydrogen substituents. These preceramic materials are pyrolyzed in a selected atmosphere to give the desired ceramic product. Ceramic products which may be prepared by this technique include silica, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, metal silicates, and mullite.

  11. Hydridosiloxanes as precursors to ceramic products

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Y.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.

    1997-06-03

    A method is provided for preparing ceramic precursors from hydridosiloxane starting materials and then pyrolyzing these precursors to give rise to silicious ceramic materials. Si-H bonds present in the hydridosiloxane starting materials are catalytically activated, and the activated hydrogen atoms may then be replaced with nonhydrogen substituents. These preceramic materials are pyrolyzed in a selected atmosphere to give the desired ceramic product. Ceramic products which may be prepared by this technique include silica, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, metal silicates, and mullite.

  12. Manufacturing conditioned roughness and wear of biomedical oxide ceramics for all-ceramic knee implants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ceramic materials are used in a growing proportion of hip joint prostheses due to their wear resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, ceramics have not been applied successfully in total knee joint endoprostheses to date. One reason for this is that with strict surface quality requirements, there are significant challenges with regard to machining. High-toughness bioceramics can only be machined by grinding and polishing processes. The aim of this study was to develop an automated process chain for the manufacturing of an all-ceramic knee implant. Methods A five-axis machining process was developed for all-ceramic implant components. These components were used in an investigation of the influence of surface conformity on wear behavior under simplified knee joint motion. Results The implant components showed considerably reduced wear compared to conventional material combinations. Contact area resulting from a variety of component surface shapes, with a variety of levels of surface conformity, greatly influenced wear rate. Conclusions It is possible to realize an all-ceramic knee endoprosthesis device, with a precise and affordable manufacturing process. The shape accuracy of the component surfaces, as specified by the design and achieved during the manufacturing process, has a substantial influence on the wear behavior of the prosthesis. This result, if corroborated by results with a greater sample size, is likely to influence the design parameters of such devices. PMID:23988155

  13. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  15. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  16. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste. PMID:25188783

  17. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  19. Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaji, Z.; Klintberg, L.; Thornell, G.

    2016-09-01

    We present the manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve with the potential to be integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices, and forsee its utilization in space and other demanding applications. A 3 mm diameter membrane was used as the flow barrier, and the opening mechanism was based on cracking the membrane by inducing thermal stresses on it with fast and localized resistive heating. Four manufacturing schemes based on high-temperature co-fired ceramic technology were studied. Three designs for the integrated heaters and two thicknesses of 40 and 120 μm for the membranes were considered, and the heat distribution over their membranes, the required heating energies, their opening mode, and the flows admitted through were compared. Furthermore, the effect of applying  +1 and  -1 bar pressure difference on the membrane during cracking was investigated. Thick membranes demonstrated unpromising results for low-pressure applications since the heating either resulted in microcracks or cracking of the whole chip. Because of the higher pressure tolerance of the thick membranes, the design with microcracks can be considered for high-pressure applications where flow is facilitated anyway. Thin membranes, on the other hand, showed different opening sizes depending on heater design and, consequently, heat distribution over the membranes, from microcracks to holes with sizes of 3-100% of the membrane area. For all the designs, applying  +1 bar over pressure contributed to bigger openings, whereas  -1 bar pressure difference only did so for one of the designs, resulting in smaller openings for the other two. The energy required for breaking these membranes was a few hundred mJ with no significant dependence on design and applied pressure. The maximum sustainable pressure of the valve for the current design and thin membranes was 7 bar.

  20. Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaji, Z.; Klintberg, L.; Thornell, G.

    2016-09-01

    We present the manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve with the potential to be integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices, and forsee its utilization in space and other demanding applications. A 3 mm diameter membrane was used as the flow barrier, and the opening mechanism was based on cracking the membrane by inducing thermal stresses on it with fast and localized resistive heating. Four manufacturing schemes based on high-temperature co-fired ceramic technology were studied. Three designs for the integrated heaters and two thicknesses of 40 and 120 μm for the membranes were considered, and the heat distribution over their membranes, the required heating energies, their opening mode, and the flows admitted through were compared. Furthermore, the effect of applying  +1 and  ‑1 bar pressure difference on the membrane during cracking was investigated. Thick membranes demonstrated unpromising results for low-pressure applications since the heating either resulted in microcracks or cracking of the whole chip. Because of the higher pressure tolerance of the thick membranes, the design with microcracks can be considered for high-pressure applications where flow is facilitated anyway. Thin membranes, on the other hand, showed different opening sizes depending on heater design and, consequently, heat distribution over the membranes, from microcracks to holes with sizes of 3–100% of the membrane area. For all the designs, applying  +1 bar over pressure contributed to bigger openings, whereas  ‑1 bar pressure difference only did so for one of the designs, resulting in smaller openings for the other two. The energy required for breaking these membranes was a few hundred mJ with no significant dependence on design and applied pressure. The maximum sustainable pressure of the valve for the current design and thin membranes was 7 bar.

  1. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  2. Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M

    2003-01-01

    The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production.

  3. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  4. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  5. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  6. Method of manufacture of single phase ceramic superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B.; Goretta, K.C.; Chen, N.

    1995-03-28

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O{sub 2}) and that because of second phase precipitates, grain growth is prevented. The density of specimens sintered at 910 C increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O{sub 2}) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O{sub 2}) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910 C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of about 4 {mu}m. Post sintering annealing in a region of stability for the desired phase converts the second phases and limits grain growth. The method of pinning grain boundaries by small scale decompositive products and then annealing to convert its product to the desired phase can be used for other complex asides. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 230 MPa and high critical current density capacity. 25 figures.

  7. Method of manufacture of single phase ceramic superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitrenda P.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Chen, Nan

    1995-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O.sub.2) and that because of second phase precipitates, grain growth is prevented. The density of specimens sintered at 910.degree. C. increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O.sub.2) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O.sub.2) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910.degree. C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of about 4 .mu.m. Post sintering annealing in a region of stability for the desired phase converts the second phases and limits grain growth. The method of pinning grain boundaries by small scale decompositive products and then annealing to convert its product to the desired phase can be used for other complex asides. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 230 MPa and high critical current density capacity.

  8. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  9. Critical Needs for Robust and Reliable Database for Design and Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being designed, fabricated, and tested for a number of high temperature, high performance applications in aerospace and ground based systems. The critical need for and the role of reliable and robust databases for the design and manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites are presented. A number of issues related to engineering design, manufacturing technologies, joining, and attachment technologies, are also discussed. Examples of various ongoing activities in the area of composite databases. designing to codes and standards, and design for manufacturing are given.

  10. Utilization of fly ash in structural and decorative ceramic products

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Rostam-Abadi, R.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this study is to promote the use of fly ash from electric power plants in Illinois in the manufacture of bricks. Fly ash that is produced during the burning of coal represents a continuing disposal problem and thus a disincentive to coal`s use. Each year, approximately 5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons of fly ash are produced from burning Illinois coals. Use of brick clays for ceramic products in the Illinois area amounted to about 0.5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons in 1994. If significant amounts of fly ash were used in the manufacture of fired-clay products such as brick, the fly ash disposal problem would be reduced, a valuable construction product would be created, and mining of brick clays would be slowed. Furthermore, the clay minerals in the green bricks are dehydroxylated during the firing process. Fly ash already has been through dehydrox1yation, therefore this energy for dehydroxylation is {open_quotes}saved{close_quotes} during brick manufacture. Six tasks were defined to meet our objectives: (1) manufacture bricks that contain 20 wt% or more of fly ash under normal plant-scale conditions; (2) measure the firing characteristics of mixtures created by using extremes in chemical composition of Illinois fly ashes and brick clays and shales; (3) from those measurements, derive equations that predict the firing characteristics of any mixture of clay and fly ash; (4) optimize mixtures of brick clays with sources of fly ash near existing ceramic plants; (5) perform tests to determine the leachability of toxic constituents, if any, from the bricks; and (6) integrate the results of tasks 1 and 2 with preliminary engineering and market assessments to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale use of fly ash in fired-clay products.

  11. Ceramic Hosts for Fission Products Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C Kong

    2010-07-01

    Natural spinel, perovskite and zirconolite rank among the most leach resistant of mineral forms. They also have a strong affinity for a large number of other elements and including actinides. Specimens of natural perovskite and zirconolite were radioisotope dated and found to have survived at least 2 billion years of natural process while still remain their loading of uranium and thorium . Developers of the Synroc waste form recognized and exploited the capability of these minerals to securely immobilize TRU elements in high-level waste . However, the Synroc process requires a relatively uniform input and hot pressing equipment to produce the waste form. It is desirable to develop alternative approaches to fabricate these durable waste forms to immobilize the radioactive elements. One approach is using a high temperature process to synthesize these mineral host phases to incorporate the fission products in their crystalline structures. These mineral assemblages with immobilized fission products are then isolated in a durable high temperature glass for periods measured on a geologic time scale. This is a long term research concept and will begin with the laboratory synthesis of the pure spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3) and zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from their constituent oxides. High temperature furnace and/or thermal plasma will be used for the synthesis of these ceramic host phases. Nonradioactive strontium oxide will be doped into these ceramic phases to investigate the development of substitutional phases such as Mg1-xSrxAl2O4, Ca1-xSrxTiO3 and Ca1-xSrxZrTi2O7. X-ray diffraction will be used to establish the crystalline structures of the pure ceramic hosts and the substitution phases. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) will be performed for product morphology and fission product surrogates distribution in the crystalline hosts. The range of strontium doping is planned to reach the full substitution of the divalent

  12. Emerging antibody products and Nicotiana manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Kevin J; Hiatt, Andrew; Zeitlin, Larry

    2011-03-01

    Antibody based products are not widely available to address multiple global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity, and long manufacturing lead times. Nicotiana-based manufacturing of antibody products may now begin to address these challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in transient expression and altered glycosylation pathways. This review provides examples of emerging antibody-based products (mucosal and systemic) that could be competitive and commercially viable when the attributes of Nicotiana-based manufacturing (large scale, versatile, rapid, low cost) are utilized.

  13. PC25{trademark} product and manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.W.; Riley, W.C.; Sandelli, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Product and manufacturing experience accumulated since the beginning of PC25. A production in 1991 provides a strong base of demonstration and experience for establishing future improvements to the PC25 power plant.

  14. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  15. Arsenic speciation in manufactured seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    1998-09-01

    The literature on the speciation of arsenic (As) in seafoods was critically reviewed. Most research has been directed toward fresh seafood products with few papers dealing with As speciation in manufactured seafoods. Predictions concerning As species made on the basis of fresh seafood products cannot be extrapolated to manufactured seafoods. Therefore, due to the numerous species of As, the scarcity of data concerning their presence in foods, the transformations each species may undergo during industrial processing and cooking, and the lack of legislation on permitted As levels in seafood products, As species in manufactured seafood products need to be determined and quantified.

  16. Glass-ceramic frits from fly ash in terracotta production.

    PubMed

    Karamanova, Emilia; Karamanov, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation into the possible use of glass-ceramic frits from fly ash and glass cullet in terracotta (stoneware) tile manufacture are reported. Two new ceramics were studied and compared with a plant composition, containing 45 wt.% sodium feldspar. In the first ceramic batch 20% of the feldspar was substituted by frits and in the second the whole amount of feldspar was eliminated and replaced by 35% frits and 10% refractory waste. It was found that the addition of low viscous glass-ceramic frits decreased the sintering temperature by 50-100 degrees C. At the same time, due to formation of an additional crystal phase (i.e. pyroxene or anorthite) the new ceramics showed an improvement of 25-50% in bending strength.

  17. Manufacturing of transparent ZnS ceramics by powders sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdrignac-Conanec, O.; Hakmeh, N.; Durand, G.; Zhang, X.-H.

    2016-05-01

    We report the use of the low cost hot-pressing technique to produce ZnS for multispectral operation, from visible up to 12 μm. Considerable progress has been obtained by developing efficient precipitation and combustion powders synthesis procedures. The main emphasis has been on the elaboration of ZnS precursor powders with controlled morphology/chemical composition to reduce extrinsic scattering and impurities. We were able to produce ZnS parts with visible transparency and transmission in the 8-12 μm range that is comparable to that of CVD ZnS. The correlation of processing variables with powders sinterability and optical transmission of the HPed ceramics is discussed.

  18. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  19. Manufacturing: Source of Productivity Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathues, Thomas O.

    1981-01-01

    Lagging productivity is a critical problem for American business and industry. This trend must be reversed to regain the competitive edge and improve the standard of living. The major imperatives are technological change, quality improvement, and technology transfer. (JOW)

  20. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and

  1. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  2. Interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Yin, Guofu; Pan, Zhigeng

    2003-04-01

    Contemporary demands on ceramic sanitary products tend more and more to emphasize diversification and individuation. How to provide effective techniques to support interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products has become a great challenge for vendors. This paper presents a general framework for ceramic sanitary products design. Some dynamic adjustment algorithms of curves to support surface parameterized modeling of toilet bowl, which is one of the most complex ceramic products, are proposed. Furthermore, the VR-based display and customization environment is also illustrated. With the VRML and Java, our system not only offers users different products, but also allows users to reset selected bathroom scene through replacing products from modeling database and modifying attributes of different products, such as colors, positions, etc. Then a brief discussion and future research directions are put forward in the last part of this paper.

  3. Net shape manufacturing of ceramic micro parts with tailored graded layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, H.; Jiang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a novel net shape manufacturing technology for making three-dimensional micro parts with functionally graded layers. Alumina/zirconia micro parts with either core-shell or top-bottom functionally graded material (FGM) profiles have been successfully fabricated by altering both the surface characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro moulds and ceramic suspensions composition. PDMS surface modifications were performed to achieve moulds with hydrophilic surfaces, which were used to form core/shell FGM green layers. On the other hand, moulds with hydrophobic surfaces were used to form top-bottom green layers. Cracks have been found between consecutive layers in both the green and sintered micro parts. It was found that, at dispersant concentration of about 9.0 mg g-1, the differences in the drying shrinkage between layers is less than 0.5%. In addition, layers of composition of 100% Al2O3-0% YSZ, 20% Al2O3-80% YSZ and 40% Al2O3-60% YSZ were found to produce less shrinkage difference during sintering. After optimization of both green and sintering layers, crack free core/shell and top-bottom alumina/zirconia FGM micro parts were successfully obtained. The proposed process enables the production of micro patterns tailored with functionally graded microstructures to locally enhance properties and performance.

  4. Haptics for Product Design and Manufacturing Simulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pingjun

    2016-01-01

    Product design and manufacturing simulation is a promising research and application area for haptics. By benefiting from its natural human-computer interaction and realistic force/torque feedback, haptics can change the traditional design and manufacturing approaches which are mainly based on physical mock-ups or CAD (Computer Aided Design) modes. This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive survey of haptics for product design and manufacturing simulation in the past 10 years, mainly from 2004-2014, including haptics for product design and shape modelling, haptics for machining simulation, and haptics for virtual assembly and maintenance simulation. The new haptic devices and rendering algorithms involved in this area are introduced, the major research efforts and the typical systems are discussed, and the new ideas and research progresses are investigated. Then, conclusions and future trends are summarized.

  5. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  6. Ceramics manufacturing contributes to ambient silica air pollution and burden of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Wu, Bo-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Lin, Yi-Jun; Hsieh, Nan-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of silica (SiO2) in occupational exposures can cause pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), lung function deficits, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. Current risk assessment models, however, cannot fully explain the magnitude of silica-induced pulmonary disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk exposed to airborne silica dust in Taiwan ceramics manufacturing. We conducted measurements to characterize workplace-specific airborne silica dust in tile and commodity ceramic factories and used physiologically based alveolar exposure model to estimate exposure dose. We constructed dose-response models for describing relationships between exposure dose and inflammatory responses, by which health risks among workers can be assessed. We found that silica contents were 0.22-33.04 % with mean concentration ranges of 0.11-5.48 and 0.46-1763.30 μg m(-3), respectively, in commodity and tile ceramic factories. We showed that granulation workers in tile ceramic factory had the highest total SiO2 lung burden (∼1000 mg) with cumulative SiO2 lung burden of ∼4 × 10(4) mg-year. The threshold estimates with an effect on human lung inflammation and fibrosis are 407.31 ± 277.10 (mean ± sd) and 505.91 ± 231.69 mg, respectively. For granulation workers, long-term exposure to airborne silica dust for 30-45 years was likely to pose severe adverse health risks of inflammation and fibrosis. We provide integrated assessment algorithms required to implement the analyses and maintain resulting concentration of silica dust at safety threshold level in the hope that they will stimulate further analyses and interpretation. We suggest that decision-makers take action to implement platforms for effective risk management to prevent the related long-term occupational disease in ceramics manufacturing. PMID:26002365

  7. Ceramics manufacturing contributes to ambient silica air pollution and burden of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Wu, Bo-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Lin, Yi-Jun; Hsieh, Nan-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of silica (SiO2) in occupational exposures can cause pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), lung function deficits, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. Current risk assessment models, however, cannot fully explain the magnitude of silica-induced pulmonary disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk exposed to airborne silica dust in Taiwan ceramics manufacturing. We conducted measurements to characterize workplace-specific airborne silica dust in tile and commodity ceramic factories and used physiologically based alveolar exposure model to estimate exposure dose. We constructed dose-response models for describing relationships between exposure dose and inflammatory responses, by which health risks among workers can be assessed. We found that silica contents were 0.22-33.04 % with mean concentration ranges of 0.11-5.48 and 0.46-1763.30 μg m(-3), respectively, in commodity and tile ceramic factories. We showed that granulation workers in tile ceramic factory had the highest total SiO2 lung burden (∼1000 mg) with cumulative SiO2 lung burden of ∼4 × 10(4) mg-year. The threshold estimates with an effect on human lung inflammation and fibrosis are 407.31 ± 277.10 (mean ± sd) and 505.91 ± 231.69 mg, respectively. For granulation workers, long-term exposure to airborne silica dust for 30-45 years was likely to pose severe adverse health risks of inflammation and fibrosis. We provide integrated assessment algorithms required to implement the analyses and maintain resulting concentration of silica dust at safety threshold level in the hope that they will stimulate further analyses and interpretation. We suggest that decision-makers take action to implement platforms for effective risk management to prevent the related long-term occupational disease in ceramics manufacturing.

  8. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the occupational environment. I. Production, kinds of ceramic fibers, changes in structure of these fibers, preliminary studies in the working environment].

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, J

    1994-01-01

    The production of fireproof SiO2/Al2O3 ceramic fibres started in the late forties. Primarily, the production was designed entirely for the aircraft industry. In the sixties the application of ceramic fibres became more wider. The first ceramic fibrous materials were characterised by thermal resistance reaching 1200 degrees C. Certain kinds of materials produced currently can be used in the temperature accounting for 1600 degrees C. Aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres recrystallise at high temperature (above 1000 degrees C) and produce mullite and crostobalite. Ceramic fibrous material may become hazardous to workers as a source of respirable fibres. Studies, carried out in plants which manufacture products from aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres, indicated that mean concentrations of respirable fibres ranged from 0.14 to 1.13 f/cm3 while the levels of mean concentrations of total dust accounted for 0.4-13.6 mg/m3. At working posts of plants producing china, where heat-insulating materials were changed mean level of respirable fibre concentration was 0.28-1.65 f/cm3 and concentration of total dust ranged from 7.0 to 17.7 mg/m3.

  9. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits AGENCY: Food... for Tobacco Products (CTP) is announcing an invitation for participation in its Tobacco Product... involved in the manufacturing of tobacco products, including any related laboratory testing, and...

  10. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  11. Lightweight ceramic insulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for manufacturing a low density ceramic powder which can be formed to make a lightweight material for insulation or other construction. The ceramic product made from the process has a final density of less than 25 to about 1 percent of the theoretical weight of the ceramic powder. The ceramic product is lightweight and can be made to withstand high temperatures greater than 1400 C.

  12. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

    1992-10-13

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800--1200 C), for example 1000 C, than are typically required (1400 C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250 C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4[times]10[sup [minus]2](ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300 C. 1 figure.

  13. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  14. Shading of colours in production of ceramic wares - reasons of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, J.; Lis, J.; Szwendke, P.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    One of the most important problems we have to deal with in the ceramic whiteware production is maintaining the stable tonality of colour of the glazes and the decoration of the ceramic products. This difficulties are especially significant for the large batches of production like for example the ceramic titles. The manufacturing of the one assortment for a few days requires the multiple preparation of the glazes and decorative materials. Similar problems occur during the renewing of the production of the given assortment after a longer period of time. The presented paper shows the results of the research covering this topics carried on in The Department of The Ceramic Technology on the AGH Krakow Poland. It is presented the kinds of the factors that can influence the formation of the shadings of coloured glazes: way of mixing of the glaze with stains, time of the mixing and the firing curves. The obtained results of the colour differences ΔE00, calculated from the "Cie L a b" measurements shows that the most important factor that influences the arising of the colour shading is the change of the firing condition and the sequence of the homogenization as the second important.

  15. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions.

  16. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Ş.; Arıkan, İ. H.; Demirel, H.; Güngör, N.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  17. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  18. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials. PMID:19220996

  19. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  20. Stabilization/solidification of ashes in clays used in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, Cesar A; Moreno-Piraján, Juan C; Giraldo-Gutierrez, Liliana; Sapag, Karim

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the lixiviation of metals from different mixtures of fly and bottom ashes that have been stabilized and solidified in clays used in the manufacture of bricks. The ashes used for this study were obtained from a Hoffmann-type brick furnace adapted for the incineration of municipal solid waste during the manufacturing of ceramic bricks. The ashes were stabilized in clay in different proportions of clay:ash mix (99:1, 95:5, 90:10, 80:20 and 60:40). Such mixes were used to manufacture bricks that were calcined at a temperature ranging from 50 to 1100 degrees C. The clay, ashes and manufactured bricks were characterized using X-ray diffraction, fluorescent X-ray, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. In addition, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure lixiviation tests were performed according to the EPA 1311 method for the determination of heavy metals. The results showed an affinity between clay and ash, and also that the bricks manufactured with these mixtures present low lixiviation levels. The tests also showed the highest decrease in the concentration of arsenic, nickel, chromium, zinc and silver for 99:1 mixtures. The 95:5 mixture was found to be the most favourable for the stabilization (greater concentration decrease) of lead and cadmium. Selenium was the metal with the lowest concentration change whereas arsenic, nickel, chromium, zinc and cadmium showed the greatest concentration change in all mixtures, with the exception of cadmium in the mixture 99:1.

  1. Neutron activation analysis and numerical taxonomy of thin orange ceramics from the manufacturing site of Rio Carnero, Puebla, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rattray, E. . Inst. de Investigaciones Antropologicas); Harbottle, G. )

    1991-04-01

    Examples of different types of Thin Orange ceramics found at the recently-discovered manufacturing sites in the state of Puebla have been analyzed by neutron activation. A full multivariate numerical analysis indicates that this material is chemically identical with the well-known Thin Orange of Teotihuacan.'' 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hash, Mark C.; Bloom, Ira D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800.degree. C.-1200.degree. C.), for example 1000.degree. C., than are typically required (1400.degree. C.) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250.degree. C. with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4.times.10.sup.-2 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250.degree. to 300.degree. C.

  3. Microstructural characterization and influence of manufacturing parameters on technological properties of vitreous ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Njoya, D.; Hajjaji, M.; Bacaoui, A.; Njopwouo, D.

    2010-03-15

    Microstructure of vitreous ceramic samples manufactured from kaolinitic-clay and feldspars raw materials from Cameroon was investigated in the range 1150-1250 deg. C by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring some technological properties. Moreover, the simultaneous influence of feldspars content, heating temperature and soaking time on water absorption and firing shrinkage was evaluated by adopting the response surface methodology (Doehlert matrix), using the New Efficient Methodology for Research using Optimal Design (NEMROD) software. The results show that a spinel phase, mullite, glassy phase and some amount of hematite were formed. However, the spinel phase and potassic feldspar, as compared to the sodic one, disappeared at moderate firing temperature and soaking time. Apparently, mullite developed from spinel phase, which is formed from the demixion of metakaolin. On the other hand, it is found that the effects of fluxing content and firing temperature on the measured properties were almost similar and more influent than soaking time. Antagonistic and synergetic interactions existed between the considered parameters, and their importance differed for the considered properties. By using this mathematical tool, suitable operating conditions for manufacturing vitreous bodies were determined.

  4. CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    George R. Gavalas

    2003-03-18

    The objective of this project is to develop ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from fuel gas or synthesis gas at temperatures 400-500 C. The membrane chosen for this purpose consists of a dense silica layer coated on a porous support by chemical vapor depositrion (CVD). The support used during the reporting period was zeolite silicalite grown on macroporous alumina tubes. Chemical vapor deposition was carried out using alternating exposure of the support to silicon tetrachloride (SiCl{sub 4}) and water vapor at 400-500 C. Under these conditions it takes about twenty-five reaction cycles to narrow down the pores of the zeolite support sufficiently for separation of hydrogen from other gases. The membranes were characterized by gas adsorption for pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX for elemental composition. The permeance of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, and i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} was measured in the temperature range 100-250 C. At 150 C, the H{sub 2}:N{sub 2} permeance ratio was in the range 100-200 at a hydrogen permeance of 5-10x10{sup -8} mol/m{sub 2}-s-Pa.

  5. Modeling the mechanical behavior of ceramic and heterophase structures manufactured using selective laser sintering and spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    A model for predicting mechanical properties of ultra-high temperature ceramics and composites manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) under shock loading is presented. The model takes into account the porous structure, the specific volume and average sizes of phases, and the temperature of sintering. Residual stresses in ceramic composites reinforced with particles of refractory borides, carbides and nitrides after SLS or SPS were calculated. It is shown that the spall strength of diboride-zirconium matrix composites can be increased by the decreasing of porosity and the introduction of inclusions of specially selected refractory strengthening phases.

  6. 25 CFR 309.19 - What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.19 What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products? (a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by...

  7. 25 CFR 309.19 - What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.19 What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products? (a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by...

  8. 25 CFR 309.19 - What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.19 What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products? (a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by...

  9. 25 CFR 309.19 - What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.19 What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products? (a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by...

  10. 25 CFR 309.19 - What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.19 What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products? (a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by...

  11. Utilization of fly ash in structural and decorative ceramic products

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Moore, D.M.; DeMaris, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    In this research, fly ash from coal combustion is used in fired-clay products such as bricks and related fired-clay products. Our research includes: (1) plant-scale tests of firing fly ash-brick clay mixtures; (2) laboratory-scale {open_quotes}optimization{close_quotes} of firing these mixtures; and (3) preliminary evaluations of the environmental and economic costs/benefits of ceramics made with fly ash, Bricks and feed materials were tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants. X-ray diffraction and chemical step-dissolution were used to determine the mineralogical composition of feed materials and products. By using mineral content, improved predictions of the firing of fly ash-clay mixtures will result. Also, estimates of coal ash fusion will improve, because testing methods and melting mechanisms for ceramics and coal ash are identical. This project could convert waste fly ash into a valuable resource.

  12. Disposal of heavy metal waste sludges in ceramic products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, T.D.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives the results of a laboratory investigation of the feasibility of incorporating heavy metal waste sludges into ceramic products. Samples were fabricated by combining heavy metal waste sludges with bricks, roof tile, or vitrified clay pipe. The samples were then tested, using standard leaching tests. Test methods and results are presented and large scale process details are given. Detailed cost data were given for using waste and not using waste in the process to enable a comparison.

  13. Manufacturing techniques studies of ceramics by neutron and γ-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Souza, M. I. S.; Almeida, G. L.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the aim was to evaluate capabilities and constraints of radiographic imagery using thermal neutrons and gamma-rays as tools to identify the type of technique employed in ceramics manufacturing especially that used in prehistoric Brazilian pottery from Acre state. For this purpose, radiographic images of test objects made with clay of this region using both techniques - palette and rollers - have been acquired with a system comprised of a source of gamma-rays or thermal neutrons and a corresponding X-ray or neutron-sensitive Imaging Plate as detector. For the neutrongraphy samples were exposed to a thermal neutron flux of order of 10{sup 5}n.cm{sup −2}.s{sup −1} for 3 minutes at main port of Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN/CNEN. The radiographic images using γ-rays from {sup 165}Dy (95 keV) and {sup 198}Au (412 keV) both produced at this reactor, have been acquired under an exposure time of a couple of hours. After acquisition, images have undergone a treatment to improve their quality through enhancement of their contrast, a procedure involving corrections of the beam divergence, sample shape and averaging of the attenuation map profile. Preliminary results show that difference between manufacturing techniques is better identified by radiography using low energy γ-rays from {sup 165}Dy rather than neutrongraphy or γ-rays from {sup 198}Au. Nevertheless, disregarding the kind of employed radiation, it should be stressed that feasibility to apply the technique is tightly tied to homogeneity of the clay itself and tempers due to their different attenuation.

  14. Manufacturing techniques studies of ceramics by neutron and γ-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, R. M.; Souza, M. I. S.; Almeida, G. L.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the aim was to evaluate capabilities and constraints of radiographic imagery using thermal neutrons and gamma-rays as tools to identify the type of technique employed in ceramics manufacturing especially that used in prehistoric Brazilian pottery from Acre state. For this purpose, radiographic images of test objects made with clay of this region using both techniques - palette and rollers - have been acquired with a system comprised of a source of gamma-rays or thermal neutrons and a corresponding X-ray or neutron-sensitive Imaging Plate as detector. For the neutrongraphy samples were exposed to a thermal neutron flux of order of 105n.cm-2.s-1 for 3 minutes at main port of Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN/CNEN. The radiographic images using γ-rays from 165Dy (95 keV) and 198Au (412 keV) both produced at this reactor, have been acquired under an exposure time of a couple of hours. After acquisition, images have undergone a treatment to improve their quality through enhancement of their contrast, a procedure involving corrections of the beam divergence, sample shape and averaging of the attenuation map profile. Preliminary results show that difference between manufacturing techniques is better identified by radiography using low energy γ-rays from 165Dy rather than neutrongraphy or γ-rays from 198Au . Nevertheless, disregarding the kind of employed radiation, it should be stressed that feasibility to apply the technique is tightly tied to homogeneity of the clay itself and tempers due to their different attenuation.

  15. Ceramic waste form production and development at ANL-West.

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, T. J.; Goff, K. M.; Bateman, K. J.; Simpson, M. F.; Lind, J. P.

    2002-08-21

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a method to stabilize spent electrolyte salt discarded from electrorefiners (ER) used to treat spent nuclear fuel. The salt is stabilized in a ceramic using a pressureless consolidation technique. The starting material is zeolite 4A which is used as the host for the fission product and actinide rich salt. Glass frit is added to the salt loaded zeolite before processing to act as a binder. The zeolite 4A is converted to sodalite during processing via pressureless consolidation. This process differs from one used in the past that employed a hot isostatic press. Ceramic is created at 925 C and atmospheric pressure instead of the high pressures used in hot isostatic pressing. Process flow sheets, off-gas test results, processing equipment, and leech test results are presented.

  16. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Lühl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2011-05-01

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with μ-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each "layer". Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  17. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  18. Lean manufacturing: A better way for enhancement in productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Ahir, Pankaj; Kumar Yadav, Lalit; Singh Chandrawat, Saurabh

    2012-03-01

    Productivity is the impact of peoples working together. Machines are merely an extended way of collective imagination and energy. Lean Manufacturing is the most used method for continues improvement of business. Organization management philosophy focusing on the reduction of wastage to improve overall customer value. "Lean" operating principles began in manufacturing environments and are known by a variety of synonyms; Lean Manufacturing, Lean Production, Toyota Production System, etc. It is commonly believed that Lean started in Japan "The notable activities in keeping the price of Ford products low is the steady restriction of the production cycle. The longer an article is in the process of manufacture and the more it is moved about, the greater is its ultimate cost." "A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement, flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection."

  19. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  20. An integrated approach to product development and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to product development is described that integrates various unit operations into a unified ``knowledge-base``. This knowledge-base is easily accessible to all members of the design team due to the advent of high performance and networking capabilities of today`s desktop computers. This permits rapid optimization of the product`s material, shape, and manufacturing processes that satisfy the customer`s performance requirements while maximizing economic return for the manufacturer.

  1. Mathematical modeling of the process of filling a mold during injection molding of ceramic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkov, S. N.; Korobenkov, M. V.; Bragin, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the software package Fluent it have been predicted of the filling of a mold in injection molding of ceramic products is of great importance, because the strength of the final product is directly related to the presence of voids in the molding, making possible early prediction of inaccuracies in the mold prior to manufacturing. The calculations were performed in the formulation of mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic turbulent process of filling a predetermined volume of a viscous liquid. The model used to determine the filling forms evaluated the influence of density and viscosity of the feedstock, and the injection pressure on the mold filling process to predict the formation of voids in the area caused by the shape defect geometry.

  2. 27 CFR 19.344 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... Flavoring Materials § 19.344 Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors. (a) Distilled spirits and wine may be used for the manufacture of flavors or flavoring extracts of...

  3. 27 CFR 19.344 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... Flavoring Materials § 19.344 Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors. (a) Distilled spirits and wine may be used for the manufacture of flavors or flavoring extracts of...

  4. 27 CFR 19.344 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... Flavoring Materials § 19.344 Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors. (a) Distilled spirits and wine may be used for the manufacture of flavors or flavoring extracts of...

  5. 27 CFR 19.344 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... Flavoring Materials § 19.344 Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors. (a) Distilled spirits and wine may be used for the manufacture of flavors or flavoring extracts of...

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  8. Development of cost-effective manufacturing process for producing ceramic turbocharger rotors. Volume 1. Final report, October 1985-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, R.J.; Mullen, R.L.; Baker, D.E.; Yeh, H.C.

    1987-08-14

    Ceramic turbine rotors for turbochargers, because of the material's low density, offer faster turbocharger rotor acceleration which improves engine response and vehicle acceleration. Ceramics use relatively low-cost materials instead of the currently used expensive, exotic, and sometimes scarce-metal elements and, hopefully, will allow the production of less-expensive rotors. Only in the past few years have prototype ceramic rotors been produced. The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM) established a program to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a cost-effective ceramic rotor for military use with Garrett Automotive as the prime contractor and the AiResearch Casting Company (ACC) as the major subcontractor. While ACC has been able to produce small (passenger car) ceramic rotors, within the timeframe of this program, ACC was not able to produce a satisfactory large turbocharger rotor. A major goal of this program was to develop a domestic source for rotor production, but from Garrett's experience no other U.S. company was capable. Therefore, to conclude the program with demonstration hardware, a Japanese supplier of known capability (Kyocera) was asked to make the rotors.

  9. The Impact of Housing on the Characteristics of Ceramic Pressure Sensors—An Issue of Design for Manufacturability

    PubMed Central

    Santo Zarnik, Marina; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2015-01-01

    An exploratory study of the impact of housing on the characteristics of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) pressure sensor is presented. The ceramic sensor structure is sealed in a plastic housing. This may have non-negligible effect on the final characteristics and should be considered in the early design phase. The manufacturability issue mainly concerning the selection of available housing and the most appropriate materials was considered with respect to different requirements for low and high pressure ranges of operation. Numerical predictions showed the trends and helped reveal the critical design parameters. Proper selection of the adhesive material remains an essential issue. Curing of the epoxy adhesive may introduce non-negligible residual stresses, which considerably influence the sensor’s characteristics. PMID:26694386

  10. The use of waste ceramic tile in cement production

    SciTech Connect

    Ay, N.; Uenal, M.

    2000-03-01

    In ceramic tile production, because of various reasons, unsold fired products come out. These are waste tiles and only a little part of them are used. Remainings create environmental problems. If these waste tiles are used in cement production, this pollution decreases. In this study, usage of waste tile as pozzolan was studied. Waste tile was added into Portland cement in 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% weight ratios. Pozzolanic properties of waste tile and setting time, volume stability, particle size, density, specific surface area, and strength of cement including waste tile were investigated. The test results indicated that the waste tiles show pozzolanic properties, and chemical and physical properties of the cement including tile conforms to cement standard up to the addition of 35% waste tile.

  11. Manufacturing issues and optical properties of rare-earth (Y, Lu, Sc, Nd) aluminate garnets composite transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Loïck; Boulesteix, Rémy; Maître, Alexandre; Sallé, Christian; Couderc, Vincent; Brenier, Alain

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a comparative study of reactive sintering and optical properties of three laser composite transparent ceramics doped with neodymium: Nd:YAG/Nd:YS1AG, Nd:YAG/Nd:LuAG and Nd:YS1AG/Nd:LuAG has been achieved. Samples were manufactured thanks to pressureless co-sintering under vacuum of bilayer powder compacts. The reaction sequence from primary oxides to final garnet phases has been investigated. Similar dilatometric behavior was observed during reactive-sintering for each composition. Differential shrinkage can be thus accommodated to some extent. Second, this work has shown that the intermediate zone at composites interface is composed of single-phased garnet solid-solution with continuous evolution from one side to the other. The thickness of the interdiffusion zone was found to be limited to about 100 μm in all cases and appeared to be well described by classical diffusion laws of Fick and Whipple-Le Claire. The analyses of spectroscopic properties of transparent ceramics composites have finally shown that composite ceramics should be suitable to produce dual wavelength emission for terahertz generation.

  12. Production planning tools and techniques for agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Jones, D.A.; List, G.F.; Turnquist, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Effective use of resources shared among multiple products or processes is critical for agile manufacturing. This paper describes development and implementation of a computerized model to support production planning in a complex manufacturing system at Pantex Plant. The model integrates two different production processes (nuclear weapon dismantlement and stockpile evaluation) which use common facilities and personnel, and reflects the interactions of scheduling constraints, material flow constraints, and resource availability. These two processes reflect characteristics of flow-shop and job-shop operations in a single facility. Operational results from using the model are also discussed.

  13. Manufacturing of tattoo ink products today and in future: Europe.

    PubMed

    Michel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the European market situation and the legal framework in Europe. It shows the state-of-the-art production under ISO 9001:2008 quality management and describes the future of tattoo ink production based on good manufacturing practice guidelines for tattoo inks.

  14. International Comparison of Labor Productivity Distribution for Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Souma, W.

    Labor productivity was studied at the microscopic level in terms of distributions based on individual firm financial data from Japan and the US. A power-law distribution in terms of firms and sector productivity was found in both countries' data. The labor productivities were not equal for nation and sectors, in contrast to the prevailing view in the field of economics. It was found that the low productivity of the Japanese non-manufacturing sector reported in macro-economic studies was due to the low productivity of small firms.

  15. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Administration (FDA) is amending a final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of April 9, 2007 (72 FR 17397... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address...

  16. 27 CFR 19.374 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.374 Manufacture of nonbeverage...

  17. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  18. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans Jr, James O; McMurray, Jake W; Jolly, Brian C; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Trammell, Michael P; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  19. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  20. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  1. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  2. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  3. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  4. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  5. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Bruno G; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S; Reis, Catarina P

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability.

  6. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Bruno G.; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S.; Reis, Catarina P.

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability. PMID:25883511

  7. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Bruno G; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S; Reis, Catarina P

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability. PMID:25883511

  8. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin

  9. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  10. Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuld, James W.; And Others

    The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation…

  11. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  12. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  13. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  14. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  15. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 9th, Cocoa Beach, FL, January 20-23, 1985, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The present conference discusses testing methods for ceramic matrix composites, developments in ceramic fibers, space transportation systems thermal protection materials, ceramics for heat engines and other severe environments, thermal sprayed coatings, the development status of ceramic tribology, and the fabrication of ceramics and hard metals. Specific attention is given to the mechanical characterization of ceramic and glass matrix composites, the application of fracture mechanics to fiber composites, the degradation properties of Nicalon SiC fibers, ceramic matrix toughening, SiC/glass composite phases, ceramic composite manufacture by infiltration, and ceramic coatings for the Space Shuttle's surface insulation. Also treated are design principles for anisotropic brittle materials, ceramics for intense radiant heat applications, ceramic-coated tip seals for turbojet engines, composite production by low pressure plasma deposition, tribology in military systems, lubrication for ceramics, a systems approach to the grinding of structural ceramics, and the fabrication of inorganic foams by microwave irradiation.

  16. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  17. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  18. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  19. Respiratory toxicity of raw materials used in ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Neghab, Masoud; Zadeh, J Hassan; Fakoorziba, M R

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the pulmonary reactions associated with exposure to raw materials used in ceramic production (RMCP). This was a cross sectional study in which 33 male workers with current exposure to RMCP and 20 healthy male unexposed workers (referent group) were interviewed and respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered to them. Furthermore, they underwent chest X-ray and lung function tests. Additionally, personal dust monitoring for airborne inhalable and respirable dust was carried out at dusty areas of the industry. To determine the chemical composition, possible silica phases and SiO(2) contents of dust samples, they were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. Demographic and socioeconomic variables of both groups were similar, except that referent individuals were, to some extent, older and heavier than their exposed counterparts. Personal dust monitoring showed that the concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust were very high and dust contained large amounts of crystalline silica. Additionally, respiratory symptom questionnaires revealed that exposed workers, compared to their unexposed counterparts, had higher prevalences of cough, wheezing, phlegm and shortness of breath. Likewise, significant decrements in some parameters of pulmonary function were noted and most of the exposed subjects showed abnormalities in their chest radiographs. These data provide further evidence in favor of the notion that exposure to RMCP, probably due to their silica contents, is associated with respiratory symptoms, radiographic abnormalities and functional impairments. PMID:19218759

  20. Application of laser radiation in decoration and marking of ceramic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Gebel, R.; Szamałek, K.; Olszyna, A.; Marczak, J.; Sarzyński, A.; Strzelec, M.

    2013-01-01

    In cooperation with the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials conducts work on laser decoration of ceramic products. Two methods are under development: laser activation and laser sintering. The activation method is based on change of color of specially prepared ceramic material due only to illumination by laser beam. Laser sintering is a deposition welding process in which a layer of ceramic powder is deposited on the substrate material, and the two ceramic materials are fused through the application of laser beam, in turn creating any desired color pattern. The paper describes the influence of some physical phenomena on the progress of the laser process as well as sample experimental results.

  1. Hydrogen production from methane using oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Sedigheh

    Non-porous ceramic membranes with mixed ionic and electronic conductivity have received significant interest in membrane reactor systems for the conversion of methane and higher hydrocarbons to higher value products like hydrogen. However, hydrogen generation by this method has not yet been commercialized and suffers from low membrane stability, low membrane oxygen flux, high membrane fabrication costs, and high reaction temperature requirements. In this dissertation, hydrogen production from methane on two different types of ceramic membranes (dense SFC and BSCF) has been investigated. The focus of this research was on the effects of different parameters to improve hydrogen production in a membrane reactor. These parameters included operating temperature, type of catalyst, membrane material, membrane thickness, membrane preparation pH, and feed ratio. The role of the membrane in the conversion of methane and the interaction with a Pt/CeZrO2 catalyst has been studied. Pulse studies of reactants and products over physical mixtures of crushed membrane material and catalyst have clearly demonstrated that a synergy exists between the membrane and the catalyst under reaction conditions. The degree of catalyst/membrane interaction strongly impacts the conversion of methane and the catalyst performance. During thermogravimetric analysis, the onset temperature of oxygen release for BSCF was observed to be lower than that for SFC while the amount of oxygen release was significantly greater. Pulse injections of CO2 over crushed membranes at 800°C have shown more CO2 dissociation on the BSCF membrane than the SFC membrane, resulting in higher CO formation on the BSCF membrane. Similar to the CO2 pulses, when CO was injected on the samples at 800°C, CO2 production was higher on BSCF than SFC. It was found that hydrogen consumption on BSCF particles is 24 times higher than that on SFC particles. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption studies of

  2. Challenges in manufacturing adenoviral vectors for global vaccine product deployment.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Jort; Smith, J Patrick; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Majhen, Dragomira; Lemckert, Angelique; van Ooij, Mark; Ives, Paul; Yallop, Christopher; Custers, Jerome; Havenga, Menzo

    2014-04-01

    Abstract Once adenovirus vector-based vaccines are licensed for the prevention of important infectious diseases, manufacturing processes capable of reliably delivering large numbers of vaccine doses will be required. The highest burden of disease for many infectious pathogens under investigation occurs in resource-poor settings. Therefore, the price per dose will be an important determinant of success. This review describes common practices for manufacturing replication-incompetent adenovirus vectors at clinical scale. Recent innovations and strategies aimed at improving the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing and ensuring high-volume vaccine production and purification are described. Hereto, technologies to increase bioreactor yields are reviewed. In addition, the use of single-use perfusion bioreactors, modification of some purification steps to avoid the use of expensive endonucleases, and use of charged filters during anion exchange all have the potential to bring down the cost of goods and are thus described. Finally, processes for ensuring quality throughout the manufacturing process, methods for testing viral identity, and safety of master seeds through to the end vaccine product are described.

  3. 27 CFR 19.5 - Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacturing products....5 Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... to stop manufacturing the product until the formula is changed to make the product unfit for...

  4. 27 CFR 19.5 - Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacturing products....5 Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... to stop manufacturing the product until the formula is changed to make the product unfit for...

  5. 27 CFR 19.5 - Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacturing products....5 Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... to stop manufacturing the product until the formula is changed to make the product unfit for...

  6. 27 CFR 19.5 - Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacturing products....5 Manufacturing products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... to stop manufacturing the product until the formula is changed to make the product unfit for...

  7. [Xeroradiography and digital luminescence radiography in the study of the technics of manufacturing ancient ceramics. The advantages and limits].

    PubMed

    Meduri, A; Pirronti, T; Calicchio, D; Rispoli, F; Vidale, M; Marano, P

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the cooperative work of the Department of Radiology of the Catholic University, Rome, and of the Italian Institute for Middle and Far East. The study was aimed at using xeroradiography and digital luminescence radiography for the archeometric evaluation of ancient ceramics and at assessing the imaging potentials of the two techniques. Some manufacturing techniques are reported which were used in the ancient world and societies for pottery making--i.e., coil building (the superimposition of clay rings), paddle and anvil beating and throwing of the wheel. Such techniques leave, on the vessel's wall, clear traces which can be detected by X-ray imaging. After discussing the main semiologic features, we present 4 case studies from the project archive. Each vase underwent xeroradiography and digital luminescence radiography. The former technique was useful in detailing minor phase transitions--e.g., pores and inclusions--while the latter, thanks to both its wide dynamic range and its image processing potentials, was optimal in defining very gradual thickness transitions due to the different techniques used to join the clay parts. By combining the two techniques, the manufacturing technology of the artifacts could be defined. The interactive processing of radiographic images at the system console was seen to be of major importance: it allowed the best results to be obtained thanks to the integration of the radiologists' and archeologists' know-how during the actual analytical stages.

  8. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  9. Application of chemical trated illite clay for development of ceramics products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedmale, G.; Korovkins, A.; Seglins, V.; Lindina, L.

    2013-12-01

    The chemically treatment by alkali solutions of illite clay, so-called geopolymer method, were studied to show the impact on changes of structure and crystalline phases composition of treated not dehydroxylated illite Quarternary clay, as well as ceramic properties and compressive strength of sintered respective ceramic samples. The degree of activating process were followed by FTIR-spectra, X-ray diffraction and differencial thermal analysis. The low temperature ceramic product was achieved by sintering of alkali solution (KOH or NaOH 1M, 3M, 4M and 6M) activated clay samples in temperature range from 100°C to 700°C . Sintered ceramic samples were characterized by compressive strength, total porosity, bulk density and shrinkage. It is shown that treatment of the illite Quarternary clay by KOH changes illite structure, but not destroyed. Main changes could be connected with changes of O-Al-OH grouping where O is associated with neighbour Si- layer That results into lowering of sintering temperature and development of amorphous (glassy) phase of sintered at 600-700 °C ceramic samples together with growing of total porosity. Consolidated at 600°C ceramic samples have the compressive strength ranged from 16-23 N.mm2. These values increases with growing of concentration of used alkali solution as well as with temperature for NaOH treated samples and is comparable with compressive strength for the respective ceramic products sintered at 900 °C.

  10. Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Helvey, Gregg

    2010-05-01

    For more than 30 years, Compendium has provided its readers with university-based continuing education and editorial, demonstrating the latest advances in clinical procedures and techniques. Using the same peer-reviewed format and influence/direction from Compendium's distinguished editorial board, Special Report provides insight on the latest advances in product technologies and the resulting benefits to both you and your patients. A discussion by the author on new clinical/laboratory research and product development strategies, as well as what the results could mean for dental treatment, also is included. Focusing on one product category per issue provides a detailed review of the category and a comprehensive resource to help guide your treatment planning process.

  11. The development of a modified composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Yakutova, V. A.; Antyufeev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The need to improve the technical level of production of construction materials, their product range, to improve product quality and reduce its cost requires the expansion of the raw material base, the use of resource and energy saving technology and design solutions. To implement all these it is necessary to conduct a more detailed study of the properties of ceramic materials and to investigate the behavior-modifying components of their formulations. This paper presents the development of the composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks, a modified silicon-waste production of ferrosilicon.

  12. Formal Grammars for Product Data Management on Distributed Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Rui M.; Martins, Paulo J.; Lima, Rui M.

    This work shows how formal grammars with attributes can be advantageously used to deal with two fundamental aspects of product data management - product diversity management and generation of specific product data based on clients’ specification - in the context of distributed manufacturing systems, while networks of geographically distant collaborative entities. This contribution will constitute a new component for an existing model, developed by the authors, for dynamic production planning and control which includes the interoperability with industrial equipment. The proposed approach is centered on attributed formal grammars, allowing the formalization of the data representation for each family of products and also of some of the inherent processing (e.g. generation of specific products’ bill-of-materials).

  13. Characterizing biological products and assessing comparability following manufacturing changes.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Arthur J; Mire-Sluis, Anthony

    2004-11-01

    Changes in production methods of a biological product may necessitate an assessment of comparability to ensure that these manufacturing changes have not affected the safety, identity, purity, or efficacy of the product. Depending on the nature of the protein or the change, this assessment consists of a hierarchy of sequential tests in analytical testing, preclinical animal studies and clinical studies. Differences in analytical test results between pre- and post-change products may require functional testing to establish the biological or clinical significance of the observed difference. An underlying principle of comparability is that under certain conditions, protein products may be considered comparable on the basis of analytical testing results alone. However, the ability to compare biological materials is solely dependent on the tests used, since no single analytical method is able to compare every aspect of protein structure or function. The advantages and disadvantages of any given method depends on the protein property being characterized. PMID:15529163

  14. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa. PMID:18727328

  15. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Luo, Yi-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Min

    2012-08-30

    Because of the ubiquity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in kaolinitic clays, the ceramic industry is considered to be a potential source of PCDD/Fs. However, studies on the emission of PCDD/Fs from ceramic production are still very scarce. In this study, PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production were investigated in an electric laboratory batch kiln. The results showed that the PCDD/Fs were completely removed from the ceramic pieces after 30 min of firing at the peak temperature of 1200°C. Nevertheless, on the mass and international toxic equivalent basis, 27.5% and 46.2% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay were released into the atmosphere during firing, respectively. These PCDD/Fs were emitted into the air before the temperature was elevated to a level high enough for their destruction. Dechlorination reactions generated a broad distribution within the PCDD/Fs congeners including a variety of non-2,3,7,8-substituted ones. The emission of PCDD/Fs was decreased to 16.3 wt.% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay, when the initial kiln temperature was enhanced to 600°C. The emission of PCDD/Fs could be reduced significantly in the presence of a glaze coating on the ceramic test piece. These results indicated that ceramic production is an un-neglectable source of PCDD/Fs in the environment. PMID:22727484

  16. Plutonium and surrogate fission products in a composite ceramic waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    Esh, D. W.; Frank, S. M.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T.

    1999-05-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a ceramic waste form to immobilize salt containing fission products and transuranic elements. Preliminary results have been presented for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products such as cesium and the lanthanides. In this work results from scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are presented in greater detail for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products. Additionally, results for waste forms containing plutonium and surrogate fission products are presented. Most of the surrogate fission products appear to be silicates or aluminosilicates whereas the plutonium is usually found in an oxide form. There is also evidence for the presence of plutonium within the sodalite phase although the chemical speciation of the plutonium is not known.

  17. Good manufacturing practices production of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Tarte, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs has led to production processes that need to be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). In cellular therapy, safety remains one of the main concerns and refers to donor validation, choice of starting material, processes, and the controls used, not only at the batch release level but also during the development of processes. The culture processes should be reproducible, robust, and efficient. Moreover, they should be adapted to closed systems that are easy to use. Implementing controls during the manufacturing of clinical-grade MSCs is essential. The controls should ensure microbiological safety but also avoid potential side effects linked to genomic instability driving transformation and senescence or decrease of cell functions (immunoregulation, differentiation potential). In this rapidly evolving field, a new approach to controls is needed.

  18. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  19. Ceramic Production and Craft Specialization in the Prehispanic Philippines, A.D. 500 to 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolek, Lisa Christine

    In the millennium prior to Spanish contact, the political economies of lowland societies in the Philippines, such as Tanjay (A.D. 500-1600) on southeastern Negros Island in the central Philippines, underwent significant social, political, and economic changes. Foreign trade with China increased, the circulation of wealth through events such as ritual feasting and bridewealth exchanges expanded, inter-polity competition through slave-raiding and warfare heightened, and agriculture intensified. It also has been hypothesized that the production of craft goods such as pottery and metal implements became increasingly specialized and centralized at polity centers. Tanjay, a historically-known chiefdom, was among them. This dissertation examines changes in the organization of ceramic production using the results of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of close to 300 ceramic samples. In addition to geochemical analysis, this research draws on Chinese accounts of trade from the late first millennium and early second millennium A.D.; Spanish colonial accounts of exploration and conquest from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; ethnographic research on traditional Philippine societies and ceramic production; ethnoarchaeological investigations of pottery production, exchange, and use; and archaeological work that has taken place in the Bais-Tanjay region of Negros Island for more than 30 years. Rather than finding clear evidence that ceramics became more compositionally standardized or homogeneous over time, this analysis reveals that a dynamic and complex pattern of local, dispersed pottery production existed alongside increasingly centralized and specialized production of ceramic materials.

  20. Critical parameters in the production of ceramic pot filters for household water treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J; Gensburger, I; Shantz, A; van Halem, D; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G H; Smeets, P W M H

    2015-06-01

    The need to improve the access to safe water is generally recognized for the benefit of public health in developing countries. This study's objective was to identify critical parameters which are essential for improving the performance of ceramic pot filters (CPFs) as a point-of-use water treatment system. Defining critical production parameters was also relevant to confirm that CPFs with high-flow rates may have the same disinfection capacity as pots with normal flow rates. A pilot unit was built in Cambodia to produce CPFs under controlled and constant conditions. Pots were manufactured from a mixture of clay, laterite and rice husk in a small-scale, gas-fired, temperature-controlled kiln and tested for flow rate, removal efficiency of bacteria and material strength. Flow rate can be increased by increasing pore sizes and by increasing porosity. Pore sizes were increased by using larger rice husk particles and porosity was increased with larger proportions of rice husk in the clay mixture. The main conclusions: larger pore size decreases the removal efficiency of bacteria; higher porosity does not affect the removal efficiency of bacteria, but does influence the strength of pots; flow rates of CPFs can be raised to 10-20 L/hour without a significant decrease in bacterial removal efficiency. PMID:26042989

  1. Critical parameters in the production of ceramic pot filters for household water treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J; Gensburger, I; Shantz, A; van Halem, D; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G H; Smeets, P W M H

    2015-06-01

    The need to improve the access to safe water is generally recognized for the benefit of public health in developing countries. This study's objective was to identify critical parameters which are essential for improving the performance of ceramic pot filters (CPFs) as a point-of-use water treatment system. Defining critical production parameters was also relevant to confirm that CPFs with high-flow rates may have the same disinfection capacity as pots with normal flow rates. A pilot unit was built in Cambodia to produce CPFs under controlled and constant conditions. Pots were manufactured from a mixture of clay, laterite and rice husk in a small-scale, gas-fired, temperature-controlled kiln and tested for flow rate, removal efficiency of bacteria and material strength. Flow rate can be increased by increasing pore sizes and by increasing porosity. Pore sizes were increased by using larger rice husk particles and porosity was increased with larger proportions of rice husk in the clay mixture. The main conclusions: larger pore size decreases the removal efficiency of bacteria; higher porosity does not affect the removal efficiency of bacteria, but does influence the strength of pots; flow rates of CPFs can be raised to 10-20 L/hour without a significant decrease in bacterial removal efficiency.

  2. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) to treat low-level mixed wastes, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics that cannot be treated by conventional thermal processes. This work was begun under ANL`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds, followed by further development with support from EM-50`s Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  3. Manufacturing Ultra-Precision Meso-scale Products by Coining

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Davis, P J; Rickens, K; Osmer, J; Brinksmeier, E

    2010-02-18

    A method for replicating ultra-precision, meso-scale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank has been demonstrated. The 'coining' technology can be used to imprint a wide range of features and/or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The instrumented system provides the ability to measure and control the product thickness and total thickness variation (TTV). The coining mechanism relies on kinematic principles to accurately and efficiently produce ultra-precision work pieces without the production of by products such as machining chips, or grinding swarf while preserving surface finish, material structure and overall form. Coining has been developed as a niche process for manufacturing difficult to machine, millimeter size components made from materials that may present hazardous conditions. In the case described in this paper a refractory metal part, tantalum (Ta) was produced with 4 {micro}m peak to valley 50 {micro}m special wavelength sine wave coined into the surface of 50 {micro}m blank. This technique shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling and/or has strict requirements on subsurface damage, surface impurities and grain structure. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required and produce parts out of hazardous materials without generating added waste.

  4. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  5. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  6. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  7. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  8. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  9. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  10. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  11. Nanofiltration in the manufacture of liquid dyes production.

    PubMed

    Mikulásek, P; Cuhorka, J

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of liquid dyes, almost complete desalting, which helps to improve the stability of the product, enhances the solubility of the dye. Diafiltration is used to allow a high level of desalting to be achieved. The process of desalination of aqueous dye-salt solutions by polymeric nanofiltration membranes using commercially available modules was studied. The influence of dye and salt concentration on the salt rejection and pressure applied on the flux as well as comparison of individual NF membranes for desalting purposes is presented. The great interest is also devoted to the mathematical modelling of nanofiltration and description of discontinuous diafiltration by periodically adding solvent at constant pressure difference.

  12. Sintering of corundum ceramics based on aluminum hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Afoninia, G.A.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of using aluminum hydroxide obtained by the precipitation method for synthesis of corundum ceramics with additives forming a liquid phase during firing and without additives, is investigated. The optimum parameters of the manufacturing process and the main properties of the material recommended for testing in the production of glass ceramic substrates for integrated circuits are investigated.

  13. Enhanced Production of Epothilone by Immobilized Sorangium cellulosum in Porous Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guo-Li; Huang, Yu-Ying; Liu, Li-Li; Chen, Xue-Feng; Liu, Huan

    2015-10-01

    Epothilone, which is produced by the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, contributes significant value in medicinal development. However, under submerged culture conditions, S. cellulosum will accumulate to form bacterial clumps, which hinder nutrient and metabolite transportation. Therefore, the production of epothilone by liquid fermentation is limited. In this study, diatomite-based porous ceramics were made from diatomite, paraffin, and poremaking agent (saw dust). Appropriate methods to modify the porous ceramics were also identified. After optimizing the preparation and modification conditions, we determined the optimal prescription to prepare high-performance porous ceramics. The structure of porous ceramics can provide a solid surface area where S. cellulosum can grow and metabolize to prevent the formation of bacterial clumps. S. cellulosum cells that do not form clumps will change their erratic metabolic behavior under submerged culture conditions. As a result, the unstable production of epothilone by this strain can be changed in the fermentation process, and the purpose of increasing epothilone production can be achieved. After 8 days of fermentation under optimized conditions, the epothilone yield reached 90.2 mg/l, which was increased four times compared with the fermentation without porous ceramics.

  14. Additive manufacturing of Ti-Si-N ceramic coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanning; Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-08-01

    In this study, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM) was employed towards Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Ti-Si-N coatings with three different Ti-Si ratios on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) substrate. Microstructural analysis, phase analysis using X-ray diffraction, wear resistance and hardness measurements were done on LENS™ processed 3D printed coatings. Coatings showed graded microstructures and in situ formed phases. Results showed that microstructural variations and phase changes influence coating's hardness and wear resistance directly. High hardness values were obtained from all samples' top surface where the hardness of coatings can be ranked as 90% Ti-10% Si-N coating (2093.67 ± 144 HV0.2) > 100% Ti-N coating (1846 ± 68.5 HV0.2) > 75% Ti-25% Si-N coating (1375.3 ± 61.4 HV0.2). However, wear resistance was more dependent on inherent Si content, and samples with higher Si content showed better wear resistance.

  15. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 3: Product data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is analyzed and the study results are presented. The chronology of the study process is discussed. The separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process is investigated. The production requirements of twelve candidate products including antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and interferon are evaluated.

  16. Recent developments in manufacturing emulsions and particulate products using membranes.

    PubMed

    Vladisavljević, Goran T; Williams, Richard A

    2005-03-17

    Membrane emulsification (ME) is a relatively new technique for the highly controlled production of particulates. This review focuses on the recent developments in this area, ranging from the production of simple oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions to multiple emulsions of different types, solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) dispersions, coherent solids (silica particles, solid lipid microspheres, solder metal powder) and structured solids (solid lipid microcarriers, gel microbeads, polymeric microspheres, core-shell microcapsules and hollow polymeric microparticles). Other emerging technologies that extend the capabilities into different membrane materials and operation methods (such as rotating membranes, repeated membrane extrusion of coarsely pre-emulsified feeds) are introduced. The results of experimental work carried out by cited researchers in the field together with those of the current authors are presented in a tabular form in a rigorous and systematic manner. These demonstrate a wide range of products that can be manufactured using different membrane approaches. Opportunities for creation of new and novel entities are highlighted for low throughput applications (medical diagnostics, healthcare) and for large-scale productions (consumer and personal products).

  17. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products....

  18. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products....

  19. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products....

  20. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products....

  1. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products....

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  3. 78 FR 4307 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 4 Current Good Manufacturing Practice... manufacturing practice (CGMP) requirements applicable to combination products. This rule is intended to promote... good manufacturing practice requirements apply to my combination product? (Sec. 4.3) E. How can...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  8. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  9. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  10. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  11. Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Shirvanyants, David; Ermoshkin, Nikita; Janusziewicz, Rima; Johnson, Ashley R; Kelly, David; Chen, Kai; Pinschmidt, Robert; Rolland, Jason P; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Samulski, Edward T; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-03-20

    Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

  12. Nanofiltration in the manufacture of liquid dyes production.

    PubMed

    Mikulásek, P; Cuhorka, J

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of liquid dyes, almost complete desalting, which helps to improve the stability of the product, enhances the solubility of the dye. Diafiltration is used to allow a high level of desalting to be achieved. The process of desalination of aqueous dye-salt solutions by polymeric nanofiltration membranes using commercially available modules was studied. The influence of dye and salt concentration on the salt rejection and pressure applied on the flux as well as comparison of individual NF membranes for desalting purposes is presented. The great interest is also devoted to the mathematical modelling of nanofiltration and description of discontinuous diafiltration by periodically adding solvent at constant pressure difference. PMID:20371946

  13. Good manufacturing practice production of adenoviral vectors for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lusky, Monika

    2005-03-01

    The increasing importance of recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy, cancer therapy, and the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines has led to worldwide efforts toward scalable process development suitable for commercial manufacturing of replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. This review focuses on the manufacturing of adenovirus for clinical trials in the context of good manufacturing practice conditions and regulations. PMID:15812223

  14. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  15. 76 FR 23837 - Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of the Commission's Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Electronics North America, Inc. of Smyrna, Georgia (collectively, ``Murata''). 74 FR 57193-94 (Nov. 4, 2009... issues it determined to review, and on remedy, the public interest and bonding. 76 FR 11275 (Mar. 1, 2011... COMMISSION Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of the Commission's...

  16. Boron-carbon-silicon polymers and ceramic and a process for the production thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the production of an organoborosilicon preceramic polymer. The polymer is prepared by the reaction of vinylsilane or vinlymethylsilanes (acetylene)silane or acetylene alkyl silanes and borane or borane derivatives. The prepolymer form is pyrolyzed to produce a ceramic article useful in high temperature (e.g., aerospace) or extreme environmental applications.

  17. Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region.

  18. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively. PMID:26729180

  19. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively. PMID:26729180

  20. On-Site Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting of Composite Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateri, M.; Khosravi, M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for cost reduction of future space missions by manufacturing parts on foreign planets. The suitability of Selective Laser Melting process for on-site production of metallic, ceramic and glass products on mars is examined.

  1. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  2. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOEpatents

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  3. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  4. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  5. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  6. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  7. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  8. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  9. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  10. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  11. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  12. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  13. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  14. 76 FR 36079 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production Capacity); BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC; (Motor Vehicles) A request has been submitted to the... behalf of BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC, (BMWMC), operator of Subzone 38A, BMWMC plant, Greer,...

  15. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 803 of this chapter; (ii) Persons who manufacture blood and blood components, including licensed...; (iii) Persons who manufacture Source Plasma or any other blood component and use that Source Plasma or any other blood component in the further manufacture of another licensed biological product...

  16. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  17. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Advanced Energy Systems: Critical Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic integration technologies dramatically impact the energy landscape due to wide scale application of ceramics in all aspects of alternative energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, gas turbine propulsion systems, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Ceramic integration technologies play a key role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts with multifunctional properties. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various needs, challenges, and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic metal) material www.nasa.gov 45 ceramic-ceramic-systems have been discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) LDI fuel injector and advanced ceramics and composites for gas turbine applications are presented.

  18. Novel manufacturing processing route for forming high-density ceramic armor materials: Phase 2 -- SBIR. Final report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.V.

    1999-04-01

    The feasibility of a combustion synthesis/Ceracon forging (CS/CF) fabrication process for low-cost high-quality ceramic armor is demonstrated. CS of titanium (Ti) and carbon (C) forming titanium carbide (TiC) was followed by a quasi-isostatic pressurization and densification to produce tiles with 95% + densities with sizes of up to 15 cm x 15 cm x 2.5 Cm. Several tiles were fabricated and delivered to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for evaluation and testing. A cost model, which showed that approximately 60% in cost savings can be realized with the CS/CF method, was developed. Temperature measurements and one-dimensional (1-D) computations were used to develop thermal management practices to make crack-free tiles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified full conversion of reactants to products. A considerable variation in TiC grain size and microhardness was found between the surface ([minus]10 pm, high hardness) and the interior (up to 100 pm, low hardness) that depended on conditions during processing. Fractography showed transgranular fracture in the interior and intergranular fracture at the surface. Quasi-static compressive strength was found to be 1.79 GPa, while the flexural strength, determined from four-point bending tests, was 0.17 GPa.

  19. Effects of Leadership Training on the Manufacturing Productivity of Informal Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Donald W., Jr.; Walker, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Nonmanagerial manufacturing workers were placed in four groups (n=10, 11, 5, 11) using Solomon four-group experimental design; two groups received leadership training. Productivity in mold production was measured for all groups. Leadership training appeared to increase the manufacturing productivity of informal leaders. (Contains 19 references.)…

  20. Production of pyroxene ceramics from the fine fraction of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, A; Vandeperre, L J; Grimes, S M; Themelis, N; Cheeseman, C R

    2015-11-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is normally processed to extract metals and the coarse mineral fraction is used as secondary aggregate. This leaves significant quantities of fine material, typically less than 4mm, that is problematic as reuse options are limited. This work demonstrates that fine IBA can be mixed with glass and transformed by milling, calcining, pressing and sintering into high density ceramics. The addition of glass aids liquid phase sintering, milling increases sintering reactivity and calcining reduces volatile loss during firing. Calcining also changes the crystalline phases present from quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hematite (Fe2O3) to diopside (CaMgSi2O6), clinoenstatite (MgSiO3) and andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12). Calcined powders fired at 1080°C have high green density, low shrinkage (<7%) and produce dense (2.78 g/cm(3)) ceramics that have negligible water absorption. The transformation of the problematic fraction of IBA into a raw material suitable for the manufacture of ceramic tiles for use in urban paving and other applications is demonstrated.

  1. Production of pyroxene ceramics from the fine fraction of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, A; Vandeperre, L J; Grimes, S M; Themelis, N; Cheeseman, C R

    2015-11-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is normally processed to extract metals and the coarse mineral fraction is used as secondary aggregate. This leaves significant quantities of fine material, typically less than 4mm, that is problematic as reuse options are limited. This work demonstrates that fine IBA can be mixed with glass and transformed by milling, calcining, pressing and sintering into high density ceramics. The addition of glass aids liquid phase sintering, milling increases sintering reactivity and calcining reduces volatile loss during firing. Calcining also changes the crystalline phases present from quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hematite (Fe2O3) to diopside (CaMgSi2O6), clinoenstatite (MgSiO3) and andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12). Calcined powders fired at 1080°C have high green density, low shrinkage (<7%) and produce dense (2.78 g/cm(3)) ceramics that have negligible water absorption. The transformation of the problematic fraction of IBA into a raw material suitable for the manufacture of ceramic tiles for use in urban paving and other applications is demonstrated. PMID:25743204

  2. Predictable Restorative Work Flow for Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture-Fabricated Ceramic Veneers Utilizing a Virtual Smile Design Principle.

    PubMed

    Lin, W S; Zandinejad, A; Metz, M J; Harris, B T; Morton, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present the use of a contemporary digital photograph-assisted virtual smile design principle, an intraoral digital impression, and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic veneers to treat a patient with esthetic needs in the maxillary anterior region. By using the proposed digital restorative work flow, this case report demonstrated an effective communication pathway between the patient, clinician, and dental laboratory technician. Effective communication can help to achieve a more predictable and satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  3. Synthesis of the U.S. specified ceramics using MOX fuel production expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafiev, V. A.; Glushenkov, A. E.; Sideinikov, M.; Borisov, G. B.; Mansourov, O. A.; Jardine, L. J.

    2000-07-01

    At present, under the auspices of the USA/Russia agreements, joint work is under way to dispose of excess plutonium being withdrawn from nuclear defense programs. A major approach is to produce mixed plutonium-uranium fuel (MOX fuel) for its further burnup in different nuclear reactors. Plutonium-containing materials, which upon their composition or from an economic standpoint cannot be used for MOX fuel production, are to be immobilized into solid ceramic and glass-type matrices with their safe storage and eventual geologic disposal. For an immobilization form in the U.S., it is proposed to use ceramics based on pyrochlore developed at LLNL that is capable of incorporating up to 10 wt.% PuO2 and 23 wt.% UO2. At VNIINM, work was done to assess the possibility of using equipment and expertise of MOX-fuel production to fabricate the ceramics. A few of the ceramic samples were synthesized, and basic physicochemical properties, including the homogeneity of the plutonium and uranium distributions in the matrix, density, and pellet porosity, were also measured.

  4. Computer integrated manufacturing and technology transfer for improving aerospace productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, P. A.; Sica, J.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews a cooperative effort, between the Alabama Industial Development Training Institute and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, to implement a prototype computer integrated manufacturing system. The primary use of this system will be to educate Alabama companies on the organizational and technological issues involved in the implementation of advanced manufacturing systems.

  5. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  6. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  7. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  8. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  9. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  10. 27 CFR 17.127 - Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.127 Section 17.127 Alcohol, Tobacco... Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. A self-manufactured ingredient made with taxpaid spirits, which otherwise would be treated as an intermediate...

  11. 27 CFR 17.127 - Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.127 Section 17.127 Alcohol, Tobacco... Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. A self-manufactured ingredient made with taxpaid spirits, which otherwise would be treated as an intermediate...

  12. 27 CFR 17.127 - Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.127 Section 17.127 Alcohol, Tobacco... Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. A self-manufactured ingredient made with taxpaid spirits, which otherwise would be treated as an intermediate...

  13. 27 CFR 17.127 - Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.127 Section 17.127 Alcohol, Tobacco... Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. A self-manufactured ingredient made with taxpaid spirits, which otherwise would be treated as an intermediate...

  14. 27 CFR 17.127 - Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.127 Section 17.127 Alcohol, Tobacco... Self-manufactured ingredients treated optionally as unfinished nonbeverage products. A self-manufactured ingredient made with taxpaid spirits, which otherwise would be treated as an intermediate...

  15. 78 FR 16824 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice... docket to obtain input on recommendations for regulations on good manufacturing practice for tobacco products that were submitted to FDA by a group of 13 tobacco companies (tobacco companies'...

  16. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.1 Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  2. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance. PMID:27203408

  3. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance.

  4. Shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with three different generations of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Ghani, Zuryati; Jaafar, Wahyuni; Foo, Siew Fon; Ariffin, Zaihan; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty cuboidal blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated in equal numbers from feldspathic ceramic CEREC® Blocs PC and nano resin ceramic Lava™ Ultimate, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Each block was cemented to the dentin of 60 extracted human premolar using Variolink® II/Syntac Classic (multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding), NX3 Nexus® (two-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding) and RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive cement. All specimens were thermocycled, and shear bond strength testing was done using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Combination of CEREC® Blocs PC and Variolink® II showed the highest mean shear bond strength (8.71 Mpa), while the lowest of 2.06 Mpa were observed in Lava™ Ultimate and RelyX™ U200. There was no significant difference in the mean shear bond strength between different blocks. Conclusion: Variolink® II cement using multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding provided a higher shear bond strength than the self-adhesive cement RelyX U200. The shear bond strength was not affected by the type of blocks used. PMID:26430296

  5. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  6. Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2011-09-23

    Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance

  7. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The term shall not include the following non-structural-bearing clay products: Ceramic floor and wall...-clay construction products such as sand-lime brick, glass brick, or non-clay refractories. (2) The...

  8. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The term shall not include the following non-structural-bearing clay products: Ceramic floor and wall...-clay construction products such as sand-lime brick, glass brick, or non-clay refractories. (2) The...

  9. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The term shall not include the following non-structural-bearing clay products: Ceramic floor and wall...-clay construction products such as sand-lime brick, glass brick, or non-clay refractories. (2) The...

  10. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The term shall not include the following non-structural-bearing clay products: Ceramic floor and wall...-clay construction products such as sand-lime brick, glass brick, or non-clay refractories. (2) The...

  11. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The term shall not include the following non-structural-bearing clay products: Ceramic floor and wall...-clay construction products such as sand-lime brick, glass brick, or non-clay refractories. (2) The...

  12. A normative price for a manufactured product: The SAMICS methodology. Volume 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. The methodology and its theoretical background are presented. The model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment. Implementation of this methodology by the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simultation computer program is discussed.

  13. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  14. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    PubMed

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study.

  15. Ceramic tubesheet design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, R.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A transport combustor is being commissioned at the Southern Services facility in Wilsonville, Alabama to provide a gaseous product for the assessment of hot-gas filtering systems. One of the barrier filters incorporates a ceramic tubesheet to support candle filters. The ceramic tubesheet, designed and manufactured by Industrial Filter and Pump Manufacturing Company (EF&PM), is unique and offers distinct advantages over metallic systems in terms of density, resistance to corrosion, and resistance to creep at operating temperatures above 815{degrees}C (1500{degrees}F). Nevertheless, the operational requirements of the ceramic tubesheet are severe. The tubesheet is almost 1.5 m in (55 in.) in diameter, has many penetrations, and must support the weight of the ceramic filters, coal ash accumulation, and a pressure drop (one atmosphere). Further, thermal stresses related to steady state and transient conditions will occur. To gain a better understanding of the structural performance limitations, a contract was placed with Mallett Technology, Inc. to perform a thermal and structural analysis of the tubesheet design. The design analysis specification and a preliminary design analysis were completed in the early part of 1995. The analyses indicated that modifications to the design were necessary to reduce thermal stress, and it was necessary to complete the redesign before the final thermal/mechanical analysis could be undertaken. The preliminary analysis identified the need to confirm that the physical and mechanical properties data used in the design were representative of the material in the tubesheet. Subsequently, few exploratory tests were performed at ORNL to evaluate the ceramic structural material.

  16. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  17. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2010-04-20

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  18. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-25

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  19. PIXE and IL analysis of an archeologically problematic XIII century ceramic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Jiménez-Rey, David; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Martina, Silvia; Faieta, Rosangela; Maggi, Marco; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Calusi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    At the beginning of the XIII century the archaeologists have found evidence of a singular, transitional, pottery technique limited to a small area around western Liguria (Northwest of Italy). Known as Ligurian Protomajolica (PML), it shows in the same ceramic body and on the same surface white slip and enamel together, addressing questions about the technical reasons of this unusual combination, its origin and evolution. To integrate previous morphological and mineralogical studies, we have analysed by particle induced X-ray emission (also with mapping) and ionoluminescence (IL) the ceramic body, slip and glaze composition of 56 samples, of which 25 PML's. We have identified some PML's compositional features which are distinct from those of other coeval or later productions from the same area. A few PML imitations are described. A plausible explanation of the origin of the PML's, based both on the archaeometric results and the archaeological and historical knowledge, is presented.

  20. Recycling of spent adsorbents for oxyanions and heavy metal ions in the production of ceramics.

    PubMed

    Verbinnen, Bram; Block, Chantal; Van Caneghem, Jo; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Spent adsorbents for oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals are classified as hazardous materials and they are typically treated by stabilization/solidification before landfilling. The use of lime or cement for stabilization/solidification entails a high environmental impact and landfilling costs are high. This paper shows that mixing spent adsorbents in the raw material for the production of ceramic materials is a valuable alternative to stabilize oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals. The produced ceramics can be used as construction material, avoiding the high economic and environmental impact of stabilization/solidification followed by landfilling. To study the stabilization of oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals during the production process, two series of experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, the main pollutant, Mo was adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents, which were then mixed with industrial sludge (3 w/w%) and heated at 1100°C for 30 min. Mo was chosen, as this element is easily adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents and it is the element that is the most difficult to stabilize (i.e. the highest temperatures need to be reached before the concentrations in the leachate are reduced). Leaching concentration from the 97/3 sludge/adsorbent mixture before heating ranged between 85 and 154 mg/kg; after the heating process they were reduced to 0.42-1.48 mg/kg. Mo was actually stabilized, as the total Mo concentration after addition was not affected by the heat treatment. In the second series of experiments, the sludge was spiked with other heavy metals and oxyanion forming elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in concentrations 5 times higher than the initial concentrations; after heat treatment the leachate concentrations were below the regulatory limit values. The incorporation of spent adsorbents in ceramic materials is a valuable and sustainable alternative to the existing treatment methods, saving raw materials in the

  1. Manufacture of gluten-free specialty breads and confectionery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People suffering from celiac disease, wheat allergies or wheat intolerances require breads not containing any wheat or related cereals like rye and barley. The manufacture of these so-called gluten-free breads is not well understood and much less literature is available than on wheat breads. On the ...

  2. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  3. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  4. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies.

  5. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  6. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  7. 49 CFR 526.2 - U.S. production by foreign manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.2 U.S. production by foreign manufacturer. Each petition filed... information: (a) For each model type (as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR part 600... in accordance with 40 CFR 600.511-80, and the total manufacturing cost per vehicle; and (4) In...

  8. 49 CFR 526.2 - U.S. production by foreign manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.2 U.S. production by foreign manufacturer. Each petition filed... information: (a) For each model type (as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR part 600... in accordance with 40 CFR 600.511-80, and the total manufacturing cost per vehicle; and (4) In...

  9. 49 CFR 526.2 - U.S. production by foreign manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.2 U.S. production by foreign manufacturer. Each petition filed... information: (a) For each model type (as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR part 600... in accordance with 40 CFR 600.511-80, and the total manufacturing cost per vehicle; and (4) In...

  10. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 61418). The Notice of Proposal to Change the document provided for a 60-day comment period... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice. SUMMARY: This document amends the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  11. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk... goat milk from 1,000,000 cells per milliliter to 1,500,000 cells per milliliter. This proposal...

  12. Licorice Production and Manufacturing: All-Sorts of Practical Applications for Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; Skalicky, Jane; Fitzallen, Noleine; Wright, Suzie

    2009-01-01

    Among the practical applications of statistics is the collection of data from manufacturing processes. Often collected in the form of a time series, data collected from a series of measurements show the variation in those measurements, such as mass of a product manufactured. Limits are set for quality control and if these are exceeded then a…

  13. Optimization of the preparation conditions of ceramic products using drinking water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Zamora, R M Ramirez; Ayala, F Espesel; Garcia, L Chavez; Moreno, A Duran; Schouwenaars, R

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize, via Response Surface Methodology, the values of the main process parameters for the production of ceramic products using sludges obtained from drinking water treatment in order to valorise them. In the first experimental stage, sludges were collected from a drinking water treatment plant for characterization. In the second stage, trials were carried out to elaborate thin cross-section specimens and fired bricks following an orthogonal central composite design of experiments with three factors (sludge composition, grain size and firing temperature) and five levels. The optimization parameters (Y(1)=shrinking by firing (%), Y(2)=water absorption (%), Y(3)=density (g/cm(3)) and Y(4)=compressive strength (kg/cm(2))) were determined according to standardized analytical methods. Two distinct physicochemical processes were active during firing at different conditions in the experimental design, preventing the determination of a full response surface, which would allow direct optimization of production parameters. Nevertheless, the temperature range for the production of classical red brick was closely delimitated by the results; above this temperature, a lightweight ceramic with surprisingly high strength was produced, opening possibilities for the valorisation of a product with considerably higher added value than what was originally envisioned.

  14. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) A serial number may be used in place of a production lot identification on the helmet if it can serve as a code to identify the production lot. If a bicycle helmet is manufactured for sale by a...; (6) An identification of the production lot; and (7) The uncoded month and year the product...

  15. 16 CFR 1211.24 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. 1211.24 Section 1211.24 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS Certification § 1211.24 Product certification...

  16. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (<100 C) is also a key to generating these ceramic coatings on the plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (< 90 C) is to take advantage of in-situ precipitated nanoparticles and nanostructures grown from aqueous solution. These nanostructures can be tailored to ceramic film formation and the subsequent microstructure development. In addition, the process provides environment- friendly processing because of the

  17. Polymer coating for immobilizing soluble ions in a phosphate ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Patel, Kartikey D.

    2000-01-01

    A polymer coating is applied to the surface of a phosphate ceramic composite to effectively immobilize soluble salt anions encapsulated within the phosphate ceramic composite. The polymer coating is made from ceramic materials, including at least one inorganic metal compound, that wet and adhere to the surface structure of the phosphate ceramic composite, thereby isolating the soluble salt anions from the environment and ensuring long-term integrity of the phosphate ceramic composite.

  18. 78 FR 37694 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Deletion of Report to Congress on Foreign-Manufactured Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... because this final rule does not constitute a significant FAR revision within the meaning of FAR 1.501-1.... Removing from the introductory text of paragraph (c) ``report on end products manufactured outside...

  19. High-density plasma deposition manufacturing productivity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmer, Leonard J.; Hudson, Chris P.

    1999-09-01

    High Density Plasma (HDP) deposition provides a means to deposit high quality dielectrics meeting submicron gap fill requirements. But, compared to traditional PECVD processing, HDP is relatively expensive due to the higher capital cost of the equipment. In order to keep processing costs low, it became necessary to maximize the wafer throughput of HDP processing without degrading the film properties. The approach taken was to optimize the post deposition microwave in-situ clean efficiency. A regression model, based on actual data, indicated that number of wafers processed before a chamber clean was the dominant factor. Furthermore, a design change in the ceramic hardware, surrounding the electrostatic chuck, provided thermal isolation resulting in an enhanced clean rate of the chamber process kit. An infra-red detector located in the chamber exhaust line provided a means to endpoint the clean and in-film particle data confirmed the infra-red results. The combination of increased chamber clean frequency, optimized clean time and improved process.

  20. Superplastic deformation in carbonate apatite ceramics under constant compressive loading for near-net-shape production of bioresorbable bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Masanori; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    To produce carbonate apatite (CAP) ceramics with the desired complex shapes using superplastic deformation, deformation behavior of CAP ceramics under constant loading as well as physical properties after deformation were evaluated. Sintered CAP ceramics were plastically deformed in an electric furnace attached to a universal hydraulic testing machine under a constant load. CAP ceramics subjected to an initial compressive pressure of 10 MPa showed an appreciable amount of plastic deformation at temperatures ranging from 720 to 800 degrees C. Plastic deformation increased with increasing temperature from about 10% to 70% after two hours of loading. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observation further revealed that some CAP crystals were elongated and aligned with the c-axis normal to the loading direction during superplastic deformation. It was thus concluded that a marked plastic deformation of about 70% at 800 degrees C would be sufficient for near-net-shape production of bioresorbable CAP bone substitutes with complex shapes.

  1. Washery wastes as a source of raw materials for ceramic products

    SciTech Connect

    Burmistrov, V.N.; Tambovtseva, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the output of walling products and the exhaustion of raw material sources for brickmaking have brought to the fore the urgency of devising methods of utilizing coal-mining wastes in the production of rough ceramics, i.e., ceramic walling products, and sewage pipes. The method developed in the VNIIstrom Institute for the production of walling products from washery wastes has now been approved by the Joint Authorities Commission and recommended for commercial exploitation. However, these wastes can only be used (like the traditional clay materials) provided they are uniform in composition and properties. Significant variations lead to a lower product quality and reduced cost effectiveness. The composition and properties of washery wastes vary to an extent which depends on the composition variations in the rock over- and under-lying the coal seam, the proportions of rock included in the mined product, the production rhythm in the washery and the labor organizations at the mining, transportation, and cleaning stages. A survey of the variations in composition of the rocks over- and under-lying coal seams in the Donbas has shown that the average ashes are 88% above and 83% below the seam; the variability coefficients are comparatively low (13 and 16.3%, respectively). Correspondingly, the long-term average variability of the ash of the tailings from half the washeries is below 15%. The construction of modern washeries attached to the large pits will further reduce the variability in the ash of the washery wastes. We took samples from No. 1 and No. 2 washeries at the Cherevopets I and SW to investigate the variability of the tailings composition and properties.

  2. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Asimina; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Baklavaridis, Apostolos; Papapolymerou, George; Karayannis, Vayos

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  3. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  4. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  5. Immobilization of fission products in low-temperature ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Mandalika, V.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) for use in solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. The focus of this work is development of CBPCs for use with fission-product wastes generated from high-level waste (HLW) tank cleaning or other decontamination and decommissioning activities. The volatile fission products such as Tc, Cs, and Sr removed from HLW need to be disposed of in a low-temperature immobilization system. Specifically, this paper reports on the solidification and stabilization of separated {sup 99}Tc from Los Alamos National Laboratory`s complexation-elution process. Using rhenium as a surrogate form technetium, we fabricated CBPC waste forms by acid-base reactions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with 35 wt.% waste loading. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and PCT were conducted on the final waste forms. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated by long-term water-immersion tests.

  6. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders. PMID:16343751

  7. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  8. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (a) In addition...

  9. 21 CFR 809.20 - General requirements for manufacturers and producers of in vitro diagnostic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... producers of in vitro diagnostic products. 809.20 Section 809.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN... producers of in vitro diagnostic products. (a) (b) Compliance with good manufacturing practices. In...

  10. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  12. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  15. More efficiency for PV thin film production with laser manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, Roland; Haase, Michael; Geiger, Stephan; Finck, Claudia

    The worldwide growth of photo-voltaic is closely tied to a reduction of production costs per Wp (peak power by maximum of sun radiation). The laser machining of thin film solar cells is a key technology for innovations in this field of solar cell production. On one hand it is possible to replace older, conventional production technologies to realise more efficiency for the solar cell products. On the other hand new and modern laser technologies open the door for more cost reduction potentials for the industrial thin film solar cell production. The following contribution offers a representative survey of the actual state of the art in PV thin film production using lasers and introduce a modern and innovative laser separation process for PV thin film modules.

  16. Casting uniform ceramics with direct coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Graule, T.J.; Baader, F.H.; Gauckler, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    Today complex-shaped ceramic parts are mass fabricated by many different methods, two of which are slip casting and injection molding. The selection of the appropriate technique is governed by the geometric shape, the number of pieces to be manufactured, and the chemistry of the ceramic. Both slip casting and injection molding introduce imperfections in the green part, which lead to inhomogeneous microstructures in the sintered parts. A new fabrication method, direct coagulation casting (DCC), may be suitable for the mass production of complex ceramic parts with high strength and reliability. In DCC, an aqueous suspension is coagulated by a change in pH or an increase in ionic strength after casting, producing a rigid green body. The use of DCC can avoid most of the limitations of conventional shaping techniques, and it can be applied to a large variety of ceramic powders, sols, and polymers, alone or in combination.

  17. Porcelain enameling furnaces retrofitted with ceramic fiber to increase fuel savings and production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Appliance manufacturers and companies supplying porcelainized parts have done considerable revamping and modernizing of their furnaces. As a result, economy of production has been improved through either substantial fuel savings or increased productivity or both. Coinciding with this industry furnace upgrading, a refractory engineering and contracting firm, Ronalco Inc., Louisville, KY has emerged, within a few years, as experts in porcelain enameling furnace renovations devising their own innovative methodology for lining and heating these units.

  18. Manufactured Product Design and Planning. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jerry E.

    This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in product design and planning contains information about the following topics: creativity, idea production techniques, problem solving, design fundamentals, design requirements, graphic communication, materials and processes, and safety. Course content is organized around the laboratory activities…

  19. Wages and Productivity in Mexican Manufacturing. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    A study examined determinants of wages and productivity in Mexico from 1993 and 1999 using two national surveys. In 1993, 7,619 employees from 575 firms were interviewed. In 1999, 6,259 employees from 722 firms were interviewed. Findings indicate that wage premiums and productivity increased with years of schooling, but workers had higher benefits…

  20. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  1. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials. PMID:16784166

  2. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E

    2015-05-19

    In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital.

  3. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital. PMID:25733904

  4. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphases is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  5. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.E.

    1982-11-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphasis is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  6. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

    2008-03-04

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  7. Ceramic turbochargers: a case study of a near-term application of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.P.; Johnson, L.R.

    1984-08-01

    The most likely near-term, high-volume application of structural ceramics in heat engines is in turbocharger rotors. These will be the first mass-produced ceramic components applicable to both gasoline and diesel engines. The principal objective of this study is to estimate relative costs of ceramic turbocharger rotors vs conventional metal rotors. Thus the focus is on the economics, manufacturing, marketing strategies, and benefits related to the introduction and use of ceramic turbochargers, rather than on the detailed technical issues surrounding the microstructure and processing aspects of the new ceramic technologies. The use of ceramics first in rotors and later in other turbocharger components will have significant impacts on cost, size, performance, and overall market growth of turbos. The Japanese appear to have the lead in developing and producing ceramic turbo components, and the implications for continued US competitiveness are clear: the nation that attains the ultimate lead will dominate in the worldwide development and production of advanced ceramics for many industrial and commercial applications.

  8. Recipes for Men: Manufacturing Makeup and the Politics of Production in 1910s China.

    PubMed

    Lean, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of Republican China (1911-49), masculinity was explored in writings on how to manufacture makeup that appeared in women's magazines. Male authors and editors of these writings--some of whom were connoisseurs of technology, some of whom were would-be manufacturers--appropriated the tropes of the domestic and feminine to elevate hands-on work and explore industry and manufacturing as legitimate masculine pursuits. Tapping into time-honored discourses of virtuous productivity in the inner chambers and employing practices of appropriating the woman's voice to promote unorthodox sentiment, these recipes "feminized" production to valorize a new masculine agenda, which included chemistry and manufacturing, for building a new China.

  9. Recipes for Men: Manufacturing Makeup and the Politics of Production in 1910s China.

    PubMed

    Lean, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of Republican China (1911-49), masculinity was explored in writings on how to manufacture makeup that appeared in women's magazines. Male authors and editors of these writings--some of whom were connoisseurs of technology, some of whom were would-be manufacturers--appropriated the tropes of the domestic and feminine to elevate hands-on work and explore industry and manufacturing as legitimate masculine pursuits. Tapping into time-honored discourses of virtuous productivity in the inner chambers and employing practices of appropriating the woman's voice to promote unorthodox sentiment, these recipes "feminized" production to valorize a new masculine agenda, which included chemistry and manufacturing, for building a new China. PMID:27066622

  10. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  11. Semi industrial scale RVNRL preparation, products manufacturing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    Natural rubber latex vulcanisation by radiation aims towards the preparation of prevulcanised natural rubber latex in the name of RVNRL for use to produce chemical-free and environment-friendly latex products. Scale up RVNRL preparation is proven possible when a semi-commercial latex irradiator was commissioned in MINT in March 1996. The plant is designed to irradiate up to 6 000 cubic meters per annum of natural rubber latex. RVNRL has the required properties and successfully used on industrial scale production of quality gloves and balloons.

  12. 16 CFR 1211.24 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturers. 1211.24 Section 1211.24 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS Certification... UL Standard for Safety 325, on both the operator system and its container. Operators displaying...

  13. POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

  14. Academic Research and Canadian Manufacturing Productivity since the Formation of NAFTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brox, James

    2007-01-01

    Does academic research have a positive impact on productivity? To examine this question, the paper focuses on national Canadian manufacturing data, using a variable-cost CES-translog cost system. Changes in the elasticities calculated from the estimation results allow the study of the impact of the free-trade agreements on Canadian production and…

  15. 78 FR 52759 - Foreign-Trade Zone 265-Conroe, Texas: Authorization of Production Activity; Bauer Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 265--Conroe, Texas: Authorization of Production Activity; Bauer Manufacturing Inc. (Foundation Casings and Tools/Accessories for Pile Drivers and Boring Machinery... of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of...

  16. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states the Commission's views as to imported products... must be based on a test of each product or upon a reasonable testing program. The other acts enforced... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR...

  17. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy on imported products, importers, and... GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.3 Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states the Commission's views as to imported...

  18. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for melt-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration introduced the quality by design approach and process analytical technology guidance to encourage innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. As part of this renewed emphasis on the improvement of manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to develop more efficient production processes with more intensive use of online measurement and sensing, real-time quality control, and process control tools. Here, we present dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP) as an alternative to conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing methods. This mini-manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceuticals utilizes drop on demand printing technology for automated and controlled deposition of melt-based formulations onto edible substrates. The advantages of drop-on-demand technology, including reproducible production of small droplets, adjustable drop sizing, high placement accuracy, and flexible use of different formulations, enable production of individualized dosing even for low-dose and high-potency drugs. In this work, DAMPP is used to produce solid oral dosage forms from hot melts of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a polymer. The dosage forms are analyzed to show the reproducibility of dosing and the dissolution behavior of different formulations.

  19. The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V.

    2013-07-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases.

  20. Assessment of dust-control technology for selected ceramic production processes

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.; Caplan, P.E.; Cooper, T.C.; McKinnery, W.N.; Mahon, R.D.

    1984-07-01

    Surveys of dust-control technology for selected ceramic industrial processes at four facilities were conducted. The first site involved crushing and grinding of pyrophyllite ore to production specifications for wall and floor tiles. Exposures to dust were maintained below OSHA standards by isolation of major dust-producing operations, enclosure and ventilation of processing and transfer equipment, and good-housekeeping practices. The second site involved crushing of ball clay and shale for the quarry wall and floor tile industry. Personal samples averaged 106% of the OSHA standard for respirable dust and 361% for total dust. Inadequate planning and maintenance of local-ventilation systems were considered responsible for the high dust concentrations. The third site involved finish grading of tile in the quarry wall and floor-tile industry. Dust exposures were held below OSHA standards by the use of local exhaust ventilation on all grinding machinery. The fourth site involved batching, mixing, and packaging of ceramic materials. Dust exposures were kept below OSHA standards by enclosure and ventilation, good housekeeping, and a personal protective-equipment program.

  1. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  2. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  3. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  4. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  5. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  6. Population based mortality surveillance in carbon products manufacturing plants.

    PubMed Central

    Teta, M J; Ott, M G; Schnatter, A R

    1987-01-01

    The utility of a population based, corporate wide mortality surveillance system was evaluated after a 10 year observation period of one of the company's divisions. The subject population, 2219 white male, long term employees from Union Carbide Corporation's carbon based electrode and specialty products operations, was followed up for mortality from 1974 to 1983. External comparisons with the United States male population were supplemented with internal comparisons among subgroups of the study population, defined by broad job categories and time related variables, adjusting for important correlates of the healthy worker effect. Significant deficits of deaths were observed for all causes and the major non-cancer causes of death. The numbers of deaths due to malignant neoplasms and respiratory cancer were less than, but not statistically different from, expected. There was a non-significant excess of deaths from lymphopoietic cancer, occurring predominantly among salaried employees. When specific locations were examined, operations with potential exposure to coal tar products exhibited a mortality pattern similar to that of the total cohort. The risk for lung cancer was significantly raised (five observed, 1.4 expected) in one small, but older, location which did not involve coal tar products during the period of employment of these individuals, but which historically used asbestos materials for several unique applications. Although these findings are limited by small numbers and a short observation period, the population based surveillance strategy has provided valuable information regarding the mortality experience of the population, directions for future research, and the allocation of epidemiological resources. PMID:3593661

  7. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  8. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  9. 76 FR 11275 - In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ..., ``Murata''). 74 FR 57193-94 (Nov. 4, 2009). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff... disapprove the Commission's action. See Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251 (July 26, 2005... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

  10. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  11. A new integrated lean manufacturing model for magnesium products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Errico, F.; Perricone, G.; Oppio, R.

    2009-04-01

    From an environmental point of view, lighter metals like aluminum and magnesium are unclean products to make; they require energy-intensive methods and increased greenhouse gas emissions as compared with steels. They are, however, clean to use, in particular in the transportation sector, if adequate weight savings and consequent fuel consumption reduction and CO2 reduction can be achieved to offset the initial higher energy need. In order to reduce CO2 emissions, better energy efficiency and substitution of low-carbon technologies are going to play a key role in future technical options. Modern research and development should be focused on promoting the efficient use of metallic materials according to the “dematerialization” concept design.

  12. Silicon carbide sintered products and a method for their manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1986-01-01

    SiC based sinters are produced by pressureless sintering from a SiC-AlN solid solution containing Al2 to 20, N 0.2 to 10, O 0.2 to 5, a Group IIIB element 0 to 15 percent, the remainder being Si and C. Thus, a 90:10 mixture of SiC and AlN powders were cold pressed at 2000 kg/sq cm and sintered for 5 hours at 2100 C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting product had density of 3.11 g/cu cm and bending strength at ambient and 1400 C at 68.5 and 66.3 kg/sq mm.

  13. Method for manufacturing a well production and sand screen assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Widmyer, R.H.

    1982-10-12

    A method for forming and assembling a well production and sand screen assembly in a well having a screen therein forming an outer annulus and a wash pipe internally of the screen forming an inner annulus comprising further (A) mounting a high pressure fluid pump means and a valve means on each wash pipe, inner annulus, and outer annulus, and (B) connecting the valve means in fluid communication with the high pressure fluid pump means for controlling the ingress and egress of the high pressure fluids and removed formation material for forming a sand pack in the well and simultaneously for applying and maintaining a positive fluid pressure against the overburden during work in the well for preventing cave-ins and sloughing of the unconsolidated formation well walls until the sand pack is formed.

  14. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  15. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is examined. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is presented. Antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon were studied. Production mass balances for antihemophilic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space verus ground operation.

  16. Environmental durability of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the current understanding of the environmental durability of both monolithic ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, with a view to the prospective development of methods for the characterization, prediction, and improvement of ceramics' environmental durability. Attention is given to the environmental degradation behaviors of SiC, Si3N4, Al2O3, and glass-ceramic matrix compositions. The focus of corrosion prevention in Si-based ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 is on the high and low sulfur fuel combustion-product effects encountered in heat engine applications of these ceramics; sintering additives and raw material impurities are noted to play a decisive role in ceramics' high temperature environmental response.

  17. Product manufacturing, quality, and reliability initiatives to maintain a competitive advantage and meet customer expectations in the semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, Gregory

    Semiconductor products are manufactured and consumed across the world. The semiconductor industry is constantly striving to manufacture products with greater performance, improved efficiency, less energy consumption, smaller feature sizes, thinner gate oxides, and faster speeds. Customers have pushed towards zero defects and require a more reliable, higher quality product than ever before. Manufacturers are required to improve yields, reduce operating costs, and increase revenue to maintain a competitive advantage. Opportunities exist for integrated circuit (IC) customers and manufacturers to work together and independently to reduce costs, eliminate waste, reduce defects, reduce warranty returns, and improve quality. This project focuses on electrical over-stress (EOS) and re-test okay (RTOK), two top failure return mechanisms, which both make great defect reduction opportunities in customer-manufacturer relationship. Proactive continuous improvement initiatives and methodologies are addressed with emphasis on product life cycle, manufacturing processes, test, statistical process control (SPC), industry best practices, customer education, and customer-manufacturer interaction.

  18. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms.

  19. Measuring the benefits and costs of ceramic turbochargers: the perspective from the driver's seat

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.P.

    1986-08-01

    The development of high-strength structural ceramics has many implications for advanced engine technology. Turbocharger rotors are an ideal early application of structural ceramics and are already in production in small volumes. Aside from the technical achievement this represents, what are the measurable benefits to empolying this new technology to production vehicles from the manufacturers and drivers point of view. This paper examines the results of a number of back-to-back performance tests of production vehicles equipped with ceramic and conventional turbochargers. The purpose was to more clearly quantify the benefits of this advanced turbocharger technology. A variety of acceleration tests were conducted by both independents and manufacturers. In addition, personal observations are included from more than 20,000 miles and a year of experience driving a production turbocharged car with a ceramic turbocharger. Benefits and costs of using this new technology in turbochargers are discussed, with emphasis on changes in vehicle behavior and related marketing implications.

  20. An Inverse Method of Teaching Specialised Manufacturing Subjects: Decomposing a Focal Representative Product to Sustain Analysis and Interaction of Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axinte, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an "inverse" method to teach specialist manufacturing processes by identifying a focal representative product (RP) from which, key specialist manufacturing (KSM) processes are analysed and interrelated to assess the capability of integrated manufacturing routes. In this approach, RP should: comprise KSM processes; involve…

  1. Product pricing in the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry - An executive summary of SAMICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Capabilities, methodology, and a description of input data to the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) are presented. SAMICS were developed to provide a standardized procedure and data base for comparing manufacturing processes of Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) subcontractors, guide the setting of research priorities, and assess the progress of LSA toward its hundred-fold cost reduction goal. SAMICS can be used to estimate the manufacturing costs and product prices and determine the impact of inflation, taxes, and interest rates, but it is limited by its ignoring the effects of the market supply and demand and an assumption that all factories operate in a production line mode. The SAMICS methodology defines the industry structure, hypothetical supplier companies, and manufacturing processes and maintains a body of standardized data which is used to compute the final product price. The input data includes the product description, the process characteristics, the equipment cost factors, and production data for the preparation of detailed cost estimates. Activities validating that SAMICS produced realistic price estimates and cost breakdowns are described.

  2. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  3. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process. PMID:25096172

  4. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process.

  5. Zirconium oxide ceramic foam: a promising supporting biomaterial for massive production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-wei; Li, Wen-qiang; Wang, Jun-kui; Ma, Xian-cang; Liang, Chen; Liu, Peng; Chu, Zheng; Dang, Yong-hui

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the potential application of a zirconium oxide (ZrO2) ceramic foam culturing system to the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Three sets of ZrO2 ceramic foams with different pore densities of 10, 20, and 30 pores per linear inch (PPI) were prepared to support a 3D culturing system. After primary astrocytes were cultured in these systems, production yields of GDNF were evaluated. The biomaterial biocompatibility, cell proliferation and activation of cellular signaling pathways in GDNF synthesis and secretion in the culturing systems were also assessed and compared with a conventional culturing system. In this study, we found that the ZrO2 ceramic foam culturing system was biocompatible, using which the GDNF yields were elevated and sustained by stimulated cell proliferation and activation of signaling pathways in astrocytes cultured in the system. In conclusion, the ZrO2 ceramic foam is promising for the development of a GDNF mass production device for Parkinson's disease treatment. PMID:25471830

  6. Zirconium oxide ceramic foam: a promising supporting biomaterial for massive production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-wei; Li, Wen-qiang; Wang, Jun-kui; Ma, Xian-cang; Liang, Chen; Liu, Peng; Chu, Zheng; Dang, Yong-hui

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the potential application of a zirconium oxide (ZrO2) ceramic foam culturing system to the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Three sets of ZrO2 ceramic foams with different pore densities of 10, 20, and 30 pores per linear inch (PPI) were prepared to support a 3D culturing system. After primary astrocytes were cultured in these systems, production yields of GDNF were evaluated. The biomaterial biocompatibility, cell proliferation and activation of cellular signaling pathways in GDNF synthesis and secretion in the culturing systems were also assessed and compared with a conventional culturing system. In this study, we found that the ZrO2 ceramic foam culturing system was biocompatible, using which the GDNF yields were elevated and sustained by stimulated cell proliferation and activation of signaling pathways in astrocytes cultured in the system. In conclusion, the ZrO2 ceramic foam is promising for the development of a GDNF mass production device for Parkinson's disease treatment.

  7. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  8. [Changes in the norms governing practices for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products: implications for the MERCOSUR].

    PubMed

    Temprano, G; Prats, S; Bregni, C

    1998-11-01

    It is done a comparative study between the "Recommended rules for drug products manufacturing and inspection", approved in 1975 by the World Health Organization (and still in force in the MERCOSUR); and the standards published in 1992 by the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations 32nd Report, named "Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products". The correspondence between the regulation in force in the MERCOSUR and the Good Manufacturing Practices Inspection Guide for pharmaceutical industry, used by Health Authorities in the Common Market Member States, is analysed. It is noticed a disagreement between the rule in force and the instrument for verifying its fulfillment. The proposal of this article is the adoption by the Common Market Group, of the rules published by the WHO in 1992, and the establishment of an inspection guide which absolute agrees with it.

  9. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  10. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  11. Ceramic glass from flying-ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.F.; Xu, You-Wu; Chen, Pinzhen

    1996-10-01

    A ceramic glass composition compromises of mainly SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and with small percent of CaO, TiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO, K{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been produced. A convenient source of raw materials is a mixture of flying-ash from power plant, borax manufacturing plant waste, and titanium pigment waste. The ceramic glass is formed from an intermediate ceramic mixture which is subjected to heat treatment. The solid is annealed at another temperature for several hours, and then is reduced to a lower temperature at a rate of 20-30{degrees}C/hour. The final product, the ceramic glass possesses many useful mechanical and chemical properties, such as high compressive strength, high bending strength, high hardness, high impact resistance, acid and alkaline resistance, etc. The ceramic glass can be used as laboratory counter-top, reaction still, manufacture of fluid transfer tubing, sandpaper/grit, and many other industrial applications.

  12. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  13. 21 CFR 601.22 - Products in short supply; initial manufacturing at other than licensed location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Products in short supply; initial manufacturing at other than licensed location. 601.22 Section 601.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... are registered with the Commissioner of Food and Drugs and it is found upon application of...

  14. 49 CFR 526.2 - U.S. production by foreign manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.2 U.S. production by foreign manufacturer. Each petition filed... information: (a) For each model type (as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR part 600..., including car line designation, engine displacement and type, transmission type, and average fuel...

  15. [Methods of identification and assessment of safety of genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A; Nesterenko, L N; Naroditskiĭ, B S

    2011-01-01

    Methods of identification of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM), used in manufacture food on control probes are presented. Results of microbiological and molecular and genetic analyses of food products and their components important in microbiological and genetic expert examination of GMM in foods are considered. Examination of biosafety of GMM are indicated.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  18. Stimulating the Manufacturing and Distribution of Rehabilitation Products: Economic and Policy Incentives and Disincentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scadden, Lawrence A.

    Personal interviews and written correspondence were used to obtain information from 39 officers of companies involved in the manufacture and distribution of rehabilitation-related products, regarding their perceptions of the potential effects of various economic factors and governmental policies. An attempt was made to identify disincentives to…

  19. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. 600.14 Section 600.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... addresses in § 600.2), or an electronic filing through CBER's Web site at...

  20. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. 600.14 Section 600.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... addresses in § 600.2), or an electronic filing through CBER's Web site at...

  1. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. 600.14 Section 600.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... addresses in § 600.2), or an electronic filing through CBER's Web site at...

  2. Manufactured uncertainty: protecting public health in the age of contested science and product defense.

    PubMed

    Michaels, David

    2006-09-01

    The strategy of "manufacturing uncertainty" has been used with great success by polluters and manufacturers of dangerous products to oppose public health and environmental regulation. This strategy entails questioning the validity of scientific evidence on which the regulation is based. While this approach is most identified with the tobacco industry, it has been used by producers of asbestos, benzene, beryllium, chromium, diesel exhaust, lead, plastics, and other hazardous products to avoid environmental and occupational health regulation. It is also central to the debate on global warming. The approach is now so common that it is unusual for the science not to be challenged by an industry facing regulation. Manufacturing uncertainty has become a business in itself; numerous technical consulting firms provide a service often called "product defense" or "litigation support." As these names imply, the usual objective of these activities is not to generate knowledge to protect public health but to protect a corporation whose products are alleged to have toxic properties. Evidence in the scientific literature of the funding effect--the close correlation between the results of a study desired by a study's funder and the reported results of that study--suggests that the financial interest of a study's sponsors should be taken into account when considering the study's findings. Similarly, the interpretation of data by scientists with financial conflicts should be seen in this light. Manufacturing uncertainty is antithetical to the public health principle that decisions be made using the best evidence currently available.

  3. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and... “Complies with U.S. CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Persons Age 5 and Older” or “Complies...

  4. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(j)(1), and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR part 661. Date Signature Company Name Title... requirement pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(2), as amended, and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR 661.7. Date... steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  5. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(j)(1), and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR part 661. Date Signature Company Name Title... requirement pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(2), as amended, and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR 661.7. Date... steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  6. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...(j)(1), and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR part 661. Date Signature Company Name Title... requirement pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(2), as amended, and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR 661.7. Date... steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  7. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(j)(1), and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR part 661. Date Signature Company Name Title... requirement pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(2), as amended, and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR 661.7. Date... steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  8. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(j)(1), and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR part 661. Date Signature Company Name Title... requirement pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(2), as amended, and the applicable regulations in 49 CFR 661.7. Date... steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  9. 16 CFR 1205.35 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS Certification § 1205.35 Product... (including importers) shall issue certificates of compliance for walk-behind rotary power lawn mowers... of the lawn mower. For mowers manufactured before January 1, 1984, where the label is not visible...

  10. 16 CFR 1205.35 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS Certification § 1205.35 Product... (including importers) shall issue certificates of compliance for walk-behind rotary power lawn mowers... of the lawn mower. For mowers manufactured before January 1, 1984, where the label is not visible...

  11. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  12. Managing design for manufacture and assembly in the development of MEMS-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Yao; Narasimhan, Nachchinarkkinian; Hariz, Alex J.

    2006-12-01

    Design for manufacturability, assembly and reliability of MEMS products is being applied to a multitude of novel MEMS products to make up for the lack of "Standard Process for MEMS" concept. The latter has proved a major handicap in commercialization of MEMS devices when compared to integrated circuits products. Furthermore, an examination of recent engineering literature seems to suggest convergence towards the development of the design for manufacturability and reliability of MEMS products. This paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques that have been pursued up to this point to achieve commercialization of MEMS products, identify some of the problems slowing down development, and explore measures that could be taken to try to address those problems. Successful commercialization critically depends on packaging and assembly, manufacturability, and reliability for micro scale products. However, a methodology that appropriately shadows next generation knowledge management will undoubtedly address most of the critical problems that are hampering development of MEMS industries. Finally this paper will also identify contemporary issues that are challenging the industry in regards to product commercialization and will recommend appropriate measures based on knowledge flow to address those shortcomings and lay out plans to expedient and successful paths to market.

  13. Study on the Key Factor Parameters to Increase Productivity in Construction and Manufacturing Industries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazyed, K.; Alaswad, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Proper management of human and non-human resources in construction and manufacturing projects can give-in considerable savings in time and cost. Construction and Manufacturing industry faces issues in connection with problems related with productivity and the problems are usually connected with performance of employees. The performance of employees is affected by many factors. In this paper a survey was made on respondents who are employed various projects of Saudi Arabia. The researcher developed a theoretical framework from the existing research which was used as a Model to collect and analyze the field data to test the hypothesis. In this research activity three predictors (commitment, job satisfaction and job performance) for determining the change in productivity. The results highlight that commitment and job performance (respectively) are the two predictors which are explaining 37% of variation in the productivity of the companies. The results also show that Job Satisfaction has no role in the prediction of productivity.

  14. [SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASSURANCE OF THE PRODUCTION OF THE SUGAR MANUFACTURE].

    PubMed

    Kulneva, N G; Golybin, V A; Fedoruk, V A

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal preparations currently used in the beet sugar manufacture, fail to provide the required microbiological purity of the finished product. Experimentally there was proved the feasibility of an application of the new preparation on the base of dichloroisocyanuric acid at initial stages of the production. There is proposed a combined physical-chemical method of the process water purification with the use of impulse magnetic treatment and various sorbents.

  15. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  16. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  17. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  18. Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele; Klarman, Molly; Mayer, Ally; Preston, Kelsey; Napotnik, Julie; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-06-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million child deaths per year. Point-of-use filtration using locally made ceramic filters improves microbiological quality of stored drinking water and prevents diarrhoeal disease. Scaling-up ceramic filtration is inhibited by lack of universal quality control standards. We investigated filter production variables to determine their affect on microbiological removal during 5-6 weeks of simulated normal use. Decreases in the clay:sawdust ratio and changes in the burnable decreased effectiveness of the filter. Method of silver application and shape of filter did not impact filter effectiveness. A maximum flow rate of 1.7 l(-hr) was established as a potential quality control measure for one particular filter to ensure 99% (2- log(10)) removal of total coliforms. Further research is indicated to determine additional production variables associated with filter effectiveness and develop standardized filter production procedures prior to scaling-up. PMID:20162486

  19. Characterization of production of free gluconic acid by Gluconobacter suboxydans adsorbed on ceramic honeycomb monolith.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, F; Kawakami, K; Kono, S; Tamura, A; Tsuruta, S; Kusunoki, K

    1989-05-01

    Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3290 was immobilized by adsorption on ceramic honeycomb monolith and continuous production of free gluconic acid from glucose was performed in an aerated reactor. The effects of reactor residence time, aeration rate, and glucose concentration were investigated on the gluconic acid yield. Observation of SEM photographs revealed that the cells were adsorbed with a high density not only on the outer surface of the support but also on the inner surface of large pores. From measurement of the number of the adsorbed cells, it was elucidated that the biofilm comprised a monolayer or bilayer of the cells. Maximum specific rate of growth was estimated for the free and adsorbed cells, and the adsorbed cells were found to grow at a fast rate compared with the free cells. In the continuous fermentation performed for one month at the glucose concentration of 100 kg/m(3), reactor residence time of 3.5 h and aeration rate of 900 cm(3)/min, the activity of the adsorbed cells was appreciably stable. The high productivity of 26.3 kg/(m(3)-reactor . h) was attained with the gluconic acid yield of 84.6% and glucose conversion of 94%.

  20. 21 CFR 1002.51 - Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the U.S. Government. 1002.51 Section 1002.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Records and Reports Requirements § 1002.51 Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Standards, Monitoring, and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Standards, Monitoring, and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  7. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drera, Saleem S.; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sobieska, Matylda

    2016-10-01

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project's fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively.

  8. A proposal for a drug product Manufacturing Classification System (MCS) for oral solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Leane, Michael; Pitt, Kendal; Reynolds, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of a drug product Manufacturing Classification System (MCS) based on processing route. It summarizes conclusions from a dedicated APS conference and subsequent discussion within APS focus groups and the MCS working party. The MCS is intended as a tool for pharmaceutical scientists to rank the feasibility of different processing routes for the manufacture of oral solid dosage forms, based on selected properties of the API and the needs of the formulation. It has many applications in pharmaceutical development, in particular, it will provide a common understanding of risk by defining what the "right particles" are, enable the selection of the best process, and aid subsequent transfer to manufacturing. The ultimate aim is one of prediction of product developability and processability based upon previous experience. This paper is intended to stimulate contribution from a broad range of stakeholders to develop the MCS concept further and apply it to practice. In particular, opinions are sought on what API properties are important when selecting or modifying materials to enable an efficient and robust pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Feedback can be given by replying to our dedicated e-mail address (mcs@apsgb.org); completing the survey on our LinkedIn site; or by attending one of our planned conference roundtable sessions.

  9. The Production and Characterization of Ceramic Carbon Electrode Materials for CuCl-HCl Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Patrick

    Current H2 gas supplies are primarily produced through steam methane reforming and other fossil fuel based processes. This lack of viable large scale and environmentally friendly H2 gas production has hindered the wide spread adoption of H2 fuel cells. A potential solution to this problem is the Cu-Cl hybrid thermochemical cycle. The cycle captures waste heat to drive two thermochemical steps creating CuCl as well as O2 gas and HCl from CuCl2 and water. The CuCl is oxidized in HCl to produce H2 gas and regenerate CuCl2, this process occurs at potentials well below those required for water electrolysis. The electrolysis process occurs in a traditional PEM fuel-cell. In the aqueous anolyte media Cu(I) will form anionic complexes such as CuCl 2 - or CuCl32-. The slow transport of these species to the anode surface limits the overall electrolysis process. To improve this transport process we have produced ceramic carbon electrode (CCE) materials through a sol-gel method incorporating a selection of amine containing silanes with increasing numbers of primary and secondary amines. When protonated these amines allow for improved transport of anionic copper complexes. The electrochemical and physical characterization of these CCE materials in a half and full-cell electrolysis environment will be presented. Electrochemical analysis was performed using cell polarization, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  10. Production of continuous piezoelectric ceramic fibers for smart materials and active control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Richard B.; Jadidian, Bahram; Bhargava, Parag; Safari, Ahmad

    1997-05-01

    Advanced Cerametrics Inc. has conceived of and developed the Viscous-Suspension-Spinning Process (VSSP) to produce continuous fine filaments of nearly any powdered ceramic materials. VSSP lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber tows with 100 and 790 filaments have been spun in continuous lengths exceeding 1700 meters. Sintered PZT filaments typically are 10 - 25 microns in diameter and have moderate flexibility. Prior to carrier burnout and sintering, VSSP PZT fibers can be formed into 2D and 3D shapes using conventional textile and composite forming processes. While the extension of PZT is on the order of 20 microns per linear inch, a woven, wound or braided structure can contain very long lengths of PZT fiber and generate comparatively large output strokes from relatively small volumes. These structures are intended for applications such as bipolar actuators for fiber optic assembly and repair, vibration and noise damping for aircraft, rotorcraft, automobiles and home applications, vibration generators and ultrasonic transducers for medical and industrial imaging. Fiber and component cost savings over current technologies, such as the `dice-and-fill' method for transducer production, and the range of unique structures possible with continuous VSSP PZT fiber are discussed. Recent results have yielded 1-3 type composites (25 vol% PZT) with d33 equals 340 pC/N, K equals 470, and g33 equals 80 mV/N, kt equals 0.54, kp equals 0.19, dh equals 50.1pC/N and gh equals 13 mV/N.

  11. The precision of product consistency tests conducted with a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Lewis, M. A.; Johnson, S. G.

    2002-09-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) that is used for qualification of borosilicate high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses for disposal can be used for the same purpose in the qualification of the glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF was developed to immobilize radioactive salt wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuels. An interlaboratory study was conducted to measure the precision of PCTs conducted with the CWF for comparison with the precision of PCTs conducted with HLW glasses. The six independent sets of triplicate PCT results generated in the study were used to calculate the intralaboratory and interlaboratory consistency based on the concentrations of Al, B, Na, and Si in the test solutions. The results indicate that PCTs can be conducted as precisely with the CWF as with HLW glasses. For example, the values of the reproducibility standard deviation for Al, B, Na, and Si were 1.36, 0.347, 3.40, and 2.97 mg/l for PCT with CWF. These values are within the range of values measured for borosilicate glasses, including reference HLW glasses.

  12. Practical application of game theory based production flow planning method in virtual manufacturing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.

  13. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. PMID:21474261

  14. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  15. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  16. Industry turns to ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Constance, J.

    1990-03-01

    Developments in the area of ceramic composites, which can be used to construct stronger, lighter weight, and more fuel-efficient aircraft, are examined. Ceramic composites are applicable aircraft braking systems, hypersonic fuselage skins, engine parts, and missile guidance fins. The production and testing of new ceramic composites are discussed. Consideration is given to the production of ceramic composites of an alumina or aluminum nitride matrix; developing glass ceramic matrix composites and silicon nitride matrix composites; and improving synthesis and processing technology to enhance the reliability of ceramic composites.

  17. A scientific approach to the attribution problem of renaissance ceramic productions based on chemical and mineralogical markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2010-09-01

    Renaissance lustred majolica shards from Gubbio and Deruta (Central Italy) were investigated in order to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition between these two very similar Italian potteries and furthermore to find correlations with the local raw clay materials probably used for their production. Chemical and mineralogical analysis on the ceramic body were performed by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. Investigation of the ceramic body revealed significant differences on calcium content indicating that it could be used as a marker for the two different productions. A separation of the ceramic shards in groups, on the base of their provenance, has been achieved applying to the data set formed by the chemical compositional data some multivariate techniques, such as PCA (principal component analysis) and HCA (hierarchical cluster analysis). Even the mineralogical composition of the groups shows very interesting features, differing Gubbio production from Deruta one for the presence of several mineralogical species. The investigations carried out on clays that were collected in the two geographical places have confirmed these differences. In fact, the clay materials have a chemical composition coherent with that one found in the shards. Firing tests performed by heating these clay in different conditions (temperature and soaking time) have shown a different behaviour as concerns the formation of the minerals and it is compatible with the shard composition found. From the comparison between the fired clay and the ceramic shards, some assumptions about the firing conditions applied by the ancient potters have been drawn.

  18. Optimisation of the manufacturing process of tritide and deuteride targets used for neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, Carole; Bach, Pierre; Tulle, Pierre Alain; van Rompay, Marc; Ballanger, Anne

    2002-03-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium targets on copper substrates, and going to more sophisticated devices. The range of possible uses is wide, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets or large size rotating targets for higher lifetimes. The activity of the targets ranges from 3.7×10 10 to 3.7×10 13 Bq (1-1000 Ci), the diameter being up to 30 cm. Sodern and the CEA/Valduc centre have developed different technologies for tritium target manufacture, allowing the selection of the best configuration for each kind of use. In order to optimize the production of high energy neutrons, the performance of tritide and deuteride titanium targets made by different processes has been studied experimentally by bombardment with 120 and 350 kV deuterons provided by electrostatic accelerators. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output or lifetime and stability or thermal behaviour. The importance of the deposit evaporation conditions on the efficiency of neutron emission is clearly demonstrated, as well as the thermomechanical stability of the Ti thin film under deuteron bombardment. The main parameters involved in the target performance are discussed from a thermodynamical approach.

  19. A Dilatometric Study of Sintering of Composite Ceramics Manufactured from Ultrafine Zro2(Y)-Al2O3 Powders Under Different Thermal-Temporal Firing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    Using dilatometry, kinetic principles of sintering of composite ZrO2(Y)-Al2O3 ceramic material made from ultrafine powders synthesized at the Siberian Chemical Integrated Works are investigated. It is shown that under heating conditions, sintering of the composite ceramics under study occurs within a few stages that are closely related to the structural-phase transformations taking place in the composite powder mixture. At the firing temperatures Т > 1500 С and during long isothermal times, negative phenomena develop in the ceramic material, which give rise to its undesired dilatation and cracking in the course of cooling.

  20. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  1. Continuous processing and the applications of online tools in pharmaceutical product manufacture: developments and examples.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Shing Ming; Sarkar, Srimanta; van Varenbergh, Griet; Schoeters, Kris; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-04-01

    Continuous processing and production in pharmaceutical manufacturing has received increased attention in recent years mainly due to the industries' pressing needs for more efficient, cost-effective processes and production, as well as regulatory facilitation. To achieve optimum product quality, the traditional trial-and-error method for the optimization of different process and formulation parameters is expensive and time consuming. Real-time evaluation and the control of product quality using an online process analyzer in continuous processing can provide high-quality production with very high-throughput at low unit cost. This review focuses on continuous processing and the application of different real-time monitoring tools used in the pharmaceutical industry for continuous processing from powder to tablets.

  2. Design of Manufacturing Cells for Uncertain Production Requirements with Presence of Routing Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eski, Ozgur; Ozkarahan, Irem

    Cellular manufacturing has been seen as an effective strategy to the changing worldwide competition. Most of the existing cell design methods ignore the existence of stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. In this study, a simulation based Fuzzy Goal Programming model is proposed for solving cell formation problems considering stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. The model covers the objectives of minimizing inter-cell movements, maximizing system utilization, minimizing mean tardiness and minimizing the percentage of tardy jobs. The simple additive method and max-min method are used to handle fuzzy goals. A tabu search based solution methodology is used for solution of the proposed models and the results are presented.

  3. Current good manufacturing practice in plant automation of biological production processes.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, R C; Wieten, G; van Santen, P T; Philippi, M C; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J; Beuvery, E C

    1997-01-01

    The production of biologicals is subject to strict governmental regulations. These are drawn up in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), a.o. by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To implement cGMP in a production facility, plant automation becomes an essential tool. For this purpose Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have been developed that control all operations inside a production facility. The introduction of these recipe-driven control systems that follow ISA S88 standards for batch processes has made it possible to implement cGMP regulations in the control strategy of biological production processes. Next to this, an MES offers additional features such as stock management, planning and routing tools, process-dependent control, implementation of software sensors and predictive models, application of historical data and on-line statistical techniques for trend analysis and detection of instrumentation failures. This paper focuses on the development of new production strategies in which cGMP guidelines are an essential part.

  4. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products.

  5. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  6. The effect of globalization of drug manufacturing, production, and sourcing and challenges for American drug safety.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Wolfgang, S; Batista, H

    2008-03-01

    Americans benefit from one of the safest drug supplies and one of the highest standards of consumer protection in the world. Over the past decade, though, a general trend toward globalization of the supply chains for finished pharmaceutical products and active pharmaceutical ingredients has created new challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in ensuring the safety and quality of the drug supply. Explosive growth in pharmaceutical manufacturing for the US market is particularly evident in the developing regions of Asia. Manufacturing sites in China and India now comprise approximately 40% of all FDA-registered foreign sites, having increased from 30% in 2002. (In 2001, when legislation first went into effect requiring registration of all foreign drug manufacturing sites, 140 registered sites in China listed 797 drug items for potential importation; as of 1 October 2007, that number had grown to 815 registered sites and well over 3,000 listed items.) In total in 2006, the United States received >145,000 line entries of imported drug products from >160 countries, up from only 1,300 line entries in 2000. FDA regulatory oversight resources (e.g., those allocated to inspection and testing of imports) are being challenged to keep up with the explosive growth of imported drugs. (In 2006, the FDA performed inspections at 212 foreign drug firms. This number has remained relatively consistent over the past 6 years, starting at 249 in 2001 and ranging from 190 to 260 on an annual basis.)

  7. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  8. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  9. The Establishment of a Production-ready Manufacturing Process Utilizing Thin Silicon Substrates for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the months of February and March, work towards the goals of the contract were started as scheduled. The first shipment of thin substrates were received and wafer processing was initiated. The objective of the contract is to investigate, develop and characterize the methods for establishing a production-ready manufacturing process which utilizes thin silicon substrates for solar cells. The thin substrates to be manufactured are three inches diameter, p-type Czochralski wafers of approximately 1 Omega cm resistivity. The wafers are prepared by sawing directly to thickness of 8 mils and 5 mils. To ensure removal of residual saw damage, most substrates are chemically etched to final thicknesses of 7 mils and 4 mils. The thin substrates are used to fabricate solar cells by standard processing techniques.

  10. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  11. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  12. Development of service-oriented products based on the inverse manufacturing concept.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Jun; Umeda, Yasushi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2003-12-01

    To achieve sustainability, resource consumption and waste generation must be drastically decreased. For societal acceptance, preservation of both quality of life and corporate profits are essential. One promising approach is to shift the source of value from the amount of product sold to the quality of services the product provides. This paper describes the need for redesigning recycling systems from a manufacturing perspective and then discusses the possibility of this "servicification" of products, describing our experience with prototype development. We discuss development of product prototypes and their business, using consumer facsimile machines as an example of "service-oriented products". Traditional thought presumes that only products comprising new materials and components are valuable. Consideration of a service-oriented product can serve as a stimulus to revise this mode of thought and to control delivery and quality of disposed products. This paper also provides a life cycle simulation of the developed service-oriented business. Simulation results indicate that service-oriented business can potentially reduce environmental impact while extending business opportunities from the viewpoint of whole product life cycles. PMID:14700325

  13. Development of service-oriented products based on the inverse manufacturing concept.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Jun; Umeda, Yasushi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2003-12-01

    To achieve sustainability, resource consumption and waste generation must be drastically decreased. For societal acceptance, preservation of both quality of life and corporate profits are essential. One promising approach is to shift the source of value from the amount of product sold to the quality of services the product provides. This paper describes the need for redesigning recycling systems from a manufacturing perspective and then discusses the possibility of this "servicification" of products, describing our experience with prototype development. We discuss development of product prototypes and their business, using consumer facsimile machines as an example of "service-oriented products". Traditional thought presumes that only products comprising new materials and components are valuable. Consideration of a service-oriented product can serve as a stimulus to revise this mode of thought and to control delivery and quality of disposed products. This paper also provides a life cycle simulation of the developed service-oriented business. Simulation results indicate that service-oriented business can potentially reduce environmental impact while extending business opportunities from the viewpoint of whole product life cycles.

  14. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  15. Integration Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new and innovative materials has been known to culminate in major turning points in human history. The transformative impact and functional manifestation of new materials have been demonstrated in every historical era by their integration into new products, systems, assemblies, and devices. In modern times, the integration of new materials into usable products has a special relevance for the technological development and economic competitiveness of industrial societies. Advanced ceramic technologies dramatically impact the energy and environmental landscape due to potential wide scale applications in all aspects of energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include gas turbine propulsion systems, fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation, and waste disposal. Robust ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic components starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance under different operating conditions, the detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different approaches are required for the integration of ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic systems across length scales (macro to nano). In this presentation, a few examples of integration of ceramic to metals and ceramic to ceramic systems will be presented. Various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and

  16. Investigation and research on classification of productive skills (2): Cluster structure of productive skills in the car manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1993-12-01

    A survey was conducted at a production facility to study the categories of productive skills. In August 1991, a questionnaire survey was given to skilled workers of a car manufacturing company. The number of valid responses was 1,215. The survey items included 133 items in the following three areas: nature of productive skills, human functions and vocational ability necessary for the work, and working conditions. The survey results were analyzed by cluster analysis to verify the hypothesis that skills can be classified based on two axes--sensory motor and intellectual management. Moreover, the analysis results clarify that the structure of "nature of productive skills" in car manufacturing can be divided into maintenance, processing, information analysis and transmission, and parts assembly. The results also show that the internal structure of intellectual management skills, which had been unknown up to this point, consists of five skill clusters: field of technical knowledge, operation of controlling equipment, preparation abilities, analysis and judgment abilities, and measurement. PMID:7963480

  17. Ceramic fiber insulation impregnated with an infra-red retardant coating and method for production thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred A. (Inventor); Tarkanian, Ryan Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invented insulation is a ceramic fiber insulation wherein the ceramic fibers are treated with a coating which contains transition metal oxides. The invented process for coating the insulation is a process of applying the transition metal oxide coating to the fibers of the insulation after the fibers have been formed into a tile or other porous body. The coating of transition metal oxide lowers the transmittance of radiation through the insulation thereby lowering the temperature of the backface of the insulation and better protecting the structure that underlies the insulation.

  18. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  19. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  20. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  1. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  2. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  3. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-02-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  4. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. PMID:26319638

  5. Environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery (ECMPRO): A review of the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ilgin, Mehmet Ali; Gupta, Surendra M

    2010-01-01

    Gungor and Gupta [1999, Issues in environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery: a survey. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 36(4), 811-853] presented an important review of the development of research in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery (ECMPRO) and provided a state of the art survey of published work. However, that survey covered most papers published through 1998. Since then, a lot of activity has taken place in EMCPRO and several areas have become richer. Many new areas also have emerged. In this paper we primarily discuss the evolution of ECMPRO that has taken place in the last decade and discuss the new areas that have come into focus during this time. After presenting some background information, the paper systematically investigates the literature by classifying over 540 published references into four major categories, viz., environmentally conscious product design, reverse and closed-loop supply chains, remanufacturing, and disassembly. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the evolution of ECMPRO over the past decade together with the avenues for future research.

  6. Ferroelectric ceramics in a pyroelectric accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shchagin, A. V.; Miroshnik, V. S.; Volkov, V. I.; Oleinik, A. N.

    2015-12-07

    The applicability of polarized ferroelectric ceramics as a pyroelectric in a pyroelectric accelerator is shown by experiments. The spectra of X-ray radiation of energy up to tens of keV, generated by accelerated electrons, have been measured on heating and cooling of the ceramics in vacuum. It is suggested that curved layers of polarized ferroelectric ceramics be used as elements of ceramic pyroelectric accelerators. Besides, nanotubes and nanowires manufactured from ferroelectric ceramics are proposed for the use in nanometer-scale ceramic pyroelectric nanoaccelerators for future applications in nanotechnologies.

  7. Emerging Ceramic-based Materials for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Denry, I.; Kelly, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. PMID:25274751

  8. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event.

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-04-26

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated.

  9. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  10. A review of the biological response to ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Güldal, Nusret S; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2011-04-01

    Several inorganic materials such as special compositions of silicate glasses, glass-ceramics and calcium phosphates have been shown to be bioactive and resorbable and to exhibit appropriate mechanical properties which make them suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the ionic dissolution products of such inorganic materials and human cells are not fully understood, which has prompted considerable research work in the biomaterials community during the last decade. This review comprehensively covers literature reports which have investigated specifically the effect of dissolution products of silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics in relation to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Particularly, recent advances made in fabricating dense biomaterials and scaffolds doped with trace elements (e.g. Zn, Sr, Mg, and Cu) and investigations on the effect of these elements on the scaffold biological performance are summarized and discussed in detail. Clearly, the biological response to artificial materials depends on many parameters such as chemical composition, topography, porosity and grain size. This review, however, focuses only on the ion release kinetics of the materials and the specific effect of the released ionic dissolution products on human cell behaviour, providing also a scope for future investigations and identifying specific research needs to advance the field. The biological performance of pure and doped silicate glasses, phosphate based glasses with novel specific compositions as well as several other silicate based compounds are discussed in detail. Cells investigated in the reviewed articles include human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells as well as endothelial cells and stem cells.

  11. Particle shedding from peristaltic pump tubing in biopharmaceutical drug product manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In a typical manufacturing setup for biopharmaceutical drug products, the fill and dosing pump is placed after the final sterile filtration unit in order to ensure adequate dispensing accuracy and avoid backpressure peaks. Given the sensitivity of protein molecules, peristaltic pumps are often preferred over piston pumps. However, particles may be shed from the silicone tubing employed. In this study, particle shedding and a potential turbidity increase during peristaltic pumping of water and buffer were investigated using three types of commercially available silicone tubing. In the recirculates, mainly particles of around 200 nm next to a very small fraction of particles in the lower micrometer range were found. Using 3D laser scanning microscopy, surface roughness of the inner tubing surface was found to be a determining factor for particle shedding from silicone tubing. As the propensity toward particle shedding varied between tubing types and also cannot be concluded from manufacturer's specifications, individual testing with the presented methods is recommended during tubing qualification. Choosing low abrasive tubing can help to further minimize the very low particle counts to be expected in pharmaceutical drug products. PMID:25605257

  12. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/Industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 repesentatives from aerospace and computer companies. The IPAD accomplishments to date in development of requirements and prototype software for various levels of company-wide CAD/CAM data management are summarized and plans for development of technology for management of distributed CAD/CAM data and information required to control future knowledge-based CAD/CAM systems are discussed.

  13. Method for preparing thin-walled ceramic articles of configuration

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Powell, G.L.

    1975-11-01

    A method for preparing a hollow thin-walled ceramic product is described. Ceramic powder is plasma-sprayed onto a concave surface of a substrate having a coefficient of thermal expansion less than that of the ceramic. The coated substrate is heated to sinter the ceramic and then cooled to effect a separation of the ceramic product from the substrate. (auth)

  14. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  15. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  16. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  17. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  18. DoE Advanced Ceramic Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    IR Energy Systems

    2004-05-31

    In July 2001, Ingersoll-Rand began work on this program. Its objective was to introduce ceramic hot section components into the IR family of microturbines to permit higher operating temperatures and hence improved efficiency. The IR microturbine product line combines a novel application of industrial turbocharger equipment, our commercially successful recuperator, and proven industrial gas turbine design practices. The objective of the joint development program is to combine the high production success of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} turbocharger rotors, largely from Japan, with the IR turbocharger-based microturbines. The IR 'Ceramic Microturbine' (CMT) program has been configured to use the most practical ceramic rotor, considering size, geometry, proven manufacturing methods, and physical material limitations Performance predictions indicate that 36% LHV electric conversion efficiency could be attained at a Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) of nominally 1000 C. The initial 72kW engine is being designed to have comparable life and costs to our current product The package power rating is expandable to 100kW with this equipment by slightly increasing pressure ratio flow and TIT. This program was initially planned as five major tasks In Task 1 a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art ceramics and their applicability to microturbines was performed Milestone I was achieved with the joint DoE/IR decision to concentrate on our 70kW microturbine, with elevated turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio,. This preserved the ability of the engine to utilize the standard IR recuperator and the majority of the microturbine subassemblies, A commercialization report, projecting the market size, was also completed as part of this task. Task 2's detailed design of the special hot-section components has been completed,. The two critical milestones, No.3 and No.4, associated with the detailed design of the monolithic silicon nitride turbine rotor and the release of the purchase

  19. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  20. Production of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells according to good manufacturing practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine

    2013-06-07

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs, their definition as advanced-therapy medicinal products in European regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration requirements for their production and use imply the use of production processes that should be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Complying with GMPs requires precisely defining the production process (es) as well as the multiple criteria required for a quality final product. Such variables include the environment, staff training and qualification, and controls. Developing processes based on well-defined or completely defined media and operating in closed systems or bioreactors is important and will increase safety and reproducibility. One of the most challenging issues remains implementation of relevant and reproducible controls for safety and efficacy. A linking of researchers, research and development teams, producers, and clinicians is mandatory to achieve GMP-compliant processes with relevant controls for producing well-defined, safe, and efficient MSCs.

  1. Production of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells according to good manufacturing practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs, their definition as advanced-therapy medicinal products in European regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration requirements for their production and use imply the use of production processes that should be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Complying with GMPs requires precisely defining the production process (es) as well as the multiple criteria required for a quality final product. Such variables include the environment, staff training and qualification, and controls. Developing processes based on well-defined or completely defined media and operating in closed systems or bioreactors is important and will increase safety and reproducibility. One of the most challenging issues remains implementation of relevant and reproducible controls for safety and efficacy. A linking of researchers, research and development teams, producers, and clinicians is mandatory to achieve GMP-compliant processes with relevant controls for producing well-defined, safe, and efficient MSCs. PMID:23751270

  2. Irradiation is useful for manufacturing ready-to-eat cooked meat products enriched with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Galán, I; García, M A L; Selgas, M A D

    2011-04-01

    Cooked sausages enriched with folic acid (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2-4 kGy) as a non-thermal technology. The effects of this treatment on the folic acid content, colour, texture and sensory properties of the final products were studied. The characteristics of sausages were not affected by the presence of folic acid, independently of the amount added, and their overall acceptability was good. Doses of 4 kGy caused losses of folic acid close to 20-30% and significantly decreased the sensory quality (P<0.05). Despite this, the final content of folic acid in all products was sufficient so that 50 g of product gave 100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). This new RTE meat product can be considered as a source of folic acid that can help assure adequate levels of this vitamin in the general population.

  3. Production of glass-ceramics from sewage sludge and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Petersone, L.; Krage, L.; Drille, M.; Filipenkov, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study for recycling of sewage sludge and waste glass from JSC "Valmieras stikla skiedra" treatment of them to the dense glass-ceramic composite material using powder technology is estimated. The physical-chemical properties of composite materials were identified - density 2.19 g/cm3, lowest water absorption of 2.5% and lowest porosity of 5% for the samples obtained in the temperature range of sintering 1120 - 1140 °C. Regarding mineralogical composition of glass-ceramics the following crystalline phases were identified by XRD analysis: quartz (SiO2), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and hematite (Fe2O3), which could ensure the high density of materials and improve the mechanical properties of material - compressive strength up to 60.31±5.09 - 52.67±19.18 MPa. The physical-chemical properties of novel materials corresponds to dense glass-ceramics composite which eventually could be used as a building material, e.g. for floor covering, road pavement, exterior tiles etc.

  4. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  5. Enzymatic production of glycerol carbonate from by-product after biodiesel manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hongsub; Lee, Youngrak; Kim, Daeheum; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chulhwan

    2012-08-10

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the higher value-added products derived from glycerol. In this study, glycerol carbonate (GC) was synthesized by transesterification of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica Lipase B) at various conditions. For the enzymatic production of GC, the optimum conditions were the amount of enzyme (75 g/L), DMC/glycerol molar ratio (2.00), reaction temperature (60°C) and organic solvent (acetonitrile). Experimental investigation of the effect of water content revealed that the conversion of GC was maximized with no added water. The addition of surfactant such as Tween 80 increased the GC conversion, which finally reached 96.25% under the optimum condition and with surfactant addition. PMID:22759533

  6. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Production of an Oncolytic Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viral Vector for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, M.; Derecho, I.; Lopez, P.; Knoblauch, C.; McMahon, R.; Anderson, J.; Dunphy, N.; Quezada, V.; Khan, R.; Huang, P.; Dang, W.; Luo, M.; Hsu, D.; Woo, S.L.C.; Couture, L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 109 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 1010 PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 1013 PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:21083425

  7. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  8. Toxicity of bauxite manufacturing by-products in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Meriç, Süreyya; De Biase, Antonella; laccarino, Mario; Petruzzelli, Domenico; Tünay, Olcay; Warnau, Michel

    2002-01-01

    By-products from a bauxite manufacturing plant located in Seydişehir, Turkey, were investigated for their composition and any toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis. Samples from three other bauxite plants located in France, Greece, and Italy were simultaneously tested for toxicity in sea urchin embryos. Samples included sludge and solid residues in the plant and sediment and water columns from two holding ponds (red sludge or cryolite residues). Samples were analyzed for their inorganic content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Analyses were carried out either following strong acid extraction or after release of soluble components from seawater-suspended pellets. Toxicity was tested by sea urchin bioassays, to evaluate the following endpoints: (a) acute and/or developmental toxicity, (b) changes in fertilization success, and (c) transmissible damage from sperm to offspring. The results revealed the following: (1) inorganic analysis, following strong acid extraction, showed a prevalence of Al and Fe; (2) seawater release of soluble contaminants was confined to Fe and Mn, whereas Al levels were not changed by suspending increasing sample amounts in seawater; (3) the most severe toxicity to sea urchin embryos was exerted by a 2% water column from the red sludge holding pond and by soil and sludge collected near the plant reactor; (4) sludge supernatant was the most toxic sample to sperm and offspring. The data showed a prevailing association of free Fe (and possibly Mn) levels with Seydişehir sample toxicity. The water column of the red sludge holding pond showed both excess levels of free Al and high pH, thus suggesting a combined effect. The differences in sample toxicity in the Seydişehir plant compared with other bauxite manufacturing plants suggest a possible variable toxicity as related to bauxite ore composition and/or manufacturing processes.

  9. Detection of electrical defects with SEMVision in semiconductor production mode manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Travis; Tillotson, Brock; Pearl, Haim; Miller, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In the semiconductor manufacturing process, defects often occur due to a marginal process window that affects the lithography and etch processes. These defects can result in bridging patterns and overlay issues, which consequently cause electrical shorts and partially etched vias producing electrical opens. SEM tools are used to find electrical failures through voltage contrast techniques. Manufacturers who fabricate with older process technology nodes often need to use their tool set more efficiently. This paper demonstrates an application of conventional SEM review with image to golden reference image inspection capabilities in Automatic Process Inspection (API ) mode to perform electrical inspections of die features. This paper details how to use a SEM review tool to detect systematic electrical defects. This methodology can prove beneficial while monitoring and developing patterning techniques for a specific design rule by catching electrical shorts and opens that are more visible at a lower resolution inspection used in process monitoring. Outcomes of this effort show that conventional review SEM techniques, using known areas prone to process inconsistencies derived from features pushing the design rule, have the capability to effectively and efficiently monitor fabrication process while implemented in a production setting at process nodes between 100 to 200 nm. Using e-beam review tools offers several advantages and disadvantages. This paper demonstrates that by using a SEM review tool and selecting die locations for imaging that are more likely to fail electrically, manufacturers can use SEM automatic review capabilities more effectively and efficiently. The application developed may also be applied in fabrication facilities that have limited yield monitoring capacity. This paper is a result of collaboration between Applied Materials and Microchip Technology Inc.

  10. Fracture of the alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner.

    PubMed

    Taheriazam, Afshin; Mohajer, Mohammad Azizbaig; Aboulghasemian, Mansoour; Hajipour, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The fracture rate of third-generation ceramic liners is greatly reduced compared with first- and second-generation liners because of improvements in the design and manufacturing process. Fractures of the alumina-bearing couple are rare for the same reason.This article describes a case of a fracture of an alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner without trauma history that was treated with ceramic-on-polyethylene revision total hip arthroplasty. A 57-year-old man was admitted to the hip ward because of an alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner fracture. He underwent hip replacement by anterior approach 18 months previously in the same center because of left hip primary osteoarthritis. He received a 54×36-mm modular press-fit cup ceramic alumina-bearing couple delta insert. Probable causes of such fractures are manufacture production failure and edge loading based on cup inclination, but in our patient, inacceptable range of motion, failure of the locking mechanism during implantation insertion, or cracking were possible causes of fracture.Although the fracture rate of third-generation alumina-bearing couples is low, we believe that it may not be possible to eliminate the actual risk of alumina head fracture. Patients should be informed about the potential for this complication before receiving an alumina-bearing couple.

  11. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  12. On the use of slag from silicomanganese production for welding flux manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Lipatova, U. I.; Kozyreva, O. E.

    2016-09-01

    The technologies for manufacturing of welding fluxes with the use of slag from silicomanganese production and dust of gas purification from aluminum production are developed. The new compositions and production technology of welding fluxes are offered. The comparative evaluation of the new compositions and widely used AN-348 flux is provided. It is shown that the quality of submerged arc welding with the use of the developed flux composition is significantly better than the submerged arc welding with AN-348 flux. The effect of fractional composition on high-quality performance of the weld is investigated. The macro- and microstructures, nonmetallic inclusions and the mechanical properties of the weld are examined. It is shown that the introduction of carbon-fluorine containing additive into the flux, based on the dust of gas purification from aluminum production, can significantly improve the whole complex of mechanical properties of the weld, especially characteristics of impact hardness at low temperatures. The conducted research served as a basis for development of submerged arc welding technologies protected by the patents of the Russian Federation.

  13. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  14. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  15. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies.

  16. Capacity optimization and scheduling of a multiproduct manufacturing facility for biotech products.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Munawar A; Dhakre, Ankita; Rathore, Anurag S; Patil, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    A general mathematical framework has been proposed in this work for scheduling of a multiproduct and multipurpose facility involving manufacturing of biotech products. The specific problem involves several batch operations occurring in multiple units involving fixed processing time, unlimited storage policy, transition times, shared units, and deterministic and fixed data in the given time horizon. The different batch operations are modeled using state-task network representation. Two different mathematical formulations are proposed based on discrete- and continuous-time representations leading to a mixed-integer linear programming model which is solved using General Algebraic Modeling System software. A case study based on a real facility is presented to illustrate the potential and applicability of the proposed models. The continuous-time model required less number of events and has a smaller problem size compared to the discrete-time model.

  17. Manufacturing microstructured tool inserts for the production of polymeric microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Srivastava, Amit; Kirwan, Brendan; Byrne, Richard; Fang, Fengzhou; Browne, David J.; Gilchrist, Michael D.

    2015-09-01

    Tooling is critical in defining multi-scale patterns for mass production of polymeric microfluidic devices using the microinjection molding process. In the present work, fabrication of various microstructured tool inserts using stainless steel, nickel and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is discussed based on die-sinking EDM (electrical discharge machining), electroforming, focused ion beam milling and thermoplastic forming processes. Tool performance is evaluated in terms of surface roughness, hardness and tool life. Compared to stainless steel, nickel and BMGs are capable of integrating length scales from 100 to 10-8 m and are good candidates for producing polymeric microfluidics. Selection of tool materials and manufacturing technologies should consider the end-user requirements of actual applications.

  18. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Theone C.; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F.; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  19. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months.

  20. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  1. Some ceramic options

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.M.; Aguilar, P.C.; Zievers, E.C.

    1993-06-01

    Ceramic candle filters have proven to be an effective means of removing particulates to levels exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) in high temperature applications. The traditional {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} ceramic filter elements, typically formed form granules however, have shown to be susceptible to failure from physical shock, thermal stress, and chemical attack. Additionally, these hard, dense candles can be costly and present internal filter design problems due to their relatively high weight. A good deal has been written about to use to porous ceramics in the filtration of high temperature gases for removal of particulate matter. Unlike the dense, granular ceramic filter elements, vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCF) filters represent an attractive alternative. Composed of commercially available chopped ceramic fibers and utilizing existing vacuum forming technology, low cost filter elements with excellent physical and thermal shock resistance are now available. The ceramic fiber filter {open_quotes}skeleton{close_quotes} can be {open_quotes}post-treated{close_quotes} with refractory materials to enhance strength and chemical resistance, as well as to change permeability to suit a particular application. Also, because the ceramic fiber skeleton has greater porosity and is composed of low density materials, the final product is significantly lighter in weight than the traditional dense ceramic elements, making overall filter design an easier task. The use of ceramics extends beyond that of filter elements, however. Ceramics in the form of refractory have long been used to protect metal structures from high temperature and abrasion, and an extensive body of literature deals with this subject.

  2. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-09-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Consequently, the bacteria are selectively killed on the cathode surface. However, the cell experiment suggested that the level of ROS is safe for normal mammalian cells. PMID:27599911

  3. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  4. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  5. Intake to Production Ratio: A Measure of Exposure Intimacy for Manufactured Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health. Objectives: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. Methods: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population’s economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use. Results: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000–24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan. Conclusion: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. PMID:23222017

  6. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  7. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  8. Titanate ceramics for immobilisation of uranium-rich radioactive wastes arising from 99Mo production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. L.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Vance, E. R.; Mitchell, D. R. G.

    2009-02-01

    Uranium-rich liquid wastes arising from UO 2 targets which have been neutron-irradiated to generate medical radioisotopes such as 99mTc require immobilisation. A pyrochlore-rich hot isostatically pressed titanate ceramic can accommodate at least 40 wt% of such waste expressed on an oxide basis. In this paper, the baseline waste form composition (containing 40 wt% UO 2) was adjusted in two ways: (a) varying the UO 2 loading with constant precursor oxide materials, (b) varying the precursor composition with constant waste loading of UO 2. This resulted in the samples having a similar phase assemblage but the amounts of each phase varied. The oxidation states of U in selected samples were determined using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Leaching studies showed that there was no significant difference in the normalised elemental release rates and the normalised release rates are comparable with those from synroc-C. This demonstrates that waste forms based on titanate ceramics are robust and flexible for the immobilisation of U-rich waste streams from radioisotope processing.

  9. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  10. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  11. Task 6.4 - the use of coal ash in ceramics. Topical report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Previous empirical tests at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have indicated that coal combustion by-products are a viable starting material for the production of a variety of ceramic products, including brick, tile, and high-flexural-strength ceramics. The EERC has focused on high-temperature properties of coal ashes and has provided valuable insight into ash transformations, fouling, and stagging for the utility industry. It is proposed to utilize the information generated in these past projects to develop material selection criteria and product manufacturing techniques based on scientific and engineering characteristics of the ash. Commercialization of the use of coal combustion by-products in ceramics is more likely to become viable if a quality-assured product can be made, and predictive materials selection is a key component of a quality-assured product. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the development and production of a ceramic material utilizing coal ash as a key component. Chemical and high-temperature properties of ash were carefully determined with the objective of identifying criteria for materials selection and manufacturing options for ceramic production.

  12. On Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  13. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosol in Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers). Contribution of bituminous product manufacture.

    PubMed

    Yassaa, N; Meklati, B Y; Cecinato, A; Marino, F

    2001-10-01

    The organic compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers) have been investigated to assess the air pollution levels suspected to be caused by asphalt product and yeast manufactures. After a medium-volume air sampling, soxhlet extraction, alumina elution and HPLC separation, the extracts were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The composition of n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) fractions reflected the petrogenic origin from the emission of asphalt materials production in addition to vascular plant wax emissions. In contrast, microbial activities seemed to play the main role for the presence of n-alkanoic acids at Bab-Ezzouar. The sole nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) observed, i.e., 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFA), was very likely to arise from gas-phase photochemical reaction of parent PAH in the atmosphere. The total aerial levels ranged from 75 to 206 ng m(-3) for n-alkanes, from 153 to 345 ng m(-3) for n-alkanoic acids and from 44 to 100 ng m(-3) for PAH and NPAH. Although the samples were collected during the hot season, the levels of these pollutants seemed to be important and of environmental concern, especially for PAH species. PMID:11592421

  14. CMA manufacture II: Improved bacterial strain for acetate production: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carreira, L.H.; Garrison, R.J.; Rabek, N.E.; Gunter, L.F.; Wiegel, J.

    1986-06-01

    Three homoacetogenic anaerobic thermophilic bacteria, Clostridium thermoaceticum, Clostridium thermoautotrophicum, and Acetogenium kivui, were evaluated for possible use in an industrial fermentative process to manufacture calcium, magnesium acetate (CMA) from hydrolyzed corn starch and dolime. The hydrolyzed corn starch is fermented by the bacteria with a theoretical yield of about 90%. Improved bacterial strains were obtained from the clostridial bacteria but not from A. kivui. In fermentations with improved bacterial strains using dolime to neutralize the produced acetic acid, up to 150 g/liter of CMA was produced, however, the production rate was only about 12 g/liter per 24 hours. Batch fermentation, continuous fermentation with and without cell-recycling and continuous fermentation with a new type of rotating fermentor were tested. Economic evaluation of the results indicate that CMA can be produced for $0.24/lb. The rotating fermentor device was developed at the end of the contract period. With it a production rate of almost 10 g/liter an hour was obtained, however, the concentration of acetate in the harvested fermentation broth was only 1 percent. Further research should lead to the development of an economic fermentation process for CMA. 38 refs., 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  16. Convective heat transfer behavior of the product slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the heat transfer properties of the NAC product slurry. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The heat transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper.

  17. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  18. Recycling of steel slag and glass cullet from energy saving lamps by fast firing production of ceramics.

    PubMed

    Furlani, E; Tonello, G; Maschio, S

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of ceramics containing steel slag and glass cullet from exhaust energy saving lamps mixed in different proportions. Blending of components was done by attrition milling. Pressed powders were fast fired (50 min, cold to cold) in air up to several temperatures in the range 1000-1140 degrees C. The sintering behaviour was studied by shrinkage and water absorption measurements. Density, strength and hardness of the fired bodies were determined and XRD were examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their possible environmental compatibility. It is observed that the composition containing 60 wt.% of steel slag and 40 wt.% of glass cullet displayed the best overall behaviour.

  19. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  20. New Product Development for Green and Low-Carbon Products—A Case Study of Taiwan's TFT-LCD Manufacturer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.

    2011-11-01

    Green supply chain has become an important topic these days due to pollution, global warming, extreme climatic events, etc. A green product is manufactured with the goal of reducing the damage to the environment and limiting the use of energy and other resources at any stage of its life, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and disposal. Carbon footprint is a good measure of the impact that a product has on the environment, especially in climate change, in the entire lifetime of the product. Carbon footprint is directly linked to CO2 emission; thus, the reduction of CO2 emission must be considered in the product life cycle. Although more and more researchers are working on the green supply chain management in the past few years, few have incorporated CO2 emission or carbon footprint into the green supply chain system. Therefore, this research aims to propose an integrated model for facilitating the new product development (NPD) for green and low-carbon products. In this research, a systematic model based on quality function deployment (QFD) is constructed for developing green and low-carbon products in a TFT-LCD manufacturer. Literature review and interviews with experts are done first to collect the factors for developing and manufacturing green and low-carbon products. Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is applied next to extract the important factors, and fuzzy interpretive structural modeling (FISM) is used subsequently to understand the relationships among factors. A house of quality (HOQ) for product planning is built last. The results shall provide important information for a TFT-LCD firm in designing a new product.

  1. Monitoring the mycobiota of three plants manufacturing Culatello (a typical Italian meat product).

    PubMed

    Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Diaferia, Carlo; Berni, Elettra

    2015-06-16

    This study reports the composition of the mycobiota growing on the surface of Culatello (a typical Italian meat product) and occurring in the environments of three processing plants. Samples were collected in both winter and summer. A total of 84 culatelli and 14 samples from the plant environment were examined. A total of 331 (from food samples) and 2030 (from air samples) fungal isolates belonging to six genera and 29 species were identified. The substantial correspondence between air- and product-mycobiota in all the manufacturing plants studied seems to indicate a natural selection of those species that have adapted to the thermal-hygrometric conditions to which meat products were subjected. In particular, all sexual Aspergillus spp. with Eurotium-type ascomata, all Scopulariopsis spp. and Sporendonema casei from culatelli exactly matched with those from air samplings, and a prevalence of xerotolerant and xerophilic species belonging to Aspergillus or Penicillium was observed for both culatelli and environments, depending on the plant considered. Aspergillus candidus (16.0%), Penicillium solitum (19.6%), and Aspergillus cristatus (≡ Eurotium cristatum) (17.2%) were the prevalent species in Plants 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Fungal species producing unsightly spots on the casings (Scopulariopsis spp. and Sporendonema casei) were mainly found in the first steps of the aging, but tended to diminish or to change color throughout the process, so ultimately they did not represent a matter of concern. Fungal species potentially producing ochratoxin A (Penicillium nordicum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae) were the least prevalent species collected from a minor number of culatelli, so their presence could be defined as sporadic and did not represent a risk for consumers' health. This study reports the dominance of desirable species over undesirable molds on culatelli, but also highlights the importance of monitoring those meat products where no bacterial starter can

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  3. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  4. 21 CFR 1002.51 - Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the U.S. Government. 1002.51 Section 1002.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Exemptions...

  5. When a Production Worker is Technically a Writer: Using Craft and Rhetorical Knowledge in a Manufacturing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Lili Fox; Hall, Susan P.

    2001-01-01

    Offers a case study examining what happened when a production worker tried to improve manufacturing documentation, and how her success depended upon both her craft knowledge and the rhetorical skills she attributes to a Writing Across the Curriculum program she experienced in college. (SR)

  6. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics.

  7. 13 CFR 121.406 - How does a small business concern qualify to provide manufactured products under small business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does a small business concern qualify to provide manufactured products under small business set-aside or 8(a) contracts? 121.406 Section 121.406 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and...

  8. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A Case Study of the South African Wood Products Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Ian S.; Bullen, Mark; Kozak, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture) manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating…

  9. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics. PMID:25302332

  10. Ceramic component development analysis -- Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1998-06-09

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) (Techniweave/Westinghouse, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), DuPont Lanxide Composites), intermetallic alloys (Pall Corporation), and alternate filter geometries (CeraMem Separations). The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to produce volumes. Given the brief nature of the on-site reviews, only an overview of the processes and systems could be obtained. Each of the 5 companies had developed some level of manufacturing and quality assurance documentation, with most of the companies leveraging the procedures from other products they manufacture. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs.

  11. 76 FR 77251 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...--Manufacturers Standardization Society Notice is hereby given that, on November 7, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Manufacturers Standardization Society (``MSS'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... Society, Vienna, VA. The nature and scope of MSS's standards development activities are: Valves,...

  12. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  13. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  14. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  15. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  16. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  17. Nucleation and crystallization of Ca doped basaltic glass for the production of a glass-ceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrago, Mariona; Royo, Irene; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martínez, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a waste with a composition roughly similar to that of a basalt. It may contain potentially toxic elements that can be inertized by vitrification. Using a glass-ceramic process, these elements will be emplaced in newly formed mineral phases. Glass-ceramic production requires an accurate knowledge of the temperatures of nucleation (TN) and crystal growth of the corresponding minerals. This work arises from the study of the addition of ions to a basaltic matrix in order to establish a model of vitrification of sewage sludge. In this case a glass-ceramic is obtained from a glass made with a basalt that has been doped with 16% CaO. Two glasses which underwent different cooling processes have been produced and compared. The first was annealed at 650oC (AG) and the second was quenched (QG). The chemical composition of the glasses is SiO2 36.11 wt%, Al2O312.19 wt%, CaO 24.44 wt%, FeO 10.06 wt%, MgO 9.19 wt%, Na2O 2.28 wt%, TiO2 2.02 wt%, K2O 1.12 wt%, P2O5 0.46 wt%. Glass transition temperature obtained by dilatometry varies from 640 oC (AG) to 700 oC (QG). The temperatures of nucleation and crystal growth of the glass have been determined by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The phases formed after these treatments were identified by X-Ray Diffraction. The temperatures of exothermic and endothermic peaks measured in the quenched glass are, in average, 10 oC higher than those found for the annealed glass. The exothermic peaks provide crystallization temperatures for different phases: a first event at 857 oC corresponds to the growth of magnetite, pyroxene and nepheline, whereas a second event at 1030 oC is due to the crystallization of melilite from the reaction between previous minerals and a remaining amorphous phase. The complete melting of this system occurs at 1201 oC. This glass has been nucleated inside the DTA furnace (500-850° C/3 hours) and then heated up to 1300 oC using the fraction between 400-500μm. TN

  18. Pathogen safety of intravenous Rh immunoglobulin liquid and other immune globulin products: enhanced nanofiltration and manufacturing process overview.

    PubMed

    Soluk, Lori; Price, Hugh; Sinclair, Chris; Atalla-Mikhail, Dina; Genereux, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Plasma products for therapeutic use pose specific challenges in manufacturing to ensure products maintain biologic activity and are safe with respect to contamination and transmission of disease-causing agents. Various processes have demonstrated effectiveness in eliminating, reducing, or inactivating viral contaminants. Recently, the possibility of transmitting variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD) or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) through blood-based products has become a concern. The present study involves the validation of a hyperimmune immunoglobulin manufacturing process incorporating a nanofiltration step with a nominal pore size of 20 nm for removal of viral contaminants and other adventitious agents. Processing intermediates during the manufacture of IV Rh IgG (WinRho SDF/WinRho SDF Liquid, Cangene Corporation, Manitoba, Canada) were spiked with model viruses and processed in scaled-down procedures to validate the viral reduction capacity of each step. Anion-exchange chromatography and solvent/detergent steps are known to contribute to virus removal and inactivation. The Planova 20 N nanofiltration step was effective in reducing model viruses representing a wide range of viral morphologies with varying degrees of resistance to physicochemical inactivation. All in-process and final batch testing met current standards for production of IV Rh IgG manufactured with the previously licensed filter, which had a larger nominal pore size of 35 nm. The manufacturing process, employing a Planova 35 N filtration step, has been proactively improved by the change to a smaller-pore 20 N filter. Replacement of the 35 N filter with the 20 N filter produces a similar product while enhancing the capability for removal of smaller viruses and prions.

  19. The production of corporate research to manufacture doubt about the health hazards of products: an overview of the Exponent Bakelite™ simulation study.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S

    2016-01-01

    Although corporate sponsorship of research does not necessarily lead to biased results, in some industries it has resulted in the publication of inaccurate and misleading information. Some companies have hired scientific consulting firms to retrospectively calculate exposures to products that are no longer manufactured or sold. As an example, this paper reviews one such study - a litigation-engendered study of Union Carbide Corporation's asbestos-containing product, Bakelite™. This analysis is based on previously secret documents produced as a result of litigation. The study published asbestos fiber exposure measurements that underestimated actual exposures to create doubt about the hazards associated with the manufacture and manipulation of Bakelite™. PMID:27128626

  20. The production of corporate research to manufacture doubt about the health hazards of products: an overview of the Exponent Bakelite™ simulation study.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S

    2016-01-01

    Although corporate sponsorship of research does not necessarily lead to biased results, in some industries it has resulted in the publication of inaccurate and misleading information. Some companies have hired scientific consulting firms to retrospectively calculate exposures to products that are no longer manufactured or sold. As an example, this paper reviews one such study - a litigation-engendered study of Union Carbide Corporation's asbestos-containing product, Bakelite™. This analysis is based on previously secret documents produced as a result of litigation. The study published asbestos fiber exposure measurements that underestimated actual exposures to create doubt about the hazards associated with the manufacture and manipulation of Bakelite™.