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Sample records for manufacturing vision development

  1. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  2. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  3. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  4. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    applicable to commercial production processes and applications. Computer vision will play a critical role in the new agile production environment for automation of processes such as inspection, assembly, welding, material dispensing and other process control tasks. Although there are many academic and commercial solutions that have been developed, none have had widespread adoption considering the huge potential number of applications that could benefit from this technology. The reason for this slow adoption is that the advantages of computer vision for automation can be a double-edged sword. The benefits can be lost if the vision system requires an inordinate amount of time for reprogramming by a skilled operator to account for different parts, changes in lighting conditions, background clutter, changes in optics, etc. Commercially available solutions typically require an operator to manually program the vision system with features used for the recognition. In a recent survey, we asked a number of commercial manufacturers and machine vision companies the question, 'What prevents machine vision systems from being more useful in factories?' The number one (and unanimous) response was that vision systems require too much skill to set up and program to be cost effective.

  5. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  6. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  7. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  8. REGIONAL MANUFACTURING TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    EASON, H.A.

    1997-02-21

    This project covers four CRADAS (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) which were initiated in 1991 and 1993. The two CRADAS with the state of Tennessee and the state of Florida were to provide technical assistance to small manufacturers in those states and the CRADA with the Tennessee Technology Foundation was to engage in joint economic development activities within the state. These three CRADAS do not fit the traditional definition of CRADAS and would be administered by other agreement mechanisms, today. But in these early days of technology transfer efforts, the CRADA mechanism was already developed and usable. The CRADA with Coors Ceramics is a good example of a CRADA and was used to develop nondestructive testing technology for ceramic component inspection. The report describes the background of this project, its economic impact, and its benefits to the U. S. Department of Energy.

  9. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  10. The Development of Low Vision Therapist Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Quillman, R. Dee; Flax, Marshall; Gerritsen, Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the low-vision-therapist certification through the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Credentials for professionals in low vision are described, along with required written examination, and the role of the low-vision therapist. (CR)

  11. Drug development and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  12. Developing organisational vision in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    al-Shehri, A; Stanley, I; Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    Vision is a fashionable but ill defined term in management circles. Nevertheless, it embodies a significant concept related to guiding an organisation from present realities, through opportunities and hazards, to a viable future. Until recently a typical general practice could assume a stable external environment, but now it is caught up in the uncertainties stemming from the NHS reforms. For such a practice to undertake effective strategic planning it will have to develop a vision connecting the present with aspirations for the future. While vision is usually considered to be an individual talent, it is possible to develop a collective organisational vision within a general practice, and the small size of general practices makes this relatively easy. The vision needs to be broad; it needs to be continuous; and its capacity to predict the future needs to be monitored. PMID:8343704

  13. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  14. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  15. Active vision system for planning and programming of industrial robots in one-of-a-kind manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Schmidt, Achim

    1995-10-01

    The aspects of automation technology in industrial one-of-a-kind manufacturing are discussed. An approach to improve the quality and cost relation is developed and an overview of an 3D- vision supported automation system is given. This system is based on an active vision sensor for 3D-geometry feedback. Its measurement principle, the coded light approach, is explained. The experimental environment for the technical validation of the automation approach is demonstrated, where robot based processes (assembly, arc welding and flame cutting) are graphically simulated and off-line programmed. A typical process sequence for automated one- of-a-kind manufacturing is described. The results of this research development are applied to a project on the automated disassembling of car parts for recycling using industrial robots.

  16. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  17. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  18. Passive solar manufactured buildings development and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.

    1983-11-01

    Manufactured buildings which are cost effective residential and light commercial buildings are discussed. The solar energy research institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) worked with building manufacturers design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process lead to valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. The scope and content are described.

  19. Ethical, environmental and social issues for machine vision in manufacturing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1995-10-01

    Some of the ethical, environmental and social issues relating to the design and use of machine vision systems in manufacturing industry are highlighted. The authors' aim is to emphasize some of the more important issues, and raise general awareness of the need to consider the potential advantages and hazards of machine vision technology. However, in a short article like this, it is impossible to cover the subject comprehensively. This paper should therefore be seen as a discussion document, which it is hoped will provoke more detailed consideration of these very important issues. It follows from an article presented at last year's workshop. Five major topics are discussed: (1) The impact of machine vision systems on the environment; (2) The implications of machine vision for product and factory safety, the health and well-being of employees; (3) The importance of intellectual integrity in a field requiring a careful balance of advanced ideas and technologies; (4) Commercial and managerial integrity; and (5) The impact of machine visions technology on employment prospects, particularly for people with low skill levels.

  20. Surface Roughness Measurement of Parts Manufactured by FDM Process using Light Sectioning Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, A. S.; Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a process of developing prototypes by depositing layers of material according to predetermined cross sectional geometry. Quality of the produced part is highly dependent on surface finish. This work describes a methodology to calculate the surface roughness of part manufactured using FDM process. The surface roughness values are measured using conventional stylus instrument and light sectioning vision system. In conventional stylus instrument method, diamond tipped stylus destroys the surface topography. Light sectioning method is non-contact method hence it overcomes this problem. In light sectioning method microscope and light source are arranged in such a manner, as both are inclined at an angle of 45° to the normal plane. The light section is projected on surface of profile at an incident angle of 45°. The reflected light can be observed using microscope. The camera is connected with microscope to capture the micrograph. These images are analyzed and processed using various image processing techniques. Experimental results are validated by comparing final results with conventional system.

  1. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users

    PubMed Central

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2014-01-01

    Background Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population in order to evaluate the impact of new vision restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional vision ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. Methods The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional vision tasks for observation of performance, and a case narrative summary. Results were analyzed to determine whether the interview questions and functional vision tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, twenty-six subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. Results All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 functional vision tasks were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options -- impossible (33%), difficult (23%), moderate (24%) and easy (19%) -- were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with vision only occurring 75% on average with the System ON, and 29% with the System OFF. Conclusion The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as a functional vision and well-being assessment tool. PMID:25675964

  2. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  3. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  4. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  5. Effective Organizational Vision: Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rex D.; Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing literature related to organizational vision and discusses its potential implications for human resource development (HRD). Furthermore, the paper aims to provide a forum for debate on the utility and effectiveness of organizational vision and how it is related to HRD and strategic…

  6. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  7. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader's development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual's personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader's personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader's identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion-orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed. PMID:25926803

  8. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development

    PubMed Central

    Passarelli, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader’s development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual’s personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader’s personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader’s identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion–orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed. PMID:25926803

  9. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader's development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual's personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader's personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader's identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion-orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed.

  10. Competitive Manufacturing: New Strategies for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    In the past, economic development in the rural United States, particularly in the rural South, relied principally on the attractiveness of a low-wage work force to mass-production manufacturing industries. Now however, the viability of the traditional mass-production economy's organizational structure and operating procedures has been eroded by…

  11. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  12. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  13. Developing a Shared Leadership Vision in a College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy is nationally recognized for its leadership curriculum. Despite the College's success in developing student leaders, an overall guiding leadership philosophy within the College has not been specifically articulated. To begin the process of developing a shared leadership vision, a democratic,…

  14. Trends and developments in industrial machine vision: 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, Kurt; Heinzl, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    When following current advancements and implementations in the field of machine vision there seems to be no borders for future developments: Calculating power constantly increases, and new ideas are spreading and previously challenging approaches are introduced in to mass market. Within the past decades these advances have had dramatic impacts on our lives. Consumer electronics, e.g. computers or telephones, which once occupied large volumes, now fit in the palm of a hand. To note just a few examples e.g. face recognition was adopted by the consumer market, 3D capturing became cheap, due to the huge community SW-coding got easier using sophisticated development platforms. However, still there is a remaining gap between consumer and industrial applications. While the first ones have to be entertaining, the second have to be reliable. Recent studies (e.g. VDMA [1], Germany) show a moderately increasing market for machine vision in industry. Asking industry regarding their needs the main challenges for industrial machine vision are simple usage and reliability for the process, quick support, full automation, self/easy adjustment at changing process parameters, "forget it in the line". Furthermore a big challenge is to support quality control: Nowadays the operator has to accurately define the tested features for checking the probes. There is an upcoming development also to let automated machine vision applications find out essential parameters in a more abstract level (top down). In this work we focus on three current and future topics for industrial machine vision: Metrology supporting automation, quality control (inline/atline/offline) as well as visualization and analysis of datasets with steadily growing sizes. Finally the general trend of the pixel orientated towards object orientated evaluation is addressed. We do not directly address the field of robotics taking advances from machine vision. This is actually a fast changing area which is worth an own

  15. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  16. A New Vision for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Peter M.; Charles, Kelly J.; Leeks, Latonya L.

    2013-01-01

    High-quality professional development for public school teachers is directly tied to student achievement, teacher quality and retention, and national education priorities (Kroeger et al. 2000). To stay current with the knowledge, skills, and expertise that students need to succeed in the twenty-first century, educators must increasingly retool…

  17. Liberal Education, Human Development, and Social Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marshall W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the effects of the post-Sputnik knowledge explosion. Critizes universities for teaching facts and information without values and applications and faults apathetic students who narrowly focus on job openings, pay scales, and retirement plans. Urges colleges to develop intellectual autonomy and the powers of imagination, sensitivity, and…

  18. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  19. Translating Vision into Design: A Method for Conceptual Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for engineers is the definition of design solutions that will satisfy high-level strategic visions and objectives. Even more challenging is the need to demonstrate how a particular design solution supports the high-level vision. This paper describes a process and set of system engineering tools that have been used at the Johnson Space Center to analyze and decompose high-level objectives for future human missions into design requirements that can be used to develop alternative concepts for vehicles, habitats, and other systems. Analysis and design studies of alternative concepts and approaches are used to develop recommendations for strategic investments in research and technology that support the NASA Integrated Space Plan. In addition to a description of system engineering tools, this paper includes a discussion of collaborative design practices for human exploration mission architecture studies used at the Johnson Space Center.

  20. Manufacturing development of pultruded composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    The weight savings potential, of graphite-epoxy composites for secondary and medium primary aircraft structures, was demonstrated. One of the greatest challenges facing the aircraft industry is to reduce the acquisition costs for composite structures to a level below that of metal structures. The pultrusion process, wherein reinforcing fibers, after being passed through a resin bath are drawn through a die to form and cure the desired cross-section, is an automated low cost manufacturing process for composite structures. The Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) Composites Development Center designed, characterizated materials for, fabricated and tested a stiffened cover concept compatible with the continuous pultrusion process. The procedures used and the results obtained are presented.

  1. Develop and Manufacture an airlock sliding tray

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.

    2014-02-26

    Objective: The goal of this project is to continue to develop an airlock sliding tray and then partner with an industrial manufacturing company for production. The sliding tray will be easily installed into and removed from most glovebox airlocks in a few minutes. Technical Approach: A prototype of a sliding tray has been developed and tested in the LANL cold lab and 35 trays are presently being built for the plutonium facility (PF-4). The current, recently approved design works for a 14-inch diameter round airlock and has a tray length of approximately 20 inches. The grant will take the already tested and approved round technology and design for the square airlock. These two designs will be suitable for the majority of the existing airlocks in the multitude of DOE facilities. Partnering with an external manufacturer will allow for production of the airlock trays at a much lower cost and increase the availability of the product for all DOE sites. Project duration is estimated to be 12-13 months. Benefits: The purpose of the airlock sliding trays is fourfold: 1) Mitigate risk of rotator cuff injuries, 2) Improve ALARA, 3) Reduce risk of glovebox glove breaches and glove punctures, and 4) Improve worker comfort. I have had the opportunity to visit many other DOE facilities including Savannah, Y-12, ORNL, Sandia, and Livermore for assistance with ergonomic problems and/or injuries. All of these sites would benefit from the airlock sliding tray and I can assume all other DOE facilities with gloveboxes built prior to 1985 could also use the sliding trays.

  2. Development of a machine vision system for automated structural assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydow, P. Daniel; Cooper, Eric G.

    1992-01-01

    Research is being conducted at the LaRC to develop a telerobotic assembly system designed to construct large space truss structures. This research program was initiated within the past several years, and a ground-based test-bed was developed to evaluate and expand the state of the art. Test-bed operations currently use predetermined ('taught') points for truss structural assembly. Total dependence on the use of taught points for joint receptacle capture and strut installation is neither robust nor reliable enough for space operations. Therefore, a machine vision sensor guidance system is being developed to locate and guide the robot to a passive target mounted on the truss joint receptacle. The vision system hardware includes a miniature video camera, passive targets mounted on the joint receptacles, target illumination hardware, and an image processing system. Discrimination of the target from background clutter is accomplished through standard digital processing techniques. Once the target is identified, a pose estimation algorithm is invoked to determine the location, in three-dimensional space, of the target relative to the robots end-effector. Preliminary test results of the vision system in the Automated Structural Assembly Laboratory with a range of lighting and background conditions indicate that it is fully capable of successfully identifying joint receptacle targets throughout the required operational range. Controlled optical bench test results indicate that the system can also provide the pose estimation accuracy to define the target position.

  3. Use of simulation and prototyping for robotic system development - A case study of vision system development for a robotic paint cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Roger H.

    1989-02-01

    A major airframe manufacturer has developed a simulation test-bed and rapid-prototyping laboratory which can assist in the process of system specification and development. Attention is given to the case of technology and prototype development for a robotic paint cell. The demonstration cell employs an artificial vision system to obtain coordinate and orientation data for parts to be painted; these data are transmitted to a laboratory robot which simulates the painting of each individual component.

  4. Development of a vision system for an intelligent ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a vision system for an autonomous ground vehicle designed and constructed for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is discussed. The requirements for the vision system of the autonomous vehicle are explored via functional analysis considering the flows (materials, energies and signals) into the vehicle and the changes required of each flow within the vehicle system. Functional analysis leads to a vision system based on a laser range finder (LIDAR) and a camera. Input from the vision system is processed via a ray-casting algorithm whereby the camera data and the LIDAR data are analyzed as a single array of points representing obstacle locations, which for the IGVC, consist of white lines on the horizontal plane and construction markers on the vertical plane. Functional analysis also leads to a multithreaded application where the ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the vehicle's software, which consists of multiple threads controlling motion, providing feedback, and processing the data from the camera and LIDAR. LIDAR data is collected as distances and angles from the front of the vehicle to obstacles. Camera data is processed using an adaptive threshold algorithm to identify color changes within the collected image; the image is also corrected for camera angle distortion, adjusted to the global coordinate system, and processed using least-squares method to identify white boundary lines. Our IGVC robot, MAX, is utilized as the continuous example for all methods discussed in the paper. All testing and results provided are based on our IGVC robot, MAX, as well.

  5. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  6. Accomplishing the Visions for Professional Development of Teachers Advocated in the National Science Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards include suggested visions for changing staff development programs for preparing new teachers and working with inservice teachers. Analyzing the visions for the most successful programs precedes the identification of programs that best match the NSES visions. The National Science Teachers Association is…

  7. Development of pattern vision following early and extended blindness.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Amy; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Dorr, Michael; Gandhi, Tapan; Chatterjee, Garga; Ganesh, Suma; Bex, Peter J; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-02-01

    Visual plasticity peaks during early critical periods of normal visual development. Studies in animals and humans provide converging evidence that gains in visual function are minimal and deficits are most severe when visual deprivation persists beyond the critical period. Here we demonstrate visual development in a unique sample of patients who experienced extended early-onset blindness (beginning before 1 y of age and lasting 8-17 y) before removal of bilateral cataracts. These patients show surprising improvements in contrast sensitivity, an assay of basic spatial vision. We find that contrast sensitivity development is independent of the age of sight onset and that individual rates of improvement can exceed those exhibited by normally developing infants. These results reveal that the visual system can retain considerable plasticity, even after early blindness that extends beyond critical periods.

  8. Development of pattern vision following early and extended blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Amy; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Dorr, Michael; Gandhi, Tapan; Chatterjee, Garga; Ganesh, Suma; Bex, Peter J.; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Visual plasticity peaks during early critical periods of normal visual development. Studies in animals and humans provide converging evidence that gains in visual function are minimal and deficits are most severe when visual deprivation persists beyond the critical period. Here we demonstrate visual development in a unique sample of patients who experienced extended early-onset blindness (beginning before 1 y of age and lasting 8–17 y) before removal of bilateral cataracts. These patients show surprising improvements in contrast sensitivity, an assay of basic spatial vision. We find that contrast sensitivity development is independent of the age of sight onset and that individual rates of improvement can exceed those exhibited by normally developing infants. These results reveal that the visual system can retain considerable plasticity, even after early blindness that extends beyond critical periods. PMID:24449865

  9. Research and development on embedded omnidirectional vision tracker for vision navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junchao; Feng, Weijia; Cao, Zuoliang; Zhang, Baofeng

    2009-11-01

    Omni-directional vision appears the definite significance since its advantage of acquiring all vision information simultaneously. In this paper, an integrated omni-directional vision tracker based on the configuration with CMOS, FPGA and DSP has been implemented. Fisheye lens is one of the most efficient ways to establish omni-directional vision systems, however, it appear with an unavoidable inherent distortion. An imaging system model which consists of fisheye-lens and the embedded tracker has been proposed. A novel beacon owning the feature of particular topology shape can be identified by the appropriative recognition processes. Particle filter has been programmed as an intersectional arithmetic structure which processes the same step of several particle filters simultaneously. We called it as Multiple Intersection Particle Filter. MIPF makes multi-targets tracking efficiently and successfully on embedded platform. A rectification technique based on equidistant projection theorem is used for correction some distorted image point. The localization method just employs the picture position of two objects to estimate the space position and orientation for AGV. After target recognition, vision tracking, rectification, and object positioning functions actualized on the embedded omni-directional vision tracker, autonomous navigation has been demonstrated on experimental AGV.

  10. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  11. Development of a vision integration framework for laparoscopic surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung W; Park, Jun W; Lee, Chul H; Hong, Soyoung; Jo, Yungho; Choi, Jaesoon

    2006-01-01

    In order to realize intelligent laparoscopic surgical robot, a vision integrated system constitutes one of the fundamental components. The authors have constructed a vision framework in the current version of NCC (National Cancer Center) laparoscopic surgical robot controlled on a real-time OS (RTLinux-Pro, FSMLabs Inc., U.S.A.). Adding vision framework, we have been applying and testing image processing algorithms- edge detection of object for positioning surgical tool, Watersheds for recognizing object. This paper documents the implementation of the framework and preliminary results of the image segmentation using Watersheds algorithm. Finally the real-time processing capability of our vision system is discussed.

  12. Development of dynamic vision based on motion contrast.

    PubMed

    Schrauf, M; Wist, E R; Ehrenstein, W H

    1999-02-01

    The development of dynamic vision was investigated in 400 healthy subjects (200 females and 200 males) aged between 4 and 24 years. The test consisted of a computer-generated random-dot kinematogram in which a Landolt ring was briefly presented as a form-from-motion stimulus. Motion contrast between the ring and background was varied in terms of the percentage of dots moving coherently within the ring in four levels (100%, 50%, 30%, and 20%). The subject's task was to indicate the position of a gap in the ring (left, right, top, bottom). Results show a clear increase in performance with age for all motion contrast levels, with the greatest changes for the lowest levels. Adult performance was reached at the age of 15 years. Luminance-based static acuity measured with the Landolt test was poorly correlated with acuity for its form-from-motion analogue.

  13. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  14. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  15. A simplified screening test for identifying people with low vision in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J. E.; Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.; Maclean, H.; Taylor, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Simple but effective tests have been produced for screening subjects with low vision in developing countries. These tests of distance and near vision, based on the E test, were evaluated and validated in trials with people aged 4-90 years, and have been field tested in the health, education and rehabilitation services in 32 developing countries. Their sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for low vision have been calculated; sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% for the distance vision test, and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84% for the near vision test. The content and format of the tests have been demonstrated to be appropriate for developing countries, and their effectiveness for screening for low vision has been confirmed. PMID:9002333

  16. Adaptive plasticity during the development of colour vision.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2005-07-01

    spinule dynamics were both affected in the blue light group. This observation rules out the role of spinules as sites of chromatic feedback synapses. The light-evoked responses of H2 horizontal cells were also sensitive to spectral deprivation showing a shift of the neutral point towards short wavelengths in the blue rearing group. Interestingly, we also found an intensity effect because in the group reared in bright white light the neutral point was more towards longer wavelength than in the dim light group. Like the changes in the cones, the reactions of horizontal cells to spectral deprivation in the long wave domain can be characterised as compensatory. We also tested the spectral sensitivity of the various experimental groups of blue acara in visually evoked behaviour using the optomotor response paradigm. In this case, the changes in the relative spectral sensitivity were more complex and could not be explained by a simple extrapolation of the adaptive and compensatory processes in the outer retina. We conclude that the inner retina, and/or the optic tectum are also involved and react to the changes of the spectral environment. In summary, we have shown a considerable developmental plasticity in the colour vision system of the blue acara, where epigenetic adaptive processes at various levels of the visual system respond to the specific spectral composition of the surroundings and provide a powerful mechanism to ensure functional colour vision in different visual environments. We suggest that processes involving an active fine-tuning of the photoreceptors and the postreceptoral processing of chromatic information during ontogenetic development are a general feature of all colour vision systems. Such mechanisms would establish a functional balance between the various chromatic channels. This appears to be an essential condition for the cognitive systems to extract the relevant and stable information from the unstable and changing stimulus situation. PMID:15845347

  17. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  18. Carrying Out and Developing the Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Greenman

    2007-06-14

    In support of its obligations under the above-mentioned project, the GMIC performed the following tasks: (1) Provided two-way communications liaison services between the U.S. glass industry and the D.O.E. to ensure the needs and concerns of each party are effectively communicated to the other. (2) Updated and modified on a continuing basis and in response to evolving conditions within the glass industry, the goals and priorities outlined in the Glass Industry Vision and the Glass Technology Roadmap. (3) Established relationships with a wide variety of government and non-governmental organizations with interests in further improving the levels of technology, productivity and environmental responsibility of the glass industry. (4) Canvassed the glass industry on an ongoing basis to determine overall and specific sector needs for technological development. (5) Fostered direct contacts between member companies and national laboratories to facilitate the development of individual company technology development. (6) Advised the DOE on the key elements of the solicitation process in support of the Glass Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap. In the course of this contract, the membership of the GMIC has grown to include over 70% of the glass industry. This gives it the ability to communicate persuasively with the vast majority of this energy intensive industry. One of the principal benefits of the existence of the GMIC is that, for the first time in this country, representative companies of all major sectors of the glass industry are now in regular communication with each other. Prior to the existence and activity of the GMIC, companies and individuals in the flat glass, container glass, fiber glass and specialty glass sectors rarely had contact with each other, in spite of the fact that they all face similar challenges and can benefit from pre-competitive research conducted to the benefit of the broad industry. The development of innovations in the industry under cost

  19. Development of a Launch Vehicle Manufacturing Process. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the goals of this chapter is to provide sufficient information so that you can develop a manufacturing process for a potential launch vehicle. With the variety of manufacturing options available, you might ask how this can possibly be done in the span of a single chapter. Actually, it will be quite simple because a basic manufacturing process is nothing more than a set of logical steps that are iterated until they produce a desired product. Although these statements seem simple and logical, don't let this simplicity fool you. Manufacturing problems with launch vehicles and their subassemblies have been the primary cause of project failures because the vehicle concept delivered to the manufacturing floor could not be built as designed.

  20. Recent advances in the development and transfer of machine vision technologies for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Pendleton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Recent work concerned with real-time machine vision is briefly reviewed. This work includes methodologies and techniques for optimal illumination, shape-from-shading of general (non-Lambertian) 3D surfaces, laser vision devices and technology, high level vision, sensor fusion, real-time computing, artificial neural network design and use, and motion estimation. Two new methods that are currently being developed for object recognition in clutter and for 3D attitude tracking based on line correspondence are discussed.

  1. Construction in year 2030: developing an information technology vision.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, B; Abbott, C; Aouad, G

    2010-08-13

    Emerging technologies offer new solutions to the construction industry, improving processes, enabling automation and effective decision-making mechanisms and changing current ways of work. Previous research has tended to consider a direct causal relationship between the emerging and prospective technologies and the future of construction. However, the future of construction will be influenced not only by the developments in the information technology (IT) industry, but also by other technological changes. Societal, economic, environmental and political factors will shape the future, together with emerging technologies. This paper presents a scenario-planning exercise that aimed to identify possible futures that the construction industry might face. In order to achieve the aims of the research, a literature review was carried out on scenario planning and future studies related to construction and construction IT, which was followed by a mini survey and two prospective workshops as part of the La Prospective scenario-planning approach. In a future study, it is important to understand the forces, issues and trends in order to inform and enable further thinking and action towards achieving a preferred future state whilst being prepared for what might be round the corner. Therefore, the paper first investigates the driving forces of change, main trends, issues and factors that might shape the future, focusing on factors related to society, technology, environment, economy and politics. Secondly, four future scenarios that were developed keeping these factors in mind are presented. The scenarios start from a global view and present the images of the future world in year 2030. They later focus on the construction industry, imagining how it will be shaped by the future world and trying to visualize the information and communication technology implications for construction. Finally, a preferred future scenario for 2030 is introduced based on the principle that the future

  2. An integrated approach to product development and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to product development is described that integrates various unit operations into a unified ``knowledge-base``. This knowledge-base is easily accessible to all members of the design team due to the advent of high performance and networking capabilities of today`s desktop computers. This permits rapid optimization of the product`s material, shape, and manufacturing processes that satisfy the customer`s performance requirements while maximizing economic return for the manufacturer.

  3. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  4. Manufacturing development for the SAFE 100 kW core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Robert; Roman, Jose; Salvail, Pat

    2002-01-01

    In stark contrast to what is sometimes considered the norm in traditional manufacturing processes, engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) arc in the practice of altering the standard in an effort to realize other potential methods in core manufacturing. While remaining within the bounds of the materials database, we are researching into core manufacturing techniques that may have been overlooked in the past due to funding and/or time constraints. To augment proven core fabrication capabilities we are pursuing plating processes as another possible method for core build-up and assembly. Although brazing and a proprietary HIP cycle are used for module assembly (proven track record for stability and endurance), it is prudent to pursue secondary or backup methods of module and core assembly. For this reason heat tube manufacture and module assembly by means of plating is being investigated. Potentially, the plating processes will give engineers the ability to manufacture replacement modules for any module that might fail to perform nominally, and to assemble/disassemble a complete core in much less time than would be required for the conventional Braze-HIP process. Another area of improvement in core manufacturing capabilities is the installation of a sodium and lithium liquid metal heat pipe fill machine. This, along with the ability to Electron Beam Weld heat pipe seals and wet-in the pipes in the necessary vacuum atmosphere, will eliminate the need to ship potentially hazardous components outside for processing. In addition to developing core manufacturing techniques, the SAFE manufacturing team has been evaluating the thermal heat transfer characteristics, and manufacturability of several heat exchanger design concepts. .

  5. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  6. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  7. Combined Research and Curriculum Development of Nontraditional Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Y. Lawrence; Cheng, Gary J.; Rajurkar, K. P.; Kovacevic, Radovan; Feiner, Steve; Zhang, Wenwu

    2005-01-01

    Nontraditional manufacturing (NTM) is becoming increasingly important in modern engineering. Therefore, it is important to develop up-to-date pedagogic materials for the area. This paper reports collaborative efforts among three universities in such a development sponsored by National Science Foundation of USA. The features of the development…

  8. Managers' Perceptions of Management Development Needs in Manufacturing SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawarna, Dilani; Macpherson, Allan; Wilson, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper empirical research is presented that investigates managers' perceptions of a variety of component management skills and techniques. The aim is to identify which management development needs manufacturing SME managers perceive as most important for their continued development, and to consider contextual factors that might…

  9. Role of Vision in Social Development in Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, Arnold S.

    1984-01-01

    Eight stump-tailed macaques were reared individually and either given all of their daily social experience in darkness or given half in the dark and half in the light. Results suggest that vision is especially important in the maintenance of assertive behaviors and in the instigation and direction of aggressive behaviors. (Author/RH)

  10. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  11. Development of image processing LSI "SuperVchip" for real-time vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Shoji; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Otsuka, Yasuo; Shojima, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Takayuki; Imai, Toshihiko; Yamada, Shigeyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A new image processing LSI SuperVchip with high-performance computing power has been developed. The SuperVchip has powerful capability for vision systems as follows: 1. General image processing by 3x3, 5x5, 7x7 kernel for high speed filtering function. 2. 16-parallel gray search engine units for robust template matching. 3. 49 block matching Pes to calculate the summation of the absolution difference in parallel for stereo vision function. 4. A color extraction unit for color object recognition. The SuperVchip also has peripheral function of vision systems, such as video interface, PCI extended interface, RISC engine interface and image memory controller on a chip. Therefore, small and high performance vision systems are realized via SuperVchip. In this paper, the above specific circuits are presented, and an architecture of a vision device equipped with SuperVchip and its performance are also described.

  12. Development of a distributed vision system for industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf; O'Leary, Paul; Fauster, Ewald; Schalk, Peter

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a prototype system to monitor a hot glowing wire during the rolling process in quality relevant aspects. Therefore a measurement system based on image vision and a communication framework integrating distributed measurement nodes is introduced. As a technologically approach, machine vision is used to evaluate the wire quality parameters. Therefore an image processing algorithm, based on dual Grassmannian coordinates fitting parallel lines by singular value decomposition, is formulated. Furthermore a communication framework which implements anonymous tuplespace communication, a private network based on TCP/IP and a consequent Java implementation of all used components is presented. Additionally, industrial requirements such as realtime communication to IEC-61131 conform digital IO"s (Modbus TCP/IP protocol), the implementation of a watchdog pattern and the integration of multiple operating systems (LINUX, QNX and WINDOWS) are lined out. The deployment of such a framework to the real world problem statement of the wire rolling mill is presented.

  13. Development and testing of the EVS 2000 enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Scott P.; Kerr, Richard; Imamura, Joe J.; Arnoldy, Dan; Zeylmaker, Richard; Zuro, Greg

    2003-09-01

    An effective enhanced vision system must operate over a broad spectral range in order to offer a pilot an optimized scene that includes runway background as well as airport lighting and aircraft operations. The large dynamic range of intensities of these images is best handled with separate imaging sensors. The EVS 2000 is a patented dual-band Infrared Enhanced Vision System (EVS) utilizing image fusion concepts to provide a single image from uncooled infrared imagers in both the LWIR and SWIR. The system is designed to provide commercial and corporate airline pilots with improved situational awareness at night and in degraded weather conditions. A prototype of this system was recently fabricated and flown on the Boeing Advanced Technology Demonstrator 737-900 aircraft. This paper will discuss the current EVS 2000 concept, show results taken from the Boeing Advanced Technology Demonstrator program, and discuss future plans for EVS systems.

  14. Place of Manufacture Diversification in Cyclical Development of the Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erofeev, Alexander G.; Smolin, Georgy K.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that diversification is one of the best options for reforming enterprises. The aim of the research: to consider changes in production of outputs in development cycles of the enterprise. This will help to reveal the nature of manufacture diversification. The leading method to the…

  15. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  16. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  17. Development of multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs) - Manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vietri, Umberto; Barra, Giuseppina; Vertuccio, Luigi; Volponi, Ruggero; Cosentino, Giovanni; De Nicola, Felice; Grilli, Andrea; Spena, Paola

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a successful attempt toward the development of CFRCs based on nanofilled epoxy resins. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor with a reactive diluent which allows to reduce the viscosity of the initial epoxy precursor and facilitate the nanofiller dispersion step. As nanofiller, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded in the epoxy matrix with the aim of improving the electrical properties of the resin used to manufacture CFRCs. Panels were manufactured by Resin Film Infusion (RFI) using a non-usual technique to infuse a nano-filled resin into a carbon fiber dry preform.

  18. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  19. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  20. GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

  1. Towards practice development--a vision in reality or a reality without vision?

    PubMed

    McCormack, B; Manley, K; Kitson, A; Titchen, A; Harvey, G

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a conceptual framework for practice development. Drawing on the authors' combined experiences of facilitating developments in practice, a conceptual framework is proposed. It is argued that much practice development in health care today lacks a systematic approach and is often undertaken by individual practitioners who are poorly prepared for their roles. A short history of practice development is outlined to contextualize current development activities. The proposed framework is located in a critical social science philosophy and it is suggested that such a philosophy enables individual growth and development, empowerment of practitioners and the generation of cultural change that sustains continuous growth and innovation in practice. An example of the framework in use is described and recommendations proposed to enable organizations to embrace a systematic approach to practice development. PMID:10786544

  2. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Goins, John D.

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  3. Active vision and receptive field development in evolutionary robots.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Suzuki, Mototaka; Mattiussi, Dario

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the artificial evolution of adaptive neural controllers for an outdoor mobile robot equipped with a mobile camera. The robot can dynamically select the gazing direction by moving the body and/or the camera. The neural control system, which maps visual information to motor commands, is evolved online by means of a genetic algorithm, but the synaptic connections (receptive fields) from visual photoreceptors to internal neurons can also be modified by Hebbian plasticity while the robot moves in the environment. We show that robots evolved in physics-based simulations with Hebbian visual plasticity display more robust adaptive behavior when transferred to real outdoor environments as compared to robots evolved without visual plasticity. We also show that the formation of visual receptive fields is significantly and consistently affected by active vision as compared to the formation of receptive fields with grid sample images in the environment of the robot. Finally, we show that the interplay between active vision and receptive field formation amounts to the selection and exploitation of a small and constant subset of visual features available to the robot.

  4. Vision for Perception and Vision for Action: Normal and Unusual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that visual processing is divided into the dorsal ("how") and ventral ("what") streams. We examined the normal development of these streams and their breakdown under neurological deficit by comparing performance of normally developing children and Williams syndrome individuals on two tasks: a visually guided action ("how") task,…

  5. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  6. Development of embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhenxing; Dong, Yimin; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Currently, high-speed vision platforms are widely used in many applications, such as robotics and automation industry. However, a personal computer (PC) whose over-large size is not suitable and applicable in compact systems is an indispensable component for human-computer interaction in traditional high-speed vision platforms. Therefore, this paper develops an embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform, ER-HVP Vision which is able to work completely out of PC. In this new platform, an embedded CPU-based board is designed as substitution for PC and a DSP and FPGA board is developed for implementing image parallel algorithms in FPGA and image sequential algorithms in DSP. Hence, the capability of ER-HVP Vision with size of 320mm x 250mm x 87mm can be presented in more compact condition. Experimental results are also given to indicate that the real-time detection and counting of the moving target at a frame rate of 200 fps at 512 x 512 pixels under the operation of this newly developed vision platform are feasible.

  7. Recent developments in manufacturing oligosaccharides with prebiotic functions.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zoltán; Benjamins, Eric; Grau, Konrad; Ur Rehman, Amad; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The market for prebiotics is steadily growing. To satisfy this increasing worldwide demand, the introduction of effective bioprocessing methods and implementation strategies is required. In this chapter, we review recent developments in the manufacture of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). These well-established oligosaccharides (OS) provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties that make their use as food ingredients especially attractive. The biosyntheses of lactose-based GOS and sucrose-based FOS show similarities in terms of reaction mechanisms and product formation. Both GOS and FOS can be synthesized using whole cells or (partially) purified enzymes in immobilized or free forms. The biocatalysis results in a final product that consists of OS, unreacted disaccharides, and monosaccharides. This incomplete conversion poses a challenge to manufacturers because an enrichment of OS in this mixture adds value to the product. For removing digestible carbohydrates from OS, a variety of bioengineering techniques have been investigated, including downstream separation technologies, additional bioconversion steps applying enzymes, and selective fermentation strategies. This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art manufacturing strategies and recent advances in bioprocessing technologies that can lead to new possibilities for manufacturing and purifying sucrose-based FOS and lactose-based GOS.

  8. Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowsk, J. H.; Fogarty, P. J.; Heitzenroeder, P. J.; Meighan, T.; Nelson, B.; Raftopoulos, S.; Williamson, D.

    2005-09-27

    The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R&D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including "Keystoning" concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented.

  9. Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular

  10. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  11. Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

  12. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

  13. Vision-based obstacle recognition system for automated lawn mower robot development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Zin, Zalhan; Ibrahim, Ratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Digital image processing techniques (DIP) have been widely used in various types of application recently. Classification and recognition of a specific object using vision system require some challenging tasks in the field of image processing and artificial intelligence. The ability and efficiency of vision system to capture and process the images is very important for any intelligent system such as autonomous robot. This paper gives attention to the development of a vision system that could contribute to the development of an automated vision based lawn mower robot. The works involve on the implementation of DIP techniques to detect and recognize three different types of obstacles that usually exist on a football field. The focus was given on the study on different types and sizes of obstacles, the development of vision based obstacle recognition system and the evaluation of the system's performance. Image processing techniques such as image filtering, segmentation, enhancement and edge detection have been applied in the system. The results have shown that the developed system is able to detect and recognize various types of obstacles on a football field with recognition rate of more 80%.

  14. Materials Development and Evaluation of Selective Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Peter F.; Mitchell, Russell R.

    1997-01-15

    This report summarizes the FY96 accomplishments for CRADA No. LA95C10254, "Materials Development and Evaluation of Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications". To research the potential for processing additional materials using DTM Corporations Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping technology and evaluate the capability for rapid manufacturing applications, the following materials were processed experimentally using the Sinterstation 2000 platform; Linear Low Density Polyethylene thermoplastic; Polypropylene thermoplastic; Polysulfone thermoplastic; Polymethylpentene (TPX) thermoplastic; Carbon microsphere filled nylon 11; "APO-BMI" Apocure bismaleimide thermoset polyimide glass m.icrosphere filled and carbon microsphere filled formulations; and 900-24 physical properties mock for plastic bonded TATB high explosive These materials have been successfully processed to a "proof of concept" level or better (with the exception of No. 7). While none of these materials have been introduced as a standard product as of this date, the potential to do so is viable. Present status of materials processing efforts is presented in Section A 2.0. Some recent efforts in manufacturing applications is discussed in Section A 4.0.

  15. Technical Challenges in the Development of a NASA Synthetic Vision System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrah, Steve; Arthur, J. J., III

    2002-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Synthetic Vision Systems Project is developing display system concepts to improve pilot terrain/situation awareness by providing a perspective synthetic view of the outside world through an on-board database driven by precise aircraft positioning information updating via Global Positioning System-based data. This work is aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents, as well as replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Synthetic vision research and development activities at NASA Langley Research Center are focused around a series of ground simulation and flight test experiments designed to evaluate, investigate, and assess the technology which can lead to operational and certified synthetic vision systems. The technical challenges that have been encountered and that are anticipated in this research and development activity are summarized.

  16. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  17. A Practical Solution Using A New Approach To Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Up to now, robot vision systems have been designed to serve both application development and operational needs in inspection, assembly and material handling. This universal approach to robot vision is too costly for many practical applications. A new industrial vision system separates the function of application program development from on-line operation. A Vision Development System (VDS) is equipped with facilities designed to simplify and accelerate the application program development process. A complimentary but lower cost Target Application System (TASK) runs the application program developed with the VDS. This concept is presented in the context of an actual robot vision application that improves inspection and assembly for a manufacturer of electronic terminal keyboards. Applications developed with a VDS experience lower development cost when compared with conventional vision systems. Since the TASK processor is not burdened with development tools, it can be installed at a lower cost than comparable "universal" vision systems that are intended to be used for both development and on-line operation. The VDS/TASK approach opens more industrial applications to robot vision that previously were not practical because of the high cost of vision systems. Although robot vision is a new technology, it has been applied successfully to a variety of industrial needs in inspection, manufacturing, and material handling. New developments in robot vision technology are creating practical, cost effective solutions for a variety of industrial needs. A year or two ago, researchers and robot manufacturers interested in implementing a robot vision application could take one of two approaches. The first approach was to purchase all the necessary vision components from various sources. That meant buying an image processor from one company, a camera from another and lens and light sources from yet others. The user then had to assemble the pieces, and in most instances he had to write

  18. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  19. Development and modeling of a stereo vision focusing system for a field programmable gate array robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Buckle, James; Grindley, Josef E.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Stereo vision is a situation where an imaging system has two or more cameras in order to make it more robust by mimicking the human vision system. By using two inputs, knowledge of their own relative geometry can be exploited to derive depth information from the two views they receive. 3D co-ordinates of an object in an observed scene can be computed from the intersection of the two sets of rays. Presented here is the development of a stereo vision system to focus on an object at the centre of a baseline between two cameras at varying distances. This has been developed primarily for use on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) but an adaptation of this developed methodology is also presented for use with a PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator with a single camera attachment. The two main vision systems considered here are a fixed baseline with an object moving at varying distances from this baseline, and a system with a fixed distance and a varying baseline. These two differing situations provide enough data so that the co-efficient variables that determine the system operation can be calibrated automatically with only the baseline value needing to be entered, the system performs all the required calculations for the user for use with a baseline of any distance. The limits of system with regards to the focusing accuracy obtained are also presented along with how the PUMA 560 controls its joints for the stereo vision and how it moves from one position to another to attend stereo vision compared to the two camera system for the FPGA. The benefits of such a system for range finding in mobile robotics are discussed and how this approach is more advantageous when compared against laser range finders or echolocation using ultrasonics.

  20. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  1. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  2. Visual skills of athletes versus nonathletes: development of a sports vision testing battery.

    PubMed

    Christenson, G N; Winkelstein, A M

    1988-09-01

    The field of sports vision has a fundamental premise that athletes require superior visual abilities to succeed in their sporting activity. This study takes a scientific look at what appear to be sports-related visual abilities using a clinical battery of vision tests to compare the visual performances of athletes to nonathletes. Significantly better visual performances were found to exist in the athletic population for certain visual skills: vergence facility, saccades, visual reaction time, peripheral awareness and near point of convergence. The tests for accommodative facility, visual proaction time, span of recognition distance phoria and distance stereopsis did not yield a statistically significant difference between the groups. These results provide a foundation for the development of a research-based sports vision testing battery.

  3. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  4. Interaction between Language and Vision: It's Momentary, Abstract, and It Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study that explores the nature and development of the mechanisms by which language interacts with and influences our ability to represent and retain information from one of our most important non-linguistic systems--vision. In previous work (Dessalegn & Landau, 2008), we showed that 4 year-olds remembered…

  5. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  6. Lifelong Learning and the Pursuit of a Vision for Sustainable Development in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses Botswana's commitment to lifelong learning policy and discusses how it can help the state achieve its vision for sustainable development. First, it argues that while Botswana is renowned for its economic success, it still fails to address positively such traditional challenges as poverty, unemployment and income inequality,…

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2001-10-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

  8. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2002-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  9. Airbreathing Hypersonic Technology Vision Vehicles and Development Dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClinton, C. R.; Hunt, J. L.; Ricketts, R. H.; Reukauf, P.; Peddie, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advancements in hypersonic airbreathing vehicle technology have been made in the country's research centers and industry over the past 40 years. Some of that technology is being validated with the X-43 flight tests. This paper presents an overview of hypersonic airbreathing technology status within the US, and a hypersonic technology development plan. This plan builds on the nation's large investment in hypersonics. This affordable, incremental plan focuses technology development on hypersonic systems, which could be operating by the 2020's.

  10. 1994 Site Development Plan: A plan with vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Development Plan has been developed during a period of great change and uncertainty. Our goal is to make possible the best use of the Laboratory`s resources to meet shifting national priorities in the post-Cold War world. Site Planning is an important component of the overall Laboratory strategic planning process. This plan focuses on opportunities for the Laboratory as well as on key site development issues including facility construction, redevelopment and reuse, site accessibility, and security. A major challenge is to achieve sufficient stability in the site planning and execution so that the processes of construction can occur efficiently while at the same time providing sufficient flexibility in site facilities so that a range of changing national needs can be accommodated. We are closely coupled to the DOE strategic planning process to meet this challenge.

  11. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  12. Developing a Vision of Pre-College Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Berland, Leema K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study focused on identifying and articulating an ''epistemic foundation'' underlying a pre-collegiate focus on engineering. We do so in the context of UTeach"Engineering" (UTE), a program supported in part by funding by the National Science Foundation and designed to develop a model approach to address the…

  13. Community Development: A Way to Recapture the Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruikshank, Jane

    1994-01-01

    The Antigonish Movement, Farm Radio Forum, and Centre for Community Studies were three Canadian community development programs that supported adult education's social change mission. Current extension practice focuses on cost recovery and marketing courses to those who can pay; these historical examples show a way to renew the mission and vision…

  14. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  15. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  16. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  17. A production peripheral vision display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinmiller, B.

    1984-01-01

    A small number of peripheral vision display systems in three significantly different configurations were evaluated in various aircraft and simulator situations. The use of these development systems enabled the gathering of much subjective and quantitative data regarding this concept of flight deck instrumentation. However, much was also learned about the limitations of this equipment which needs to be addressed prior to wide spread use. A program at Garrett Manufacturing Limited in which the peripheral vision display system is redesigned and transformed into a viable production avionics system is discussed. Modular design, interchangeable units, optical attenuators, and system fault detection are considered with respect to peripheral vision display systems.

  18. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions. PMID:22255649

  19. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions.

  20. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  1. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective

  2. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  3. Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1999-02-23

    This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

  4. Developing a Professional Vision of Classroom Practices of a Mathematics Teacher: Views from a Researcher and a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kai Fai; Tan, Preston

    2013-01-01

    The term "professional vision" points to the many nuanced ways professionals see. This paper traces the development of a professional vision of a researcher and a teacher looking at classroom practices. The researcher's interest was to capture and study notable aspects of the teacher's practice. Through a coding scheme,…

  5. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  6. Short periods of concordant binocular vision prevent the development of deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Donald E; Kind, Peter C; Sengpiel, Frank; Murphy, Kathryn

    2006-05-01

    Based in part on deprivation studies, it is generally agreed that the development of vision and of the central visual pathways of higher mammals such as cats and primates is experience-dependent. Past deprivation experiments employed periods of exclusively abnormal early visual input. Because of the absence of any normal visual input, such studies indicate only the extremes to which the visual system can change in response to visually driven activity (i.e. its capabilities) rather than provide insight into the role of early visual input in normal development (i.e. what it actually does). We examined the possibility that certain visual input, i.e. normal concordant binocular vision, may be more efficacious than others with respect to its effects on the developing visual system and on vision. On a daily basis, one type of visual input, i.e. normal binocular experience (BE), was pitted against abnormal (monocular exposure, ME) input in order to see if one was more effective. We show that 2 h of daily normal concordant, but not discordant, BE outweighs or protects against as much as 5 h of daily abnormal input to permit the development of normal grating acuity and alignment accuracy in the two eyes. Further, we show that splitting the period of BE into two 1-h periods straddling the period of ME was ineffective, thereby indicating the 2 h of BE each day must be continuous to protect against the development of amblyopia. PMID:16706852

  7. Development of a Wireless Computer Vision Instrument to Detect Biotic Stress in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Joaquin J.; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A.; Evett, Steven R.; Rush, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications. PMID:25251410

  8. Development of a wireless computer vision instrument to detect biotic stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Joaquin J; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Evett, Steven R; Rush, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications. PMID:25251410

  9. Development of a wireless computer vision instrument to detect biotic stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Joaquin J; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Evett, Steven R; Rush, Charles M

    2014-09-23

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications.

  10. Component Manufacturing Development for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    SciTech Connect

    P.J. Heitzenroeder; T.G. Brown; J.H. Chrzanowski; M.J. Cole; P.L. Goranson; G.H. Neilson; B.E. Nelson; W.T. Reiersen; L.L Sutton; D.E. Williamson; M.E. Viola

    2004-10-28

    NCSX [National Compact Stellarator Experiment] is the first of a new class of stellarators called compact stellarators which hold the promise of retaining the steady state feature of the stellarator but at a much lower aspect ratio and using a quasi-axisymmetric magnetic field to obtain tokamak-like performance. Although much of NCSX is conventional in design and construction, the vacuum vessel and modular coils provide significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, need for high dimensional accuracy, and the high current density required in the modular coils due space constraints. Consequently, a three-phase development program has been undertaken. In the first phase, laboratory/industrial studies were performed during the development of the conceptual design to permit advances in manufacturing technology to be incorporated into NCSX's plans. In the second phase, full-scale prototype modular coil winding forms, compacted cable conductors, and 20 degree sectors of the vacuum vessel were fabricated in industry. In parallel, the NCSX project team undertook R&D studies that focused on the windings. The third (production) phase began in September 2004. First plasma is scheduled for January 2008.

  11. How development and manufacturing will need to be structured--heads of development/manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  12. How development and manufacturing will need to be structured--heads of development/manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  13. Composite Design and Manufacturing Development for Human Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Douglas; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    The Structural Engineering Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has begun work on lightweight, multi-functional pressurized composite structures. The first candidate vehicle for technology development is the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) cabin, known as the Gen 2B cabin, which has been built at JSC by the Robotics Division. Of the habitable MMSEV vehicle prototypes designed to date, this is the first one specifically analyzed and tested to hold internal pressure and the only one made out of composite materials. This design uses a laminate base with zoned reinforcement and external stringers, intended to demonstrate certain capabilities, and to prepare for the next cabin design, which will be a composite sandwich panel construction with multi-functional capabilities. As part of this advanced development process, a number of new technologies were used to assist in the design and manufacturing process. One of the methods, new to JSC, was to build the Gen 2B cabin with Out of Autoclave technology to permit the creation of larger parts with fewer joints. An 8-ply pre-preg layup was constructed to form the cabin body. Prior to lay-up, a design optimization software called FiberSIM was used to create each ply pattern. This software is integrated with Pro/Engineer to allow for customized draping of each fabric ply over the complex tool surface. Slits and darts are made in the software model to create an optimal design that maintains proper fiber placement and orientation. The flat pattern of each ply is then exported and sent to an automated cutting table where the patterns are cut out of graphite material. Additionally, to assist in lay-up, a laser projection system (LPT) is used to project outlines of each ply directly onto the tool face for accurate fiber placement and ply build-up. Finally, as part of the OoA process, a large oven was procured to post-cure each part. After manufacturing complete, the cabin underwent modal and pressure

  14. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  15. Recent developments in manufacturing emulsions and particulate products using membranes.

    PubMed

    Vladisavljević, Goran T; Williams, Richard A

    2005-03-17

    Membrane emulsification (ME) is a relatively new technique for the highly controlled production of particulates. This review focuses on the recent developments in this area, ranging from the production of simple oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions to multiple emulsions of different types, solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) dispersions, coherent solids (silica particles, solid lipid microspheres, solder metal powder) and structured solids (solid lipid microcarriers, gel microbeads, polymeric microspheres, core-shell microcapsules and hollow polymeric microparticles). Other emerging technologies that extend the capabilities into different membrane materials and operation methods (such as rotating membranes, repeated membrane extrusion of coarsely pre-emulsified feeds) are introduced. The results of experimental work carried out by cited researchers in the field together with those of the current authors are presented in a tabular form in a rigorous and systematic manner. These demonstrate a wide range of products that can be manufactured using different membrane approaches. Opportunities for creation of new and novel entities are highlighted for low throughput applications (medical diagnostics, healthcare) and for large-scale productions (consumer and personal products).

  16. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  17. VISIONS for Greater Employment Opportunities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical Coll., Orangeburg, SC.

    The VISIONS project, a workplace literacy program held in two manufacturing plants and a regional medical center, was conducted during an 18-month period from July 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994. During the project, staff were hired and trained, task analyses and orientation sessions were held, and tests and curricula were developed. Employees were…

  18. Development of a machine vision guidance system for automated assembly of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Eric G.; Sydow, P. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structural assembly robot vision; machine vision requirements; vision targets and hardware; reflective efficiency; target identification; pose estimation algorithms; triangle constraints; truss node with joint receptacle targets; end-effector mounted camera and light assembly; vision system results from optical bench tests; and future work.

  19. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  20. Role of vision on early motor development: lessons from the blind.

    PubMed

    Prechtl, H F; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Bos, A F; Ferrari, F

    2001-03-01

    For a better understanding of the contribution vision makes to the development of other sensory systems and to movement and posture, we studied effects of early blindness by examining video recordings of 14 totally blind infants. Infants were born at term or preterm and showed no evidence of brain damage. During preterm and term periods no noticeable changes in motor activity were observed. Around 2 months postterm all infants showed clear delay in head control and abnormal, exaggerated type of 'fidgety movements'. Later, postural control was characterized by a prolonged period of ataxic features. Results indicate a lack of normal calibration exerted by vision on proprioceptive and vestibular systems. Early visuomotor coordination such as coordinated eye-head scanning and head orientating were present but disappeared after several weeks.

  1. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    Background: When evaluating vision, it is important to assess not just the ability to read letters on a vision chart, but also how well one sees in real life scenarios. As part of the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program (WRESP), visual outcomes are assessed before and after refractive surgery. A Warfighter's ability to read signs and detect and identify objects is crucial, not only when deployed in a military setting, but also in their civilian lives. Objective: VIPER, a VIsion PERformance simulator was envisioned as actual video-based simulated driving to test warfighters' functional vision under realistic conditions. Designed to use interactive video image controlled environments at daytime, dusk, night, and with thermal imaging vision, it simulates the experience of viewing and identifying road signs and other objects while driving. We hypothesize that VIPER will facilitate efficient and quantifiable assessment of changes in vision and measurement of functional military performance. Study Design: Video images were recorded on an isolated 1.1 mile stretch of road with separate target sets of six simulated road signs and six objects of military interest, separately. The video footage were integrated with customdesigned C++ based software that presented the simulated drive to an observer on a computer monitor at 10, 20 or 30 miles/hour. VIPER permits the observer to indicate when a target is seen and when it is identified. Distances at which the observer recognizes and identifies targets are automatically logged. Errors in recognition and identification are also recorded. This first report describes VIPER's development and a preliminary study to establish a baseline for its performance. In the study, nine soldiers viewed simulations at 10 miles/hour and 30 miles/hour, run in randomized order for each participant seated at 36 inches from the monitor. Relevance: Ultimately, patients are interested in how their vision will affect their ability to perform daily

  2. Rendering for machine vision prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Jacek

    2008-09-01

    Machine Vision systems for manufacturing quality inspection are interdisciplinary solutions including lighting, optics, cameras, image processing, segmentation, feature analysis, classification as well as integration with manufacturing process. The design and optimization of the above systems, especially image acquisition setup is mainly driven by experiment. This requires deep know-how and well equipped laboratory, which does not guarantee the optimal development process and results. This paper proposes novel usage of rendering, originating from 3D computer graphics, for machine vision prototyping and optimization. The invented technique and physically-based rendering aids selection or optimization of luminaires, tolerancing of mechanical construction and object handling, robustness predetermination or surface flaw simulation. The rendering setup utilizes mesh modeling, bump and normal mapping and light distribution sharpening with IES data files. The performed light simulation experiments for metal surfaces (face surface of bearing rollers) are validated.

  3. Intelligent processing equipment developments within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-04-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  4. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  5. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  6. Developing the Manufacturing Process for VCE: Binder for Filled Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Eastwood

    2009-11-01

    This topical report presents work completed to re-establish the manufacturing process for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) terpolymer called VCE. The new VCE formulations meet the material requirements and have lower melt viscosity, which results in improved production for the next assembly. In addition, the reaction conditions were optimized in order to achieve a satisfactory conversion rate to enable production in a single work shift. Several equipment and process changes were made to yield a manufacturing process with improved product quality, yield, efficiency, and worker safety.

  7. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  8. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Development and evaluation of 2D and 3D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  10. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  11. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  12. The development of a scanning strategy for the manufacture of porous biomaterials by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Stamp, R; Fox, P; O'Neill, W; Jones, E; Sutcliffe, C

    2009-09-01

    Porous structures are used in orthopaedics to promote biological fixation between metal implant and host bone. In order to achieve rapid and high volumes of bone ingrowth the structures must be manufactured from a biocompatible material and possess high interconnected porosities, pore sizes between 100 and 700 microm and mechanical strengths that withstand the anticipated biomechanical loads. The challenge is to develop a manufacturing process that can cost effectively produce structures that meet these requirements. The research presented in this paper describes the development of a 'beam overlap' technique for manufacturing porous structures in commercially pure titanium using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) rapid manufacturing technique. A candidate bone ingrowth structure (71% porosity, 440 microm mean pore diameter and 70 MPa compression strength) was produced and used to manufacture a final shape orthopaedic component. These results suggest that SLM beam overlap is a promising technique for manufacturing final shape functional bone ingrowth materials. PMID:19536640

  13. The development of a scanning strategy for the manufacture of porous biomaterials by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Stamp, R; Fox, P; O'Neill, W; Jones, E; Sutcliffe, C

    2009-09-01

    Porous structures are used in orthopaedics to promote biological fixation between metal implant and host bone. In order to achieve rapid and high volumes of bone ingrowth the structures must be manufactured from a biocompatible material and possess high interconnected porosities, pore sizes between 100 and 700 microm and mechanical strengths that withstand the anticipated biomechanical loads. The challenge is to develop a manufacturing process that can cost effectively produce structures that meet these requirements. The research presented in this paper describes the development of a 'beam overlap' technique for manufacturing porous structures in commercially pure titanium using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) rapid manufacturing technique. A candidate bone ingrowth structure (71% porosity, 440 microm mean pore diameter and 70 MPa compression strength) was produced and used to manufacture a final shape orthopaedic component. These results suggest that SLM beam overlap is a promising technique for manufacturing final shape functional bone ingrowth materials.

  14. Two-Phase Flow Technology Developed and Demonstrated for the Vision for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.; McQuillen, John B.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s vision for exploration will once again expand the bounds of human presence in the universe with planned missions to the Moon and Mars. To attain the numerous goals of this vision, NASA will need to develop technologies in several areas, including advanced power-generation and thermal-control systems for spacecraft and life support. The development of these systems will have to be demonstrated prior to implementation to ensure safe and reliable operation in reduced-gravity environments. The Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(PHI) FFy) Project will provide the path to these enabling technologies for critical multiphase fluid products. The safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing focused microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability, all of which are essential to exploration technology. The project--a multiyear effort initiated in 2004--will include concept development, normal-gravity testing (laboratories), reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns (NASA s KC-135 and C-9 aircraft), space-flight experimentation (International Space Station), and model development. This project will be implemented by a team from the NASA Glenn Research Center, QSS Group, Inc., ZIN Technologies, Inc., and the Extramural Strategic Research Team composed of experts from academia.

  15. Development of the Triple Theta assembly station with machine vision feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Derek William

    2008-01-01

    Increased requirements for tighter tolerances on assembled target components in complex three-dimensional geometries with only days to assemble complete campaigns require the implementation of a computer-controlled high-precision assembly station. Over the last year, an 11-axis computer-controlled assembly station has been designed and built with custom software to handle the multiple coordinate systems and automatically calculate all relational positions. Preliminary development efforts have also been done to explore the benefit of a machine vision feedback module with a dual-camera viewing system to automate certain basic features like crosshair calibration, component leveling, and component centering.

  16. Integrating computation into the undergraduate curriculum: A vision and guidelines for future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonacky, Norman; Winch, David

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence of a need to make computation an integral part of the undergraduate physics curriculum. This need is consistent with data from surveys in both the academy and the workplace, and has been reinforced by two years of exploratory efforts by a group of physics faculty for whom computation is a special interest. We have examined past and current efforts at reform and a variety of strategic, organizational, and institutional issues involved in any attempt to broadly transform existing practice. We propose a set of guidelines for development based on this past work and discuss our vision of computationally integrated physics.

  17. The Development of Model for Measuring Railway Wheels Manufacturing Readiness Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inrawan Wiratmadja, Iwan; Mufid, Anas

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to grow the railway wheel industry in Indonesia and reduce the dependence on imports, Metal Industries Development Center (MIDC) makes the implementation of the railway wheel manufacturing technology in Indonesia. MIDC is an institution based on research and development having a task to research the production of railway wheels prototype and acts as a supervisor to the industry in Indonesia, for implementing the railway wheel manufacturing technology. The process of implementing manufacturing technology requires a lot of resources. Therefore it is necessary to measure the manufacturing readiness process. Measurement of railway wheels manufacturing readiness was in this study done using the manufacturing readiness level (MRL) model from the United States Department of Defense. MRL consists of 10 manufacturing readiness levels described by 90 criteria and 184 sub-criteria. To get a manufacturing readiness measurement instrument that is good and accurate, the development process involved experts through expert judgment method and validated with a content validity ratio (CVR). Measurement instrument developed in this study consist of 448 indicators. The measurement results show that MIDC's railway wheels manufacturing readiness is at the level 4. This shows that there is a gap between the current level of manufacturing readiness owned by MIDC and manufacturing readiness levels required to achieve the program objectives, which is level 5. To achieve the program objectives at level 5, a number of actions were required to be done by MIDC. Indicators that must be improved to be able to achieve level 5 are indicators related to the cost and financing, process capability and control, quality management, workers, and manufacturing management criteria.

  18. Role of vaccine manufacturers in developing countries towards global healthcare by providing quality vaccines at affordable prices.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S; Gautam, M; Gairola, S

    2014-05-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of science and medicine in the fight against infectious diseases. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health tools to prevent infectious diseases. Significant progress has been made in expanding the coverage of vaccines globally, resulting in the prevention of more than two million deaths annually. In 2010, nearly 200 countries endorsed a shared vision to extend the benefits of vaccines to every person by 2020, known as the Decade of Vaccine Initiative (DoV). Vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, as represented by the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN), make a significant contribution to DoV by supplying quality vaccines at affordable prices to the people who need them most. About 70% of the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supplies are met by DCVMN. Besides EPI vaccine supplies, DCVMN is also targeting vaccines against rotavirus, Japanese encephalitis, pneumonia, human papillomavirus, meningitis and neglected tropical diseases. This article reviews the roles and contributions of DCVMN in making the vaccines accessible and affordable to all. PMID:24476201

  19. Role of vaccine manufacturers in developing countries towards global healthcare by providing quality vaccines at affordable prices.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S; Gautam, M; Gairola, S

    2014-05-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of science and medicine in the fight against infectious diseases. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health tools to prevent infectious diseases. Significant progress has been made in expanding the coverage of vaccines globally, resulting in the prevention of more than two million deaths annually. In 2010, nearly 200 countries endorsed a shared vision to extend the benefits of vaccines to every person by 2020, known as the Decade of Vaccine Initiative (DoV). Vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, as represented by the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN), make a significant contribution to DoV by supplying quality vaccines at affordable prices to the people who need them most. About 70% of the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supplies are met by DCVMN. Besides EPI vaccine supplies, DCVMN is also targeting vaccines against rotavirus, Japanese encephalitis, pneumonia, human papillomavirus, meningitis and neglected tropical diseases. This article reviews the roles and contributions of DCVMN in making the vaccines accessible and affordable to all.

  20. 76 FR 38187 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... principles and concepts described in ICH guidances ``Q8 Pharmaceutical Development,'' ``Q9 Quality Risk Management,'' and ``Q10 Pharmaceutical Quality Systems'' as they pertain to the development and manufacture...ComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/default.htm , or...

  1. An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ≤ 0.05) and for overall fit (P ≤ 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ≤ 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ≤ 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ≤ 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential.

  2. Implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for artificial vision in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kamei, Motohiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yasuo; Fujikado, Takashi; Ozawa, Motoki; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical procedures involved in the implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for inducing artificial vision. The electrode device comprised seven wire stimulation electrodes and a return electrode (diameter 50 μm), one manipulation rod (diameter 100 μm), and a cylindrical silicone board (diameter 2.0 mm). The stimulation electrodes and the manipulation rod protruded through the board to allow implantation of the electrode tips into the optic disc of the rabbit eye. The surgical procedures required to insert the device into the vitreous cavity and implant the device into the optic disc were evaluated. When the electrodes were stimulated, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were recorded at the visual cortex. The electrode device was inserted into the vitreous cavity with no damage using a trocar through a scleral incision. The device was easily manipulated using vitreoretinal forceps in the vitreous cavity, and the electrode tips were implanted into the optic disc in a single insertion after vitrectomy. When electrical stimulation was applied, EEPs were recorded from all electrode pairs. The newly developed electrode device was inserted into the eye and implanted into the optic nerve disc smoothly and safely, suggesting that these surgical procedures are useful for our artificial vision system.

  3. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  4. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2012-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products. PMID:23227566

  5. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  6. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  7. Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

  8. NASA's First Year Progress with Fuel Cell Advanced Development in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industry partners, is leading a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) advanced development effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort encompasses the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program, and is directed at multiple power levels for both primary and regenerative fuel cell systems. The major emphasis is the replacement of active mechanical ancillary components with passive components in order to reduce mass and parasitic power requirements, and to improve system reliability. A dual approach directed at both flow-through and non flow-through PEMFC system technologies is underway. A brief overview of the overall PEMFC project and its constituent tasks will be presented, along with in-depth technical accomplishments for the past year. Future potential technology development paths will also be discussed.

  9. Measured system component development for the night vision integrated performance model (NV-IPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Haefner, David P.

    2016-05-01

    The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) introduced a variety of measured system components in version 1.6 of the model. These measured system components enable the characterization of systems based on lab measurements which treat the system as a `black-box.' This encapsulation of individual component terms into higher level measurable quantities circumvents the need to develop costly, time-consuming measurement techniques for each individual input term. Each of the `black-box' system components were developed based upon the minimum required system level measurements for a particular type of imaging system. The measured system hierarchy also includes components for cases where a very limited number of measurements are possible. We discuss the development of the measured system components, the transition of lab measurements into model inputs, and any assumptions inherent to this process.

  10. Stereo-vision-based perception capabilities developed during the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Bajracharya, Max; Huertas, Andres; Howard, Andrew; Moghaddam, Baback; Brennan, Shane; Ansar, Adnan; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Matthies, Larry

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances (RCTA) program, which ran from 2001 to 2009, was funded by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and managed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems. The alliance brought together a team of government, industrial, and academic institutions to address research and development required to enable the deployment of future military unmanned ground vehicle systems ranging in size from man-portables to ground combat vehicles. Under RCTA, three technology areas critical to the development of future autonomous unmanned systems were addressed: advanced perception, intelligent control architectures and tactical behaviors, and human-robot interaction. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) participated as a member for the entire program, working four tasks in the advanced perception technology area: stereo improvements, terrain classification, pedestrian detection in dynamic environments, and long range terrain classification. Under the stereo task, significant improvements were made to the quality of stereo range data used as a front end to the other three tasks. Under the terrain classification task, a multi-cue water detector was developed that fuses cues from color, texture, and stereo range data, and three standalone water detectors were developed based on sky reflections, object reflections (such as trees), and color variation. In addition, a multi-sensor mud detector was developed that fuses cues from color stereo and polarization sensors. Under the long range terrain classification task, a classifier was implemented that uses unsupervised and self-supervised learning of traversability to extend the classification of terrain over which the vehicle drives to the far-field. Under the pedestrian detection task, stereo vision was used to identify regions-of-interest in an image, classify those regions based on shape, and track detected pedestrians in three-dimensional world coordinates. To improve the detectability of partially occluded

  11. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  12. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  13. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  14. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  15. 77 FR 39265 - Request for Manufacturer Involvement in National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Request for Manufacturer Involvement in National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard Development Efforts AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ....

  16. Computer vision and driver distraction: developing a behaviour-flagging protocol for naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M

    2014-11-01

    Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify the occurrence of driving behaviours, including those that are indicative of distraction, is becoming increasingly impractical. Current statistical solutions underutilise available data and create further epistemic problems. Similarly, technical solutions such as eye-tracking often require dedicated hardware that is not readily accessible or feasible to use. A computer vision solution based on open-source software was developed and tested to improve the accuracy and speed of processing NDS video data for the purpose of quantifying the occurrence of driver distraction. Using classifier cascades, manually-reviewed video data from a previously published NDS was reanalysed and used as a benchmark of current best practice for performance comparison. Two software coding systems were developed - one based on hierarchical clustering (HC), and one based on gender differences (MF). Compared to manual video coding, HC achieved 86 percent concordance, 55 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 69 percent of target behaviour not previously identified through manual review. MF achieved 67 percent concordance, a 75 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 35 percent of target behaviour not identified through manual review. The findings highlight the improvements in processing speed and correctly classifying target behaviours achievable through the use of custom developed computer vision solutions. Suggestions for improved system performance and wider implementation are discussed. PMID:25063935

  17. Developing a data life cycle for carbon and greenhouse gas measurements: challenges, experiences and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental research infrastructures and big data integration networks require common data policies, standardized workflows and sophisticated e-infrastructure to optimise the data life cycle. This presentation summarizes the experiences in developing the data life cycle for the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a European Research Infrastructure. It will also outline challenges that still exist and visions for future development. As many other environmental research infrastructures ICOS RI built on a large number of distributed observational or experimental sites. Data from these sites are transferred to Thematic Centres and quality checked, processed and integrated there. Dissemination will be managed by the ICOS Carbon Portal. This complex data life cycle has been defined in detail by developing protocols and assigning responsibilities. Since data will be shared under an open access policy there is a strong need for common data citation tracking systems that allow data providers to identify downstream usage of their data so as to prove their importance and show the impact to stakeholders and the public. More challenges arise from interoperating with other infrastructures or providing data for global integration projects as done e.g. in the framework of GEOSS or in global integration approaches such as fluxnet or SOCAt. Here, common metadata systems are the key solutions for data detection and harvesting. The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). Risks may arise when data of high and low quality are mixed during this process or unexperienced data scientists without detailed knowledge on the data aquisition derive scientific theories through statistical analyses. The vision of fully open data availability is expressed in a recent GEO flagship initiative that will address important issues needed to build a connected and interoperable global network for carbon cycle and greenhouse gas

  18. Economic Development Impacts in Colorado from Four Vestas Manufacturing Facilities, Wind Powering America Fact Sheet Series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits to Colorado from four Vestas manufacturing facilities: one in Windsor, two in Brighton, and one in Pueblo (which is planned to be the world's largest tower-manufacturing facility). In the midst of an economic slowdown during which numerous U.S. manufacturers have closed their doors, wind energy component manufacturing is one U.S. industry that has experienced unprecedented growth during the past few years. As demand for wind power in the United States has increased and transportation costs have increased around the world, states have seen a significant increase in the number of manufacturers that produce wind turbine components in the United States. Vestas' Colorado operations will bring approximately $700 million in capital investment and nearly 2,500 jobs to the state.

  19. Development and validation of equations utilizing lamb vision system output to predict lamb carcass fabrication yields.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; LeValley, S B; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to validate previous equations and to develop and evaluate new regression equations for predicting lamb carcass fabrication yields using outputs from a lamb vision system-hot carcass component (LVS-HCC) and the lamb vision system-chilled carcass LM imaging component (LVS-CCC). Lamb carcasses (n = 149) were selected after slaughter, imaged hot using the LVS-HCC, and chilled for 24 to 48 h at -3 to 1 degrees C. Chilled carcasses yield grades (YG) were assigned on-line by USDA graders and by expert USDA grading supervisors with unlimited time and access to the carcasses. Before fabrication, carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th ribs and imaged using the LVS-CCC. Carcasses were fabricated into bone-in subprimal/primal cuts. Yields calculated included 1) saleable meat yield (SMY); 2) subprimal yield (SPY); and 3) fat yield (FY). On-line (whole-number) USDA YG accounted for 59, 58, and 64%; expert (whole-number) USDA YG explained 59, 59, and 65%; and expert (nearest-tenth) USDA YG accounted for 60, 60, and 67% of the observed variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. The best prediction equation developed in this trial using LVS-HCC output and hot carcass weight as independent variables explained 68, 62, and 74% of the variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. Addition of output from LVS-CCC improved predictive accuracy of the equations; the combined output equations explained 72 and 66% of the variability in SMY and SPY, respectively. Accuracy and repeatability of measurement of LM area made with the LVS-CCC also was assessed, and results suggested that use of LVS-CCC provided reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.59) and highly repeatable (repeatability = 0.98) measurements of LM area. Compared with USDA YG, use of the dual-component lamb vision system to predict cut yields of lamb carcasses improved accuracy and precision, suggesting that this system could have an application as an objective means for pricing carcasses in a value

  20. Development of a machine vision system for a real-time precision sprayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Jérémie; Gée, Christelle; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In the context of precision agriculture, we have developed a machine vision system for a real time precision sprayer. From a monochrome CCD camera located in front of the tractor, the discrimination between crop and weeds is obtained with an image processing based on spatial information using a Gabor filter. This method allows to detect the periodic signals from the non periodic one and it enables to enhance the crop rows whereas weeds have patchy distribution. Thus, weed patches were clearly identified by a blob-coloring method. Finally, we use a pinhole model to transform the weed patch coordinates image in world coordinates in order to activate the right electro-pneumatic valve of the sprayer at the right moment.

  1. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  2. Development of a Machine-Vision System for Recording of Force Calibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heamawatanachai, Sumet; Chaemthet, Kittipong; Changpan, Tawat

    This paper presents the development of a new system for recording of force calibration data using machine vision technology. Real time camera and computer system were used to capture images of the reading from the instruments during calibration. Then, the measurement images were transformed and translated to numerical data using optical character recognition (OCR) technique. These numerical data along with raw images were automatically saved to memories as the calibration database files. With this new system, the human error of recording would be eliminated. The verification experiments were done by using this system for recording the measurement results from an amplifier (DMP 40) with load cell (HBM-Z30-10kN). The NIMT's 100-kN deadweight force standard machine (DWM-100kN) was used to generate test forces. The experiments setup were done in 3 categories; 1) dynamics condition (record during load changing), 2) statics condition (record during fix load), and 3) full calibration experiments in accordance with ISO 376:2011. The captured images from dynamics condition experiment gave >94% without overlapping of number. The results from statics condition experiment were >98% images without overlapping. All measurement images without overlapping were translated to number by the developed program with 100% accuracy. The full calibration experiments also gave 100% accurate results. Moreover, in case of incorrect translation of any result, it is also possible to trace back to the raw calibration image to check and correct it. Therefore, this machine-vision-based system and program should be appropriate for recording of force calibration data.

  3. "Vision for Action" in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy Munkenbeck; Kuroshima, Hika; Stone, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children's performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children's ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children's performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates.

  4. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  5. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  6. Developing a Transformative School Vision: Lessons from Peer-Nominated Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars argue or imply that schools should build transformative school visions that promote equity, diversity, and social justice. However, little empirical research has investigated the principal's role in this endeavor or analyzed the practical dimensions of transformative vision statements. This study re-examined relevant data from two…

  7. Assessing Early Language Development in Children with Vision Disability and Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for identifying test items as disability neutral for children with vision and motor disabilities. Graduate students rated 130 items of the Preschool Language Scale and obtained inter-rater correlation coefficients of 0.58 for ratings of items as disability neutral for children with vision disability, and 0.77 for…

  8. Using parallel evolutionary development for a biologically-inspired computer vision system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Pack, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach to attacking the problem of robust computer vision for mobile robots. The overall strategy is to mimic the biological evolution of animal vision systems. Our basic imaging sensor is based upon the eye of the common house fly, Musca domestica. The computational algorithms are a mix of traditional image processing, subspace techniques, and multilayer neural networks.

  9. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-10-20

    DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

  11. Development of a vision-based pH reading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Kong, Young Bae; Lee, Eun Je; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yang, Seung Dae; Moon, Ha Jung; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2015-10-01

    pH paper is generally used for pH interpretation in the QC (quality control) process of radiopharmaceuticals. pH paper is easy to handle and useful for small samples such as radio-isotopes and radioisotope (RI)-labeled compounds for positron emission tomography (PET). However, pHpaper-based detecting methods may have some errors due limitations of eye sight and inaccurate readings. In this paper, we report a new device for pH reading and related software. The proposed pH reading system is developed with a vision algorithm based on the RGB library. The pH reading system is divided into two parts. First is the reading device that consists of a light source, a CCD camera and a data acquisition (DAQ) board. To improve the accuracy of the sensitivity, we utilize the three primary colors of the LED (light emission diode) in the reading device. The use of three colors is better than the use of a single color for a white LED because of wavelength. The other is a graph user interface (GUI) program for a vision interface and report generation. The GUI program inserts the color codes of the pH paper into the database; then, the CCD camera captures the pH paper and compares its color with the RGB database image in the reading mode. The software captures and reports information on the samples, such as pH results, capture images, and library images, and saves them as excel files.

  12. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism.

  13. Materials, Structures and Manufacturing: An Integrated Approach to Develop Expandable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Zander, Martin E.; Sleight, Daid W.; Connell, John; Holloway, Nancy; Palmieri, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Membrane dominated space structures are lightweight and package efficiently for launch; however, they must be expanded (deployed) in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry. These expandable structural systems include solar sails, solar power arrays, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices that are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. In this work, an integrated approach to development of thin-film damage tolerant membranes is explored using advanced manufacturing. Bio-inspired hierarchical structures were printed on films using additive manufacturing to achieve improved tear resistance and to facilitate membrane deployment. High precision, robust expandable structures can be realized using materials that are both space durable and processable using additive manufacturing. Test results show this initial work produced higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass. Future research and development opportunities for expandable structural systems designed using an integrated approach to structural design, manufacturing, and materials selection are discussed.

  14. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  15. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Moore, David R.; Fortnum, Heather; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Munro, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development) and adult height (an index of early childhood development). Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390) of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659). In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001). Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile), there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001). Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age. PMID:26302374

  16. Current situation of the development and manufacture of vary large scale integrated devices in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubiao, He

    1988-06-01

    The manufacture of Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices in foreign countries is a highly competitive high-tech industry. It requires high-precision manufacturing technology, and very expensive manufacturing equipment. Therefore, it is impossible to conduct research and form industrial production capability by merely relying on obsolete manufacturing equipment and semi-manual production techniques. According to the experience of our foreign counterparts and based on our current situation, it is highly desirable for domestic LSI and VLSI research institutes and manufacturers to establish unified development-manufacturing units, concentrate resources, amass available funds to upgrade equipment and technology, improve management, conduct theoretical research, and develop new technology and new devices under a unified planning and assigned responsibility. It is only in this way that we can reduce the gap between domestic and foreign VLSI device industries, and promote our micro-electronic industry. This should be the trend for the development of the microelectronic industry in China.

  17. A Review of Agile and Lean Manufacturing as Issues in Selected International and National Research and Development Programs and Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Helio; Putnik, Goran D.; Shah, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze international and national research and development (R&D) programs and roadmaps for the manufacturing sector, presenting how agile and lean manufacturing models are addressed in these programs. Design/methodology/approach: In this review, several manufacturing research and development programs and…

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  20. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

  1. Optoelectronic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunye; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1993-06-01

    Scientists have searched every discipline to find effective methods of treating blindness, such as using aids based on conversion of the optical image, to auditory or tactile stimuli. However, the limited performance of such equipment and difficulties in training patients have seriously hampered practical applications. A great edification has been given by the discovery of Foerster (1929) and Krause & Schum (1931), who found that the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex evokes the perception of a small spot of light called `phosphene' in both blind and sighted subjects. According to this principle, it is possible to invite artificial vision by using stimulation with electrodes placed on the vision neural system, thereby developing a prosthesis for the blind that might be of value in reading and mobility. In fact, a number of investigators have already exploited this phenomena to produce a functional visual prosthesis, bringing about great advances in this area.

  2. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  3. Development of Pulsed Processes for the Manufacture of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development status of the process based upon ion implantation for the introduction of junctions and back surface fields is described. A process sequence is presented employing ion implantation and pulse processing. Efforts to improve throughout and descrease process element costs for furnace annealing are described. Design studies for a modular 3,000 wafer per hour pulse processor are discussed.

  4. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

    2006-02-20

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

  5. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  6. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network: doing good by making high-quality vaccines affordable for all.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Leite, Luciana C C; Datla, Mahima; Makhoana, Morena; Gao, Yongzhong; Suhardono, Mahendra; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Homma, Akira

    2013-04-18

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) is a unique model of a public and private international alliance. It assembles governmental and private organizations to work toward a common goal of manufacturing and supplying high-quality vaccines at affordable prices to protect people around the world from known and emerging infectious diseases. Together, this group of manufacturers has decades of experience in manufacturing vaccines, with technologies, know-how, and capacity to produce more than 40 vaccines types. These manufacturers have already contributed more than 30 vaccines in various presentations that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization for use by global immunization programmes. Furthermore, more than 45 vaccines are in the pipeline. Recent areas of focus include vaccines to protect against rotavirus, human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis E, poliovirus, influenza, and pertussis, as well as combined pentavalent vaccines for children. The network has a growing number of manufacturers that produce a growing number of products to supply the growing demand for vaccines in developing countries.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  8. Global Scientific Vision With Local Vigilance: Renal Transplantation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Context: Renal Transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, which is fortunately available in the developing countries, even for poor people. Nonetheless, the way forward should be the implementation of advanced science of transplantation, allograft monitoring abilities, knowledge about the epidemiology of renal disease in any specific region, awareness about the influence of ethenic and genetic factors immunosuppressant bioavailability, and post-transplant complications all strongly affecting the patients and allograft survival. Evidence Acquisitions: In this process we searched mainly in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar data bases for key words of renal allograft monitoring, post-transplant infections, renal/kidney transplantation and Iran. We followed the cross articles to follow our main idea to find a connection between modern advancement in renal allograft monitoring and our practice in developing countries. Another focus was on the special infectious and non-infection complication that do exist in specific region and need specific considerations. Results: Implementation of modern techniques of immune monitoring, allograft function, awareness about the specific infectious and non-infectious disease in each region improves the quality of renal transplantation. Conclusions: We need to combine the advance scientific vision with local vigilance to achieve the best outcome in renal allograft recipients PMID:25738120

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-10-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter the software development was completed and the testing of the integrated software was completed. A user manual was written to complete software documentation. An installation CD-ROM including the following items was written: software installer, controller source code, proprietary CORBA wrapper templates for building local and remote servers, publicly available source code of the ACE/TAO CORBA library that needs to be built before compiling the controller source code, pre-built binaries of the publicly available XERCES XML library, and a PDF version of the software user's manual. The software was delivered to DOE. During the last quarter software demonstration tasks were completed. A few additional load points of Demo Case 1 were solved. Integrated simulations of Demo Case 2 with the proprietary HRSGSIM code and FLUENT CFD model were completed. The final task report describing Demo Case1 and Demo Case 2 simulation results was written and delivered to DOE.

  10. Development of a Manufacturing Process for High-Precision Cu EOS Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Castro, C; Hibbard, R L

    2006-01-12

    This document describes the development of a manufacturing process and the production of Cu EOS targets. The development of a manufacturing process for these targets required a great deal of research, because the specifications for the targets required a level of precision an order of magnitude beyond Target Fabrication's capabilities at the time. Strict limitations on the dimensions of the components and the interfaces between them required research efforts to develop bonding and deposition processes consistent with a manufacturing plan with a dimensional precision on the order of 0.1 {micro}m. Several months into this effort, the specifications for the targets were relaxed slightly as a result of discussions between the Target Fabrication Group and the physicists. The level of precision required for these targets remained an order of magnitude beyond previous capabilities, but the changes made it possible to manufacture targets to the specifications. The development efforts and manufacturing processes described in this document successfully produced a complete Cu EOS target that satisfied all of the fabrication and metrology specifications.

  11. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  12. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  13. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in computer-integrated manufacturing. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  14. Jute: A Different Story about the Development of Manufacturing Industry and Trade between Britain and India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Examines the process used to develop a lesson plan from an academic research article. Includes a lesson plan developed from an article in the Spring 1997 issue of "The Journal of World History" tracing the history of jute (a substitute for flax) manufacturing in colonial India. (MJP)

  15. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Low-energy ion implantation processes for the automated production of silicon solar cells were investigated. Phosphorus ions at an energy of 10 keV and dose of 2 x 10 to the 15th power/sq cm were implanted in silicon solar cells to produce junctions, while boron ions at 25 keV and 5 x 10 to the 15th power were implanted in the cells to produce effective back surface fields. An ion implantation facility with a beam current up to 4 mA and a production throughput of 300 wafers per hour was designed and installed. A design was prepared for a 100 mA, automated implanter with a production capacity of 100 MW sub e/sq cm per year. Two process sequences were developed which employ ion implantation and furnace or pulse annealing. A computer program was used to determine costs for junction formation by ion implantation and various furnace annealing cycles to demonstrate cost effectiveness of these methods.

  16. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    A software design review meeting was conducted (Task 2.0). A CFD Viewer was developed, to allow the process analyst to view CFD results from the process simulator (Task 2.14). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was continued (Task 2.15). The model-edit GUI was modified to allow the user to specify a solution strategy. Enhancements were made to the solution strategy implementation (Task 2.16). Testing of the integrated software was continued and several bug fixes and enhancements were made: ability to expose CFD parameters to the process analyst and support for velocity and pressure inlet boundary conditions (Task 2.21). Work on preparing the release version progressed: Version 0.3 of V21 Controller was released, a global configuration dialog was implemented, and a code review process was initiated (Task 2.24). The calibration of the tube bank CFD model for the RP&L case was completed. While integrating the tube bank CFD model into the flow sheet model, several development requirements were identified and communicated to the developers. The requirements of porting V21 Controller and Configuration Wizard to FLUENT 6.1, turning off the transfer of temperature dependent properties, exposing CFD parameters in Aspen Plus and supporting velocity boundary conditions have been implemented (Task 4.1). An initial grid for the HRSG component has been prepared (Task 4.2). A web-based advisory board meeting was conducted on December 18, 2003 (Task 5.0). Project personnel attended and gave presentations at the Aspen World Conference, October 28-30, 2002; AIChE Annual Meeting, November 8, 2002; and the Vision 21 Simulation meeting at Iowa State University, November 19-20, 2002 (Task 7.0).

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhave Symlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-04-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper template was developed for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU. The session management tasks were completed. The multithreading capability was made functional so that user of the integrated simulation may directly interact with the CFD software. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO v.1.0. The testing and debugging of the upgraded software is ongoing. Testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested GUI enhancements was made. Remote simulation capability was successfully tested using two networked Windows machines. Work on preparing the release version progressed: CFD database was enhanced, a convergence detection capability was implemented, a Configuration Wizard for low-order models was developed, and the Configuration Wizard for Fluent was enhanced. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Various simplified versions of Demo Case 1 were used to debug Configuration Wizard and V21-Controller. The heat exchanger model in FLUENT was calibrated and the energy balance was verified. The INDVU code was integrated into the V21-Controller, and the integrated model is being debugged. A sensitivity loop was inserted into Demo Case 2 to check whether the simulation converges over the desired load range. Work on converting HRSGSIM code to run in batch mode was started. Work on calibrating Demo Case 2 was started.

  19. Medications Development to Treat Alcohol Dependence: A Vision for the Next Decade

    PubMed Central

    Litten, Raye Z.; Egli, Mark; Heilig, Markus; Cui, Changhai; Fertig, Joanne B.; Ryan, Megan L.; Falk, Daniel E.; Moss, Howard; Huebner, Robert; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    More than 76 million people worldwide are estimated to have diagnosable Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) (alcohol abuse or dependence), making these disorders a major global health problem. Pharmacotherapy offers promising means for treating AUDs, and significant progress has been made in the past 20 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved three of the four medications for alcoholism in the last two decades. Unfortunately, these medications do not work for everyone, prompting the need for a personalized approach to optimize clinical benefit or more efficacious medications that can treat a wider range of patients, or both. To promote global health, the potential reorganization of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must continue to support the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s (NIAAA’s) vision of ensuring the development and delivery of new and more efficacious medications to treat AUDs in the coming decade. To achieve this objective, the NIAAA Medications Development Team has identified three fundamental long-range goals: 1) to make the drug development process more efficient; 2) to identify more efficacious medications, personalize treatment approaches, or both, and 3) to facilitate the implementation and adaptation of medications in real-world treatment settings. These goals will be carried out through seven key objectives. This paper describes those objectives in terms of rationale and strategy. Successful implementation of these objectives will result in the development of more efficacious and safe medications, provide a greater selection of therapy options, and ultimately lessen the impact of this devastating disorder. PMID:22458728

  20. Development of a method for determining the relative manufacturing complexity of advanced engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shardul Yogendra

    The immediate adaptation of newly developed materials--with unique and highly desirable properties--is hampered by several factors, including: (1) high material cost and limited availability, (2) lack of information on them, including prior experience in their design and manufacture, immature manufacturing processes and general uncertainty in their behavior patterns, (3) unique handling issues, such as excessive manual labor, high process temperatures, toxicity, disposal problems, limited working lives, and low damage tolerance Therefore, in spite of their significant benefits, potential users tend to shy away from the widespread use of new materials, instead preferring conventional and tested materials forms. This dissertation is on a methodology developed to compare manufacturing complexity of new materials with that of conventional ones. It entails development of a 5 level multi-attribute hierarchy of 18 factors and several processes that influence the manufacturing risk of new materials. A Manufacturing Complexity Factor (MCF) and a Delta Complexity Factor (DCF) are developed to compare new materials with older, traditional ones. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to judiciously assign weights to all factors and sub-factors. Materials are assigned "ranks" based on information available about their unique properties and requirements. From the rank and attribute priorities, values for MCF/DCF can be obtained. Since information available is often limited, the ranks assigned to materials are not highly accurate values. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to take away some of the uncertainty in the ranks of the newly developed materials and generate a more "robust" MCF/DCF value. Sensitivity of the method to varying inputs is examined. An attempt is made to compare this practical methodology with two popular approaches, one used for analyzing the complexity of composite materials and another that develops manufacturing complexity factors for given input

  1. Development and evaluation of a vision based poultry debone line monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin T.; Daley, W. D. R.

    2013-05-01

    Efficient deboning is key to optimizing production yield (maximizing the amount of meat removed from a chicken frame while reducing the presence of bones). Many processors evaluate the efficiency of their deboning lines through manual yield measurements, which involves using a special knife to scrape the chicken frame for any remaining meat after it has been deboned. Researchers with the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have developed an automated vision system for estimating this yield loss by correlating image characteristics with the amount of meat left on a skeleton. The yield loss estimation is accomplished by the system's image processing algorithms, which correlates image intensity with meat thickness and calculates the total volume of meat remaining. The team has established a correlation between transmitted light intensity and meat thickness with an R2 of 0.94. Employing a special illuminated cone and targeted software algorithms, the system can make measurements in under a second and has up to a 90-percent correlation with yield measurements performed manually. This same system is also able to determine the probability of bone chips remaining in the output product. The system is able to determine the presence/absence of clavicle bones with an accuracy of approximately 95 percent and fan bones with an accuracy of approximately 80%. This paper describes in detail the approach and design of the system, results from field testing, and highlights the potential benefits that such a system can provide to the poultry processing industry.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-01-23

    To complete project planning, various project groups conducted several meetings and teleconferences. As a result a draft project management plan was written and circulated. The plan will be finalized in a project kick off meeting to be held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which will be attended by all project participants (Task 1.0). Various project personnel have been trained in the use of Fluent and Aspen Plus, which completes all the training tasks except for Aspen Plus and IDL training for Alstom Power (Task 2.1). A preliminary version of User Requirements Document (preURD) was written. This document will be sent to key users of Aspen Plus and FLUENT and their responses will be collected in January (Task 2.3). A prototype of Fluent integration with Aspen Plus was constructed for understanding the required software design. The development of a general architecture for the integrated software suite has been started (Task 2.6). Invitation letters for participation in an Advisory Board were sent out to several Vision 21 contractors. Their responses will be used to form an Advisory Board in January (Task 5.0). Fluent has awarded subcontracts to Alstom Power, CERC, and Aspen Tech and negotiations with Intergraph are underway. Aspen Plus and FLUENT were installed on a computer at CERC. The design of a project web site was completed, and the site setup was started (Task 7.0).

  3. Utilizing run-to-run control to improve process capability and reduce waste in lithography: case studies in semiconductor and display manufacturing, and a vision for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyne, James

    2010-03-01

    Run-to-run (R2R) control is now a required component of microlithography processing. R2R control is a form of discrete process control in which the product recipe with respect to a particular process is modified between runs; a "run" can be a lot, wafer or even a die ("shot"). Deployment experience reveals that a cost and technology-effective R2R control solution must be part of a complete Advanced Process Control and equipment automation solution that includes Fault Detection. This complete solution must leverage event-driven technology to support flexibility and reconfigurability, be re-usable via model libraries, be deployed in a phased approach, utilize robust control algorithms, be easily integratable with other components in the manufacturing process, and be extensible to incorporate new technologies as they are developed. In microlithography applications, R2R control solutions are shown to improve process centering and reduce variability resulting in process capability improvements of up to 100%. In the near future, virtual metrology, which harnesses the power of microlithography fault detection along with a prediction engine, will better enable wafer-to-wafer and shot-to-shot feedback control by predicting metrology values for each wafer or die without incurring extra metrology cost or unnecessary waste.

  4. From e-manufacturing to Internet Product Process Development (IPPD) through remote - labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Nieto, Ernesto; Andres Cifuentes Parra, Paulo; Camilo Parra Díaz, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the research developed at Universidad Nacional de Colombia about the e-Manufacturing platform that is being developed and implemented at LabFabEx (acronym in Spanish as "Laboratorio Fabrica Experimental"). This platform besides has an approach to virtual-remote labs that have been tested by several students and engineers of different industrial fields. At this paper it is shown the physical and communication experimental platform, the general scope and characteristics of this e-Manufacturing platform and the virtual lab approach. This research project is funded by COLCIENCIAS (Administrative Department of science, technology and innovation in Colombia) and the enterprise IMOCOM S.A.

  5. (Development of industrial processes for manufacturing of silicon sampling hadron calorimeters)

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.; Walter, J.

    1991-01-04

    The travelers attended meetings in Dubna and in Zelenograd. Discussions in Dubna centered on (1) obtaining information on USSR capabilities in silicon detector manufacture and testing and on (2) strategy regarding the development of an industrial process and the manufacture of a large quantity of silicon detectors for the SSC L* collaboration. The ELMA plant in Zelenograd was inspected, and discussions were held on production process development and on a possible detector supply time line. In addition, J. Walter participated in technical and cost estimate forecast discussions with representatives of Wacker-Chemitronic Factory (Germany) about silicon crystals for possible use in the SSC.

  6. Manufacturing Industrial Development for the Alternative Energy Systems-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chuck Ryan, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences; Dr. Dawn White, Accio Energy; Mr. Duncan Pratt, General Electric Global Research

    2013-01-30

    NCMS identified and developed critical manufacturing technology assessments vital to the affordable manufacturing of alternative-energy systems. NCMS leveraged technologies from other industrial sectors and worked with our extensive member organizations to provide DOE with two projects with far-reaching impact on the generation of wind energy. In the response for a call for project ideas, 26 project teams submitted ideas. Following a detailed selection criteria, two projects were chosen for development: Advanced Manufacturing for Modular Electro-kinetic (E-K) Wind Energy Conversion Technology - The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a modular wind energy technology based on electrohydrodynamic wind energy principles and employing automotive heritage high volume manufacturing techniques and modular platform design concepts can result in significant cost reductions for wind energy systems at a range of sizes from 100KW to multi-MW. During this program, the Accio/Boeing team made major progress on validating the EHD wind energy technology as commercially viable in the wind energy sector, and moved along the manufacturing readiness axis with a series of design changes that increased net system output. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding for Manufacture of Wind Towers - The goal of this research program was to reduce the cost of manufacturing wind towers through the introduction of hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) into the supply chain for manufacturing wind towers. HLAW has the potential to enhance productivity while reducing energy consumption to offset the foreign low-cost labor advantage and thereby enhance U.S. competitiveness. HLAW technology combines laser welding and arc welding to produce an energy efficient, high productivity, welding process for heavy manufacturing. This process leverages the ability of a laser to produce deep weld penetration and the ability of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to deposit filler material, thereby producing stable, high quality

  7. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  8. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  9. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; Stephen Zitney

    2003-07-30

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU was upgraded to CO V1.0.0 and was successfully integrated with an Aspen Plus flowsheet. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO V.1.0.0, and the testing and debugging of the upgraded V21-Controller was completed. Two Aspen Plus analysis tools (sensitivity analysis and optimization) were successfully tested in an integrated simulation. Extensive testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested enhancements was given to the software development team. Work on software documentation was started. Work on preparing the release version progressed: Several enhancements were made in the V21-Controller and the Fluent Configuration Wizard GUIs. Work to add persistence functionality to the V21-Controller was started. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Demo Case 1 simulations were completed. This case, a conventional steam cycle with a CFD model representing the boiler module, was successfully demonstrated at 9 distinct load points from 33 MW to 19 MW. Much progress was made with Demo Case 2. Work on adding a CO wrapper to the HRSGSIM code was completed, and integrated simulations with the HRSGSIM code were conducted. The CFD heat exchanger model for Demo Case 2 was calibrated with HRSGSIM results. An Advisory Board meeting was held in Manchester, NH on May 6 during the Fluent Users Group Meeting. The preparation of the project final report was started.

  11. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  12. "Vision for Action" in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy Munkenbeck; Kuroshima, Hika; Stone, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children's performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children's ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children's performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates. PMID:26440979

  13. Vision for Action” in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children’s performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children’s ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children’s performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates. PMID:26440979

  14. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  15. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision. PMID:27654560

  16. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  17. Developing the revised NICE appraisal technical guidance to manufacturers and sponsors: opportunity or threat?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rod S; Hutton, John; Culyer, Anthony J

    2002-01-01

    One of the principal roles of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) is to appraise selected existing and emerging healthcare technologies and, as a result, produce guidance for the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. A central part of this appraisal is the potential for manufacturers and sponsors to make a data submission. This paper describes the process of development of the second edition of technical guidance to manufacturers and sponsors for submission to NICE. The revision process took place during the period May 2000 and January 2001 and involved a number of key steps -- establishment of a guidance steering committee, review of current international guidelines of clinical and cost effectiveness, drafting of the guidance, detailed consultation with stakeholders, revision of the guidance and, finally, publication. The lessons learnt from revision of the NICE guidance for manufacturers and sponsors and some main issues for its future development are discussed. PMID:12456199

  18. Development of computer assisted orthosis design and manufacturing system for malformed ears.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, A; Takahashi, H; Akagi, K; Isomura, T

    1997-01-01

    Most cases of malformed ears in neonates can be treated by mounting a suitably shaped orthosis. Our objective was to develop a computer-assisted orthosis design and manufacturing system for the treatment of malformed ears. Also, we aimed to manufacture a first experimental orthosis made of nitinol shape-memory alloy wire. First, the target posttherapeutic auricular shape is input from computed tomography scans, and characteristic points and contours are extracted. The shape of the orthosis is then created by tracing the necessary contours automatically. Finally, the orthosis shape data are projected onto one or more approximate planes and autoconverted into numerical control (NC) data for plate groove processing. The nitinol shape-memory alloy wires are inserted in the groove and the shape is memorized by heat treatment. The shape of the manufactured orthosis can be memorized from the generated NC data within 1.0 mm of error. Stahl's ear in a 9-month-old baby was treated 7 months ago by mounting the orthosis manufactured by the system. The developed system allows the design and manufacture of orthoses made of nitinol shape-memory alloy wire for the treatment of malformed ears.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

    2005-04-01

    To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were

  20. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  1. Space Wear Vision -Development of a Wardrobe for Life in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndorff, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    A new vision is needed for the development of a wardrobe for NASA's journey to Mars in the 2030s. All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on long-duration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The logistical burden is at least twice as great for prolonged exploration and settlements on planetary surfaces compared to missions in low-Earth orbit. The space wear vision is to design apparel that uniquely meets criteria and constraints for sustaining human presence in space. For long duration missions without landing on planetary surface, humans can use only what they carry in their spacecraft, while for settlements, additional resources may be available. The immediate space wear goal is to develop those elements needed for prolonged manned exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Three major objectives have been identified for achieving this goal: satisfying crew preferences, logistics reduction and repurposing, and systems integration. Garments must be comfortable, durable, safe to wear, and aesthetically pleasing. In addition, with limited cleaning resources, garments must be developed to reduce the logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. Furthermore, garments must have minimal impact on the life support systems of spacecraft. The approach to achieving the immediate space wear goal is to conduct multiple studies on Earth and on the International Space Station (ISS), thus laying out the path for finding materials and designing garments that meet the three objectives of prolonged manned exploration. Several studies have been undertaken recently for the first time, namely, to ascertain garment length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Most garments in these studies have been exercise T-shirts and shorts, and routine-wear T-shirts. Eleven studies have been completed: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear T-shirts, and

  2. Artificial human vision.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  3. Semiconductor Manufacturing Comes to Virginia: Developing Partnerships for Workforce Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    In Virginia, a community college consortium for semiconductor education and training programs works with a semiconductor manufacturers' partnership to review programs based on a national core curriculum model. The results are being used to improve curriculum development, faculty training, facility improvement, and student recruitment. (SK)

  4. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  5. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  6. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  7. Development of a Holonic Free-Roaming AGV System for Part Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Lind, Morten; Gellein, Lars Tore; Nyen, Per Åge; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    This paper presents an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system under development and its industrial background as a support system for an automated paint department. The focus is on demonstrating how the holonic architecture can be used to implement a flexible AGV system. The system is composed of autonomous AGV holons who cooperate, directly or as groups, with other holons such as robot holons, vision-system holons and order holons to produce the real parts. The holonic architecture is described in detail and example use-cases presented.

  8. The General College Vision: Integrating Intellectual Growth, Multicultural Perspectives, and Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.; Lundell, Dana B., Ed.; Arendale, David R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book explores the vision and contributions of the former General College, a program existing 74 years in the University of Minnesota, highlighting its history, mission, programs, research, and student services. This includes an evolving and dynamic program for teaching, learning, and research for student success in higher education. Following…

  9. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the nation's…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen Richards, Ph.D.; David Sloan, Ph.D.; Woodrow Fiveland, Ph.D.

    2002-08-31

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope is to develop an integrated suite of software tools that can be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software does not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which is needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE is to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that will link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remains to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software will be based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge is to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{trademark} CFD code (provided by Fluent Inc). ALSTOM Power has a task responsibility to select and run a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the linkage concept. This report summarizes and documents the unit selected to represent Case 2, a 250 MW, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. An analogous document for Demonstration Case 1 was previously submitted on April 30, 2001. Sufficient information is available from the plant to adequately benchmark the model. Hence, the proposed unit is deemed to be well suited as a demonstration case. However, as the combined cycle plant selected for this study contains recent technology, sensitivity to the commercial implications of this study prevents the release of the plant name and limits the quantity of operating/design information that can be presented. These

  11. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  12. Developing body representations in early life: combining somatosensation and vision to perceive the interface between the body and the world.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    This article lays out the computational challenges involved in constructing multisensory representations of the body and the interface between the body and the external world. It then provides a review of the most pertinent empirical literature regarding the ontogeny of such representational abilities in early life, focussing especially on ability to make spatiotemporal links between bodily events transduced by vision and somatosensation (cutaneous touch and proprioception), and the ability to use multisensory bodily cues to locate tactile stimuli. Findings from infants, children, and blind adults point towards a trajectory of development in early life in which infants and children, as a result of sensory experience, learn new ways of combining cues concerning the body arising from vision and somatosensation, in order to best represent the layout of their limbs and sensory events occurring on their limbs in relation to the external environment.

  13. Development of mask-DFM system MiLE load estimation of mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamura, Yoshikazu; Hosono, Kunihiro; Narukawa, Shogo; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Kato, Masahiro; Kawase, Hidemichi

    2007-10-01

    Load of photomask manufacturing for the most advanced semiconductor devices is increasing due to the complexity of mask layouts caused by highly accurate RET or OPC, tight specification for 2D/3D mask structures, and requirements of quick deliveries. The mask cost becomes a concern of mask users especially in SoC businesses because the number of masks required throughout the wafer process is almost the same for each product regardless of the variety in production volume when a unified platform is applied to the designs. Shares of mask cost within total production cost cannot be ignored especially in small volume SoC products. DFM (design for manufacturing) is inevitable in a mask level as well as in a wafer level to solve the cost problem. "Mask-DFM" is a method to decrease the burden of mask manufacturing and to improve the yield and quality of masks, not only by modification of mask pattern layouts (design) but also all other things including utilization of designer's intents. We have developed our Mask-DFM system called "MiLE", that calculates mask-manufacturing workload through layout analyses combining information of mask configuration, and visualizes the consequence of Mask-DFM efforts. "MiLE (Mask manufacturIng Load Estimation)" calculates a relative index which represents the mask manufacturing workload determined by factors of 1) EB writing, 2) defect inspection/repair, 3) materials and processes and 4) specification. All the factors are computed before tape-outs for mask making in the system by the following methods. To estimate EB writing time, we applied high-throughput simulator and counted the number of "shot", minimum figure unit in EB writing, by using post-OPC layout data. Mask layout that caused troubles and extra load in mask inspection or repair was specified from MRC (mask rule checking) of the same post-OPC data. Additional layout analysis perceives designer's intents that are described in the layout data and these are reflected in the

  14. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research. PMID:26164106

  15. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research.

  16. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  17. Development of a training protocol to improve reading performance in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deyue; Legge, Gordon E; Park, Heejung; Gage, Emily; Chung, Susana T L

    2010-01-01

    People with central-field loss must use peripheral vision for reading. Previous studies have shown that reading performance in peripheral vision can improve with extensive practice on a trigram letter-recognition task. The present study compared training on this task with training on two other character-based tasks (lexical-decision and Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) reading) which might plausibly produce more improvement in peripheral reading speed. Twenty-eight normally-sighted young adults were trained at 10 degrees in the lower visual field in a pre/post design. All three training methods produced significant improvements in reading speed, with average gains of 39% for lexical-decision, 54% for trigram letter-recognition, and 72% for RSVP training. Although the RSVP training was most effective, the lexical-decision task has the advantage of easy self administration making it more practical for home-based training.

  18. Development of a healthy biscuit: an alternative approach to biscuit manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Boobier, WJ; Baker, JS; Davies, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective Obesity (BMI >30) and related health problems, including coronary heart disease (CHD), is without question a public health concern. The purpose of this study was to modify a traditional biscuit by the addition of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C and Prebiotic fibre, while reducing salt and sugar. Design Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer of International reputation. The raw materials traditionally referred to as essential in biscuit manufacture, i.e. sugar and fat, were targeted for removal or reduction. In addition, salt was completely removed from the recipe. Participants University students of both sexes (n = 25) agreed to act as subjects for the study. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the University ethics committee. The test was conducted as a single blind crossover design, and the modified and traditional biscuits were presented to the subjects under the same experimental conditions in a random fashion. Results No difference was observed between the original and the modified product for taste and consistency (P > 0.05). The modified biscuit was acceptable to the consumer in terms of eating quality, flavour and colour. Commercial acceptability was therefore established. Conclusion This study has confirmed that traditional high-fat and high-sugar biscuits which are not associated with healthy diets by most consumers can be modified to produce a healthy alternative that can be manufactured under strict commercial conditions. PMID:16539719

  19. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  20. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Husser, D. L.; Mohr, T. C.; Richardson, W. C.

    2004-02-01

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  1. Development and manufacture of reactive-transfer-printed CIGS photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay; Sang, Baosheng; Lu, Dingyuan; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic (PV) companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and grabbing an increasingly larger market share from multicrystalline silicon companies. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, high-quality CIGS grains, and a fast reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable print plates in the first stage, while in the second stage, the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. High quality CIGS films with large grains were produced on a full-scale manufacturing line, and resulted in high-efficiency large-form-factor modules. With 14% cell efficiency and 12% module efficiency, HelioVolt started to commercialize the process on its first production line with 20 MW nameplate capacity.

  2. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/LARC 160 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. K.; Jones, J. S.; Dynes, P. J.; Wykes, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of manufacturing technologies for the structural application of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide composite material is discussed. Process development and fabrication of demonstration components are discussed. Process development included establishing quality assurance of the basic composite material and processing, nondestructive inspection of fabricated components, developing processes for specific structural forms, and qualification of processes through mechanical testing. Demonstration components were fabricated. The demonstration components consisted of flat laminates, skin/stringer panels, honeycomb panels, chopped fiber compression moldings, and a technology demonstrator segment (TDS) representative of the space shuttle aft body flap.

  3. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  4. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  5. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  6. Development and manufacturing of a more cost-effective heat pipe solar water heater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, K.T. Jr.

    1984-02-01

    A one year research and development project was conducted with NMERDI and Energy Engineering, Inc. (EEI) support to improve the design, manufacturing, testing, certification, shipping and installation of the heatpipe (tm) Passive Solar Water Heater. The objectives of the project were to develop a more cost-effective heatpipe (tm) system and the machines and manufacturing processes needed to produce it in the EEI Albuquerque plan. The project included redesign of the collector frames and mounting hardware to use aluminum extrusions, redesign of the tank cover to use molded fiberglass, new polisocynaurate foam insulation for the tank covers, a new heat pipe extrusion and welding process, new shipping and crating techniques, and new system data. The test data indicates that the heatpipe (tm) system efficiency is equal to the best active systems and is significantly better than most passive solar DHW systems.

  7. Development and Validation of a Safety Climate Scale for Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Khalkhali, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a scale for measuring safety climate. Methods This study was conducted in six manufacturing companies in Iran. The scale developed through conducting a literature review about the safety climate and constructing a question pool. The number of items was reduced to 71 after performing a screening process. Results The result of content validity analysis showed that 59 items had excellent item content validity index (≥ 0.78) and content validity ratio (> 0.38). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in eight safety climate dimensions. The reliability value for the final 45-item scale was 0.96. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the safety climate model is satisfactory. Conclusion This study produced a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in manufacturing companies. PMID:26106508

  8. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  9. Managing design for manufacture and assembly in the development of MEMS-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Yao; Narasimhan, Nachchinarkkinian; Hariz, Alex J.

    2006-12-01

    Design for manufacturability, assembly and reliability of MEMS products is being applied to a multitude of novel MEMS products to make up for the lack of "Standard Process for MEMS" concept. The latter has proved a major handicap in commercialization of MEMS devices when compared to integrated circuits products. Furthermore, an examination of recent engineering literature seems to suggest convergence towards the development of the design for manufacturability and reliability of MEMS products. This paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques that have been pursued up to this point to achieve commercialization of MEMS products, identify some of the problems slowing down development, and explore measures that could be taken to try to address those problems. Successful commercialization critically depends on packaging and assembly, manufacturability, and reliability for micro scale products. However, a methodology that appropriately shadows next generation knowledge management will undoubtedly address most of the critical problems that are hampering development of MEMS industries. Finally this paper will also identify contemporary issues that are challenging the industry in regards to product commercialization and will recommend appropriate measures based on knowledge flow to address those shortcomings and lay out plans to expedient and successful paths to market.

  10. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  11. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  12. Manufacturing Techniques Developed for the JetStreamer Dynamic Soaring UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Jacob Bruce

    While many theories on dynamic soaring are emerging, most testing of these theories has been done using small R/C aircraft and some basic manned flights. This work focuses on developing and manufacturing the JetStreamer, a 6.5 meter wingspan UAV, to act as a test platform for dynamics soaring techniques. The aircraft's main purpose is to test if dynamic soaring can be done in the jet stream along with real-time wind field estimation. First, a basic design and analysis was performed for the JetStreamer, from there, small test sections of aircraft components were created to investigate one-shot manufacturing techniques to be used on the full-scale parts. Processes for creating integrated wing spars as well as internal shear webs in a one shot process were developed. Construction of the JetStreamer then began and during its construction, the one-shot processes were verified on a 6 meter carbon fiber wing. Most notably, the main wing was successfully manufactured using a one-shot process that produced a complete wing with integrated wing spars, an internal shear web structure, and provisions for attachment of control surfaces.

  13. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  14. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  15. A Journey in Standard Development: The Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-Tsun Tina

    2015-01-01

    This report documents a journey “from research to an approved standard” of a NIST-led standard development activity. That standard, Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) information model, provides neutral structures for the efficient exchange of manufacturing data in a simulation environment. The model was standardized under the auspices of the international Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). NIST started the research in 2001 and initiated the standardization effort in 2004. The CMSD standard was published in two SISO Products. In the first Product, the information model was defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and published in 2010 as SISO-STD-008-2010. In the second Product, the information model was defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and published in 2013 as SISO-STD-008-01-2012. Both SISO-STD-008-2010 and SISO-STD-008-01-2012 are intended to be used together. PMID:26958450

  16. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies.

    PubMed

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product's life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time. PMID:26610509

  17. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies

    PubMed Central

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time. PMID:26610509

  18. Development and characterization of polymers-metallic hot embossing process for manufacturing metallic micro-parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, M.; Millot, C.; Gelin, J.-C.; Barrière, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years, hot embossing process becomes a promising process for the replication of polymer micro-structures associated to its manufacturing capability related to a relatively low component cost. This rising demand has prompted the development of various micro-manufacturing techniques in an attempt to get micro-parts in large batch. The paper investigates the way to get metallic micro-parts through the hot embossing process. The micro-manufacturing process consists in three stages. In the first one, the different metallic feedstocks with 50 to 60% powder loading in volume have been prepared with adapted polymers/powders formulations. In a second stage, an elastomeric master has been used to obtain micro-parts on a plastic loaded substrate with developed mixture based on polypropylene, paraffin wax and stearic acid. Finally, a thermal debinding stage in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a solid state pre-sintering stage has been applied, in order to eliminate the pores between powder particles in the debinded components. Then the porous components are agglomerated by solid state diffusion after heating to a temperature slightly lower than the melting temperature related to the material used in the process, to form an homogenous structure when full densification is achieved. The advantages of this approach include: rapid manufacturing of injection tools with high-quality, easy demoulding of metallic parts from the elastomeric moulds and great flexibility related to the choices of material. The paper describes all the processing stages and the way to characterize the geometrical, physical and mechanical properties of the resulting micro-parts.

  19. Learning Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Margaret S.; And Others

    This paper describes LEARNing Visions, a K-12 intervention program for at-risk youth in Jackson County, Tennessee, involving a partnership between the schools, local businesses, Tennessee Technological University, and Visions Five (a private company). Jackson County is characterized by an undereducated population, a high employment rate, and a low…

  20. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  1. National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) is a strategy, organization, and partnership focused on long-term technology development. The NCAM initially will be a regional partnership, however the intent is national in scope. Benchmarking is needed to follow the concept to the finished project, not using trial and error. Significant progress has been made to date, and NCAM is setting the vision for the future.

  2. [Development of a new position-recognition system for robotic radiosurgery systems using machine vision].

    PubMed

    Mohri, Issai; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Junnichi; Tane, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hironori; Hirashima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    CyberKnife(®) provides continuous guidance through radiography, allowing instantaneous X-ray images to be obtained; it is also equipped with 6D adjustment for patient setup. Its disadvantage is that registration is carried out just before irradiation, making it impossible to perform stereo-radiography during irradiation. In addition, patient movement cannot be detected during irradiation. In this study, we describe a new registration system that we term "Machine Vision," which subjects the patient to no additional radiation exposure for registration purposes, can be set up promptly, and allows real-time registration during irradiation. Our technique offers distinct advantages over CyberKnife by enabling a safer and more precise mode of treatment. "Machine Vision," which we have designed and fabricated, is an automatic registration system that employs three charge coupled device cameras oriented in different directions that allow us to obtain a characteristic depiction of the shape of both sides of the fetal fissure and external ears in a human head phantom. We examined the degree of precision of this registration system and concluded it to be suitable as an alternative method of registration without radiation exposure when displacement is less than 1.0 mm in radiotherapy. It has potential for application to CyberKnife in clinical treatment. PMID:25142385

  3. [Development of a new position-recognition system for robotic radiosurgery systems using machine vision].

    PubMed

    Mohri, Issai; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Junnichi; Tane, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hironori; Hirashima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    CyberKnife(®) provides continuous guidance through radiography, allowing instantaneous X-ray images to be obtained; it is also equipped with 6D adjustment for patient setup. Its disadvantage is that registration is carried out just before irradiation, making it impossible to perform stereo-radiography during irradiation. In addition, patient movement cannot be detected during irradiation. In this study, we describe a new registration system that we term "Machine Vision," which subjects the patient to no additional radiation exposure for registration purposes, can be set up promptly, and allows real-time registration during irradiation. Our technique offers distinct advantages over CyberKnife by enabling a safer and more precise mode of treatment. "Machine Vision," which we have designed and fabricated, is an automatic registration system that employs three charge coupled device cameras oriented in different directions that allow us to obtain a characteristic depiction of the shape of both sides of the fetal fissure and external ears in a human head phantom. We examined the degree of precision of this registration system and concluded it to be suitable as an alternative method of registration without radiation exposure when displacement is less than 1.0 mm in radiotherapy. It has potential for application to CyberKnife in clinical treatment.

  4. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  5. Electricity consumption and structural change in manufacturing industry in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Tyler, S.; Campbell, C.

    1990-04-01

    This report presents data and analysis on historic trends in electricity consumption and economic output in manufacturing industry for a number of newly-industrialized and developing countries. Combining energy and economic data, we show trends in manufacturing electricity intensity, and analyze the causes of change in intensity to the extent possible. For several of the countries we also show trends in electricity intensity at the sub-sectoral level. Since 1975, there have been large increases in aggregate intensity in Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela, large decreases in Taiwan and China, and little net change in South Korea and India. While interpretation of trends is hampered by lack of data, the evidence suggests that the effect of change in the composition of manufacturing output on aggregate electricity intensity was much less important than the effect of change in intensity at the sub-sectoral level. Though we were unable to analyze change in composition within sub-sectors, it is evident that is affected electricity intensity. Comparison of aggregate manufacturing electricity use per unit of value-added (converted to US dollars) show that intensity in the mid-1980s varied by more than a factor of two among six countries. China and India, both of whom have relatively old equipment in their industries, are at the top of the range, while South Korea and Taiwan, both of whom have relatively new equipment, are at the low end. With the exception of India, there is a clear correlation between electricity intensity and the average price of electricity to industry. Comparison of intensity among 2-digit sectors, which gives a better sense of the relative efficiency of countries, also shows a considerable range for most sectors. 28 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  7. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  8. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient. PMID:23827333

  9. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient.

  10. Development of Inorganic Precursors for Manufacturing of Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-308

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M.; Ginley, D.

    2013-06-01

    Both NREL and Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials are interested in the development of solution phase metal and semiconductive precursors for the manufacturing of photovoltaic devices. In particular, we intend to develop material sets for atmospheric deposition processes. The cooperation between these two parties will enable high value materials and processing solutions for the manufacturing of low cost, roll-to-roll photovoltaics.

  11. Development of Pocket Vision Screener and its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Monica; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Srinivasan, Krithica; Varadharajan, L. Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to construct a visual acuity chart and find its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits. Materials and Methods: Two phases were involved in this study. Construction of the screener: Ten Sloan letters (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, and Z) were selected and the letters were constructed and reduced to 0.2 logMAR acuity size (6.92 mm) for viewing at 3 m. The screener contains three lines with seven letters in each. Few combinations of the seven letter sequences were chosen based on the row legibility scores. Three seven letter combinations close to the median of all combinations were selected, such that maximum difficulty score difference between the lines are <1%. Finding the effectiveness of the screener: 100 literate subjects with unaided visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60 were recruited for the study. Unaided visual acuity was tested using both the newly constructed Pocket Vision Screener and a logMAR visual acuity chart and the time taken to measure the visual acuity using both the charts was noted. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 43 ± 17 years. Subjects were classified as normal or deficient based on the logMAR visual acuity measurement. The screener was found to have 81% sensitivity, 94% specificity. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 91% and 87%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found in the time taken to record visual acuity using both the charts. Conclusion: The Pocket Vision Screener can be used as a quick and accurate tool to screen subjects for visual acuity deficits, being highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. PMID:25579360

  12. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  13. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  14. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  15. Passive transdermal systems whitepaper incorporating current chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) development principles.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, Glenn A; Arsulowicz, Daniel; Basu, Prabir; Block, Lawrence; Cai, Bing; Cleary, Gary W; Ghosh, Tapash; González, Mario A; Kanios, David; Marques, Margareth; Noonan, Patrick K; Ocheltree, Terrance; Schwarz, Peter; Shah, Vinod; Spencer, Thomas S; Tavares, Lino; Ulman, Katherine; Uppoor, Rajendra; Yeoh, Thean

    2012-03-01

    In this whitepaper, the Manufacturing Technical Committee (MTC) of the Product Quality Research Institute has updated the 1997 Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems Scale-Up and Post Approval Change workshop report findings to add important new product development and control principles. Important topics reviewed include ICH harmonization, quality by design, process analytical technologies, product and process validation, improvements to control of critical excipients, and discussion of Food and Drug Administration's Guidance on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems as well as current thinking and trends on in vitro-in vivo correlation considerations for transdermal systems. PMID:22215291

  16. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6

  17. Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM.

  18. Manufacturing Road Map for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  19. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  20. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of growth and development in manufactured engineered oral mucosal tissue surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winterroth, Frank; Kato, Hiroko; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E; Hollister, Scott J; Fowlkes, J Brian; Hollman, Kyle W

    2014-09-01

    This study uses high-resolution ultrasound to examine the growth and development of engineered oral mucosal tissues manufactured under aseptic conditions. The specimens are a commercially available natural tissue scaffold, AlloDerm, and oral keratinocytes seeded onto AlloDerm to form an ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) suitable for intra-oral grafting. The seeded cells produce a keratinized protective upper layer that smooths out any remaining surface irregularities on the underlying AlloDerm. Two-dimensional acoustic imaging of unseeded AlloDerm and developing EVPOMEs was performed on each day of their growth and development, each tissue specimen being imaged under aseptic conditions (total time from seeding to maturation: 11 d). Ultrasonic monitoring offers us the ability to determine the constituents of the EVPOME that are responsible for changes in its mechanical behavior during the manufacturing process. Ultrasonic monitoring affords us an opportunity to non-invasively assess, in real time, tissue-engineered constructs before release for use in patient care. PMID:24968758

  1. Concise Review: Guidance in Developing Commercializable Autologous/Patient-Specific Cell Therapy Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; Van't Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapy is poised to play an enormous role in regenerative medicine. However, little guidance is being made available to academic and industrial entities in the start-up phase. In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Special emphasis is placed on providing guidance to small academic or biotech researchers as to what simple questions can be addressed or answered at the bench in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production. We discuss the processes that are required for scale-out at the manufacturing level, and how many questions can be addressed at the bench level. The goal of this review is to provide guidance in the form of topics that can be addressed early in the process of development to better the chances of the product being successful for future commercialization. PMID:24101671

  2. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  3. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure. PMID:19079300

  4. Development of a method for manufacturing customized nasal mask cushion for CPAP therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ding-Yang; Cheng, Yih-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2015-12-01

    A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is considered one of the most effective treatments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, many patients receiving this treatment complain of mask discomfort and other issues. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a customized nasal mask cushion to reduce the discomfort associated with conventional masks. First, a 3D face scanner was used to obtain 3D facial data of participants. Second, a model of the face was created by reverse-engineering and then used for the computer-aided design (CAD) of the cushion. Finally, computer numerical control (CNC) was used to manufacture the mold, into which silicone was then injected slowly. A perceived comfort questionnaire was used to compare the customized and conventional cushions. 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the control group used a conventional cushion, and the remaining 20 patients used the customized cushion. The customized cushion was found to be superior to the conventional cushion. There are clear differences in the headgear force of the two cushion types (P = 0.001). The customized cushion applied less force to a patient’s face than a conventional cushion. Furthermore, there were obvious differences in the fit of the cushions (P = 0.001). Patients using the customized cushions experienced a better fit than those using the conventional cushions. This study has developed a new method for manufacturing customized cushions with better cushion fit through rapid tooling.

  5. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  7. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  8. Development of a night-driving simulator concept for night vision image-intensification device training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Piccione, Dino; Woodward, Kim G.

    1997-06-01

    The use of night vision devices (NVDs) by US Army foot soldiers, aviator,s and drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles has enhanced operations at night by allowing increased mobility and potentially safer operations. With this increased capability in the night environment has come an increased exposure to the hazards of that environment and the risks that the command structure must manage and balance with mission requirements. Numerous vehicular accidents have occurred during night filed exercises involving drivers wearing image intensification (I2) systems. These accidents can frequently be attributed to perceptual problems experienced by the drivers. Performance with NVDs generally increases with practice and experience. However, there is little formal training provided in night driving skills and few opportunities to practice these skills under realistic conditions. This paper reports the approach and preliminary result of an effort to define and demonstrate a low-cost night driving simulator concept for training night driving skills with I2 devices and to identify and evaluate the techniques and resources that are available for implementing this approach.

  9. Development of a vision non-contact sensing system for telerobotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoub, M.; Her, M.-G.; Ho, M.-I.; Huang, C.-C.

    2013-08-01

    The study presented here describes a novel vision-based motion detection system for telerobotic operations such as distant surgical procedures. The system uses a CCD camera and image processing to detect the motion of a master robot or operator. Colour tags are placed on the arm and head of a human operator to detect the up/down, right/left motion of the head as well as the right/left motion of the arm. The motion of the colour tags are used to actuate a slave robot or a remote system. The determination of the colour tags' motion is achieved through image processing using eigenvectors and colour system morphology and the relative head, shoulder and wrist rotation angles through inverse dynamics and coordinate transformation. A program is used to transform this motion data into motor control commands and transmit them to a slave robot or remote system through wireless internet. The system performed well even in complex environments with errors that did not exceed 2 pixels with a response time of about 0.1 s. The results of the experiments are available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFxLaVWE3f8 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nvRcOzlWHw

  10. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review.

    PubMed

    Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; López-Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Erenas, Miguel M; Palma, Alberto J

    2015-10-29

    Chemical analysis based on colour changes recorded with imaging devices is gaining increasing interest. This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly analytical procedures in many areas that demand out-of-lab applications for in situ and real-time monitoring. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based analytical (CVAC) procedures and systems from 2005 to 2015, a period of time when 87.5% of the papers on this topic were published. The background regarding colour spaces and recent analytical system architectures of interest in analytical chemistry is presented in the form of a tutorial. Moreover, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analysing digital images are addressed. Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, our opinion about future perspectives is discussed.

  11. A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, O

    1992-05-01

    We have not been able to find any prospective study of the risk of developing occupational dermatitis in the car manufacturing industry. To try to define individual predictive risk factors for the development of hand eczema and to determine the prevalence of hand eczema within 1 year in an automobile manufacturing industry, we investigated prospectively 1564 new employees during one year of employment. Only persons with previous atopic dermatitis or hand eczema were restricted to dry and clean workplaces. The employees were personally interviewed and examined before their employment. Written questionnaires were used at 3 and 12 months to obtain information on type of work, exposure, protection and hand dermatitis. All patients developing hand eczema were examined, patch tested and followed to determine the course and consequence of their eczema. The risk turned out to be only 4% on average, but significantly higher in females (6%). Certain sections within the factory such as wet work (canteen/kitchen and cleaning) and work in the paint shop with high exposure to organic solvents carried significantly higher risks. Heavy exposure to mineral oil, a known risk factor, was effectively counteracted by the extensive use of protective gloves to yield a lower than average prevalence in the press and body shop. Individual risk factors for the development of hand eczema were previous hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, but also wool intolerance and hay fever as isolated phenomena. Most cases of hand eczema were mild, of irritant contact type and only 1 employee developed an allergic contact dermatitis due to the working environment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1395598

  12. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Contractor's work for Lewis Research Center on "thermal barrier" coatings designed to improve aircraft engine efficiency resulted in two related but separate spinoffs. The Materials and Manufacturing Technology Center of TRW, Inc. invented a robotic system for applying the coating, and in the course of that research found it necessary to develop a new, extremely accurate type of optical gage that offers multiple improvements in controlling the quality of certain manufactured parts.

  13. Supercritical fluid chromatography for GMP analysis in support of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing activities.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael B; Regalado, Erik L; Tan, Feng; Gong, Xiaoyi; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has long been a preferred method for enantiopurity analysis in support of pharmaceutical discovery and development, but implementation of the technique in regulated GMP laboratories has been somewhat slow, owing to limitations in instrument sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness. In recent years, commercialization of next generation analytical SFC instrumentation has addressed previous shortcomings, making the technique better suited for GMP analysis. In this study we investigate the use of modern SFC for enantiopurity analysis of several pharmaceutical intermediates and compare the results with the conventional HPLC approaches historically used for analysis in a GMP setting. The findings clearly illustrate that modern SFC now exhibits improved precision, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness; also providing superior resolution and peak capacity compared to HPLC. Based on these findings, the use of modern chiral SFC is recommended for GMP studies of stereochemistry in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing.

  14. Concepts for the Development of Nanoscale Stable Precipitation-Strengthened Steels Manufactured by Conventional Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y.-W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, Ö. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    The development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  15. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  16. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    DOE PAGES

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; et al

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modifiedmore » alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.« less

  17. Can Professional Development Make the Vision of the Standards a Reality? The Impact of the National Science Foundation's Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banilower, Eric R.; Heck, Daniel J.; Weiss, Iris R.

    2007-01-01

    Professional development is seen as one of the major levers for aligning science instruction in the USA with the vision put forth by national standards documents. Although there is a growing consensus regarding what constitutes effective professional development, there is little empirical evidence to support this consensus. This study examines the…

  18. Job Prospects for Manufacturing Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Coming from a variety of disciplines, manufacturing engineers are keys to industry's efforts to modernize, with demand exceeding supply. The newest and fastest-growing areas include machine vision, composite materials, and manufacturing automation protocols, each of which is briefly discussed. (JN)

  19. The vision trap.

    PubMed

    Langeler, G H

    1992-01-01

    At Mentor Graphics Corporation, Gerry Langeler was the executive responsible for vision, and vision, he discovered, has the power to weaken a strong company. Mentor helped to invent design-automation electronics in the early 1980s, and by the end of the decade, it dominated the industry. In its early days, fighting to survive, Mentor's motto was Build Something People Will Buy. Then when clear competition emerged in the form of Daisy Systems, a startup that initially outsold Mentor, the watchword became Beat Daisy. Both "visions" were pragmatic and immediate. They gave Mentor a sense of purpose as it developed its products and gathered momentum. Once Daisy was beaten, however, company vision began to self-inflate. As Mentor grew more and more successful, Langeler formulated vision statements that were more and more ambitious, grand, and inspirational. The company traded its gritty determination to survive for a dream of future glory. The once explicit call for effective action became a fervid cry for abstract perfection. The first step was Six Boxes, a transitional vision that combined goals for success in six business areas with grandiose plans to compete with IBM at the level of billion-dollar revenues. From there, vision stepped up to the 10X Imperative, a quality-improvement program that focused on arbitrary goals and measures that were, in fact, beyond the company's control. The last escalation came when Mentor Graphics decided to Change the Way the World Designs. The company had stopped making product and was making poetry. Finally, in 1991, after six years of increasing self-infatuation, Mentor hit a wall of decreasing indicators. Langeler, who had long since begun to doubt the value of abstract visions, reinstated Build Something People Will Buy. And Mentor was back to basics, a sense of purpose back to its workplace.

  20. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  1. The Role of a Physical Analysis Laboratory in a 300 mm IC Development and Manufacturing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakman, L. F. Tz.; Bicais-Lepinay, N.; Courtas, S.; Delille, D.; Juhel, M.; Trouiller, C.; Wyon, C.; de la Bardonnie, M.; Lorut, F.; Ross, R.

    2005-09-01

    To remain competitive IC manufacturers have to accelerate the development of most advanced (CMOS) technology and to deliver high yielding products with best cycle times and at a competitive pricing. With the increase of technology complexity, also the need for physical characterization support increases, however many of the existing techniques are no longer adequate to effectively support the 65-45 nm technology node developments. New and improved techniques are definitely needed to better characterize the often marginal processes, but these should not significantly impact fabrication costs or cycle time. Hence, characterization and metrology challenges in state-of-the-art IC manufacturing are both of technical and economical nature. TEM microscopy is needed for high quality, high volume analytical support but several physical and practical hurdles have to be taken. The success rate of FIB-SEM based failure analysis drops as defects often are too small to be detected and fault isolation becomes more difficult in the nano-scale device structures. To remain effective and efficient, SEM and OBIRCH techniques have to be improved or complemented with other more effective methods. Chemical analysis of novel materials and critical interfaces requires improvements in the field of e.g. SIMS, ToF-SIMS. Techniques that previously were only used sporadically, like EBSD and XRD, have become a `must' to properly support backend process development. At the bright side, thanks to major technical advances, techniques that previously were practiced at laboratory level only now can be used effectively for at-line fab metrology: Voltage Contrast based defectivity control, XPS based gate dielectric metrology and XRD based control of copper metallization processes are practical examples. In this paper capabilities and shortcomings of several techniques and corresponding equipment are presented with practical illustrations of use in our Crolles facilities.

  2. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  3. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  4. Development of a continuous manufacturing method for a CFRP collapsible tube mast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, D. H.; Davidson, R.; Lee, R. J.; Thorpe, T.

    1986-06-01

    A sequential molding process was developed for forming continuous lengths of profiled carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet, and for the edge-bonding of two identical profiles to produce a lenticular-shaped collapsible tube mast (CTM). The process was designed to enable a wide range of CTM sizes, characterized by the shape radius r, to be produced, and it will accept either thermosetting or thermoplastic matrix composites. The Tube Manufacturing Method (TMM) was proved by the construction of a laboratory scale rig and its use to produce continuously 10 m lengths of mast profile of uniform section and surface finish. The mechanical properties of the fabrics impregnated with the two resins were measured to provide basic tube mast design data. Viscoelastic relaxations in both types of composites were determined after storing sections of mast profile in the flattened condition over periods of time as a function of temperature.

  5. Eduard Jaeger's Test-Types (Schrift-Scalen) and the historical development of vision tests.

    PubMed Central

    Runge, P E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE

  6. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on the triangle orientation discrimination methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Nicolas; Bijl, Piet; Deltel, Geoffroy

    2015-02-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, ministry of defenses and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The image intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, Photonis investigates the link between its products' physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include (1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, (2) an image-based night vision simulation, and (3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: (1) being able to support the need of the integrators and end-users and (2) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, Photonis and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. We present the Photonis night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices, and show range prediction examples.

  7. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  8. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  9. Mortality among workers at a plastics manufacturing and research and development facility: 1946-1988.

    PubMed

    Dell, L; Teta, M J

    1995-09-01

    Mortality through 1988 was studied for 5,932 male employees who worked between January 1, 1946 and December 31, 1967 at a New Jersey plastics manufacturing and research and development facility. The cohort was followed for an average of 32 years and included 1,859 deaths. Potential exposures included asbestos, formaldehyde, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Mortality rates for the cohort were compared to both U.S. and state mortality rates, and analyses were also performed by lagging duration of employment. Based on U.S. rates, mortality among hourly males (n = 3,853) from all cancers was similar to expected [standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 102; 95% confidence interval (CI), 92-114]. Excess mortality among hourly workers was seen for pancreatic cancer (SMR, 146; 95% CI, 95-216) and "malignancies of other parts of the respiratory system" (SMR, 373; 95% CI, 121-870). The latter excess was due entirely to five deaths from pleural mesothelioma. There were no deaths identified due to nasal cavity or nasopharyngeal cancers, or angiosarcoma of the liver. Mortality from leukemia among research and development workers (n = 1,421) was significantly elevated (SMR, 265; 95% CI, 115-524) and related to assignment to process development. This study verifies the excess of pancreatic cancer among workers at the facility seen in earlier studies and observes excesses of mesothelioma due to asbestos exposure and leukemia in process development workers.

  10. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  11. Development and characterization of a cell culture manufacturing process using quality by design (QbD) principles.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Daniel M; Gao, Jinxin; Griffiths, Kristi; Froggatt, Christopher; Wang, Tongtong; Wei, Gan

    2014-01-01

    The principles of quality by design (QbD) have been applied in cell culture manufacturing process development and characterization in the biotech industry. Here we share our approach and practice in developing and characterizing a cell culture manufacturing process using QbD principles for establishing a process control strategy. Process development and characterization start with critical quality attribute identification, followed by process parameter and incoming raw material risk assessment, design of experiment, and process parameter classification, and conclude with a design space construction. Finally, a rational process control strategy is established and documented.

  12. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  13. Agrarian Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

  14. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  15. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Human Resource Development between Different Countries under the Vision of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jinyu; Huang, Erjia

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature review from English language journals related to the field of human resource development (HRD), the conceptual framework for this study was derived from the models developed by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) for HRD practice. This study compared and analyzed the similarities and differences in HRD roles,…

  17. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  18. Nanoimprint system development and status for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Tsuneo; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nishimura, Naosuke; Emoto, Keiji; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Atsushi; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made overlay, throughput and defectivity and to introduce the FPA-1200NZ2C cluster system designed for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices. in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Overlay results better than 5nm 3sigma have been demonstrated. To further enhance overlay, wafer chucks with improved flatness have been implemented to reduce distortion at the wafer edge. To address higher order corrections, a two part solution is discussed. An array of piezo actuators can be applied to enable linear corrections. Additional reductions in distortion can then be addressed by the local heating of a wafer field. The NZ2C cluster platform for high volume manufacturing is also discussed. System development continues this year with a target for introduction later in 2016. The first application is likely to be NAND Flash memory, and eventual use for DRAM and logic devices as both overlay and defectivity improve.

  19. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  20. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  1. Development of service-oriented products based on the inverse manufacturing concept.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Jun; Umeda, Yasushi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2003-12-01

    To achieve sustainability, resource consumption and waste generation must be drastically decreased. For societal acceptance, preservation of both quality of life and corporate profits are essential. One promising approach is to shift the source of value from the amount of product sold to the quality of services the product provides. This paper describes the need for redesigning recycling systems from a manufacturing perspective and then discusses the possibility of this "servicification" of products, describing our experience with prototype development. We discuss development of product prototypes and their business, using consumer facsimile machines as an example of "service-oriented products". Traditional thought presumes that only products comprising new materials and components are valuable. Consideration of a service-oriented product can serve as a stimulus to revise this mode of thought and to control delivery and quality of disposed products. This paper also provides a life cycle simulation of the developed service-oriented business. Simulation results indicate that service-oriented business can potentially reduce environmental impact while extending business opportunities from the viewpoint of whole product life cycles. PMID:14700325

  2. Development of service-oriented products based on the inverse manufacturing concept.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Jun; Umeda, Yasushi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2003-12-01

    To achieve sustainability, resource consumption and waste generation must be drastically decreased. For societal acceptance, preservation of both quality of life and corporate profits are essential. One promising approach is to shift the source of value from the amount of product sold to the quality of services the product provides. This paper describes the need for redesigning recycling systems from a manufacturing perspective and then discusses the possibility of this "servicification" of products, describing our experience with prototype development. We discuss development of product prototypes and their business, using consumer facsimile machines as an example of "service-oriented products". Traditional thought presumes that only products comprising new materials and components are valuable. Consideration of a service-oriented product can serve as a stimulus to revise this mode of thought and to control delivery and quality of disposed products. This paper also provides a life cycle simulation of the developed service-oriented business. Simulation results indicate that service-oriented business can potentially reduce environmental impact while extending business opportunities from the viewpoint of whole product life cycles.

  3. Novel in-space manufacturing concepts for the development of large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, J. T.; Reardon, P. J.; Gregory, D.; Manning, A.; Blackmon, J. B.; Howsman, T.; Williams, P.; Brantley, W.; Rakoczy, J. M.; Herren, K.; Tucker, D.; Sharma, A.

    2006-06-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes. Over the past several decades, we have seen the evolution from launchable 2 meter-class telescopes (such as Hubble), to today's demand for deployable 6 meter-class telescopes (such as JWST), to tomorrow's need for up to 150 meter-class telescopes. As the apertures continue to grow, it will become much more difficult and expensive to launch assembled telescope structures. To address this issue, we are seeing the emergence of new novel structural concepts, such as inflatable structures and membrane optics. While these structural concepts do show promise, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain high surface figure quality. Another potential solution to develop large space telescopes is to move the fabrication facility into space and launch the raw materials. In this paper we present initial in-space manufacturing concepts to enable the development of large telescopes. This includes novel approaches for the fabrication of the optical elements. We will also discuss potential optical designs for large space telescopes and describe their relation to the fabrication methods. These concepts are being developed to meet the demanding requirements of DARPA's LASSO (Large Aperture Space Surveillance Optic) program which currently requires a 150 meter optical aperture with a 16.6 degree field of view.

  4. Novel In-Space Manufacturing Concepts for the Development of Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James T.; Reardon, Patrick; Gregory Don; Manning, Andrew; Blackmon, Jim; Howsman, Tom; Williams, Philip; Brantley, Whitt; Rakoczy, John; Herren, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes. Over the past several decades, we have seen the evolution from launchable 2 meter-class telescopes (such as Hubble), to today s demand for deployable 6 meter-class telescopes (such as JWST), to tomorrow s need for up to 150 meter-class telescopes. As the apertures continue to grow, it will become much more difficult and expensive to launch assembled telescope structures. To address this issue, we are seeing the emergence of new novel structural concepts, such as inflatable structures and membrane optics. While these structural concepts do show promise, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain high surface figure quality. Another potential solution to develop large space telescopes is to move the fabrication facility into space and launch the raw materials. In this paper we present initial in-space manufacturing concepts to enable the development of large telescopes. This includes novel approaches for the fabrication of both the optical elements and the telescope support structure. We will also discuss potential optical designs for large space telescopes and describe their relation to the fabrication methods. These concepts are being developed to meet the demanding requirements of DARPA s LASSO (Large Aperture Space Surveillance Optic) program which currently requires a 150 meter optical aperture with a 17 degree field of view.

  5. Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife: A Vision to Facilitate Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Niemuth, Neal D.

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21533285

  6. Win-win for wind and wildlife: a vision to facilitate sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kiesecker, Joseph M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R; Kunz, Thomas H; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Niemuth, Neal D

    2011-04-13

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation.

  7. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  8. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  9. Religious Education in Botswana--An Example of Development, Progress and Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Geraint

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the development of religious education in Botswana from pre-colonial times to the present day. It explores the manner in which the subject has been influenced by the presence of missionary activity in the country during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as well as more recent post-colonial developments. The…

  10. The Nigeria Education System and Vision 20: 2020--A Critical Development Planning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanubi, Franklins A.; Akpotu, Nelson E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the call for Nigeria becoming one of the twenty most developed economies by the year 2020, as it relates to development planning in Nigeria using the educational system as a unit of analysis. It aims at examining the relevance of this call within the context of existing facilities in the Nigeria educational system--both material…

  11. Dual-Mode Teacher Professional Development: Challenges and Re-Visioning Future TPD in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widodo, Ari; Riandi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a two-year research project aimed at developing a teacher professional development (TPD) model in Indonesia. New government policies in this nation, its archipelagic nature, vast numbers of teachers and scarcity of support resources present a unique challenge to TPD. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-10-01

    The implementation and testing of a file-based CFD database was completed (Task 2.8). The capability for transferring temperature-dependent physical properties from Aspen Plus to Fluent was developed (Task 2.12). The GUI for enabling the process analyst to select models from the CFD database and edit certain CFD model parameters was developed and tested (Task 2.13). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was started (Task 2.15). A solution strategy capability for enabling the process analyst to switch between different models representing a unit operation block was developed and tested (Task 2.16). The development of the Configuration Wizard for converting a FLUENT CFD model into a CO UO model was completed (Task 2.18). A low-order model based on the multiple regression technique was developed and tested (Task 2.19). An installation kit for the V21 Controller was developed using the Installer Vise software (Task 2.24). A flow sheet model for Demo Case 2 was developed and tested for three loads (100%, 75%, and 50%). Documentation of Demo Case 2 was completed and submitted to DOE (Task 3.2). The debugging of the tube bank heat transfer model was completed. The model calibration for a range of loads was started. A problem of oscillating gas temperature was encountered. Work is underway to overcome this problem (Task 4.1).

  13. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  14. NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

  15. LISP: a laser imaging simulation package for developing and testing laser vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kung C.

    1993-01-01

    The difficulties commonly encountered in developing laser imaging technologies are: (1) high cost of the laser system, and (2) time and cost involved in modeling and maneuvering a physical environment for the desired scenes. In contrast to the real imaging systems, computer generated laser images provide researchers with fast, accurate, cost-effective data for testing and developing algorithms. The laser imaging simulation package (LISP) described in this paper provides an interactive solid modeler that allows users to construct the artificial environment by various solid modelling techniques. Two fast ray tracing algorithms were developed and discussed in this paper for generating the near realistic laser data of any desired scene. These computer generated laser data facilitates the researchers in developing laser imaging algorithms. Thus, LISP not only provides an ideal testbed for developing and testing algorithms, but also an opportunity to explore the limitation of laser imaging applications.

  16. Development of materials for the rapid manufacture of die cast tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardro, Peter Jason

    The focus of this research is to develop a material composition that can be processed by rapid prototyping (RP) in order to produce tooling for the die casting process. Where these rapidly produced tools will be superior to traditional tooling production methods by offering one or more of the following advantages: reduced tooling cost, shortened tooling creation time, reduced man-hours for tool creation, increased tool life, and shortened die casting cycle time. By utilizing RP's additive build process and vast material selection, there was a prospect that die cast tooling may be produced quicker and with superior material properties. To this end, the material properties that influence die life and cycle time were determined, and a list of materials that fulfill these "optimal" properties were highlighted. Physical testing was conducted in order to grade the processability of each of the material systems and to optimize the manufacturing process for the downselected material system. Sample specimens were produced and microscopy techniques were utilized to determine a number of physical properties of the material system. Additionally, a benchmark geometry was selected and die casting dies were produced from traditional tool materials (H13 steel) and techniques (machining) and from the newly developed materials and RP techniques (selective laser sintering (SLS) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS)). Once the tools were created, a die cast alloy was selected and a preset number of parts were shot into each tool. During tool creation, the manufacturing time and cost was closely monitored and an economic model was developed to compare traditional tooling to RP tooling. This model allows one to determine, in the early design stages, when it is advantageous to implement RP tooling and when traditional tooling would be best. The results of the physical testing and economic analysis has shown that RP tooling is able to achieve a number of the research objectives, namely

  17. Three-dimensional imaging system combining vision and ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wykes, Catherine; Chou, Tsung N.

    1994-11-01

    Vision systems are being applied to a wide range of inspection problems in manufacturing. In 2D systems, a single video camera captures an image of the object and application of suitable image processing techniques enables information about dimension, shape and the presence of features and flaws to be extracted from the image. This can be used to recognize, inspect and/or measure the part. 3D measurement is also possible with vision systems but requires the use of either two or more cameras, or structured lighting (i.e. stripes or grids) and the processing of such images is necessarily considerably more complex, and therefore slower and more expensive than 3D imaging. Ultrasonic imaging is widely used in medical and NDT applications to give 3D images; in these systems, the ultrasound is propagated into a liquid or a solid. Imaging using air-borne ultrasound is much less advanced, mainly due to the limited availability of suitable sensors. Unique 2D ultrasonic ranging systems using in-house built phased arrays have been developed in Nottingham which enable both the range and bearing of targets to be measured. The ultrasonic/vision system will combine the excellent lateral resolution of a vision system with the straightforward range acquisition of the ultrasonic system. The system is expected to extend the use of vision systems in automation, particularly in the area of automated assembly where it can eliminate the need for expensive jigs and orienting part-feeders.

  18. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  19. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  20. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of involving the arts, broadcasting…

  1. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  2. [A new vision of nursing: the evolution and development of nursing informatics].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rung-Chuang; Yeh, Yu-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Technology development trends in the 21st century are increasingly focused on the development of interdisciplinary applications. Advanced information technology may be applied to integrate nursing care information, simplify nursing processes, and reduce the time spent on work tasks, thereby increasing the amount of time that clinical personnel are available to care for patients and ensuring that patients are provided with high-quality and personalized care services. The development of nursing information began in Taiwan in 2003 and has since expanded and thrived. The ability of nursing information to connect formerly insular national nursing communities promotes the international visibility of Taiwan. The rapid development of nursing information in Taiwan, resulting in the production of informative and outstanding results, has received worldwide attention. The Taiwan Nursing Informatics Association was established in 2006 to nurture nursing information professionals, develop and apply information technology in the health care domain, and facilitate international nursing information exchanges. The association actively promotes nursing information in the areas of administration, education, research, and clinical practice, thereby integrating nursing with empirical applications to enhance the service quality and management of nursing and increase the benefits of nursing teaching and research. To convert information into knowledge, the association develops individualized strategies for managing mobile care and employs an interagency network to exchange and reintegrate resources, establishing active, intelligent nursing based on network characteristics and an empirical foundation. The mid- and long-term objectives of the association involve introducing cloud computing and facilitating the meaningful use of nursing information in both public and government settings, thereby creating a milestone of developing and expanding nursing information unique to Taiwan. PMID

  3. [A new vision of nursing: the evolution and development of nursing informatics].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rung-Chuang; Yeh, Yu-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Technology development trends in the 21st century are increasingly focused on the development of interdisciplinary applications. Advanced information technology may be applied to integrate nursing care information, simplify nursing processes, and reduce the time spent on work tasks, thereby increasing the amount of time that clinical personnel are available to care for patients and ensuring that patients are provided with high-quality and personalized care services. The development of nursing information began in Taiwan in 2003 and has since expanded and thrived. The ability of nursing information to connect formerly insular national nursing communities promotes the international visibility of Taiwan. The rapid development of nursing information in Taiwan, resulting in the production of informative and outstanding results, has received worldwide attention. The Taiwan Nursing Informatics Association was established in 2006 to nurture nursing information professionals, develop and apply information technology in the health care domain, and facilitate international nursing information exchanges. The association actively promotes nursing information in the areas of administration, education, research, and clinical practice, thereby integrating nursing with empirical applications to enhance the service quality and management of nursing and increase the benefits of nursing teaching and research. To convert information into knowledge, the association develops individualized strategies for managing mobile care and employs an interagency network to exchange and reintegrate resources, establishing active, intelligent nursing based on network characteristics and an empirical foundation. The mid- and long-term objectives of the association involve introducing cloud computing and facilitating the meaningful use of nursing information in both public and government settings, thereby creating a milestone of developing and expanding nursing information unique to Taiwan.

  4. Combination of a vision system and a coordinate measuring machine for rapid coordinate metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yufu; Pu, Zhaobang; Liu, Guodong

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology that integrates a vision system and a coordinate measuring machine for rapid coordinate metrology. Rapid acquisition of coordinate data from parts having tiny dimension, complex geometry and soft or fragile material has many applications. Typical examples include Large Scale Integrated circuit, glass or plastic part measurement, and reverse engineering in rapid product design and realization. In this paper, a novel approach to a measuring methodology for a vision integrated coordinate measuring system is developed and demonstrated. The vision coordinate measuring system is characterized by an integrated use of a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM), a vision system, advanced computational software, and the associated electronics. The vision system includes a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, a self-adapt brightness power, and a graphics workstation with an image processing board. The vision system along with intelligent feature recognition and auto-focus algorithms provides the feature point space coordinate of global part profile after the system has been calibrated. The measured data may be fitted to geometry element of part profile. The obtained results are subsequently used to compute parameters consist of curvature radius, distance, shape error and surface reconstruction. By integrating the vision system with the CMM, a highly automated, high speed, 3D coordinate acquisition system is developed. It has potential applications in a whole spectrum of manufacturing problems with a major impact on metrology, inspection, and reverse engineering.

  5. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  6. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  7. Developing a Vision: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making - Proceedings of a Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Dianna; Arthaud, Greg; Goodman, Iris; Pattison, Malka; Sayre, Roger G.; Shapiro, Carl; Van Horne, Bea

    2009-01-01

    The production, location, use, and value of ecosystem services have become an important factor in resource management. Decisions relating to resource conservation and restoration, as well as development, require an understanding of the services provided by natural systems and the response of these systems to natural and human-induced change. Increased demands for development and the resulting pressures on ecosystem services have lent urgency to the need for an improved understanding of the value of natural capital. However, resource management decisions are often made without considering the importance and value of services resulting from natural systems.

  8. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  9. Cartesian visions.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  10. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  11. Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

  12. Connecting Assessment, Testing and Faculty Development: The Vision of Excellence at Virginia Union University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohia, Uche; Hayes, Delores M.

    At Virginia Union University, an historically black institution in Richmond, Virginia, assessment, testing, and faculty development are connected in a systematic approach designed to determine what students need to know, demonstrate how much students know, and decide what needs to be done to enhance student learning through teaching effectiveness.…

  13. Educational Technology Diffusion in Organizations: A Call for Systemic Vision and Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    The research and development in Europe of new educational technologies and methodologies is in continuous progress. We are not, however, seeing at the same time an equally wide diffusion of these technologies and methodologies in organizational contexts (Blain, 2011). In short, there is a quite marked difference between the speed with which…

  14. A New Vision for Student Development Services for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Bradford W.; Tarasuk, Paul E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive model of development guidance and counseling for community colleges. Reviews historic trends and recent changes in community college counseling, highlighting issues related to role confusion and changing focus. Describes counselor roles and program components (i.e., individual planning, guidance curriculum, responsive…

  15. Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.: The Vision and the History, 1976-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrys, James G.; Koller, Albert M., Jr., Ed.

    Focusing on organizational structure, operational policies, and scope of activities, this monograph relates the history of the Community Colleges for International Development, Inc. (CCID), a cooperative endeavor to promote international education in two-year colleges. The first chapter describes CCID's formative years, from its foundation in 1976…

  16. Covert Orienting to Central Vision Cues and Sport Practice Relations in the Development of Visual Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nougier, Vincent; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The development of visual orienting to a cued target on the part of practicing and nonpracticing tennis players aged 13, 16, and 25 years was examined. Results indicated that practicers were not faster than nonpracticers in processing visual information and that subjects of all ages oriented attention voluntarily to cued locations. (LB)

  17. Integrating Industry Resources and Community Development: A Vision for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Sally Joy

    The Adult Basic Education Program at Umgeni Water, a water authority in South Africa, is a workplace literacy program that seeks to impart skills within the workplace that can be used in community development, benefiting both the business and community involved. From a pilot project in 1989, the adult education program at Umgeni Water has grown…

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-04-01

    A software review meeting was held at Fluent Inc. in Lebanon, NH on January 31-February 1, 2002. The team reviewed the current status of the software and its compliance with the software requirements (Task 2). Work on a fuel cell based power-plant flow sheet that incorporates a reformer CFD model was started. This test case includes more features (multiple ports, temperature dependent properties) than the mixing tank test case developed earlier and will be used for the further testing of the software (Task 2). The software development plan was finalized (Task 2.7). The design and implementation of a CFD database was commenced. The CFD database would store various models that a process analyst can use in the flowsheet model (Task 2.8). The COM-CORBA Bridge was upgraded to use the recently published version 0.9.3 CAPE-OPEN specifications. Work on transferring reaction kinetics data from Aspen Plus to Fluent was started (Task 2.11). The requirements for extending CAPE-OPEN interfaces in Aspen Plus to transfer temperature dependent properties to Fluent was written and communicated to the Aspen Tech developer of CAPE-OPEN interfaces (Task 2.12). A prototype of low-order model based on the Multiple Regression technique was written. A low-order model is required to speed up the calculations with the integrated model (Task 2.19). The Berkshire Power (Agawam, MA) combined-cycle power plant was selected as the Demonstration Case 2 (Task 3.2). A CFD model of the furnace in Demonstration Case 1 was developed. The furnace model will be incorporated into the flowsheet model already developed for this case (Task 4.1). A new hire joined the Fluent development team for this project. The project management plan was revised based on the software development plan. A presentation on the project status was made at the Clearwater Conference, March 4-7, 2002. The final manuscript for ESCAPE-12 conference was submitted (Task 7.0).

  19. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development, growth and sex ratios of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. I: chronic laboratory exposures to VisionMax®.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martín, L; Lanctôt, C; Jackman, P; Park, B J; Doe, K; Pauli, B D; Trudeau, V L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide VisionMax(®) affects the survival, development, growth, sex ratios and expression of specific genes involved in metamorphosis of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus). We hypothesized that exposure to this herbicide will affect developmental rates by disrupting hormone pathways, sex ratios and/or gonadal morphology. Tadpoles were chronically exposed in the laboratory from Gosner developmental stage 25 to 42 to four different concentrations of VisionMax(®) (ranging from 0.021 to 2.9 mg acid equivalents/L). Chronic exposures to VisionMax(®) had direct effects on the metamorphosis of L. sylvaticus tadpoles by decreasing development rates, however, there was a decrease in survival only in the group exposed to the highest dose of VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L; from approximately 96% in the control group to 77% in the treatment group). There was a decrease in the number of tadpoles reaching metamorphic climax, from 78% in the control group to 42% in the VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L) group, and a 7-day delay to reach metamorphic climax in the same treatment group. No effects of exposure on sex ratios or gonadal morphology were detected in tadpoles exposed to any of the concentrations of VisionMax(®) tested. Gene expression analyses in brain and tail tissues demonstrated that exposure to VisionMax(®) alters the expression of key genes involved in development. Results showed significant interaction (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05) between developmental Gosner stage and treatment in brain corticotropin-releasing factor, deiodinase type II (dio2) and glucocorticotiroid receptor (grII) and tail dio2 and grII. This demonstrates that mRNA levels may be differently affected by treatment depending on the developmental stage at which they are assessed. At the same time there was a clear dose-response effect for VisionMax(®) to increase thyroid hormone receptor β in tadpole brain (F(2

  20. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development, growth and sex ratios of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. I: chronic laboratory exposures to VisionMax®.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martín, L; Lanctôt, C; Jackman, P; Park, B J; Doe, K; Pauli, B D; Trudeau, V L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide VisionMax(®) affects the survival, development, growth, sex ratios and expression of specific genes involved in metamorphosis of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus). We hypothesized that exposure to this herbicide will affect developmental rates by disrupting hormone pathways, sex ratios and/or gonadal morphology. Tadpoles were chronically exposed in the laboratory from Gosner developmental stage 25 to 42 to four different concentrations of VisionMax(®) (ranging from 0.021 to 2.9 mg acid equivalents/L). Chronic exposures to VisionMax(®) had direct effects on the metamorphosis of L. sylvaticus tadpoles by decreasing development rates, however, there was a decrease in survival only in the group exposed to the highest dose of VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L; from approximately 96% in the control group to 77% in the treatment group). There was a decrease in the number of tadpoles reaching metamorphic climax, from 78% in the control group to 42% in the VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L) group, and a 7-day delay to reach metamorphic climax in the same treatment group. No effects of exposure on sex ratios or gonadal morphology were detected in tadpoles exposed to any of the concentrations of VisionMax(®) tested. Gene expression analyses in brain and tail tissues demonstrated that exposure to VisionMax(®) alters the expression of key genes involved in development. Results showed significant interaction (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05) between developmental Gosner stage and treatment in brain corticotropin-releasing factor, deiodinase type II (dio2) and glucocorticotiroid receptor (grII) and tail dio2 and grII. This demonstrates that mRNA levels may be differently affected by treatment depending on the developmental stage at which they are assessed. At the same time there was a clear dose-response effect for VisionMax(®) to increase thyroid hormone receptor β in tadpole brain (F(2

  1. Artificial Vision: Vision of a Newcomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikado, Takashi; Sawai, Hajime; Tano, Yasuo

    The Japanese Consortium for an Artificial Retina has developed a new stimulating method named Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS). Using STS, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were effectively elicited in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats and in rabbits and cats with normal vision, using relatively small stimulus currents, such that the spatial resolution appeared to be adequate for a visual prosthesis. The histological analysis showed no damage to the rabbit retina when electrical currents sufficient to elicit distinct EEPs were applied. It was also shown that transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) to the retina prevented the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). STS, which is less invasive than other retinal prostheses, could be one choice to achieve artificial vision, and the optimal parameters of electrical stimulation may also be effective for the neuroprotection of residual RGCs.

  2. Technology Roadmap for Dual-Mode Scramjet Propulsion to Support Space-Access Vision Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Guy, R. Wayne; McClinton, Charles R.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2002-01-01

    Third-generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems are envisioned that utilize airbreathing and combined-cycle propulsion to take advantage of potential performance benefits over conventional rocket propulsion and address goals of reducing the cost and enhancing the safety of systems to reach earth orbit. The dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) forms the core of combined-cycle or combination-cycle propulsion systems for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles and provides most of the orbital ascent energy. These concepts are also relevant to two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) systems with an airbreathing first or second stage. Foundation technology investments in scramjet propulsion are driven by the goal to develop efficient Mach 3-15 concepts with sufficient performance and operability to meet operational system goals. A brief historical review of NASA scramjet development is presented along with a summary of current technology efforts and a proposed roadmap. The technology addresses hydrogen-fueled combustor development, hypervelocity scramjets, multi-speed flowpath performance and operability, propulsion-airframe integration, and analysis and diagnostic tools.

  3. The efficacy of optometric vision therapy. The 1986/87 Future of Visual Development/Performance Task Force.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Vision is not simply the ability to read a certain size letter at a distance of 20 feet. Vision is a complex and adaptable information gathering and processing system which collects, groups, analyzes, accumulates, equates, and remembers information. In this review, some of the essential components of the visual system and their disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified, i.e., the oculomotor, the accommodative, and the fusional vergence systems have been discussed. Any dysfunctions in these systems, can lessen the quality and quantity of the initial input of information into the visual system. Deficiencies in one or more of these visual subsystems have been shown to result in symptoms, such as blurred or uncomfortable vision or headaches, or behavioral signs such as rubbing of the eyes, eyes turning inward or outward, reduced job efficiency or reading performance, or simply the avoidance of near point tasks. In addition, these signs/symptoms may contribute to reducing a person's attention and interest in near tasks. The goal of vision therapy is to eliminate visual problems, thereby reducing the frequency and severity of the patient's signs and symptoms. Vision therapy should only be expected to be of clinical benefit to patients who have detectable visual deficiencies. In response to the question, "How effective is vision therapy in remediating visual deficiencies?," it is evident from the research presented that there is sufficient scientific support for the efficacy of vision therapy in modifying and improving oculomotor, accommodative, and binocular system disorders, as measured by standardized clinical and laboratory testing methods, in the majority of patients of all ages for whom it is properly undertaken and employed. The American Optometric Association reaffirms its long-standing position that vision therapy is an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of many physiological and information processing dysfunctions of the

  4. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  5. Technical note: development of a quantitative PCR method for monitoring strain dynamics during yogurt manufacture.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Dudley, E G; Roberts, R F

    2012-09-01

    Yogurt starter cultures may consist of multiple strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). Conventional plating methods for monitoring LB and ST levels during yogurt manufacture do not allow for quantification of individual strains. The objective of the present work was to develop a quantitative PCR method for quantification of individual strains in a commercial yogurt starter culture. Strain-specific primers were designed for 2 ST strains (ST DGCC7796 and ST DGCC7710), 1 LB strain (DGCC4078), and 1 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis strain (LL; DGCC4550). Primers for the individual ST and LB strains were designed to target unique DNA sequences in clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats. Primers for LL were designed to target a putative mannitol-specific IIbC component of the phosphotransferase system. Following evaluation of primer specificity, standard curves relating cell number to cycle threshold were prepared for each strain individually and in combination in yogurt mix, and no significant differences in the slopes were observed. Strain balance data was collected for yogurt prepared at 41 and 43°C to demonstrate the potential application of this method.

  6. Symbology Development for General Aviation Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Displays for the Approach and Missed-Approach Modes of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Hughes, Monica F.; Wong, Douglas T.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial disorientation induced by inadvertent flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) continues to be a leading cause of fatal accidents in general aviation. The Synthetic Vision Systems General Aviation (SVS-GA) research element, an integral part of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP), is investigating a revolutionary display technology designed to mitigate low visibility events such as controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and low-visibility loss of control (LVLoC). The integrated SVS Primary Flight Display (SVS-PFD) utilizes computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain augmented with flight path guidance symbology. This unique combination will provide GA pilots with an accurate representation of their environment and projection of their flight path, regardless of time of day or out-the-window (OTW) visibility. The initial Symbology Development for Head-Down Displays (SD-HDD) simulation experiment examined 16 display configurations on a centrally located high-resolution PFD installed in NASA s General Aviation Work Station (GAWS) flight simulator. The results of the experiment indicate that situation awareness (SA) can be enhanced without having a negative impact on flight technical error (FTE), by providing a general aviation pilot with an integrated SVS display to use when OTW visibility is obscured.

  7. Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics Applicable to the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick , Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the anticipated requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Methods of protecting and hardening electronics against the encountered space environment are discussed. Critical stages of a spaceflight mission that are vulnerable to radiation-induced interruptions or failures are identified. Solutions to mitigating the risk of radiation events are proposed through the infusion of RHESE technology products and deliverables into the Constellation program's spacecraft designs.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.`

    2001-04-20

    The project management plan was finalized during a project kick off meeting held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which was attended by all project participants. The project management plan was submitted to DOE and was revised based on comments from DOE (Task 1.0). A survey of the potential users of the integrated software was conducted. A web-based survey form was developed and was announced in the ProcessCity discussion forum and in AspenTech's e-mail digest Aspen e-Flash. Several Fluent clients were individually contacted. A user requirements document was written (Task 2.2). As a prototype of AspenPlus-Fluent integration, the flowsheet for allyl alcohol production via the isomerization of propylene oxide was developed. A stirred tank reactor in the flowsheet for converting the byproduct acetone into n-propyl propionate was modeled with Fluent, version 5.4. The convergence of the AspenPlus-Fluent integrated model was demonstrated, and a list of data exchanges required between AspenPlus and Fluent was developed (Task 2.6). As the first demonstration case, the RP and L power plant was selected. A planning meeting was held on February 13, 2001 in Cambridge, MA to discuss this demonstration case. It was decided that the steam-side of the power plant would be modeled with AspenPlus and the gas-side, with the ALSTOM Power in-house code INDVU. A flowsheet model of the power plant was developed (Task 3.1). Three positive responses were received for the invitation to join the project Advisory Board. It was decided to expand the membership on the Advisory Board to include other industrial users interested in integrating AspenPlus and Fluent. Additional invitations were sent out (Task 5.0). Integraph's role in the project was restructured based on discussions among the project participants. Fluent hired Dr. Maxwell Osawe to work on the project. Dr. Osawe brings to the project a unique combination of skills (expertise in CFD and object-oriented design and programming

  9. Update On The Development, Testing, And Manufacture Of High Density LEU-Foil Targets For The Production Of Mo-99

    SciTech Connect

    Creasy, John T

    2015-05-12

    This project has the objective to reduce and/or eliminate the use of HEU in commerce. Steps in the process include developing a target testing methodology that is bounding for all Mo-99 target irradiators, establishing a maximum target LEU-foil mass, developing a LEU-foil target qualification document, developing a bounding target failure analysis methodology (failure in reactor containment), optimizing safety vs. economics (goal is to manufacture a safe, but relatively inexpensive target to offset the inherent economic disadvantage of using LEU in place of HEU), and developing target material specifications and manufacturing QC test criteria. The slide presentation is organized under the following topics: Objective, Process Overview, Background, Team Structure, Key Achievements, Experiment and Activity Descriptions, and Conclusions. The High Density Target project has demonstrated: approx. 50 targets irradiated through domestic and international partners; proof of concept for two front end processing methods; fabrication of uranium foils for target manufacture; quality control procedures and steps for manufacture; multiple target assembly techniques; multiple target disassembly devices; welding of targets; thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical modeling; robust target assembly parametric studies; and target qualification analysis for insertion into very high flux environment. The High Density Target project has tested and proven several technologies that will benefit current and future Mo-99 producers.

  10. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 21, Materials and processes selection. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.R.

    1995-08-15

    This document identifies the candidate materials and manufacturing processes selected for development of the TPX Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet. Supporting rationale and selection criteria are provided for justification and the materials properties database report is included for completeness. Specific properties for each material selection are included in this document.

  11. Intelligent Vision Systems Independent Research and Development (IR&D) 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Clinton; Chavis, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes results in conduct of research sponsored by the 2006 Independent Research and Development (IR&D) program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The focus of this IR&D is neural network (NN) technology provided by Imagination Engines, Incorporated (IEI) of St. Louis, Missouri. The technology already has many commercial, military, and governmental applications, and a rapidly growing list of other potential spin-offs. The goal for this IR&D is implementation and demonstration of the technology for autonomous robotic operations, first in software and ultimately in one or more hardware realizations. Testing is targeted specifically to the MSFC Flat Floor, but may also include other robotic platforms at MSFC, as time and funds permit. For the purpose of this report, the NN technology will be referred to by IEI's designation for a subset configuration of its patented technology suite: Self-Training Autonomous Neural Network Object (STANNO).

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-07-10

    The training of a new project team member was completed (Task 2.1). The Software Requirements Document was written (Task 2.3). It was determined that the CAPE-OPEN interfaces are sufficient for the communication between Fluent and V21 Controller (Task 2.4). The AspenPlus-Fluent prototype on allyl/triacetone alcohol production was further developed to assist the GUI and software design tasks. The prototype was also used to analyze the sensitivity of a process simulation result with respect to a parameter in a CFD model embedded in the process simulation. Thus the integration of process simulation and CFD provides additional process insights and enables the engineer to optimize overall process performance (e.g., product purity and yield) with respect to important CFD design and operation parameters (e.g., CSTR shaft speed). A top-level design of the V21 Controller was developed and discussed. A draft version of the Software Design Document was written (Task 2.5/2.6). A preliminary software development plan was outlined. At first the V21 Controller will be developed and tested in two parts--a part that communicates with Fluent and a part that communicates with Aspen Plus. Then the two parts will be combined and tested with the allyl/triacetone alcohol flow sheet simulation. Much progress was made in writing the code for the two parts (Task 2.7). A requirement for pre-configured models was identified and added to the software requirements document (Task 2.9). Alstom Power's INDVU code was ported to the PC platform and calibrated. Aspen Plus model of the RP&L unit was improved to reflect the latest information received on the unit. Thus the preparation for linking INDVU code with the Aspen Plus model of RP&L unit is complete (Task 2.14). A report describing Demo Case 1 was written and submitted to DOE for review and approval (Task 3.1). The first Advisory Board meeting was held at the Fluent Users Group Meeting on June 6th. At the Advisory Board meeting, the project was

  13. Developing a European grid infrastructure for cancer research: vision, architecture and services

    PubMed Central

    Tsiknakis, M; Rueping, S; Martin, L; Sfakianakis, S; Bucur, A; Sengstag, T; Brochhausen, M; Pucaski, J; Graf, N

    2007-01-01

    Life sciences are currently at the centre of an information revolution. The nature and amount of information now available opens up areas of research that were once in the realm of science fiction. During this information revolution, the data-gathering capabilities have greatly surpassed the data-analysis techniques. Data integration across heterogeneous data sources and data aggregation across different aspects of the biomedical spectrum, therefore, is at the centre of current biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. This paper reports on original results from the ACGT integrated project, focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multi-centric, post-genomic clinical trials (CTs) on cancer. Post-genomic CTs use multi-level clinical and genomic data and advanced computational analysis and visualization tools to test hypotheses in trying to identify the molecular reasons for a disease and the stratification of patients in terms of treatment. The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs and presents indicative scenarios, which drive the requirements of the engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented, and its services are classified and discussed. A range of such key services, including the Master Ontology on sCancer, which lie at the heart of the integration architecture of the project, is presented. Special efforts have been taken to describe the methodological and technological framework of the project, enabling the creation of a legally compliant and trustworthy infrastructure. Finally, a short discussion of the forthcoming work is included, and the potential involvement of the cancer research community in further development or utilization of the infrastructure is described. PMID:22275955

  14. Developing a European grid infrastructure for cancer research: vision, architecture and services.

    PubMed

    Tsiknakis, M; Rueping, S; Martin, L; Sfakianakis, S; Bucur, A; Sengstag, T; Brochhausen, M; Pucaski, J; Graf, N

    2007-01-01

    Life sciences are currently at the centre of an information revolution. The nature and amount of information now available opens up areas of research that were once in the realm of science fiction. During this information revolution, the data-gathering capabilities have greatly surpassed the data-analysis techniques. Data integration across heterogeneous data sources and data aggregation across different aspects of the biomedical spectrum, therefore, is at the centre of current biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D.This paper reports on original results from the ACGT integrated project, focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multi-centric, post-genomic clinical trials (CTs) on cancer. Post-genomic CTs use multi-level clinical and genomic data and advanced computational analysis and visualization tools to test hypotheses in trying to identify the molecular reasons for a disease and the stratification of patients in terms of treatment.The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs and presents indicative scenarios, which drive the requirements of the engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented, and its services are classified and discussed. A range of such key services, including the Master Ontology on sCancer, which lie at the heart of the integration architecture of the project, is presented. Special efforts have been taken to describe the methodological and technological framework of the project, enabling the creation of a legally compliant and trustworthy infrastructure. Finally, a short discussion of the forthcoming work is included, and the potential involvement of the cancer research community in further development or utilization of the infrastructure is described.

  15. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision. PMID:26528120

  16. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  17. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  18. Topiramate induced sudden loss of vision.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Mehreen; Siddiqui, Muhammad Abdul Rehman

    2012-10-01

    The case of a 20 year old female presenting with overnight acute loss of vision is reported. The patient was recently started on topiramate (Hitop) for her recurrent migraine and developed sudden loss of vision due to acute myopia. Topiramate was discontinued and the patient's vision returned to normal. Delayed and incorrect treatment may result in permanent vision loss, secondary to angle closure glaucoma; therefore it is imperative that prescribing physicians are aware of this rare but serious ocular emergency.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-07-01

    A software design review meeting was held May 2-3 in Lebanon, NH. The work on integrating a reformer model based on CFD with a fuel cell flow sheet was completed (Task 2.0). The CFD database design was completed and the database API's finalized. A file -based CFD database was implemented and tested (Task 2.8). The task COM-CORBA Bridge-I was completed. The bridge now has CO interfaces for transferring reaction kinetics information from Aspen Plus to Fluent (Task 2.11). The capability for transferring temperature-dependent physical properties from Aspen Plus to Fluent was implemented (Task 2.12). Work on ''Model Selection'' GUI was completed. This GUI allows the process analyst to select models from the CFD database. Work on ''Model Edit'' GUI was started (Task 2.13). A version of Aspen Plus with the capability for using CO parameters in ''design spec'' analysis has become available. With this version being available, work on adding CO wrapper to INDVU code has been started (Task 2.15). A preliminary design for the Solution Strategy class was developed (Task 2.16). The requirements for transferring pressure data between Aspen Plus and Fluent were defined. The ability to include two CFD models in a flow sheet was successfully tested. The capability to handle multiple inlets and outlets in a CO block was tested (Task 2.17). A preliminary version of the Configuration Wizard, which helps a user to make any Fluent model readable from a process simulator, was developed and tested (Task 2.18). Work on constructing a flow sheet model for Demo Case 2 was started. The work on documenting Demo Case 2 is nearing completion (Task 3.2). A Fluent heat exchanger model was installed and tested. Work on calibrating the heat exchanger model was started (Task 4.1). An advisory board meeting was held in conjunction with the Fluent Users Group Meeting on Monday, June 10, 2002. The meeting minutes and presentations for the advisory board meeting have been posted on the project website

  20. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  1. Development of vision based multiview gait recognition system with MMUGait database.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hu; Tan, Wooi-Haw; Abdullah, Junaidi; Tong, Hau-Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the acquisition setup and development of a new gait database, MMUGait. This database consists of 82 subjects walking under normal condition and 19 subjects walking with 11 covariate factors, which were captured under two views. This paper also proposes a multiview model-based gait recognition system with joint detection approach that performs well under different walking trajectories and covariate factors, which include self-occluded or external occluded silhouettes. In the proposed system, the process begins by enhancing the human silhouette to remove the artifacts. Next, the width and height of the body are obtained. Subsequently, the joint angular trajectories are determined once the body joints are automatically detected. Lastly, crotch height and step-size of the walking subject are determined. The extracted features are smoothened by Gaussian filter to eliminate the effect of outliers. The extracted features are normalized with linear scaling, which is followed by feature selection prior to the classification process. The classification experiments carried out on MMUGait database were benchmarked against the SOTON Small DB from University of Southampton. Results showed correct classification rate above 90% for all the databases. The proposed approach is found to outperform other approaches on SOTON Small DB in most cases.

  2. Development of Vision Based Multiview Gait Recognition System with MMUGait Database

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hu; Tan, Wooi-Haw; Tong, Hau-Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the acquisition setup and development of a new gait database, MMUGait. This database consists of 82 subjects walking under normal condition and 19 subjects walking with 11 covariate factors, which were captured under two views. This paper also proposes a multiview model-based gait recognition system with joint detection approach that performs well under different walking trajectories and covariate factors, which include self-occluded or external occluded silhouettes. In the proposed system, the process begins by enhancing the human silhouette to remove the artifacts. Next, the width and height of the body are obtained. Subsequently, the joint angular trajectories are determined once the body joints are automatically detected. Lastly, crotch height and step-size of the walking subject are determined. The extracted features are smoothened by Gaussian filter to eliminate the effect of outliers. The extracted features are normalized with linear scaling, which is followed by feature selection prior to the classification process. The classification experiments carried out on MMUGait database were benchmarked against the SOTON Small DB from University of Southampton. Results showed correct classification rate above 90% for all the databases. The proposed approach is found to outperform other approaches on SOTON Small DB in most cases. PMID:25143972

  3. A New Vision for Partnerships between Water Quality Practitioners and the Research Community: Nutrient Criteria Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C. R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stevenson, R. J.; Tillman, D.

    2005-05-01

    State water quality assessments repeatedly cite nutrients as one of the top three causes of use impairment in surface waters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published recommendations for nutrient water quality criteria in 2001 to assist States and others in addressing this source of surface water impairment. These criteria provide numeric targets for use in interpreting monitoring data, establishing pollution controls, and assessing progress. USEPA intended these published criteria for lakes and streams to serve as a starting point for States and others to develop more refined nutrient criteria to protect designated uses. States and others are now utilizing ongoing research to determine either: (1) appropriate reference conditions that represent a level of water quality which has no use impairments due to nutrient over-enrichment, or (2) quantitative relationships among nutrients and parameters that are more directly related to or descriptive of the particular designated use. Our goal is to provide a critical linkage between researchers and policy-makers such that: (1) researchers understand how scientific studies can be translated into water quality criteria, and (2) regulatory agency staff responsible for implementing the Clean Water Act have access to the latest nutrient-related science.

  4. CanSat Competition: Contributing to the Development of NASA's Vision for Robotic Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Joshua; Berman, Timothy; Billheimer, Thomas; Biclmer. Elizabeth; Hood, Stuart; Neas, Charles

    2007-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The CanSat competition is designed for college, university and high school students wanting to participate in an applicable space-related competition. The objective of the CanSat competition is to complete space exploration missions by designing a specific system for a small sounding rocket payload which will follow and perform to a specific set of rules and guidelines for each year's competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, judging and competition. The mission guidelines are based from space exploration missions and include bonus requirement options which teams may choose to participate in. The fundamental goal of the competition is to educate future engineers and scientists. This is accomplished by students applying systems engineering practices to a development project that incorporates an end-to-end life cycle, from requirements analysis, through preliminary design, integration and testing, an actual flight of the CanSat, and concluding with a post-mission debrief. This is done specifically with space related missions to bring a unique aspect of engineering and design to the competition. The competition has been progressing since its creation in 2005. The competition was originally meant to purely convey the engineering and design process to its participants, but through many experiences the competition has also undergone a learning experience with respect to systems engineering process and design. According

  5. Developing a Vision for Communicating Physics, Including Astronomy, in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Bardeen, M.; Barnett, M.; Campbell, D.; Landsberg, R.; Ruchti, R.; Simmons, E.; Aspen Physics E&O; Workshop Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Physicists and astronomers are excited and fascinated by what they observe in nature. Sharing this excitement with students and the general public is rewarding to them as individuals and is extraordinarily beneficial for democratic societies. Educational outreach plays an increasing role in the careers of working physicists; many are already involved in outreach, and all are being encouraged by the federal granting agencies to share the excitement of their research fields with a broader audience. A two-week workshop at the Aspen Center for Physics in the summer of 2004 brought together physicists from several disciplines, including astronomy; K-12 educators; informal science educators; developers of educational materials; as well as professional science communicators from the media and publishing worlds. The participants shared their ongoing education and outreach projects, as well as their needs and wishes, in a mixture of presentations, demonstrations, and informal discussions. The rich panoply of education products and services produced by physicists and their organizations was apparent even from this relatively small cross-section. However, the full potential impact of these efforts may not be realized if the target audience, such as teachers, are either not aware of the opportunities or have difficulty implementing them due to time or curriculum needs. Hence, much of the discussion centered on access rather than new education initiatives. Teachers need one-stop shopping for materials and programs, as well as stronger grass-roots locally tailored partnerships with universities, research institutes, and museums. One of the proposals for addressing these and other needs is a small national virtual institute for physics education and outreach, patterned along the lines of successful virtual research institutes, such as the virtual Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter (ICAM). EJH is supported by an NSF AAPF. The Aspen Workshop was funded by NSF's MPS Directorate

  6. Quantification of visual characteristics of whipped cream by image analysis and machine vision: method development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Balaban, Murat O

    2015-04-01

    The appearance (color, shine, surface roughness, bumpiness, view area, height) of whipped cream samples change with time. Quantitative methods based on image analysis were developed to measure these parameters in cream samples stored at 3 temperatures (room temperature, 10 °C and 2 °C) for up to 24 h. There was a small decrease in L* and a* values over time, and a significant increase in b* values. ΔE values suggest that these color changes are significant and observable (2.96 for room temperature, 9.46 for 10 °C, 12.6 for 2 °C). Difference between polarized and nonpolarized images was used to quantify shine. The length of a laser line over the cream sample was measured to quantify the change in bumpiness of the surface (33.8%, 41.78%, and 33.27% reduction in laser line length for room temperature, 10 °C, and 2 °C, respectively). For room temperature stored samples, most changes occurred during the first 5 min. For samples stored at 10 °C and 2 °C, most changes occurred during the first 30 min. Turn angles data did not provide useful information. The changes in view area depended on temperature: at room temperature the area increased over time, at 10 °C it increased first then decreased; at 2 °C the view area decreased over time. Correlation of the results of these methods with sensory evaluation can make the evaluation of the appearance of whipped cream more objective, repeatable, and quantitative.

  7. Materials processing towards development of rapid prototyping technology for manufacturing biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekin, Senol

    2000-10-01

    Materials processing towards development of fused deposition of materials (FDM) method for manufacturing biomedical implants has been studied experimentally. Main processing steps consisted of thermoplastic binder development in the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)-microcrystalline wax system, feedstock extrusion, characterization and optimization of binder degradation, and sintering of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the melting index (MI) of the copolymer affects the temperature location of the solidification exotherm, whereas the effect on the temperature location of the melting endotherm was negligible. Nonisothermal measurement of viscosity of different blends as a function of VA content of the EVA component revealed that the microcrystalline wax is compatible with 25--14% VA-containing EVA grades. Further DSC analysis revealed that co-crystallization leads to compatible EVA-microcrystalline wax blends. A typical binder formulation that was developed in the present work has a viscosity of about 700 cP at 140°C, a compressive yield strength of 6 MPa and an elastic modulus of about 600 MPa, and contained 15--20% EVA and 80--85% microcrystalline wax. Various filaments with a nominal diameter of 1.8 mm were extruded by using such a binder, and calcium pyro-phosphate powder that had a distribution modulus of about 0.37. Measurement of physical dimensions of the filament revealed that fluid state can be achieved in the filaments. Simultaneous thermal analysis of degradation characteristics of the typical binder formulations revealed that degradation sequence is oxidation of the hydrocarbons, evaporation of the hydrocarbons, degradation of the vinyl acetate, and degradation of the ethylene chain. A rate controlled binder removal system was developed and used in order to optimize the binder removal schedule. Sintering of gel-cast calcium hydroxyapatite was studied by means of thermal analysis, XRD, mechanical

  8. Comprehensive hands-on training for influenza vaccine manufacturing: a WHO-BARDA-BTEC partnership for global workforce development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Gilleskie, Gary L; Brown, Patty; Burnett, Bruce; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2014-01-01

    The critical need for enhancing influenza pandemic preparedness in many developing nations has led the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), to develop an international influenza vaccine capacity-building program. Among the critical limitations faced by many of these nations is lack of access to training programs for staff supporting operations within vaccine production facilities. With support from BARDA, the Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University has addressed this need for training by developing and delivering a comprehensive training program, consisting of three courses: Fundamentals of cGMP Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, Advanced Upstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, and Advanced Downstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing. The courses cover process design, transfer, and execution at manufacturing scale, quality systems, and regulations covering both manufacturing and approval of pandemic vaccines. The Fundamentals course focuses on the concepts, equipment, applicable regulations, and procedures commonly used to produce influenza vaccine. The two Advanced courses focus on process design, scale up, validation, and new technologies likely to improve efficiency of vaccine production. All three courses rely on a combination of classroom instruction and hands-on training in BTEC's various laboratories. Each course stands alone, and participants may take one or more of the three courses. Overall participant satisfaction with the courses has been high, and follow-up surveys show that participants actively transferred the knowledge they gained to the workplace. Future plans call for BTEC to continue offering the three courses and to create an online version of several modules of the Fundamentals course.

  9. Comprehensive hands-on training for influenza vaccine manufacturing: a WHO-BARDA-BTEC partnership for global workforce development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Gilleskie, Gary L; Brown, Patty; Burnett, Bruce; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2014-01-01

    The critical need for enhancing influenza pandemic preparedness in many developing nations has led the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), to develop an international influenza vaccine capacity-building program. Among the critical limitations faced by many of these nations is lack of access to training programs for staff supporting operations within vaccine production facilities. With support from BARDA, the Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University has addressed this need for training by developing and delivering a comprehensive training program, consisting of three courses: Fundamentals of cGMP Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, Advanced Upstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, and Advanced Downstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing. The courses cover process design, transfer, and execution at manufacturing scale, quality systems, and regulations covering both manufacturing and approval of pandemic vaccines. The Fundamentals course focuses on the concepts, equipment, applicable regulations, and procedures commonly used to produce influenza vaccine. The two Advanced courses focus on process design, scale up, validation, and new technologies likely to improve efficiency of vaccine production. All three courses rely on a combination of classroom instruction and hands-on training in BTEC's various laboratories. Each course stands alone, and participants may take one or more of the three courses. Overall participant satisfaction with the courses has been high, and follow-up surveys show that participants actively transferred the knowledge they gained to the workplace. Future plans call for BTEC to continue offering the three courses and to create an online version of several modules of the Fundamentals course. PMID:25132407

  10. Next-generation leadership development in family businesses: the critical roles of shared vision and family climate.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    The multigenerational survival rate for family-owned businesses is not good. Lack of a shared vision for the family enterprise and weak next-generation leadership are often cited as two of the leading reasons for the failure of family firms to successfully transition from one generation of family ownership to the next. The climate of the business-owning family has also been suggested as important to the performance of the family enterprise. Despite these commonly held tenets, there is a lack of rigorous quantitative research that explores the relationships among these three factors. To address this gap, a quantitative study of 100 next-generation family firm leaders and 350 family and non-family leaders and employees with whom they work was conducted. The results demonstrate that a shared vision for the family business has a strong effect on the leadership effectiveness of next-generation family leaders and a moderate effect on the degree to which they are positively engaged with their work. The findings also show that two dimensions of family climate significantly influence the likelihood that a shared vision for the family firm has been created. Open communication in the family is positively related to the presence of a shared vision for the business. Intergenerational authority, which refers to a senior generation that exercises unquestioned authority and sets the rules, is negatively related to the presence of a shared vision. Surprisingly, a third dimension of family climate, cognitive cohesion, which includes shared values in the family, had no relationship with the degree to which there was a shared vision for the family business. The implications for family business owners is that they would be wise to spend as much time on fostering a positive family climate characterized by open communication as they do on creating and executing a successful business strategy if their goal is to pass the business from one generation of family owners to the next.

  11. Next-generation leadership development in family businesses: the critical roles of shared vision and family climate.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    The multigenerational survival rate for family-owned businesses is not good. Lack of a shared vision for the family enterprise and weak next-generation leadership are often cited as two of the leading reasons for the failure of family firms to successfully transition from one generation of family ownership to the next. The climate of the business-owning family has also been suggested as important to the performance of the family enterprise. Despite these commonly held tenets, there is a lack of rigorous quantitative research that explores the relationships among these three factors. To address this gap, a quantitative study of 100 next-generation family firm leaders and 350 family and non-family leaders and employees with whom they work was conducted. The results demonstrate that a shared vision for the family business has a strong effect on the leadership effectiveness of next-generation family leaders and a moderate effect on the degree to which they are positively engaged with their work. The findings also show that two dimensions of family climate significantly influence the likelihood that a shared vision for the family firm has been created. Open communication in the family is positively related to the presence of a shared vision for the business. Intergenerational authority, which refers to a senior generation that exercises unquestioned authority and sets the rules, is negatively related to the presence of a shared vision. Surprisingly, a third dimension of family climate, cognitive cohesion, which includes shared values in the family, had no relationship with the degree to which there was a shared vision for the family business. The implications for family business owners is that they would be wise to spend as much time on fostering a positive family climate characterized by open communication as they do on creating and executing a successful business strategy if their goal is to pass the business from one generation of family owners to the next. PMID

  12. Next-generation leadership development in family businesses: the critical roles of shared vision and family climate

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The multigenerational survival rate for family-owned businesses is not good. Lack of a shared vision for the family enterprise and weak next-generation leadership are often cited as two of the leading reasons for the failure of family firms to successfully transition from one generation of family ownership to the next. The climate of the business-owning family has also been suggested as important to the performance of the family enterprise. Despite these commonly held tenets, there is a lack of rigorous quantitative research that explores the relationships among these three factors. To address this gap, a quantitative study of 100 next-generation family firm leaders and 350 family and non-family leaders and employees with whom they work was conducted. The results demonstrate that a shared vision for the family business has a strong effect on the leadership effectiveness of next-generation family leaders and a moderate effect on the degree to which they are positively engaged with their work. The findings also show that two dimensions of family climate significantly influence the likelihood that a shared vision for the family firm has been created. Open communication in the family is positively related to the presence of a shared vision for the business. Intergenerational authority, which refers to a senior generation that exercises unquestioned authority and sets the rules, is negatively related to the presence of a shared vision. Surprisingly, a third dimension of family climate, cognitive cohesion, which includes shared values in the family, had no relationship with the degree to which there was a shared vision for the family business. The implications for family business owners is that they would be wise to spend as much time on fostering a positive family climate characterized by open communication as they do on creating and executing a successful business strategy if their goal is to pass the business from one generation of family owners to the next. PMID

  13. Thermoplastic Composites Reinforced with Textile Grids: Development of a Manufacturing Chain and Experimental Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, R.; Hufnagl, E.; Kupfer, R.; Engler, T.; Hausding, J.; Cherif, C.; Hufenbach, W.

    2013-12-01

    A significant improvement in the properties of plastic components can be achieved by introducing flexible multiaxial textile grids as reinforcement. This reinforcing concept is based on the layerwise bonding of biaxially or multiaxially oriented, completely stretched filaments of high-performance fibers, e.g. glass or carbon, and thermoplastic components, using modified warp knitting techniques. Such pre-consolidated grid-like textiles are particularly suitable for use in injection moulding, since the grid geometry is very robust with respect to flow pressure and temperature on the one hand and possesses an adjustable spacing to enable a complete filling of the mould cavity on the other hand. The development of pre-consolidated textile grids and their further processing into composites form the basis for providing tailored parts with a large number of additional integrated functions like fibrous sensors or electroconductive fibres. Composites reinforced in that way allow new product groups for promising lightweight structures to be opened up in future. The article describes the manufacturing process of this new composite class and their variability regarding reinforcement and function integration. An experimentally based study of the mechanical properties is performed. For this purpose, quasi-static and highly dynamic tensile tests have been carried out as well as impact penetration experiments. The reinforcing potential of the multiaxial grids is demonstrated by means of evaluating drop tower experiments on automotive components. It has been shown that the load-adapted reinforcement enables a significant local or global improvement of the properties of plastic components depending on industrial requirements.

  14. Extremely aspheric mirrors: prototype development of an innovative manufacturing process based on active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Le Merrer, Joël.; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of focal-plane astronomical instruments requires technological breakthroughs to reduce their system complexity while increasing their scientific performances. Applied to the optical systems, recent studies show that the use of freeform reflective optics allows competitive compact systems with less optical components. In this context, our challenge is to supply an active freeform mirror system, using a combination of different active optics techniques. The optical shape will be provided during the fabrication using the mechanical property of metals to plasticize and will be coupled with a specific actuator system to compensate for the residual form errors, during the instrument operation phase. We present in this article the development of an innovative manufacturing process based on cold hydro-forming method, with the aim to adapt it for VIS/NIR requirements in terms of optical surface quality. It can operate on thin and flat polished initial substrates. The realization of a first prototype for a 100 mm optical diameter mirror is in progress, to compare the mechanical behaviours obtained by tests and by Finite Element Analysis (FEA), for different materials. Then, the formed samples will be characterized optically. The opto-mechanical results will allow a fine tuning of FEA parameters to optimize the residual form errors obtained through this process. It concerns the microstructure considerations, the springback effects and the work hardening evolutions of the samples, depending on the initial substrate properties and the boundary conditions applied. Modeling and tests have started with axi-symmetric spherical and aspherical shapes and will continue with highly aspherics and freeforms.

  15. The design and manufacturing development of an active silicon substrate MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughton, M. G.; Waite, L.

    1994-10-01

    The demand for engine control systems with reduced weight, size and cost, increased integration, improved reliability and higher temperature operation drives the system designer to the use of advanced hybrid assembly technologies. This paper describes the design and manufacturing development of a silicon based 'D' type multichip module, MCM, containing an active substrate of memory. This CPU module is one of the building blocks for a range of generic engine control systems. The active substrate approach potentially gives higher packing density than wafer scale due to its 3D configuration. The active substrate comprises 12 SRAM 128K x 8 bit of diffused memory arranged in groups of three. The design is organized so that a 'memory manager' ASIC selects pages of good memory from the substrate die thus obtaining the best possible yield. A single wafer contains 4 silicon hybrid substrates, each approximately 40mm sq, which will be processed before separating into discrete circuits. The MCM structure is comprised of four aluminium metallization layers with benzocyclobutene, BCB, as the dielectric. Approximately 16 other devices including a processor, the 'memory manager' ASIC, a Processor Support ASIC and EDPROM, plus resistor network chips and decoupling capacitors will be added to the silicon substrate using adhesive and wire bond interconnection. The 'memory manager' ASIC tests the RAM on power-up, reject areas of bad memory and configures the good areas such that a continuous block of functional RAM is available to the processor. The RAM is configured as a 16 bit wide with both 16 bit and 8 bit read/write accesses being supported. The total module is to be assembled in a high temperature co-fired ceramic package with 200 I/O. After test and any rework that may be necessary the package will be sealed with a Kovar lid ready for final test.

  16. Development of magnetodielectric materials to be used in additive manufacturing processes for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Paul Emerson, II

    Electrical devices for very-high frequency (VHF, 0.03 -- 0.3 GHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 0.3 -- 3.0 GHz) are commonly used for communications. However, the wavelengths, lambda, of these frequency bands correspond to lengths between 10 and 0.1 m, resulting in prohibitively large devices. Materials with an index of refraction, n, greater than 1 can be used to effectively shrink these devices by a factor of 1/ n. In this thesis, magnetodielectric materials (MDM), where n ≥1, have been made to be used in additive manufacturing processes with strict particle size requirements and were developed using various methods, such as polyol reduction and conventional ceramic solid state processing. These materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), to determine their crystalline, physical, and direct current (DC) magnetization properties. The techniques used to synthesize the MDM yielded particles that were chemically similar, but had drastically different physical properties which heavily influences their high-frequency electromagnetic properties. These materials were then uniformly dispersed into a non-conducting medium, such as a low-electrical loss polymer or resin, and formed into composite samples with variable volumetric loading. These composite samples were measured using several techniques to characterize the frequency-dependent electromagnetic (EM) properties, such as relative permeability, relative permittivity, and their respective losses. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were performed using these MDM-composites to design a spiral antenna to be used at approximately 585 MHz.

  17. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  18. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  19. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  20. Development of a DNA Array for the Simple Identification of Major Filamentous Fungi in the Beverage Manufacturing Environment.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Fuyuki; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed. Genus- and species-specific probes with 13- to 20-mer were designed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences in the D2 region. The probes were affixed to a microscope slide after modifying an amino group at the 5'or 3'end. To prevent erroneous identification, 2 or 3 probes were designed for each of the target genera and species. The developed DNA array method correctly identified 9 genera (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Exophiala, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, and Trichoderma) and 26 species belonging to 6 genera (Aspergillus, Neosartorya, Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, Paecilomyces, and Purpureocillium) in the strains isolated from the indoor environment. Identification results obtained by this DNA array method of fungi isolated from the manufacturing plant were consistent with those by the conventional method. PMID:27667521

  1. Expression patterns of Eph genes in the "dual visual development" of the lamprey and their significance in the evolution of vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daichi G; Murakami, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Yuji; Wada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Image-forming vision is crucial to animals for recognizing objects in their environment. In vertebrates, this type of vision is achieved with paired camera eyes and topographic projection of the optic nerve. Topographic projection is established by an orthogonal gradient of axon guidance molecules, such as Ephs. To explore the evolution of image-forming vision in vertebrates, lampreys, which belong to the basal lineage of vertebrates, are key animals because they show unique "dual visual development." In the embryonic and pre-ammocoete larval stage (the "primary" phase), photoreceptive "ocellus-like" eyes develop, but there is no retinotectal optic nerve projection. In the late ammocoete larval stage (the "secondary" phase), the eyes grow and form into camera eyes, and retinotectal projection is newly formed. After metamorphosis, this retinotectal projection in adult lampreys is topographic, similar to that of gnathostomes. In this study, we explored the involvement of Ephs in lamprey "dual visual development" and establishment of the image-form vision. We found that gnathostome-like orthogonal gradient expression was present in the retina during the "secondary" phase; i.e., EphB showed a gradient of expression along the dorsoventral axis, while EphC was expressed along the anteroposterior axis. However, no orthogonal gradient expression was observed during the "primary" phase. These observations suggest that Ephs are likely recruited de novo for the guidance of topographical "second" optic nerve projection. Transformations during lamprey "dual visual development" may represent "recapitulation" from a protochordate-like ancestor to a gnathostome-like vertebrate ancestor.

  2. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  3. Mobile robot navigation with vision-based neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inigo, Rafael M.; Torres, Raul E.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile robot technology is spreading its use in the development of advance manufacturing systems. Methods of multi-sensory fusion data with vision, sonar and limit switches have been developed as the most flexible, but expensive approaches. Other approaches are more common such as buried wire AGV's. They decrease the cost of the mobile robot, but degrade the flexibility of the navigation system as well. This paper uses neural networks (NNs) with only one camera to obtain similar flexibility as the high cost approaches, but in a cost-efficient way. The NNs use translation and perspective information of features in images to determine the proper alignment and position of the mobile robot.

  4. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  5. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  6. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  7. 77 FR 69634 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Associations; the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare; the Japanese Pharmaceutical Manufacturers.... In the Federal Register of June 29, 2011 (76 FR 38187), FDA published a notice announcing the...'s current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person...

  8. Frontline Leaders: The Entry Point for Leadership Development in the Manufacturing Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lucy; McMurray, Adela J.

    2004-01-01

    This multi-method case study examined the roles, functions, capabilities, job satisfaction, strengths, weaknesses and skill gaps of frontline team leaders working on the shopfloor in the Australian automobile industry. The study was conducted in a large automobile manufacturing company employing 4,500 employees and rated as one of the top 22…

  9. 75 FR 33769 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Availability of Funds for Projects To Develop and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... organizations for projects that address new and emerging competitive needs of manufacturers in areas consistent.... Please see the NIST MEP Web site, http://www.nist.gov/mep for details on these strategies. Funded... region, and contribute to the long-term economic stability of the region. Competitive projects will...

  10. Intra-Individual Differences in Developing Professional Vision: Preservice Teachers' Changes in the Course of an Innovative Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stürmer, Kathleen; Seidel, Tina; Holzberger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason about observed classroom situations constitutes an essential aspect of teachers' professional vision and is seen as a key element of initial teacher education. The three aspects of the ability are as follows: to describe, explain, and predict classroom situations. Research has shown that field experiences, the acquisition of…

  11. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV may be hard to do. The leading causes of low vision and blindness in the United ... disorders, eye injuries and birth defects can also cause vision loss. Whatever the cause, lost vision cannot ...

  12. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  13. Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Retina Treatment Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Mar. 01, 2016 How does a detached or torn retina affect your vision? If a retinal tear is occurring, you may ...

  14. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  15. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The future will offer even more solutions. Newer technology for low vision aids While low vision devices ... magnifiers have long been the standard in assistive technology, advances in consumer electronics are also improving quality ...

  16. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices.

  17. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  18. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  19. Process development for the manufacture of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly using laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan William

    2005-07-01

    Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (LCVD) has been shown to have great potential for the manufacture of small, complex, two or three dimensional metal and ceramic parts. One of the most promising applications of the technology is in the fabrication of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly. This application requires the deposition of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite structure. In order to realize this structure, work was done to improve the control and understanding of the LCVD process and to determine experimental conditions conducive to the growth of the required materials. A series of carbon fiber and line deposition studies were used to characterize process-shape relationships and study the kinetics of carbon LCVD. These studies provided a foundation for the fabrication of the first high aspect ratio multi-layered LCVD wall structures. The kinetics studies enabled the formulation of an advanced computational model in the FLUENT CFD package for studying energy transport, mass and momentum transport, and species transport within a forced flow LCVD environment. The model was applied to two different material systems and used to quantify deposition rates and identify rate-limiting regimes. A computational thermal-structural model was also developed using the ANSYS software package to study the thermal stress state within an LCVD deposit during growth. Georgia Tech's LCVD system was modified and used to characterize both boron nitride and molybdenum deposition independently. The focus was on understanding the relations among process parameters and deposit shape. Boron nitride was deposited using a B3 N3H6-N2 mixture and growth was characterized by sporadic nucleation followed by rapid bulk growth. Molybdenum was deposited from the MoCl5-H2 system and showed slow, but stable growth. Each material was used to grow both fibers and lines. The fabrication of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite was also demonstrated. In sum, this work served to both advance the

  20. Health technologies for the developing world. Promoting self-reliance through improving local procurement and manufacturing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Green, J A; Morrow, M M

    1993-01-01

    To reduce their dependency on donors or the international currency costs of essential health care products, developing countries are building or improving capability for local manufacturing or competitive international procurement. Through long-term strategic planning, public/private partnerships, collaboration with firms in industrialized nations, and farsighted donor policies, the capacity for alternative supply can be increased in stages from importation through local processing and packaging to full production and multiproduct enterprises.

  1. Passive millimeter wave camera for enhanced vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoucri, Merit; Dow, G. Samuel; Fornaca, Steven W.; Hauss, Bruce I.; Yujiri, Larry; Shannon, James; Summers, Leland

    1996-05-01

    Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) sensors have been proposed as forward vision sensors for enhanced vision systems used in low visibility aircraft landing. This work reports on progress achieved to date in the development and manufacturing of a demonstration PMMW camera. The unit is designed to be ground and flight tested starting 1996. The camera displays on a head-up or head-down display unit a real time true image of the forward scene. With appropriate head-up symbology and accurate navigation guidance provided by global positioning satellite receivers on-board the aircraft, pilots can autonomously (without ground assist) execute category 3 low visibility take-offs and landings on non-equipped runways. We shall discuss utility of fielding these systems to airlines and other users.

  2. The SmartBioPhone, a point of care vision under development through two European projects: OPTOLABCARD and LABONFOIL.

    PubMed

    Ruano-López, Jesus M; Agirregabiria, Maria; Olabarria, Garbiñe; Verdoy, Dolores; Bang, Dang D; Bu, Minqiang; Wolff, Anders; Voigt, Anja; Dziuban, Jan A; Walczak, Rafał; Berganzo, Javier

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes how sixteen partners from eight different countries across Europe are working together in two EU projects focused on the development of a point of care system. This system uses disposable Lab on a Chips (LOCs) that carry out the complete assay from sample preparation to result interpretation of raw samples. The LOC is either embedded in a flexible motherboard with the form of a smartcard (Labcard) or in a Skinpatch. The first project, OPTOLABCARD, extended and tested the use of a thick photoresit (SU-8) as a structural material to manufacture LOCs by lamination. This project produced several examples where SU-8 microfluidic circuitry revealed itself as a viable material for several applications, such as the integration on chip of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) that includes sample concentration, PCR amplification and optical detection of Salmonella spp. using clinical samples. The ongoing project, LABONFOIL, is using two results of OPTOLABCARD: the sample concentration method and the capability to fabricate flexible and ultra thin LOCs based on sheets instead of wafers. This rupture from the limited and expensive wafer surface heritage allows the development of a platform where LOCs are big enough to include all the sample preparation subcomponents at a low price. These LOCs will be used in four point of care applications: environment, food, cancer and drug monitoring. The user will obtain the results of the tests by connecting the Labcard/Skinpatch reader to a very popular interface (a smartphone), creating a new instrument namely "The SmartBioPhone". All standard smartphone capabilities will be at the disposal of the point of care instrument by a simple click. In order to guarantee the future mass production of these LOCs, the project will develop a large dry film equipment where LOCs will be fabricated at a low cost. PMID:19458852

  3. Development of a virtual manufacturing framework: from end-user performance requirements to robot competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj; Scrapper, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the motivation behind the new joint NIST/IEEE Virtual Manufacturing Automation Competition (VMAC). This competition strives to take the Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) user community driven requirements and turn them into a low-entry-barrier competition. The objectives, scoring, performance metrics, and operation of the competition are explained. In addition, the entry-barrier lowering infrastructure that is provided to competitors is presented.

  4. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  5. Machine vision for digital microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  6. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  7. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  8. New Product Development for Green and Low-Carbon Products—A Case Study of Taiwan's TFT-LCD Manufacturer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.

    2011-11-01

    Green supply chain has become an important topic these days due to pollution, global warming, extreme climatic events, etc. A green product is manufactured with the goal of reducing the damage to the environment and limiting the use of energy and other resources at any stage of its life, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and disposal. Carbon footprint is a good measure of the impact that a product has on the environment, especially in climate change, in the entire lifetime of the product. Carbon footprint is directly linked to CO2 emission; thus, the reduction of CO2 emission must be considered in the product life cycle. Although more and more researchers are working on the green supply chain management in the past few years, few have incorporated CO2 emission or carbon footprint into the green supply chain system. Therefore, this research aims to propose an integrated model for facilitating the new product development (NPD) for green and low-carbon products. In this research, a systematic model based on quality function deployment (QFD) is constructed for developing green and low-carbon products in a TFT-LCD manufacturer. Literature review and interviews with experts are done first to collect the factors for developing and manufacturing green and low-carbon products. Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is applied next to extract the important factors, and fuzzy interpretive structural modeling (FISM) is used subsequently to understand the relationships among factors. A house of quality (HOQ) for product planning is built last. The results shall provide important information for a TFT-LCD firm in designing a new product.

  9. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  10. Development of a stereo vision measurement system for a 3D three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting; Hou, Chien-Lun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  11. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  12. Review: Lead exposure in battery manufacturing and recycling in developing countries and among children in nearby communities.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Pokhrel, Amod K

    2011-09-01

    The battery industry is the largest consumer of lead, using an estimated 80% of the global lead production. The industry is also rapidly expanding in emerging market countries. A review of published literature on exposures from lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling plants in developing countries was conducted. The review included studies from 37 countries published from 1993 to 2010 and excluded facilities in developed countries, such as the United States and those in Western Europe, except for providing comparisons to reported findings. The average worker blood lead level (BLL) in developing countries was 47 μg/dL in battery manufacturing plants and 64 μg/dL in recycling facilities. Airborne lead concentrations reported in battery plants in developing countries averaged 367 μg/m3, which is 7-fold greater than the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's 50 μg/m3 permissible exposure limit. The geometric mean BLL of children residing near battery plants in developing countries was 19 μg/dL, which is about 13-fold greater than the levels observed among children in the United States. The blood lead and airborne lead exposure concentrations for battery workers were substantially higher in developing countries than in the United States. This disparity may worsen due to rapid growth in lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling operations worldwide. Given the lack of regulatory and enforcement capacity in most developing countries, third-party certification programs may be the only viable option to improve conditions.

  13. Ensuring the optimal safety of licensed vaccines: a perspective of the vaccine research, development, and manufacturing companies.

    PubMed

    Kanesa-thasan, Niranjan; Shaw, Alan; Stoddard, Jeffrey J; Vernon, Thomas M

    2011-05-01

    Vaccine safety is increasingly a focus for the general public, health care providers, and vaccine manufacturers, because the efficacy of licensed vaccines is accepted as a given. Commitment to ensuring safety of all vaccines, including childhood vaccines, is addressed by the federal government, academia, and industry. Safety activities conducted by the vaccine research, development, and manufacturing companies occur at all stages of product development, from selection and formulation of candidate vaccines through postlicensure studies and surveillance of adverse-event reports. The contributions of multiple interacting functional groups are required to execute these tasks through the life cycle of a product. We describe here the safeguards used by vaccine manufacturers, including specific examples drawn from recent experience, and highlight some of the current challenges. Vaccine-risk communication becomes a critical area for partnership of vaccine companies with government, professional associations, and nonprofit advocacy groups to provide information on both benefits and risks of vaccines. The crucial role of the vaccine companies in ensuring the optimal vaccine-safety profile, often overlooked, will continue to grow with this dynamic arena.

  14. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  15. Virtual environment assessment for laser-based vision surface profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSoussi, Adnane; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2015-03-01

    Oil and gas businesses have been raising the demand from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement a reliable metrology method in assessing surface profiles of welds before and after grinding. This certainly mandates the deviation from the commonly used surface measurement gauges, which are not only operator dependent, but also limited to discrete measurements along the weld. Due to its potential accuracy and speed, the use of laser-based vision surface profiling systems have been progressively rising as part of manufacturing quality control. This effort presents a virtual environment that lends itself for developing and evaluating existing laser vision sensor (LVS) calibration and measurement techniques. A combination of two known calibration techniques is implemented to deliver a calibrated LVS system. System calibration is implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and 3D printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is inverted and compared with the input profiles to validate the virtual environment capability for LVS surface profiling and preliminary assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, this effort brings 3D scanning capability a step closer towards robust quality control applications in a manufacturing environment.

  16. Geodesics: a Tool in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantout, Rached Nabil

    In manufacturing nowadays, many applications await the development of computationally efficient, on-line, robotic systems that are able to mimic human capabilities. Robotic systems that are able to recognize or differentiate between a small number of objects have been developed over the past few years. The tools of choice for enabling a robot to recognize an object are almost always vision and touch. In this dissertation we re-introduce the concept of geodesics as useful curves to recognize a surface. We start by defining a geodesic and listing some of its properties. Then we introduce a new method to calculate geodesics using only digitized points on a surface. Geodesics are then proven to be useful in manufacturing by applying them to two areas. Geodesics are used to recognize the type and parameters of a surface based on its digitized points. Moreover, geodesics are used to calculate the material properties of a surface undergoing deformation. Many other applications are possible areas where geodesics can prove useful. We conclude this dissertation by talking about such applications and suggesting possible ways where geodesics can be used to improve those applications.

  17. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  18. INTEGRATED CARBONATION: A NOVEL CONCEPT TO DEVELOP A CO2 SEQUESTRATION MODULE FOR VISION 21 POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Matthew E. Kuchta

    2003-07-01

    The greatest challenge to achieve no environmental impact or zero emissions for the Vision 21 plants is probably greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2} emissions that are inevitably associated with fossil fuel combustion. Mineral carbonation, that involves the reaction of CO{sub 2} with non-carbonate minerals to form stable mineral carbonates, has been lately proposed as a promising CO{sub 2} sequestration technology due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the long term stability of the mineral carbonates formed, and the overall process being exothermic, and therefore, potentially economic viable. However, carbonation efficiency is being considered a major hurdle for the development of economically viable sequestration technologies, where present studies require extensive mineral particle communition, high pressures and prior capture of the CO{sub 2}. Consequently, mineral carbonation will only become a viable cost-effective sequestration technology through innovative development of fast reaction routes under milder regimes in a continuous process. The objective of the proposed novel active carbonation concept is to promote and accelerate reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that extensive mineral particle communition and high temperatures and pressures are not required. In this research program, serpentine was used as the carbonation feedstock material. Physical and chemical surface activation studies were conducted to promote its inherent carbonation reactivity. The activated materials were characterized by a battery of analytical techniques to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. Active carbonation studies were conducted and the carbonation activity was quantitatively determined by the increase of the weight of solid products and the percent of stoichiometric conversion. This work has shown that chemical activation was more effective than the physical activation

  19. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Crapps, Justin M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Katz, Joel D.; Alexander, David J.; Aikin, Beverly; Vargas, Victor D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Dombrowski, David E.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

  20. Object positioning in storages of robotized workcells using LabVIEW Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Sękala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    During the manufacturing process, each performed task is previously developed and adapted to the conditions and the possibilities of the manufacturing plant. The production process is supervised by a team of specialists because any downtime causes great loss of time and hence financial loss. Sensors used in industry for tracking and supervision various stages of a production process make it much easier to maintain it continuous. One of groups of sensors used in industrial applications are non-contact sensors. This group includes: light barriers, optical sensors, rangefinders, vision systems, and ultrasonic sensors. Through to the rapid development of electronics the vision systems were widespread as the most flexible type of non-contact sensors. These systems consist of cameras, devices for data acquisition, devices for data analysis and specialized software. Vision systems work well as sensors that control the production process itself as well as the sensors that control the product quality level. The LabVIEW program as well as the LabVIEW Vision and LabVIEW Builder represent the application that enables program the informatics system intended to process and product quality control. The paper presents elaborated application for positioning elements in a robotized workcell. Basing on geometric parameters of manipulated object or on the basis of previously developed graphical pattern it is possible to determine the position of particular manipulated elements. This application could work in an automatic mode and in real time cooperating with the robot control system. It allows making the workcell functioning more autonomous.

  1. Vision guided automatic measuring in coordinate metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhong; Wang, Lei; Xie, Lusheng; Huang, Yuanqing

    2008-12-01

    A novel automatically measuring planning method in coordinate metrology based on computer vision is presented in this paper. An active stereo vision system is established by attaching a CCD camera to the mechanical probe of the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Through the movement of the probe of the CMM, as well as the camera, 3D edge characters of the object can be acquired, which are used as clues for automatically coordinate measuring. A multi-baseline matching method is presented to overcome the ambiguity in stereo matching, and a quadratic interpolating is used in sub pixel matching to get continuous depth image. The matching is only done on character edges in images, so it is much faster and more robust. Two methods of measuring path planning are put forward, in one way, a 2D characteristic edge image which are often stand for rapidly changes in depth or curvature of object surface can be acquired by projecting 3D edge characters to a scanning plane, and then the sampling points of mechanical probe are selected depending on the edge image. In the other way, surface patches are fitted to these 3D edges, and the sampling grid is determined by the type and area of every patch. Using these techniques, a highly automated high-speed, high-precision, 3-D coordinate acquisition system based on multiple-sensor integration can be developed. It has potential applications in manufacturing problems as metrology, inspection, and reverse engineering.

  2. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  3. Development of a Hand-Made Color Comparator for Manufacturing Education in Primary and Secondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Kei; Sudo, Tatsuya; Sugimura, Tatsuya; Nishigaya, Hirofumi; Kurebayashi, Shuji

    Aimed at manufacturing education, environmental education, and welfare support, a hand-made color comparator using waste plastic cups is proposed in this paper. Unlike conventional color comparators, the proposed comparator is realized by cascading three waste plastic cups. Therefore, teachers can perform environmental education not only by a water quality test but also by reuse of plastic wastes. Furthermore, by covering the color comparator with paper clay, students can make a color comparator without soldering. Since the appearance of the proposed comparator seems to be clay work, most of the students will not throw away the proposed comparator after a lesson is completed. The validity of circuit design is confirmed by experimental classes. The experiments show that 1. students can learn the basic of electricity, reuse, and manufacturing, 2. by covering a color comparator with paper clay, students can make the shape of the color comparator freely, and 3. even the students with color-blindness can receive environmental education such as a water quality test by using the proposed color comparator.

  4. Development of a method to manufacture uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added whole muscle jerky.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Terns, Matthew J; Meyn, Elizabeth; Boles, Jane A

    2010-10-01

    "Natural curing" is accomplished by use of vegetable juice/powder high in naturally occurring nitrates combined with a nitrate reducing starter culture to result in indirectly "cured" products. Since the starter culture used is not water soluble, making "naturally cured" whole muscle jerky with current manufacturing techniques has been found ineffective. The objective was to investigate processes for whole muscle beef jerky that might provide cured meat characteristics similar to those of a nitrite-added control. Treatments where jerky was placed in a barrier bag during incubation were found to be the least similar to the nitrite-added control. Jerky placed in a 40.6 degrees C smokehouse during incubation resulted in significantly more (P<0.05) converted cured pigment than the barrier bag treatments but less (P<0.05) than the control. The processing methods investigated to manufacture "naturally cured" whole muscle jerky in this study were ineffective in resulting in products similar to those cured with sodium nitrite.

  5. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Sarah V.

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  6. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbery, B.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  7. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  8. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  9. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. PMID:22641483

  10. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  11. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, David John; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Coughlin, Daniel Robert; Scott, Jeffrey E.

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  12. Continuous processing and the applications of online tools in pharmaceutical product manufacture: developments and examples.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Shing Ming; Sarkar, Srimanta; van Varenbergh, Griet; Schoeters, Kris; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-04-01

    Continuous processing and production in pharmaceutical manufacturing has received increased attention in recent years mainly due to the industries' pressing needs for more efficient, cost-effective processes and production, as well as regulatory facilitation. To achieve optimum product quality, the traditional trial-and-error method for the optimization of different process and formulation parameters is expensive and time consuming. Real-time evaluation and the control of product quality using an online process analyzer in continuous processing can provide high-quality production with very high-throughput at low unit cost. This review focuses on continuous processing and the application of different real-time monitoring tools used in the pharmaceutical industry for continuous processing from powder to tablets.

  13. Lessons learned during the development and transfer of technology related to a new Hib conjugate vaccine to emerging vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Boog, C; Jadhav, S; Kreeftenberg, H

    2014-07-16

    The incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease in developed countries has decreased since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in their National Immunization Programs (NIP). In countries where Hib vaccination is not applied routinely, due to limited availability and high cost of the vaccines, invasive Hib disease is still a cause of mortality. Through the development of a production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine and related quality control tests and the transfer of this technology to emerging vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, a substantial contribution was made to the availability and affordability of Hib conjugate vaccines in these countries. Technology transfer is considered to be one of the fastest ways to get access to the technology needed for the production of vaccines. The first Hib conjugate vaccine based on the transferred technology was licensed in 2007, since then more Hib vaccines based on this technology were licensed. This paper describes the successful development and transfer of Hib conjugate vaccine technology to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Indonesia. By describing the lessons learned in this process, it is hoped that other technology transfer projects can benefit from the knowledge and experience gained.

  14. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  15. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  16. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  17. Development of a Low-Cost Process for Manufacturing of Ti-Metal Matrix Composite by Roll-Diffusion Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testani, C.; Ferraro, F.

    2010-06-01

    Composite materials with titanium-alloy matrix are currently the class of material with the highest specific resistance at temperatures up to 800 °C. The main hurdle to their application is their final cost. Even if it is clear that the costs of constituent materials are decreasing due to volume production effects, the production processing costs remain high due to the batch production approach. Centro Sviluppo Materiali’s (CSM) efforts have focused on the manufacturing process in order to obtain an innovative solution to reduce the manufacturing costs with respect to the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process that represents the standard production process for this class of materials. The new approach can allow a cost reduction of about 40%; this result was obtained by developing an experimental “diffusion bonding” plant for co-rolling at high temperature in a superplastic rolling regime, sheets of titanium alloy and monofilament silicon carbide fabrics. The experimental pilot plant was proposed for patent with RM2006A000261 in May 2006. This paper describes the manufacturing phases and process results. Moreover, has been shown that the diffusion in the solid state was obtained in a process window that was at least 100 times faster than that of HIP. High-temperature tensile tests were carried out on specimens machined from metallic matrix composite materials produced with the roll-diffusion bonding (RDB) process. The samples produced were also submitted to electrochemical dissolution tests of the metallic matrix in order to verify the geometric integrity of the fibers inside the matrix after the bonding phase. The results achieved as well as the process knowledge acquired with the CSM pilot plant are the base for further development of industrial application of the titanium roll-diffusion bonding.

  18. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  19. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  20. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  1. Influence of internal temperature development during manufacturing on thick laminates compression fatigue properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, RPL

    2016-07-01

    Thick laminates (above 6 mm) are increasingly present in large composite structures such as wind turbine blades. Blade designs are based on static and fatigue coupon tests on 14mm thick laminates. However, a thickness effect has been observed, showing significantly shorter fatigue life in thick laminates. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of selfheating during fatigue testing, scaling effects, and the influence of residual stresses due to temperature gradients during manufacturing. This work studies the influence of the temperature gradients during resin infusion on the through-thickness fatigue properties in thick laminates. Coupons from thick laminates cured at different curing rates have been tested in fatigue. The work reports the compression fatigue properties of a thick laminate and relates the results with the curing rate. Safety factors between 1.23 and 1.60 regarding the influence of the curing cycles in thick laminates are reported.

  2. Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase gene expression in the developing mouse brain and retina: implications for early loss of vision in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Mandal, A K; Wang, N; Keck, C L; Zimonjic, D B; Popescu, N C; Mukherjee, A B

    1999-04-29

    Mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT) gene cause infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), the clinical manifestations of which include the early loss of vision followed by deterioration of brain functions. To gain insight into the temporal onset of these clinical manifestations, we isolated and characterized a murine PPT (mPPT)-cDNA, mapped the gene on distal chromosome 4, and studied its expression in the eye and in the brain during development. Our results show that both cDNA and protein sequences of the murine and human PPTs are virtually identical and that the mPPT expression in the retina and in the brain is temporally regulated during development. Furthermore, the retinal expression of mPPT occurs much earlier and at a higher level than in the brain at all developmental stages investigated. Since many retinal and brain proteins are highly palmitoylated and depalmitoylation by PPT is essential for their effective recycling in the lysosomes, our results raise the possibility that inactivating mutations of the PPT gene, as occur in INCL, are likely to cause cellular accumulation of lipid-modified proteins in the retina earlier than in the brain. Consequently, the loss of vision occurs before the deterioration of brain functions in this disease. PMID:10231585

  3. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2016-06-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  4. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density ( B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78- x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 ( x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity ( H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability ( μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  5. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density (B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78-x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 (x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity (H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability (μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  6. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  7. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  8. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  9. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  10. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  11. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  12. Simulating vision with and without macular disease.

    PubMed

    Marmor, David J; Marmor, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Conventional photographs do not show how, at any moment of visual fixation, neural vision is clear only in the foveal center. We have developed new computer simulations to show both normal vision and vision with macular disease. These simulations show the nature of momentary vision for life tasks such as reading, facial recognition, and walking in the street. They also dramatically show the impact of macular disease (with scotomas and visual distortion), as there is no surrounding region of clarity. We hope these images will be instructive to both physicians and patients.

  13. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  14. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  15. Development of manufacturing systems for nanocrystalline and ultra-fine grain materials employing indexing equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Michael Wayne

    Nanotechnology offers significant opportunities in providing solutions to existing engineering problems as well as breakthroughs in new fields of science and technology. In order to fully realize benefits from such initiatives, nanomanufacturing methods must be developed to integrate enabling constructs into commercial mainstream. Even though significant advances have been made, widespread industrialization in many areas remains limited. Manufacturing methods, therefore, must continually be developed to bridge gaps between nanoscience discovery and commercialization. A promising technology for integration of top-down nanomanufacturing yet to receive full industrialization is equal channel angular pressing, a process transforming metallic materials into nanostructured or ultra-fine grained materials with significantly improved performance characteristics. To bridge the gap between process potential and actual manufacturing output, a prototype top-down nanomanufacturing system identified as indexing equal channel angular pressing (IX-ECAP) was developed. The unit was designed to capitalize on opportunities of transforming spent or scrap engineering elements into key engineering commodities. A manufacturing system was constructed to impose severe plastic deformation via simple shear in an equal channel angular pressing die on 1100 and 4043 aluminum welding rods. 1/4 fraction factorial split-plot experiments assessed significance of five predictors on the response, microhardness, for the 4043 alloy. Predictor variables included temperature, number of passes, pressing speed, back pressure, and vibration. Main effects were studied employing a resolution III design. Multiple linear regression was used for model development. Initial studies were performed using continuous processing followed by contingency designs involving discrete variable length work pieces. IX-ECAP offered a viable solution in severe plastic deformation processing. Discrete variable length work piece

  16. Effects of the film manufacturing procedure and development process on the holographic properties of HOE in DCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanoff, Christo G.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research program was the development of a technology for the industrial manufacturing of high efficiency HOE (Holographic Optical Elements) with predetermined spectral characteristics and angular selectivity ranging in format from few square millimeters to square meters. The developed technology includes the machine fabrication of precision holographic films (2 to 30 micron thickness) on glass or plastic substrata, and chemically and thermally adapted hologram development processes. The desired optical properties of the holographic material for a specific technical application are determined during the making of the film and are modified during the exposure and the development of the HOE. This is achieved through the use of filler material to swell or shrink the hologram and a specific development process to fix the desired spectral properties of the film. The developed technology extends the applicability of dichromated gelatin ( DCG) into the blue and infrared spectral domains. The effects of the holographic layer deposition and of the development process on the holographic properties are illustrated with electron-microscope photographs of the cross section of the hologram. The photographs reveal the presence of the nano-size voids that are generated during the hologram processing. These voids are regarded as the cause for bandwidth enlargement of the HOE.

  17. School Based Vision Centers: striving to optimize learning.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Stacy Ayn; Johnson, Catherine; Majzoub, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The successful delivery of comprehensive pediatric vision care after vision screening referral is a longstanding challenge that has significant implications for child wellness. In response to the many known obstacles that prevent the diagnosis and treatment of vision conditions, School-Based Vision Centers have been established in Framingham, MA and Boston, MA to provide easy access to comprehensive vision care following a failed vision screening. These on-site Vision Centers were developed to improve access to comprehensive vision care and treatment thereby correcting vision conditions that can adversely affect student academic achievement, athletic performance, and self-esteem. This paper highlights the collaboration between two public schools in Massachusetts and The New England Eye Institute and describes a multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive care delivery to high-risk pediatric populations in school-based settings. The ultimate goal of this model is to minimize visual barriers that may impede learning in order to maximize academic success and wellness.

  18. New Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George; Sutton, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    An educator and an architect discuss school design considerations that include developing a strong learning plan, a strong concept of community, and architecture that supports both. Involving the community and students in planning instills a sense of ownership and pride that is more conducive to learning and school safety than tough standards and…

  19. Machine vision method for small feature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.; Tang, Shu-Guo G.

    2004-12-01

    Small features such as bevels and edge profiles are a common and often critical feature on many manufactured parts. In the past, the only ways to measure such features was to make a wax mold of the feature and slice it for measurement on an optical comparator, or to do a slow mechanical tracing with a stylus or CMM type measurement system. This paper describes the application of machine vision tools, using controlled lighting to highlight shape information such as curvature, combined with 2D vision processing to extract the 3D shape based upon surface modeling.

  20. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519