Science.gov

Sample records for manufacturing vision development

  1. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  2. Development of a Computer Vision Technology for the Forest Products Manufacturing Industry

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...

  3. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-10-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  4. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  5. The development of vision.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Baranello, Giovanni; Romeo, Domenico M M; Cesarini, Laura; Ricci, Daniela

    2007-12-01

    Disorders of visual function are common findings in children with neonatal brain lesions of antenatal and perinatal onset. In the last few years the development of age appropriate batteries for assessing visual function in the first years and the combined use of neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have allowed to achieve better understanding of the mechanisms underlying development of vision in low risk infants and in those with brain lesions. We will review the main models of visual development and the tests available to assess visual function in infancy, focusing on the recently described battery of tests for assessing early visual abilities in preterm and full term infants.

  6. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    applicable to commercial production processes and applications. Computer vision will play a critical role in the new agile production environment for automation of processes such as inspection, assembly, welding, material dispensing and other process control tasks. Although there are many academic and commercial solutions that have been developed, none have had widespread adoption considering the huge potential number of applications that could benefit from this technology. The reason for this slow adoption is that the advantages of computer vision for automation can be a double-edged sword. The benefits can be lost if the vision system requires an inordinate amount of time for reprogramming by a skilled operator to account for different parts, changes in lighting conditions, background clutter, changes in optics, etc. Commercially available solutions typically require an operator to manually program the vision system with features used for the recognition. In a recent survey, we asked a number of commercial manufacturers and machine vision companies the question, 'What prevents machine vision systems from being more useful in factories?' The number one (and unanimous) response was that vision systems require too much skill to set up and program to be cost effective.

  7. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  8. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  9. Vision Development in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    A vision evaluation and enhancement program was used with 59 elementary multihandicapped students to prevent future problems in educational and social development. Ss with eye-movement difficulties, eye-hand coordination problems and/or difficulty in visual perception skills improved after program participation. (CL)

  10. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  11. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  12. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  13. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  14. Drug development and manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  15. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  16. The Development of Low Vision Therapist Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Quillman, R. Dee; Flax, Marshall; Gerritsen, Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the low-vision-therapist certification through the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Credentials for professionals in low vision are described, along with required written examination, and the role of the low-vision therapist. (CR)

  17. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-11-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing.

  18. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  19. [Development of a low vision aid device].

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Fernanda Alves da Silva

    2006-01-01

    To develop the design of a near low vision aid that has esthetic and functional qualities intending to give its user a better life quality. To verify low vision people's main needs concerning the current devices for near distance; to identify possible design interventions to make a project that fulfills their main needs. A prototype having a reading stand tied to the end of a magnifier that moves horizontally and vertically permitting the horizontal reading of a text line was developed. The developed device fulfills low vision people's visual and handling needs for near distance, contributing to the easiness to read and write.

  20. Development Of An Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efkernan, Albert; Jenkins, Donald

    1981-04-01

    Historical background is presented of the U. S. Army's requirement for a high performance, lightweight, night vision goggle for use by helicopter pilots. System requirements are outlined and a current program for development of a third generation image intensification device is described. Primary emphasis is on the use of lightweight, precision molded, aspheric plastic optical elements and molded plastic mechanical components. System concept, design, and manufacturing considerations are presented.

  1. Development Of An Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Donald; Efkeman, Albert

    1980-10-01

    Historical background is presented of the U.S. Army's requirement for a high performance, lightweight, night vision goggle for use by helicopter pilots. System requirements are outlined and a current program for development of a third generation image intensification device is described. Primary emphasis is on the use of light precision molded, aspheric plastic optical elements and molded plastic mechanical components. System concept, design, and manufacturing considerations are presented.

  2. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  3. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  4. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  5. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  6. Passive solar manufactured buildings development and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.

    1983-11-01

    Manufactured buildings which are cost effective residential and light commercial buildings are discussed. The solar energy research institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) worked with building manufacturers design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process lead to valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. The scope and content are described.

  7. Leadership with a Vision: How Principals Develop and Implement Their Visions for School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Developing and pursuing a "vision" for school success is a crucial part of effective educational leadership. This document explores theoretical models of vision for school success and leadership forces in education; discusses principals as visionary leaders; offers practical advice on developing, implementing, and maintaining a vision for one's…

  8. Ethical, environmental and social issues for machine vision in manufacturing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1995-10-01

    Some of the ethical, environmental and social issues relating to the design and use of machine vision systems in manufacturing industry are highlighted. The authors' aim is to emphasize some of the more important issues, and raise general awareness of the need to consider the potential advantages and hazards of machine vision technology. However, in a short article like this, it is impossible to cover the subject comprehensively. This paper should therefore be seen as a discussion document, which it is hoped will provoke more detailed consideration of these very important issues. It follows from an article presented at last year's workshop. Five major topics are discussed: (1) The impact of machine vision systems on the environment; (2) The implications of machine vision for product and factory safety, the health and well-being of employees; (3) The importance of intellectual integrity in a field requiring a careful balance of advanced ideas and technologies; (4) Commercial and managerial integrity; and (5) The impact of machine visions technology on employment prospects, particularly for people with low skill levels.

  9. Surface Roughness Measurement of Parts Manufactured by FDM Process using Light Sectioning Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, A. S.; Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a process of developing prototypes by depositing layers of material according to predetermined cross sectional geometry. Quality of the produced part is highly dependent on surface finish. This work describes a methodology to calculate the surface roughness of part manufactured using FDM process. The surface roughness values are measured using conventional stylus instrument and light sectioning vision system. In conventional stylus instrument method, diamond tipped stylus destroys the surface topography. Light sectioning method is non-contact method hence it overcomes this problem. In light sectioning method microscope and light source are arranged in such a manner, as both are inclined at an angle of 45° to the normal plane. The light section is projected on surface of profile at an incident angle of 45°. The reflected light can be observed using microscope. The camera is connected with microscope to capture the micrograph. These images are analyzed and processed using various image processing techniques. Experimental results are validated by comparing final results with conventional system.

  10. Development of a machine vision system for automotive part inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Nelson S.; Marimuthu, Ram P.; Eom, Yong-Kyun; Jang, Bong-Choon

    2005-12-01

    As an alternative for human inspection, presented in this study was the development of a machine vision inspection system (MVIS) purposely for car seat frames. The proposed MVIS was designed to meet the demands, features and specifications of car seat frame manufacturing companies in striving for increased throughput of better quality. This computer-based MVIS was designed to perform quality measures by detecting holes, nuts and welding spots on every car seat frame in real time and ensuring these portions are intact, precise and in proper place. In this study, the NI Vision Builder software for Automatic Inspection was used as a solution in configuring the aimed quality measurements. The proposed software has measurement techniques such as edge detecting and pattern-matching which are capable of identifying the boundaries or edges of an object and analyzing the pixel values along the profile to detect significant intensity changes. Either of these techniques is capable of gauging sizes, detecting missing portion and checking alignment of parts. The techniques for visual inspection were optimized through qualitative analysis and simulation of human tolerance on inspecting car seat frames. Furthermore, this study exemplified the incorporation of the optimized vision inspection environment to the pre-inspection and post-inspection subsystems. The optimized participation of human on this proposed MVIS for car seat frames has ideally eased to feeding and sorting.

  11. Agile Manufacturing Development of Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-08

    and manufactur- ing process, shock, vibration FEA and fracture mechanics tests were performed for the final design. K + P Agile, Inc. worked closely...of weld repairs by radi- ography is required. • Certification: certification is required for material chemistry, mechanical properties , radiography...yellow/green status indicators. Technical information is shared through various electronic documents. A built-in version control mechanism allows

  12. Vision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, Grades

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness. "The good news is that many vision problems ... early," Hugh Parry, president and CEO of Prevent Blindness, said in a news release from the organization. ...

  13. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  14. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users

    PubMed Central

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2014-01-01

    Background Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population in order to evaluate the impact of new vision restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional vision ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. Methods The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional vision tasks for observation of performance, and a case narrative summary. Results were analyzed to determine whether the interview questions and functional vision tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, twenty-six subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. Results All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 functional vision tasks were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options -- impossible (33%), difficult (23%), moderate (24%) and easy (19%) -- were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with vision only occurring 75% on average with the System ON, and 29% with the System OFF. Conclusion The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as a functional vision and well-being assessment tool. PMID:25675964

  15. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  16. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  17. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  18. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  19. 75 FR 14128 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 7, CooperVision Caribbean Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 7, CooperVision Caribbean Corporation (Contact Lenses), Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign...

  20. Competitive Manufacturing: New Strategies for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    In the past, economic development in the rural United States, particularly in the rural South, relied principally on the attractiveness of a low-wage work force to mass-production manufacturing industries. Now however, the viability of the traditional mass-production economy's organizational structure and operating procedures has been eroded by…

  1. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  2. A Decade Of Development In Passive Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Philip J.

    1980-09-01

    Work carried out at PPE over the last ten years has resulted in the development of four head-mounted passive night vision goggles of unity magnification. Considered in relation to each other, these systems illustrate the technical progression from the oriainal sight, a twin image intensifier tube device that employed conventional optics, through a series of three single tube goggles of decreasing complexity, weight and cost. The MkI and MkII single tube devices, of beamsplitter/relay lens and collimator/multireflector design respectively, required precise manufacture: the later of the two designs, however,was both simpler in construction and more advanced in technical specification than the earlier. The concept of the MkIII single tube goggle was influenced by the lower relative cost of current intensifier tubes and resulted in a lens design that can be fabricated in its entirety in optical plastics. Compared with the original two tube goggle, the final system has a similar technical specification but is much cheaper and less than half the weight. The paper describes the optical design philosophy behind each goggle and the evolution of each subsequent stage.

  3. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users.

    PubMed

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2015-07-01

    Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population to evaluate the impact of new vision-restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional visual ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional visual tasks for observation of performance and a case narrative summary. Results were analysed to determine whether the interview questions and functional visual tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, 26 subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 tasks for functional vision were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options—impossible (33 per cent), difficult (23 per cent), moderate (24 per cent) and easy (19 per cent)—were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with 'vision only' occurring 75 per cent on average with the System ON, and 29 per cent with the System OFF. The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as an assessment tool for functional vision and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical

  4. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported.

  5. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader's development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual's personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader's personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader's identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion-orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed.

  6. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development

    PubMed Central

    Passarelli, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader’s development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual’s personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader’s personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader’s identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion–orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed. PMID:25926803

  7. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  8. Manufacture and Development of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, J.; Oliver, J.B.; Kessler, T.J.; Huang, H.; Barone, J.; Hettrick, J.; Rigatti, A.L.; Hoover, T.; Marshall, K.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Kozlov, A.; Kosc, T.Z.

    2006-03-01

    The OMEGA EP Facility includes two high-energy, short-pulse laser beams that will be focused to high intensity in the OMEGA target chamber, providing backlighting of compressed fusion targets and investigating the fast-ignition concept. To produce 2.6 kJ output energy per beam, developments in grating compressor technology are required. Gold-coated diffraction gratings limit on-target energy because of their low damage fluence. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings have shown promise as high-damage-threshold, high-efficiency diffraction gratings suitable for use in high-energy chirped-pulse amplification. This paper details the manufacture and development of these gratings, including the specifics of the MLD coating, holographic lithography, reactive ion etching, reactive ion-beam cleaning, and wet chemical cleaning.

  9. The development and manufacture of influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Buckland, Barry C

    2015-01-01

    The development and manufacture of an Influenza vaccine is unlike any other product in the Vaccine industry because of the need to change composition on a yearly basis. The poor efficacy of Influenza vaccines over the past 2 y in the Northern Hemisphere invites questions on how the vaccines are manufactured and how change in vaccine composition is controlled. The opinion expressed in this commentary is that the risk of not making the correct HA protein is increased by the need to adapt the new seasonal virus for good propagation in embryonated chicken eggs. This adaptation is required because not enough doses can be made in time for the new 'flu season unless productivity is reasonable. This problem is not necessarily solved by going to a cell culture host for virus propagation and that may explain why this more advanced technology approach is not more widely used. A vaccine based on hemagglutinin (HA) protein that does not involve Influenza virus propagation (such as Flublok®) side steps this particular problem. The exact HA sequence can be used as is in the virus. The technology can be run at large scale, already at 2 × 21,000L in Japan, in contrast to eggs where scale-up is by multiplication; the HA product is highly purified and made consistently in the form of rosettes. PMID:25844949

  10. Developing a Shared Leadership Vision in a College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy is nationally recognized for its leadership curriculum. Despite the College's success in developing student leaders, an overall guiding leadership philosophy within the College has not been specifically articulated. To begin the process of developing a shared leadership vision, a democratic,…

  11. Manufacturing development of pultruded composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    The weight savings potential, of graphite-epoxy composites for secondary and medium primary aircraft structures, was demonstrated. One of the greatest challenges facing the aircraft industry is to reduce the acquisition costs for composite structures to a level below that of metal structures. The pultrusion process, wherein reinforcing fibers, after being passed through a resin bath are drawn through a die to form and cure the desired cross-section, is an automated low cost manufacturing process for composite structures. The Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) Composites Development Center designed, characterizated materials for, fabricated and tested a stiffened cover concept compatible with the continuous pultrusion process. The procedures used and the results obtained are presented.

  12. Develop and Manufacture an airlock sliding tray

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.

    2014-02-26

    Objective: The goal of this project is to continue to develop an airlock sliding tray and then partner with an industrial manufacturing company for production. The sliding tray will be easily installed into and removed from most glovebox airlocks in a few minutes. Technical Approach: A prototype of a sliding tray has been developed and tested in the LANL cold lab and 35 trays are presently being built for the plutonium facility (PF-4). The current, recently approved design works for a 14-inch diameter round airlock and has a tray length of approximately 20 inches. The grant will take the already tested and approved round technology and design for the square airlock. These two designs will be suitable for the majority of the existing airlocks in the multitude of DOE facilities. Partnering with an external manufacturer will allow for production of the airlock trays at a much lower cost and increase the availability of the product for all DOE sites. Project duration is estimated to be 12-13 months. Benefits: The purpose of the airlock sliding trays is fourfold: 1) Mitigate risk of rotator cuff injuries, 2) Improve ALARA, 3) Reduce risk of glovebox glove breaches and glove punctures, and 4) Improve worker comfort. I have had the opportunity to visit many other DOE facilities including Savannah, Y-12, ORNL, Sandia, and Livermore for assistance with ergonomic problems and/or injuries. All of these sites would benefit from the airlock sliding tray and I can assume all other DOE facilities with gloveboxes built prior to 1985 could also use the sliding trays.

  13. Trends and developments in industrial machine vision: 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, Kurt; Heinzl, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    When following current advancements and implementations in the field of machine vision there seems to be no borders for future developments: Calculating power constantly increases, and new ideas are spreading and previously challenging approaches are introduced in to mass market. Within the past decades these advances have had dramatic impacts on our lives. Consumer electronics, e.g. computers or telephones, which once occupied large volumes, now fit in the palm of a hand. To note just a few examples e.g. face recognition was adopted by the consumer market, 3D capturing became cheap, due to the huge community SW-coding got easier using sophisticated development platforms. However, still there is a remaining gap between consumer and industrial applications. While the first ones have to be entertaining, the second have to be reliable. Recent studies (e.g. VDMA [1], Germany) show a moderately increasing market for machine vision in industry. Asking industry regarding their needs the main challenges for industrial machine vision are simple usage and reliability for the process, quick support, full automation, self/easy adjustment at changing process parameters, "forget it in the line". Furthermore a big challenge is to support quality control: Nowadays the operator has to accurately define the tested features for checking the probes. There is an upcoming development also to let automated machine vision applications find out essential parameters in a more abstract level (top down). In this work we focus on three current and future topics for industrial machine vision: Metrology supporting automation, quality control (inline/atline/offline) as well as visualization and analysis of datasets with steadily growing sizes. Finally the general trend of the pixel orientated towards object orientated evaluation is addressed. We do not directly address the field of robotics taking advances from machine vision. This is actually a fast changing area which is worth an own

  14. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  15. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  16. Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, J.; Oliver, J. B.; Kessler, T. J.; Huang, H.; Barone, J.; Hettrick, J.; Rigatti, A. L.; Hoover, T.; Marshall, K. L.; Schmid, A. W.; Kozlov, A.; Kosc, T. Z.

    2005-12-01

    The OMEGA EP Facility includes two high-energy, short-pulse laser beams that will be focused to high intensity in the OMEGA target chamber, providing backlighting of compressed fusion targets and investigating the fast-ignition concept. To produce 2.6-kJ output energy per beam, developments in grating compressor technology are required. Gold-coated diffraction gratings limit on-target energy because of their low damage fluence. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings have shown promise as high-damage-threshold, high-efficiency diffraction gratings suitable for use in high-energy chirped-pulse amplification [ B. W. Shore et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).] Binary 100-mm-diam MLD gratings have been produced at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) using large-aperture, holographic exposure and reactive ion-beam etching systems. A diffraction efficiency of greater than 99.5% at 1053 nm has been achieved for gratings with 1740 grooves/mm, with a 1:1 damage threshold of 5.49 J/cm2 diffracted beam fluence at 10 ps. To demonstrate the ability to scale up to larger substrates, several 100-mm substrates have been distributed over an aperture of 47 × 43 cm and successfully etched, resulting in high efficiency over the full aperture. This paper details the manufacture and development of these gratings, including the specifics of the MLD coating, holographic lithography, reactive ion etching, reactive ion-beam cleaning, and wet chemical cleaning.

  17. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  18. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  19. A New Vision for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Peter M.; Charles, Kelly J.; Leeks, Latonya L.

    2013-01-01

    High-quality professional development for public school teachers is directly tied to student achievement, teacher quality and retention, and national education priorities (Kroeger et al. 2000). To stay current with the knowledge, skills, and expertise that students need to succeed in the twenty-first century, educators must increasingly retool…

  20. Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This…

  1. Liberal Education, Human Development, and Social Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marshall W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the effects of the post-Sputnik knowledge explosion. Critizes universities for teaching facts and information without values and applications and faults apathetic students who narrowly focus on job openings, pay scales, and retirement plans. Urges colleges to develop intellectual autonomy and the powers of imagination, sensitivity, and…

  2. A New Vision for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Peter M.; Charles, Kelly J.; Leeks, Latonya L.

    2013-01-01

    High-quality professional development for public school teachers is directly tied to student achievement, teacher quality and retention, and national education priorities (Kroeger et al. 2000). To stay current with the knowledge, skills, and expertise that students need to succeed in the twenty-first century, educators must increasingly retool…

  3. Liberal Education, Human Development, and Social Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marshall W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the effects of the post-Sputnik knowledge explosion. Critizes universities for teaching facts and information without values and applications and faults apathetic students who narrowly focus on job openings, pay scales, and retirement plans. Urges colleges to develop intellectual autonomy and the powers of imagination, sensitivity, and…

  4. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  5. Gene therapy for vision loss -- recent developments.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Knut; Lorenz, Birgit

    2010-11-01

    Retinal gene therapy mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene transfer was recently proven to improve photoreceptor function in one form of inherited retinal blinding disorder associated with mutations in the RPE65 gene. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing, and more than 30 patients have been treated to date. Even though only a very limited number of patients will greatly benefit from this still experimental treatment protocol, the technique itself has been shown to be safe and will likely be used in other retinal disorders in the near future. A canine model for achromatopsia has been treated successfully as well as mouse models for different forms of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). For patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a combined gene knockdown and gene addition therapy is being developed using RNA interference to block mRNA of the mutant allele. For those patients suffering from RP with unknown mutations, an AAV based transfer of bacterial forms of rhodopsin in the central retina might be an option to reactivate residual cones in the future.

  6. Translating Vision into Design: A Method for Conceptual Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for engineers is the definition of design solutions that will satisfy high-level strategic visions and objectives. Even more challenging is the need to demonstrate how a particular design solution supports the high-level vision. This paper describes a process and set of system engineering tools that have been used at the Johnson Space Center to analyze and decompose high-level objectives for future human missions into design requirements that can be used to develop alternative concepts for vehicles, habitats, and other systems. Analysis and design studies of alternative concepts and approaches are used to develop recommendations for strategic investments in research and technology that support the NASA Integrated Space Plan. In addition to a description of system engineering tools, this paper includes a discussion of collaborative design practices for human exploration mission architecture studies used at the Johnson Space Center.

  7. Singer AI Project: Knowledge-Based Vision Algorithm Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Distribution Statemient Vision algorithm development Expert system d-c.umnth..beSThi-, ocument as een approved ATR Ifcr public release and sale; its Knowledge...Acquisition Environment 51 4.6 Inference Engine 51 4.7 Prototype Expert System 51 5. CONCLUSION ..... .............. ... .. . . . 53 4 bi t -ERIM 1...this end, a prototype expert system image algorithmist decision aid was designed and implemented. All of the project goals were either met or

  8. Development of a machine vision system for automated structural assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydow, P. Daniel; Cooper, Eric G.

    1992-01-01

    Research is being conducted at the LaRC to develop a telerobotic assembly system designed to construct large space truss structures. This research program was initiated within the past several years, and a ground-based test-bed was developed to evaluate and expand the state of the art. Test-bed operations currently use predetermined ('taught') points for truss structural assembly. Total dependence on the use of taught points for joint receptacle capture and strut installation is neither robust nor reliable enough for space operations. Therefore, a machine vision sensor guidance system is being developed to locate and guide the robot to a passive target mounted on the truss joint receptacle. The vision system hardware includes a miniature video camera, passive targets mounted on the joint receptacles, target illumination hardware, and an image processing system. Discrimination of the target from background clutter is accomplished through standard digital processing techniques. Once the target is identified, a pose estimation algorithm is invoked to determine the location, in three-dimensional space, of the target relative to the robots end-effector. Preliminary test results of the vision system in the Automated Structural Assembly Laboratory with a range of lighting and background conditions indicate that it is fully capable of successfully identifying joint receptacle targets throughout the required operational range. Controlled optical bench test results indicate that the system can also provide the pose estimation accuracy to define the target position.

  9. Passive-solar manufactured buildings development and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.; Taylor, R.; Brant, S.; Simms, D.

    1982-06-01

    Manufactured passive-solar buildings development and analysis are discussed. Manufactured buildings are quickly becoming the most cost-effective residential and light commercial buildings in the American marketplace. Over the past three years the Solar Energy Research Institute and the Department of Energy worked with building manufacturers to design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process led to extremely valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. Because of the tight cost/marketing restrictions in this industry, the lessons learned in this program are beneficial to all sections of the design and building community. The scope and content of this data is described by using a case study developed for the program.

  10. Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, T; Haberer, W; Lau, C; Goertz, M

    2004-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the retina elicits visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Using the potentials of microsystem technology, neural prostheses to restore vision become feasible that are completely implantable in the eye. In this paper, we describe the development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis. Microelectronic chips for data encoding and stimulation were assembled on flexible substrates with an integrated electrode array. The system was encapsulated with parylene C and silicone rubber. The receiver part was placed into an artificial intraocular lens. Microcables led to the stimulation array in the macula region. This prototype elicited spatio-temporal patterns in the visual cortex after electrical stimulation of the retina in the cat.

  11. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  12. Quality indexing by machine vision during fermentation in black tea manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, S.; Bhuyan, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although the organoleptic method of tea testing has been traditionally used for quality monitoring, an alternative way by machine vision may be advantageous. Although, the three main quality descriptors estimate the overall quality of made-tea, viz., strength, briskness and brightness of tea liquor, the exact colour detection in fermenting process leads to a good quality-monitoring tool. The use of digital image processing technique for this purpose is reported to play an effective role towards the production of good quality tea though it is not the only quality determining parameter. In this paper, it has been tried to compare the contribution of the chemical constituents towards the final product with the visual appearance in the processing stage by imaging. The use of machine intelligence supports the process somewhat invariantly in comparison to the human decision and colorimetric approach. The captured images are processed for colour matching with a standard image database using HSI colour model. The application of colour dissimilarity and perceptron learning for the standard images and the test images is ensured. Moreover, the performance of the system is being tried to correlate with the decision made by the organoleptic panel assigned for the tea testing and chemical test results on the final product. However, it should be noted that the optimized result could be achieved only when the other quality parameters such as withering, flavour (aroma) detection, drying status etc. are properly maintained.

  13. Development of a Launch Vehicle Manufacturing Process. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the goals of this chapter is to provide sufficient information so that you can develop a manufacturing process for a potential launch vehicle. With the variety of manufacturing options available, you might ask how this can possibly be done in the span of a single chapter. Actually, it will be quite simple because a basic manufacturing process is nothing more than a set of logical steps that are iterated until they produce a desired product. Although these statements seem simple and logical, don't let this simplicity fool you. Manufacturing problems with launch vehicles and their subassemblies have been the primary cause of project failures because the vehicle concept delivered to the manufacturing floor could not be built as designed.

  14. Development of pattern vision following early and extended blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Amy; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Dorr, Michael; Gandhi, Tapan; Chatterjee, Garga; Ganesh, Suma; Bex, Peter J.; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Visual plasticity peaks during early critical periods of normal visual development. Studies in animals and humans provide converging evidence that gains in visual function are minimal and deficits are most severe when visual deprivation persists beyond the critical period. Here we demonstrate visual development in a unique sample of patients who experienced extended early-onset blindness (beginning before 1 y of age and lasting 8–17 y) before removal of bilateral cataracts. These patients show surprising improvements in contrast sensitivity, an assay of basic spatial vision. We find that contrast sensitivity development is independent of the age of sight onset and that individual rates of improvement can exceed those exhibited by normally developing infants. These results reveal that the visual system can retain considerable plasticity, even after early blindness that extends beyond critical periods. PMID:24449865

  15. NASA's In-Space Manufacturing Project: Materials and Manufacturing Process Development Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Niki; Ledbetter, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The mission of NASA's In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project is to identify, design, and implement on-demand, sustainable manufacturing solutions for fabrication, maintenance and repair during exploration missions. ISM has undertaken a phased strategy of incrementally increasing manufacturing capabilities to achieve this goal. The ISM project began with the development of the first 3D printer for the International Space Station. To date, the printer has completed two phases of flight operations. Results from phase I specimens indicated some differences in material properties between ground-processed and ISS-processed specimens, but results of follow-on analyses of these parts and a ground-based study with an equivalent printer strongly indicate that this variability is likely attributable to differences in manufacturing process settings between the ground and flight prints rather than microgravity effects on the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Analysis of phase II specimens from the 3D Printing in Zero G tech demo, which shed further light on the sources of material variability, will be presented. The ISM project has also developed a materials characterization plan for the Additive Manufacturing Facility, the follow-on commercial multimaterial 3D printing facility developed for ISS by Made in Space. This work will yield a suite of characteristic property values that can inform use of AMF by space system designers. Other project activities include development of an integrated 3D printer and recycler, known as the Refabricator, by Tethers Unlimited, which will be operational on ISS in 2018. The project also recently issued a broad area announcement for a multimaterial fabrication laboratory, which may include in-space manufacturing capabilities for metals, electronics, and polymeric materials, to be deployed on ISS in the 2022 timeframe.

  16. Research situation and development trend of the binocular stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonghao; Liu, Bingqi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yichao

    2017-05-01

    Since the 21st century, with the development of the computer and signal processing technology, a new comprehensive subject that called computer vision was generated. Computer vision covers a wide range of knowledge, which includes physics, mathematics, biology, computer technology and other arts subjects. It contains much content, and becomes more and more powerful, not only can realize the function of the human eye "see", also can realize the human eyes cannot. In recent years, binocular stereo vision which is a main branch of the computer vision has become the focus of the research in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, the binocular stereo vision system, the development of present situation and application at home and abroad are summarized. With the current problems of the binocular stereo vision system, his own opinions are given. Furthermore, a prospective view of the future application and development of this technology are prospected.

  17. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  18. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  19. Development of binocular vision in the kitten's striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R D; Ohzawa, I

    1992-12-01

    Studies of the development and plasticity of the visual pathway are well documented, but a basic question remains open: what is the physiological status of the system prior to extensive visual experience? Somewhat conflicting answers have been put forward, and in a major area, binocular vision, reports have ranged from severe immaturity to well-developed maturity. This is an important question to resolve since binocular cells in the visual cortex are thought to be the neural substrate for stereoscopic depth perception. We have addressed this question by recording from single cells in the striate cortex of kittens at postnatal ages 2, 3, and 4 weeks and from adults for comparison. Gratings with sinusoidal luminance distribution are presented to left, right, or both eyes. For each cell, we determine optimal values for orientation and spatial frequency. Relative phase (retinal disparity) is then varied in a dichoptic sequence so that binocular interaction may be studied. Results are as follows. In the normal adult, we have shown in previous work that most binocular interaction in the visual cortex can be accounted for on the basis of linear summation. Results from 3 and 4 week postnatal kittens are closely similar to those from adults. All types of binocular interaction found in adults are present in kittens. This includes phase-specific and non-phase-specific suppression or facilitation. Furthermore, monocular and binocular tuning characteristics are comparable in kittens and adults. The clear changes that occur with age are optimal spatial frequencies and peak responses. In addition, at 2 weeks, there is a substantially higher proportion of monocular cells compared to other ages and correspondingly, lower relative numbers of cells that exhibit phase-specific or suppressive binocular interactions. From increases in optimal spatial frequency and interpupillary distance with age, we calculated predicted changes in binocular disparity thresholds (stereo acuity) with age

  20. Development of the combiner-eyepiece night-vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1990-10-01

    Conventional 'straightthrough ' nightvision goggles are now in widespread service with many armed forces throughout the world. Though originally designed for ground forces they have been successfully engineered into the airborne environment and are used on both rotary wing and fixed wing aircraft. However, a major disadvantage in the use of this type of NVG, particularly in fast jet applications, is that they obscure the pilots direct view of the Head Up Display. The combiner eyepiece NVGs solves this problem by giving the pilot a direct view of the HUD and cockpit instruments which is optically combined with the intensified image. The cockpit instruments and HUD are ofcourse compatible with the NVG and are invisible to the NVG. The development ofa Combiner eyepiece NVG from initial concept through to production isdiscussed including design considerations, trade offs and enhancements to the operation of the device. The further development of the combiner eyepiece NVG into a fully integrated ejection safe night vision helmet is also described.

  1. An integrated approach to product development and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to product development is described that integrates various unit operations into a unified ``knowledge-base``. This knowledge-base is easily accessible to all members of the design team due to the advent of high performance and networking capabilities of today`s desktop computers. This permits rapid optimization of the product`s material, shape, and manufacturing processes that satisfy the customer`s performance requirements while maximizing economic return for the manufacturer.

  2. Dataset of tensile strength development of concrete with manufactured sand.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shunbo; Hu, Feijia; Ding, Xinxin; Zhao, Mingshuang; Li, Changyong; Pei, Songwei

    2017-04-01

    This article presents 755 groups splitting tensile strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age ranged from 1 day to 388 days related to the research article "Experimental study on tensile strength development of concrete with manufactured sand" (Zhao et al., 2017) [1]. These data were used to evaluate the precision of the prediction formulas of tensile strength of MSC, and can be applied as dataset for further studies.

  3. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  4. Role of vision in social development in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A S

    1984-08-01

    8 stump-tailed macaques were reared individually and either given all of their daily social experience in darkness (dark group) or given half their social experience in the dark and half in the light (controls). The dark group showed almost no aggressive behavior and less play than controls. Later, when all were tested in the light, the dark group were still less aggressive. Controls were less aggressive in the dark than in the light. There was no difference between the two groups in the form of the dominance hierarchy or the strength of preferences for social partners. This suggests that vision is especially important in the maintenance of assertive behaviors and in the instigation and the direction of aggressive behaviors, but relatively less important in other areas of social development.

  5. Development of Recuperator Manufacturing Techniques. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    DRSTA-RCKM U.S. ARMY TANK- AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER Warren, Michigan 48090 Ž oo• O gOCO/c SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...Strtfniri_ ("T fnh497 II. CONTROLLING OFFIdE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Tank Automotive Command C7 ’’V. /-9.3 Metals/Welding Subfunction 13...DAAK30-79-C-O045 (PHASE II) Prepared by AVCO LYCOMING DIVISION 550 South Main Street Stratford. Connecticut 06497 for U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND

  6. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  7. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  8. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  9. Combined Research and Curriculum Development of Nontraditional Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Y. Lawrence; Cheng, Gary J.; Rajurkar, K. P.; Kovacevic, Radovan; Feiner, Steve; Zhang, Wenwu

    2005-01-01

    Nontraditional manufacturing (NTM) is becoming increasingly important in modern engineering. Therefore, it is important to develop up-to-date pedagogic materials for the area. This paper reports collaborative efforts among three universities in such a development sponsored by National Science Foundation of USA. The features of the development…

  10. Managers' Perceptions of Management Development Needs in Manufacturing SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawarna, Dilani; Macpherson, Allan; Wilson, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper empirical research is presented that investigates managers' perceptions of a variety of component management skills and techniques. The aim is to identify which management development needs manufacturing SME managers perceive as most important for their continued development, and to consider contextual factors that might…

  11. Combined Research and Curriculum Development of Nontraditional Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Y. Lawrence; Cheng, Gary J.; Rajurkar, K. P.; Kovacevic, Radovan; Feiner, Steve; Zhang, Wenwu

    2005-01-01

    Nontraditional manufacturing (NTM) is becoming increasingly important in modern engineering. Therefore, it is important to develop up-to-date pedagogic materials for the area. This paper reports collaborative efforts among three universities in such a development sponsored by National Science Foundation of USA. The features of the development…

  12. Application of the SP theory of intelligence to the understanding of natural vision and the development of computer vision.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence aims to simplify and integrate concepts in computing and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This article is about how the SP theory may, with advantage, be applied to the understanding of natural vision and the development of computer vision. Potential benefits include an overall simplification of concepts in a universal framework for knowledge and seamless integration of vision with other sensory modalities and other aspects of intelligence. Low level perceptual features such as edges or corners may be identified by the extraction of redundancy in uniform areas in the manner of the run-length encoding technique for information compression. The concept of multiple alignment in the SP theory may be applied to the recognition of objects, and to scene analysis, with a hierarchy of parts and sub-parts, at multiple levels of abstraction, and with family-resemblance or polythetic categories. The theory has potential for the unsupervised learning of visual objects and classes of objects, and suggests how coherent concepts may be derived from fragments. As in natural vision, both recognition and learning in the SP system are robust in the face of errors of omission, commission and substitution. The theory suggests how, via vision, we may piece together a knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of objects and of our environment, it provides an account of how we may see things that are not objectively present in an image, how we may recognise something despite variations in the size of its retinal image, and how raster graphics and vector graphics may be unified. And it has things to say about the phenomena of lightness constancy and colour constancy, the role of context in recognition, ambiguities in visual perception, and the integration of vision with other senses and other aspects of intelligence.

  13. A simplified screening test for identifying people with low vision in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J. E.; Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.; Maclean, H.; Taylor, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Simple but effective tests have been produced for screening subjects with low vision in developing countries. These tests of distance and near vision, based on the E test, were evaluated and validated in trials with people aged 4-90 years, and have been field tested in the health, education and rehabilitation services in 32 developing countries. Their sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for low vision have been calculated; sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% for the distance vision test, and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84% for the near vision test. The content and format of the tests have been demonstrated to be appropriate for developing countries, and their effectiveness for screening for low vision has been confirmed. PMID:9002333

  14. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  15. Carrying Out and Developing the Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Greenman

    2007-06-14

    In support of its obligations under the above-mentioned project, the GMIC performed the following tasks: (1) Provided two-way communications liaison services between the U.S. glass industry and the D.O.E. to ensure the needs and concerns of each party are effectively communicated to the other. (2) Updated and modified on a continuing basis and in response to evolving conditions within the glass industry, the goals and priorities outlined in the Glass Industry Vision and the Glass Technology Roadmap. (3) Established relationships with a wide variety of government and non-governmental organizations with interests in further improving the levels of technology, productivity and environmental responsibility of the glass industry. (4) Canvassed the glass industry on an ongoing basis to determine overall and specific sector needs for technological development. (5) Fostered direct contacts between member companies and national laboratories to facilitate the development of individual company technology development. (6) Advised the DOE on the key elements of the solicitation process in support of the Glass Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap. In the course of this contract, the membership of the GMIC has grown to include over 70% of the glass industry. This gives it the ability to communicate persuasively with the vast majority of this energy intensive industry. One of the principal benefits of the existence of the GMIC is that, for the first time in this country, representative companies of all major sectors of the glass industry are now in regular communication with each other. Prior to the existence and activity of the GMIC, companies and individuals in the flat glass, container glass, fiber glass and specialty glass sectors rarely had contact with each other, in spite of the fact that they all face similar challenges and can benefit from pre-competitive research conducted to the benefit of the broad industry. The development of innovations in the industry under cost

  16. Interactive vision system written in Java: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantalis, George; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    2001-02-01

    Following many years of development, interactive vision systems have become an effective tool for problem analysis and algorithm selection for industrial inspection, process monitoring and machine / robot control. Until recently such systems were inevitably based upon a stand-alone computer. However, more recent work has highlighted the need for a system that can be operated via the Internet. Such a system, called CIP, has been developed by the authors and was reported in a recent paper at this conference. This article describes enhancements of that system, including: the ability to write scripts, extensions to the user interface and command repertoire, as well as the ability to control the program remotely. Very recently, an interface to a shareware version of Prolog, written in Java, was completed and provides the ability to write "intelligent" programs for analysing visual scenes. CIP forms an integral part of a larger suite of programs that is being developed by the authors and their colleagues, for the remote acquisition and processing of images from a factory production environment. The latter is described in an accompanying article in this conference.

  17. Recent advances in the development and transfer of machine vision technologies for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Pendleton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Recent work concerned with real-time machine vision is briefly reviewed. This work includes methodologies and techniques for optimal illumination, shape-from-shading of general (non-Lambertian) 3D surfaces, laser vision devices and technology, high level vision, sensor fusion, real-time computing, artificial neural network design and use, and motion estimation. Two new methods that are currently being developed for object recognition in clutter and for 3D attitude tracking based on line correspondence are discussed.

  18. Recent advances in the development and transfer of machine vision technologies for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Pendleton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Recent work concerned with real-time machine vision is briefly reviewed. This work includes methodologies and techniques for optimal illumination, shape-from-shading of general (non-Lambertian) 3D surfaces, laser vision devices and technology, high level vision, sensor fusion, real-time computing, artificial neural network design and use, and motion estimation. Two new methods that are currently being developed for object recognition in clutter and for 3D attitude tracking based on line correspondence are discussed.

  19. Development of a machine vision fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedeke, A. D.; Healey, G.; Drda, B.

    1994-03-01

    This project resulted in the development, test, and delivery of a patented Machine Vision Fire Detector System (MVFDS) that provides for the first time a unique and reliable method of detecting fire events and determining their size, growth, distance, location, and overall threat in real-time. The system also provides simultaneous video coverage of the area being monitored by the MVFDS for fires. This 'man-in-the-loop' capability provides an option for manual override of automatic suppressant dump, or manual release of suppressant agent. The MVFDS is designed to be immune to false alarms based upon its decision process which involves identification, comparison, and deduction (emulates a human's process of deduction/decision) of unique properties of fire. These unique properties have been included into a fire model from which algorithms have been developed. The MVFDS uses a commercially available color CCD camera, frame grabber, microprocessor, video chip, and electronics. In aircraft hangar and facility applications, the detector is designed to identify a 2-foot x 2-foot fire at a distance of 100 feet in less than 0.5 seconds with no false alarms and, in other applications, detect fires in less than 30 milliseconds.

  20. Construction in year 2030: developing an information technology vision.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, B; Abbott, C; Aouad, G

    2010-08-13

    Emerging technologies offer new solutions to the construction industry, improving processes, enabling automation and effective decision-making mechanisms and changing current ways of work. Previous research has tended to consider a direct causal relationship between the emerging and prospective technologies and the future of construction. However, the future of construction will be influenced not only by the developments in the information technology (IT) industry, but also by other technological changes. Societal, economic, environmental and political factors will shape the future, together with emerging technologies. This paper presents a scenario-planning exercise that aimed to identify possible futures that the construction industry might face. In order to achieve the aims of the research, a literature review was carried out on scenario planning and future studies related to construction and construction IT, which was followed by a mini survey and two prospective workshops as part of the La Prospective scenario-planning approach. In a future study, it is important to understand the forces, issues and trends in order to inform and enable further thinking and action towards achieving a preferred future state whilst being prepared for what might be round the corner. Therefore, the paper first investigates the driving forces of change, main trends, issues and factors that might shape the future, focusing on factors related to society, technology, environment, economy and politics. Secondly, four future scenarios that were developed keeping these factors in mind are presented. The scenarios start from a global view and present the images of the future world in year 2030. They later focus on the construction industry, imagining how it will be shaped by the future world and trying to visualize the information and communication technology implications for construction. Finally, a preferred future scenario for 2030 is introduced based on the principle that the future

  1. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  2. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  3. Recent developments in the economic modeling of photovoltaic module manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards (SAMICS) are described. Consideration is given to the added capability to handle arbitrary operating schedules and the revised procedure for calculation of one-time costs. The results of an extensive validation study are summarized.

  4. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing: A New Menace for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of developing countries that may make computer-integrated manufacturing inappropriate include (1) inadequate infrastructure; (2) lack of capital; (3) policies regarding use of local products; (4) many small and medium-sized businesses; and (5) management practices. Higher productivity depends more on skilled management and workers and more…

  5. Place of Manufacture Diversification in Cyclical Development of the Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erofeev, Alexander G.; Smolin, Georgy K.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that diversification is one of the best options for reforming enterprises. The aim of the research: to consider changes in production of outputs in development cycles of the enterprise. This will help to reveal the nature of manufacture diversification. The leading method to the…

  6. Recent developments in the economic modeling of photovoltaic module manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards (SAMICS) are described. Consideration is given to the added capability to handle arbitrary operating schedules and the revised procedure for calculation of one-time costs. The results of an extensive validation study are summarized.

  7. Technology transfer and international development: Materials and manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Policy oriented studies on technological development in several relatively advanced developing countries were conducted. Priority sectors defined in terms of technological sophistication, capital intensity, value added, and export potential were studied in Brazil, Venezuela, Israel, and Korea. The development of technological policy alternatives for the sponsoring country is assessed. Much emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamics of the sectors through structured interviews with a large sample of firms in the leading manufacturing and materials processing sectors.

  8. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  9. Rapid development and optimization of tablet manufacturing using statistical tools.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eutimio Gustavo; Cordero, Silvia; Benítez, Malvina; Perdomo, Iraelio; Morón, Yohandro; Morales, Ada Esther; Arce, Milagros Gaudencia; Cuesta, Ernesto; Lugones, Juan; Fernández, Maritza; Gil, Arturo; Valdés, Rodolfo; Fernández, Mirna

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical methodology to optimize tablet manufacturing considering drug chemical and physical properties applying a crossed experimental design. The assessed model drug was dried ferrous sulphate and the variables were the hardness and the relative proportions of three excipients, binder, filler and disintegrant. Granule properties were modeled as a function of excipient proportions and tablet parameters were defined by the excipient proportion and hardness. The desirability function was applied to achieve optimal values for excipient proportions and hardness. In conclusion, crossed experimental design using hardness as the only process variable is an efficient strategy to quickly determine the optimal design process for tablet manufacturing. This method can be applied for any tablet manufacturing method.

  10. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  11. Ceramic transactions: Case studies in ceramic product development, manufacturing, and commercialization. Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Barks, R.E.; Hiremath, B.

    1997-12-31

    This document presents studies on ceramic development and manufacturing. Topics include general manufacturing, the manufacture of electronic optical components, and bioceramic components. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  12. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  13. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  14. Development of a synthetic vision display of the second generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietanski, Guillaume; Lenhart, Peter M.; Kranz, Stephan; Mayer, Udo

    2000-06-01

    The Darmstadt University of Technology (TUD) develops displays with 3D terrain depiction to improve pilots spatial situation awareness. This will enhance safety and will lead to economical benefits by supporting new traffic procedures (i.e. SMGCS taxiing). Flight tests and simulation with a first generation of displays gave proof of the concept. However, for global usability it was necessary to rebuild the software concept. Displays of second generation utilise a worldwide database instead of a local and experimental one. With this new software concept either the database of the tools, to build it, should be certifiable. For performance reasons, logic information is included in the database. This means that the animation information about special objects is described in the database and not in the display software routines. This was the motivation to implement a new version of the software instead of an update of the first generation. A graphics library, written to build 3D graphic applications is used. This library makes optimal use of the graphic hardware and supports database. The new version provides a lot of flexibility, without decreasing the performance of the displays software. It is build for experimental research and not as a final product. The display format must have a lot of flexibility, because the software is contributing to different research projects in different configurations. It is also necessary to have a great flexibility for the interface configuration. Important steps in the development process of TUD's second generation Synthetic Vision Displays will be presented. Furthermore, features of the drawing process and the communication interface of the software will be explained.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Preschool Vision Screening Program in a Mobile Setting: Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NHSA Dialog, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study, is a multi-phased, multi-center study designed to identify screening tests that best detect vision problems in preschool children. The VIP Study uses mobile medical units that are specially equipped to conduct vision screenings and eye examinations. Known as Vision Vans, these mobile units are staffed by lay…

  16. Development and Implementation of a Preschool Vision Screening Program in a Mobile Setting: Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NHSA Dialog, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study, is a multi-phased, multi-center study designed to identify screening tests that best detect vision problems in preschool children. The VIP Study uses mobile medical units that are specially equipped to conduct vision screenings and eye examinations. Known as Vision Vans, these mobile units are staffed by lay…

  17. Early engineering approaches to improve peptide developability and manufacturability.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Chiu, Mark; Hunter, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Downstream success in Pharmaceutical Development requires thoughtful molecule design early in the lifetime of any potential therapeutic. Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are quite similar with respect to their developability properties. However, the properties of therapeutic peptides tend to be as diverse as the molecules themselves. Analysis of the primary sequence reveals sites of potential adverse posttranslational modifications including asparagine deamidation, aspartic acid isomerization, methionine, tryptophan, and cysteine oxidation and, potentially, chemical and proteolytic degradation liabilities that can impact the developability and manufacturability of a potential therapeutic peptide. Assessing these liabilities, both biophysically and functionally, early in a molecule's lifetime can drive a more effective path forward in the drug discovery process. In addition to these potential liabilities, more complex peptides that contain multiple disulfide bonds can pose particular challenges with respect to production and manufacturability. Approaches to reducing the disulfide bond complexity of these peptides are often explored with mixed success. Proteolytic degradation is a major contributor to decreased half-life and efficacy. Addressing this aspect of peptide stability early in the discovery process increases downstream success. We will address aspects of peptide sequence analysis, molecule complexity, developability analysis, and manufacturing routes that drive the decision making processes during peptide therapeutic development.

  18. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  19. The development of the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire: a measure of functional vision performance of visually impaired children.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan E; Nutheti, Rishita

    2003-09-01

    To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire (the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, LVP-FVQ) to assess self-reported functional vision problems of visually impaired school children. The LVP-FVQ consisting of 19 items was administered verbally to 78 visually impaired Indian school children aged 8 to 18 years. Responses for each item were rated on a 5-point scale. A Rasch analysis of the ordinal difficulty ratings was used to estimate interval measures of perceived visual ability for functional vision performance. Content validity of the LVP-FVQ was shown by the good separation index (3.75) and high reliability scores (0.93) for the item parameters. Construct validity was shown with good model fit statistics. Criterion validity of the LVP-FVQ was shown by good discrimination among subjects who answered "seeing much worse" versus "as well as"; "seeing much worse" versus "as well as/a little worse" and "seeing much worse" versus "a little worse," compared with their normal-sighted friends. The task that required the least visual ability was "walking alone in the corridor at school"; the task that required the most was "reading a textbook at arm's length." The estimated person measures of visual ability were linear with logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) acuity and the binocular high contrast distance visual acuity accounted for 32.6% of the variability in the person measure. The LVP-FVQ is a reliable, valid, and simple questionnaire that can be used to measure functional vision in visually impaired children in developing countries such as India.

  20. Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowsk, J. H.; Fogarty, P. J.; Heitzenroeder, P. J.; Meighan, T.; Nelson, B.; Raftopoulos, S.; Williamson, D.

    2005-09-27

    The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R&D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including "Keystoning" concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented.

  1. Leadership Development for Early Headship: The New Visions Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports some of the findings from an evaluation of the New Visions programme, piloted by the National College for School Leadership in 2002-2003. The programme is targeted at school leaders in their first three years of headship and has a strong emphasis on experiential learning. The evaluation evidence is deployed against an earlier…

  2. Role of Vision in Social Development in Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, Arnold S.

    1984-01-01

    Eight stump-tailed macaques were reared individually and either given all of their daily social experience in darkness or given half in the dark and half in the light. Results suggest that vision is especially important in the maintenance of assertive behaviors and in the instigation and direction of aggressive behaviors. (Author/RH)

  3. Role of Vision in Social Development in Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, Arnold S.

    1984-01-01

    Eight stump-tailed macaques were reared individually and either given all of their daily social experience in darkness or given half in the dark and half in the light. Results suggest that vision is especially important in the maintenance of assertive behaviors and in the instigation and direction of aggressive behaviors. (Author/RH)

  4. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  5. Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-06-19

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

  6. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

  7. Meeting product development challenges in manufacturing clinical grade oncolytic adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Working, Peter K; Lin, Andy; Borellini, Flavia

    2005-11-21

    Oncolytic adenoviruses have been considered for use as anticancer therapy for decades, and numerous means of conferring tumor selectivity have been developed. As with any new therapy, the trip from the laboratory bench to the clinic has revealed a number of significant development hurdles. Viral therapies are subject to specific regulations and must meet a variety of well-defined criteria for purity, potency, stability, and product characterization prior to their use in the clinic. Published regulatory guidelines, although developed specifically for biotechnology-derived products, are applicable to the production of oncolytic adenoviruses and other cell-based products, and they should be consulted early during development. Most importantly, both the manufacturing process and the development of characterization and release assays should be science-driven, use the best available science and technology, and must consider the unique nature of the product: a living, and mutatable, virus. Potentially significant impacts on product quality and safety stem from the possibility of genetic instability related to over-engineering the viruses (as evidenced by their recombination and/or occasional reversion to wild-type virus during manufacturing). This report provides examples of some of the critical components affecting the development and production of clinical grade material and summarizes the significant progress made in recent years.

  8. Development of a distributed vision system for industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf; O'Leary, Paul; Fauster, Ewald; Schalk, Peter

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a prototype system to monitor a hot glowing wire during the rolling process in quality relevant aspects. Therefore a measurement system based on image vision and a communication framework integrating distributed measurement nodes is introduced. As a technologically approach, machine vision is used to evaluate the wire quality parameters. Therefore an image processing algorithm, based on dual Grassmannian coordinates fitting parallel lines by singular value decomposition, is formulated. Furthermore a communication framework which implements anonymous tuplespace communication, a private network based on TCP/IP and a consequent Java implementation of all used components is presented. Additionally, industrial requirements such as realtime communication to IEC-61131 conform digital IO"s (Modbus TCP/IP protocol), the implementation of a watchdog pattern and the integration of multiple operating systems (LINUX, QNX and WINDOWS) are lined out. The deployment of such a framework to the real world problem statement of the wire rolling mill is presented.

  9. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A

    2017-05-24

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Materials Development and Evaluation of Selective Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Peter F.; Mitchell, Russell R.

    1997-01-15

    This report summarizes the FY96 accomplishments for CRADA No. LA95C10254, "Materials Development and Evaluation of Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications". To research the potential for processing additional materials using DTM Corporations Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping technology and evaluate the capability for rapid manufacturing applications, the following materials were processed experimentally using the Sinterstation 2000 platform; Linear Low Density Polyethylene thermoplastic; Polypropylene thermoplastic; Polysulfone thermoplastic; Polymethylpentene (TPX) thermoplastic; Carbon microsphere filled nylon 11; "APO-BMI" Apocure bismaleimide thermoset polyimide glass m.icrosphere filled and carbon microsphere filled formulations; and 900-24 physical properties mock for plastic bonded TATB high explosive These materials have been successfully processed to a "proof of concept" level or better (with the exception of No. 7). While none of these materials have been introduced as a standard product as of this date, the potential to do so is viable. Present status of materials processing efforts is presented in Section A 2.0. Some recent efforts in manufacturing applications is discussed in Section A 4.0.

  11. Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update.

    PubMed

    Brandli, Alice; Luu, Chi D; Guymer, Robyn H; Ayton, Lauren N

    2016-01-01

    Vision prostheses, or "bionic eyes", are implantable medical bionic devices with the potential to restore rudimentary sight to people with profound vision loss or blindness. In the past two decades, this field has rapidly progressed, and there are now two commercially available retinal prostheses in the US and Europe, and a number of next-generation devices in development. This review provides an update on the development of these devices and a discussion on the future directions for the field.

  12. Manufacturing costs of HPV vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clendinen, Chaevia; Zhang, Yapei; Warburton, Rebecca N; Light, Donald W

    2016-11-21

    Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs. Searches in published and commercial literature for information about the manufacturing of these vaccines. Interviews with experts in vaccine manufacturing. This detailed sensitivity analysis, based on the best available evidence, finds that after a first set of batches for affluent markets, manufacturing costs of Gardasil for developing countries range between $0.48 and $0.59 a dose, a fraction of its alleged costs of $4.50. Because volume of Cervarix is low, its per unit costs are much higher, though at comparable volumes, its costs would be similar. Given the recovery of fixed and annual costs from sales in affluent markets, Merck's break-even price to Gavi could be $0.50-$0.60, not $4.50. These savings could support Gavi programs to strengthen delivery and increase coverage. Outside Gavi, prices to lower- and middle-income countries, with profit, could also be lowered and made available to millions more adolescents at risk. These estimates and their policy implications deserve further discussion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  14. GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

  15. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Goins, John D.

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  16. Vision for Perception and Vision for Action: Normal and Unusual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that visual processing is divided into the dorsal ("how") and ventral ("what") streams. We examined the normal development of these streams and their breakdown under neurological deficit by comparing performance of normally developing children and Williams syndrome individuals on two tasks: a visually guided action ("how") task,…

  17. Active vision and receptive field development in evolutionary robots.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Suzuki, Mototaka; Mattiussi, Dario

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the artificial evolution of adaptive neural controllers for an outdoor mobile robot equipped with a mobile camera. The robot can dynamically select the gazing direction by moving the body and/or the camera. The neural control system, which maps visual information to motor commands, is evolved online by means of a genetic algorithm, but the synaptic connections (receptive fields) from visual photoreceptors to internal neurons can also be modified by Hebbian plasticity while the robot moves in the environment. We show that robots evolved in physics-based simulations with Hebbian visual plasticity display more robust adaptive behavior when transferred to real outdoor environments as compared to robots evolved without visual plasticity. We also show that the formation of visual receptive fields is significantly and consistently affected by active vision as compared to the formation of receptive fields with grid sample images in the environment of the robot. Finally, we show that the interplay between active vision and receptive field formation amounts to the selection and exploitation of a small and constant subset of visual features available to the robot.

  18. Development of embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhenxing; Dong, Yimin; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Currently, high-speed vision platforms are widely used in many applications, such as robotics and automation industry. However, a personal computer (PC) whose over-large size is not suitable and applicable in compact systems is an indispensable component for human-computer interaction in traditional high-speed vision platforms. Therefore, this paper develops an embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform, ER-HVP Vision which is able to work completely out of PC. In this new platform, an embedded CPU-based board is designed as substitution for PC and a DSP and FPGA board is developed for implementing image parallel algorithms in FPGA and image sequential algorithms in DSP. Hence, the capability of ER-HVP Vision with size of 320mm x 250mm x 87mm can be presented in more compact condition. Experimental results are also given to indicate that the real-time detection and counting of the moving target at a frame rate of 200 fps at 512 x 512 pixels under the operation of this newly developed vision platform are feasible.

  19. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  20. The role of pattern vision in the development of cortico-cortical connections.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, P D; Jin, F; Nakamura, H; Tettoni, L; Innocenti, G M

    1999-08-01

    The development of cortico-cortical connections was studied in kittens deprived of vision by binocular eyelid suture during the formation of axonal arbors and synaptogenesis, i.e. between the second postnatal week and the end of the third postnatal month. Axons originating in area 17 and terminating either in ipsilateral or contralateral visual areas were visualized with biocytin. In ipsilateral areas 17 and 18, distinct clusters of branches begin to form, distally from the injection, during the second half of the first postnatal month, independently of pattern vision. More proximal clusters differentiate during the second postnatal month, and this seems to involve elimination of exuberant axonal branches. In kittens deprived of vision for 3 or more months, beginning before natural eye opening, the distal clusters regress and the proximal ones fail to differentiate. In extrastriate areas, distinct clusters of branches have segregated by the end of the second postnatal month, independently of visual experience; however, in kittens deprived of vision for 2 or more months, one of the clusters was selectively eliminated. In contralateral areas 17 and 18, we found stunted terminal arbors in kittens continuously deprived of vision. This was already noticeable at the end of the first postnatal month. Apparently, in the absence of pattern vision, most axons undergo only limited growth and do not form their characteristic terminal columns. Many of these axons are subsequently eliminated. In contrast, 8 days of vision beginning at natural eye opening and followed by visual deprivation caused a nearly normal development of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In conclusion, pattern vision appears to validate connections at early stages of their development; this validation is necessary for their further growth and differentiation that can then continue autonomously.

  1. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  2. Vision for perception and vision for action: normal and unusual development.

    PubMed

    Dilks, Daniel D; Hoffman, James E; Landau, Barbara

    2008-07-01

    Evidence suggests that visual processing is divided into the dorsal ('how') and ventral ('what') streams. We examined the normal development of these streams and their breakdown under neurological deficit by comparing performance of normally developing children and Williams syndrome individuals on two tasks: a visually guided action ('how') task, in which participants posted a card into an oriented slot, and a perception ('what') task, in which they matched a card to the slot's orientation. Results showed that all groups performed worse on the action task than the perception task, but the disparity was more pronounced in WS individuals and in normal 3-4-year-olds than in older children. These findings suggest that the 'how' system may be relatively slow to develop and more vulnerable to breakdown than the 'what' system.

  3. Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2001-10-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

  5. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2002-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  6. Atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing—A trend in manufacturing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou

    2016-12-01

    Manufacturing is the foundation of a nation's economy. It is the primary industry to promote economic and social development. To accelerate and upgrade China's manufacturing sector from "precision manufacturing" to "high-performance and high-quality manufacturing", a new breakthrough should be found in terms of achieving a "leap-frog development". Unlike conventional manufacturing, the fundamental theory of "Manufacturing 3.0" is beyond the scope of conventional theory; rather, it is based on new principles and theories at the atomic and/or closeto- atomic scale. Obtaining a dominant role at the international level is a strategic move for China's progress.

  7. The Impact of School Leadership Development: Evidence from the "New Visions" Programme for Early Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Briggs, Ann R. J.; Middlewood, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of one leadership development programme, drawing on a model developed by Leithwood and Levin (2004) for the Department of Education and Skills. The New Visions programme, offered by the National College for School Leadership, is aimed at new headteachers and adopts a process rich approach to leadership development.…

  8. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  10. A history of development in rotordynamics: A manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemeld, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of rotordynamics and instability problems in high performance turbomachinery has been a topic of considerable industry discussion and debate over the last 15 or so years. This paper reviews an original equipment manufacturer's history of development of concepts and equipment as applicable to multistage centrifugal compressors. The variety of industry user compression requirements and resultant problematical situations tends to confound many of the theories and analytical techniques set forth. The experiences and examples described herein support the conclusion that the successful addressing of potential rotordynamics problems is best served by a fundamental knowledge of the specific equipment. This in addition to having the appropriate analytical tools. Also, that the final proof is in the doing.

  11. Vision-based obstacle recognition system for automated lawn mower robot development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Zin, Zalhan; Ibrahim, Ratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Digital image processing techniques (DIP) have been widely used in various types of application recently. Classification and recognition of a specific object using vision system require some challenging tasks in the field of image processing and artificial intelligence. The ability and efficiency of vision system to capture and process the images is very important for any intelligent system such as autonomous robot. This paper gives attention to the development of a vision system that could contribute to the development of an automated vision based lawn mower robot. The works involve on the implementation of DIP techniques to detect and recognize three different types of obstacles that usually exist on a football field. The focus was given on the study on different types and sizes of obstacles, the development of vision based obstacle recognition system and the evaluation of the system's performance. Image processing techniques such as image filtering, segmentation, enhancement and edge detection have been applied in the system. The results have shown that the developed system is able to detect and recognize various types of obstacles on a football field with recognition rate of more 80%.

  12. A Practical Solution Using A New Approach To Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Up to now, robot vision systems have been designed to serve both application development and operational needs in inspection, assembly and material handling. This universal approach to robot vision is too costly for many practical applications. A new industrial vision system separates the function of application program development from on-line operation. A Vision Development System (VDS) is equipped with facilities designed to simplify and accelerate the application program development process. A complimentary but lower cost Target Application System (TASK) runs the application program developed with the VDS. This concept is presented in the context of an actual robot vision application that improves inspection and assembly for a manufacturer of electronic terminal keyboards. Applications developed with a VDS experience lower development cost when compared with conventional vision systems. Since the TASK processor is not burdened with development tools, it can be installed at a lower cost than comparable "universal" vision systems that are intended to be used for both development and on-line operation. The VDS/TASK approach opens more industrial applications to robot vision that previously were not practical because of the high cost of vision systems. Although robot vision is a new technology, it has been applied successfully to a variety of industrial needs in inspection, manufacturing, and material handling. New developments in robot vision technology are creating practical, cost effective solutions for a variety of industrial needs. A year or two ago, researchers and robot manufacturers interested in implementing a robot vision application could take one of two approaches. The first approach was to purchase all the necessary vision components from various sources. That meant buying an image processor from one company, a camera from another and lens and light sources from yet others. The user then had to assemble the pieces, and in most instances he had to write

  13. Technical Challenges in the Development of a NASA Synthetic Vision System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrah, Steve; Arthur, J. J., III

    2002-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Synthetic Vision Systems Project is developing display system concepts to improve pilot terrain/situation awareness by providing a perspective synthetic view of the outside world through an on-board database driven by precise aircraft positioning information updating via Global Positioning System-based data. This work is aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents, as well as replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Synthetic vision research and development activities at NASA Langley Research Center are focused around a series of ground simulation and flight test experiments designed to evaluate, investigate, and assess the technology which can lead to operational and certified synthetic vision systems. The technical challenges that have been encountered and that are anticipated in this research and development activity are summarized.

  14. 3 rd generation 1280 x 720 FPA development status at Raytheon Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. F.; Radford, W. A.; Patten, E. A.; Graham, R. W.; McEwan, T. F.; Vodicka, J. G.; Bornfreund, R. E.; Goetz, P. M.; Venzor, G. M.; Johnson, S. M.; Jensen, J. E.; Nosho, B. Z.; Roth, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed and demonstrated the first-ever 1280 x 720 pixel dual-band MW/LWIR focal plane arrays (FPA) to support 3rd-Generation tactical IR systems under the U.S. Army's Dual-Band FPA Manufacturing (DBFM) program. The MW/LWIR detector arrays are fabricated from MBE-grown HgCdTe triple-layer heterojunction (TLHJ) wafers. The RVS dual-band FPA architecture provides highly simultaneous temporal detection in the MWIR and LWIR bands using time-division multiplexed integration (TDMI) incorporated into the readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The TDMI ROIC incorporates a high degree of integration and output flexibility, and supports both dual-band and single-band full-frame operating modes, as well as high-speed LWIR "window" operation at 480 Hz frame rate. The ROIC is hybridized to a two-color detector array using a single indium interconnect per pixel, which makes it highly producible for 20 μm unit cells and exploits mature fabrication processes currently used to produce single-color FPAs. High-quality 1280 x 720 MW/LWIR FPAs have been fabricated and excellent dual-band imagery produced at 60 Hz frame rate. The 1280 x 720 detector arrays for these FPAs have LWIR cutoff wavelengths >=10.5 μm at 78K. These FPAs have demonstrated high-sensitivity at 78K with MW NETD values < 20 mK and LW NETD values <30 mK with f/3.5 apertures. Pixel operability greater than 99.9% has been achieved in the MW band and greater than 98% in the LW band.

  15. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  16. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  17. "Development as an Aim of Education": A Reconsideration of Dewey's Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the view that a concept of development should serve as a guiding principle for education has been seriously challenged by developmental psychologists as well as educators. Dewey's vision of development and progressive education is at the heart of these controversies. This article discusses the place of Dewey's thinking on these subjects,…

  18. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective

  19. Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update

    PubMed Central

    Brandli, Alice; Luu, Chi D; Guymer, Robyn H; Ayton, Lauren N

    2016-01-01

    Vision prostheses, or “bionic eyes”, are implantable medical bionic devices with the potential to restore rudimentary sight to people with profound vision loss or blindness. In the past two decades, this field has rapidly progressed, and there are now two commercially available retinal prostheses in the US and Europe, and a number of next-generation devices in development. This review provides an update on the development of these devices and a discussion on the future directions for the field. PMID:28539798

  20. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  1. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  2. Developing Codes of Conduct for Manufacturers of College Apparel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1998-01-01

    Colleges and universities are establishing policies to ensure that clothing carrying their names are not being manufactured with "sweatshop" labor. The colleges' policies attempt to set acceptable standards for manufacturers producing the lucrative licensed lines. However, institutions are finding that it is difficult to enforce those…

  3. Developing Codes of Conduct for Manufacturers of College Apparel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1998-01-01

    Colleges and universities are establishing policies to ensure that clothing carrying their names are not being manufactured with "sweatshop" labor. The colleges' policies attempt to set acceptable standards for manufacturers producing the lucrative licensed lines. However, institutions are finding that it is difficult to enforce those…

  4. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  5. Surrogate Final Technical Report for "Solar: A Photovoltaic Manufacturing Development Facility"

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Paul

    2014-06-27

    The project goal to create a first-of-a-kind crystalline Silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) Manufacturing & Technology Development Facility (MDF) that will support the growth and maturation of a strong domestic PV manufacturing industry, based on innovative and differentiated technology, by ensuring industry participants can, in a timely and cost-effective manner, access cutting-edge manufacturing equipment and production expertise needed to accelerate the transition of innovative technologies from R&D into manufacturing.

  6. How development and manufacturing will need to be structured--heads of development/manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  7. How Development and Manufacturing Will Need to Be Structured-Heads of Development/Manufacturing May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  8. Design and development of progressive tool for manufacturing washer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annigeri, Ulhas K.; Raghavendra Ravi Kiran, K.; Deepthi, Y. P.

    2017-07-01

    In a progressive tool the raw material is worked at different station to finally fabricate the component. A progressive tool is a lucrative tool for mass production of components. A lot of automobile and other transport industries develop progressive tool for the production of components. The design of tool involves lot of planning and the same amount of skill of process planning is required in the fabrication of the tool. The design also involves use of thumb rules and standard elements as per experience gained in practice. Manufacturing the press tool is a laborious task as special jigs and fixtures have to be designed for the purpose. Assembly of all the press tool elements is another task where use of accurate measuring instruments for alignment of various tool elements is important. In the present study, design and fabrication of progressive press tool for production of washer has been developed and the press tool has been tried out on a mechanical type of press. The components produced are to dimensions.

  9. Composite Design and Manufacturing Development for Human Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Douglas; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    The Structural Engineering Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has begun work on lightweight, multi-functional pressurized composite structures. The first candidate vehicle for technology development is the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) cabin, known as the Gen 2B cabin, which has been built at JSC by the Robotics Division. Of the habitable MMSEV vehicle prototypes designed to date, this is the first one specifically analyzed and tested to hold internal pressure and the only one made out of composite materials. This design uses a laminate base with zoned reinforcement and external stringers, intended to demonstrate certain capabilities, and to prepare for the next cabin design, which will be a composite sandwich panel construction with multi-functional capabilities. As part of this advanced development process, a number of new technologies were used to assist in the design and manufacturing process. One of the methods, new to JSC, was to build the Gen 2B cabin with Out of Autoclave technology to permit the creation of larger parts with fewer joints. An 8-ply pre-preg layup was constructed to form the cabin body. Prior to lay-up, a design optimization software called FiberSIM was used to create each ply pattern. This software is integrated with Pro/Engineer to allow for customized draping of each fabric ply over the complex tool surface. Slits and darts are made in the software model to create an optimal design that maintains proper fiber placement and orientation. The flat pattern of each ply is then exported and sent to an automated cutting table where the patterns are cut out of graphite material. Additionally, to assist in lay-up, a laser projection system (LPT) is used to project outlines of each ply directly onto the tool face for accurate fiber placement and ply build-up. Finally, as part of the OoA process, a large oven was procured to post-cure each part. After manufacturing complete, the cabin underwent modal and pressure

  10. Development and modeling of a stereo vision focusing system for a field programmable gate array robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Buckle, James; Grindley, Josef E.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Stereo vision is a situation where an imaging system has two or more cameras in order to make it more robust by mimicking the human vision system. By using two inputs, knowledge of their own relative geometry can be exploited to derive depth information from the two views they receive. 3D co-ordinates of an object in an observed scene can be computed from the intersection of the two sets of rays. Presented here is the development of a stereo vision system to focus on an object at the centre of a baseline between two cameras at varying distances. This has been developed primarily for use on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) but an adaptation of this developed methodology is also presented for use with a PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator with a single camera attachment. The two main vision systems considered here are a fixed baseline with an object moving at varying distances from this baseline, and a system with a fixed distance and a varying baseline. These two differing situations provide enough data so that the co-efficient variables that determine the system operation can be calibrated automatically with only the baseline value needing to be entered, the system performs all the required calculations for the user for use with a baseline of any distance. The limits of system with regards to the focusing accuracy obtained are also presented along with how the PUMA 560 controls its joints for the stereo vision and how it moves from one position to another to attend stereo vision compared to the two camera system for the FPGA. The benefits of such a system for range finding in mobile robotics are discussed and how this approach is more advantageous when compared against laser range finders or echolocation using ultrasonics.

  11. Development of an Automatic Testing Platform for Aviator's Night Vision Goggle Honeycomb Defect Inspection.

    PubMed

    Jian, Bo-Lin; Peng, Chao-Chung

    2017-06-15

    Due to the direct influence of night vision equipment availability on the safety of night-time aerial reconnaissance, maintenance needs to be carried out regularly. Unfortunately, some defects are not easy to observe or are not even detectable by human eyes. As a consequence, this study proposed a novel automatic defect detection system for aviator's night vision imaging systems AN/AVS-6(V)1 and AN/AVS-6(V)2. An auto-focusing process consisting of a sharpness calculation and a gradient-based variable step search method is applied to achieve an automatic detection system for honeycomb defects. This work also developed a test platform for sharpness measurement. It demonstrates that the honeycomb defects can be precisely recognized and the number of the defects can also be determined automatically during the inspection. Most importantly, the proposed approach significantly reduces the time consumption, as well as human assessment error during the night vision goggle inspection procedures.

  12. Recent developments in manufacturing emulsions and particulate products using membranes.

    PubMed

    Vladisavljević, Goran T; Williams, Richard A

    2005-03-17

    Membrane emulsification (ME) is a relatively new technique for the highly controlled production of particulates. This review focuses on the recent developments in this area, ranging from the production of simple oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions to multiple emulsions of different types, solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) dispersions, coherent solids (silica particles, solid lipid microspheres, solder metal powder) and structured solids (solid lipid microcarriers, gel microbeads, polymeric microspheres, core-shell microcapsules and hollow polymeric microparticles). Other emerging technologies that extend the capabilities into different membrane materials and operation methods (such as rotating membranes, repeated membrane extrusion of coarsely pre-emulsified feeds) are introduced. The results of experimental work carried out by cited researchers in the field together with those of the current authors are presented in a tabular form in a rigorous and systematic manner. These demonstrate a wide range of products that can be manufactured using different membrane approaches. Opportunities for creation of new and novel entities are highlighted for low throughput applications (medical diagnostics, healthcare) and for large-scale productions (consumer and personal products).

  13. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  14. Reflections on the Development of a Machine Vision Technology for the Forest Products

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    The authors have approximately 25 years experience in developing machine vision technology for the forest products industry. Based on this experience this paper will attempt to realistically predict what the future holds for this technology. In particular, this paper will attempt to describe some of the benefits this technology will offer, describe how the technology...

  15. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  16. Developing a Vision of Teacher Education: How My Classroom Teacher Understandings Evolved in the University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on my experiences as a former classroom teacher making the transition to teacher education, this study examines how my vision of teacher education developed over the course of my first three years as a graduate teaching assistant in a social studies education program in the United States. A qualitative self-study methodology was used to…

  17. Lifelong Learning and the Pursuit of a Vision for Sustainable Development in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses Botswana's commitment to lifelong learning policy and discusses how it can help the state achieve its vision for sustainable development. First, it argues that while Botswana is renowned for its economic success, it still fails to address positively such traditional challenges as poverty, unemployment and income inequality,…

  18. Interaction between Language and Vision: It's Momentary, Abstract, and It Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study that explores the nature and development of the mechanisms by which language interacts with and influences our ability to represent and retain information from one of our most important non-linguistic systems--vision. In previous work (Dessalegn & Landau, 2008), we showed that 4 year-olds remembered…

  19. Interaction between Language and Vision: It's Momentary, Abstract, and It Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study that explores the nature and development of the mechanisms by which language interacts with and influences our ability to represent and retain information from one of our most important non-linguistic systems--vision. In previous work (Dessalegn & Landau, 2008), we showed that 4 year-olds remembered…

  20. Professional Development Schools Revisited: Reform, Authentic Partnerships, and New Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Lovelace-Taylor, Kay; Sanford-DeShields, Jayminn; Spearman, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Professional Development School (PDS) concept was developed by the Holmes Group (now known as the Holmes Partnership) in response to a national call for educational reform. More recent reform agendas question the effectiveness of the PDS model. This article examines the changes that are occurring in the Temple University PDS in Philadelphia,…

  1. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  2. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  3. Development of volume deposition on cast iron by additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Jordan, Brian H.; Babu, Suresh S.

    2016-11-10

    ORNL partnered with Cummins to demonstrate the feasibility of using additive manufacturing techniques to help develop repair techniques for refurbished cast iron engine blocks. Cummins is interested in the refurbished engine business due to the increased cost savings and reduced emissions. It is expected that by refurbishing engines could help reduce the green house gas emissions by as much as 85%. Though such repair techniques are possible in principle there has been no major industry in the automotive sector that has deployed this technology. Therefore phase-1 would seek to evaluate the feasibility of using the laser directed energy deposition technique to repair cast iron engine blocks. The objective of the phase-1 would be to explore various strategies and understand the challenges involved. During phase-1 deposits were made using Inconel-718, Nickel, Nr-Cr-B braze filler. Inconel 718 builds showed significant cracking in the heat-affected zone in the cast iron. Nickel was used to reduce the cracking in the cast iron substrate, however the Ni builds did not wet the substrate sufficiently resulting in poor dimensional tolerance. In order to increase wetting the Ni was alloyed with the Ni-Cr-B braze to decrease the surface tension of Ni. This however resulted in significant cracks in the build due to shrinkage stresses associated with multiple thermal cycling. Hence to reduce the residual stresses in the builds the DMD-103D equipment was modified and the cast iron block was pre heated using cartridge heaters. Inconel-718 alloyed with Ni was deposited on the engine block. The pre-heated deposits showed a reduced susceptibility to cracking. If awarded the phase-2 of the project would aim to develop process parameters to achieve a crack free deposit engine block.

  4. A production peripheral vision display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinmiller, B.

    1984-01-01

    A small number of peripheral vision display systems in three significantly different configurations were evaluated in various aircraft and simulator situations. The use of these development systems enabled the gathering of much subjective and quantitative data regarding this concept of flight deck instrumentation. However, much was also learned about the limitations of this equipment which needs to be addressed prior to wide spread use. A program at Garrett Manufacturing Limited in which the peripheral vision display system is redesigned and transformed into a viable production avionics system is discussed. Modular design, interchangeable units, optical attenuators, and system fault detection are considered with respect to peripheral vision display systems.

  5. Airbreathing Hypersonic Technology Vision Vehicles and Development Dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClinton, C. R.; Hunt, J. L.; Ricketts, R. H.; Reukauf, P.; Peddie, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advancements in hypersonic airbreathing vehicle technology have been made in the country's research centers and industry over the past 40 years. Some of that technology is being validated with the X-43 flight tests. This paper presents an overview of hypersonic airbreathing technology status within the US, and a hypersonic technology development plan. This plan builds on the nation's large investment in hypersonics. This affordable, incremental plan focuses technology development on hypersonic systems, which could be operating by the 2020's.

  6. 1994 Site Development Plan: A plan with vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Development Plan has been developed during a period of great change and uncertainty. Our goal is to make possible the best use of the Laboratory`s resources to meet shifting national priorities in the post-Cold War world. Site Planning is an important component of the overall Laboratory strategic planning process. This plan focuses on opportunities for the Laboratory as well as on key site development issues including facility construction, redevelopment and reuse, site accessibility, and security. A major challenge is to achieve sufficient stability in the site planning and execution so that the processes of construction can occur efficiently while at the same time providing sufficient flexibility in site facilities so that a range of changing national needs can be accommodated. We are closely coupled to the DOE strategic planning process to meet this challenge.

  7. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  8. Vision & Choice: Ethical Characteristics of Academic Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, John

    2007-01-01

    The perceived importance and the prevalence of academic development programs worldwide mean that it is critical that characteristics essential for the success of such programs be identified and incorporated. This article recognises the manifold perspectives on identifying such characteristics, but argues that if it is desirable that an academic…

  9. Developing a Vision of Pre-College Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Berland, Leema K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study focused on identifying and articulating an ''epistemic foundation'' underlying a pre-collegiate focus on engineering. We do so in the context of UTeach"Engineering" (UTE), a program supported in part by funding by the National Science Foundation and designed to develop a model approach to address the…

  10. Developing a Vision of Pre-College Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Berland, Leema K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study focused on identifying and articulating an ''epistemic foundation'' underlying a pre-collegiate focus on engineering. We do so in the context of UTeach"Engineering" (UTE), a program supported in part by funding by the National Science Foundation and designed to develop a model approach to address the…

  11. Development of novel IVD assays: a manufacturer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    IVD manufacturers are heavily reliant on novel IVD assays to fuel their growth and drive innovation within the industry. They represent a key part of the IVD industry's value proposition to customers and the healthcare industry in general, driving product differentiation, helping to create demand for new systems and generating incremental revenue. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers and their qualification for a specific clinical purpose is a high risk undertaking and the large, risky investments associated with doing this on a large scale are incompatible with IVD manufacturer's business models. This article describes the sources of novel IVD assays, the processes for discovering and qualifying novel assays and the reliance of IVD manufacturers on collaborations and in-licensing to source new IVD assays for their platforms.

  12. Developing the Manufacturing Process for VCE: Binder for Filled Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Eastwood

    2009-11-01

    This topical report presents work completed to re-establish the manufacturing process for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) terpolymer called VCE. The new VCE formulations meet the material requirements and have lower melt viscosity, which results in improved production for the next assembly. In addition, the reaction conditions were optimized in order to achieve a satisfactory conversion rate to enable production in a single work shift. Several equipment and process changes were made to yield a manufacturing process with improved product quality, yield, efficiency, and worker safety.

  13. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  14. Development of a Machine Vision Fire Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Incandescent Lamps 1. Quartz Tungsten Halogen 2. Sealed Beam - Automotive : 3. Headlamp a. Spotlamp b. Signal c. Light Bar d. Rotating Lights 4. Flashlight a...and pyrotechnic materials fires/explosions. B. BACKGROUND A continuing goal of the Air Force is to advance the technology of fire protection by...as shape, spectral reflectance, and material . The use of physically motivated models for algorithm development provide several important advantages

  15. Development, Validation, and Deployment of an Occupational Test of Color Vision for Air Traffic Control Specialists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Engineering, and Development office (AJP-61) tasked the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) to develop, validate, and implement an occupational test for...on each subtest, determined cut scores to apply in occupational testing, and examined the impact of testing upon a sample of CVD subjects. The...subtest, determined cut scores to be applied in occupational testing, and examined the impact of testing upon a sample of CVD subjects. Color vision

  16. The relationship between eye movement and vision develops before birth.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, Veronika; Schlegl, Thomas; Jakab, Andras; Kasprian, Gregor; Woitek, Ramona; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    While the visuomotor system is known to develop rapidly after birth, studies have observed spontaneous activity in vertebrates in visually excitable cortical areas already before extrinsic stimuli are present. Resting state networks and fetal eye movements were observed independently in utero, but no functional brain activity coupled with visual stimuli could be detected using fetal fMRI. This study closes this gap and links in utero eye movement with corresponding functional networks. BOLD resting-state fMRI data were acquired from seven singleton fetuses between gestational weeks 30-36 with normal brain development. During the scan time, fetal eye movements were detected and tracked in the functional MRI data. We show that already in utero spontaneous fetal eye movements are linked to simultaneous networks in visual- and frontal cerebral areas. In our small but in terms of gestational age homogenous sample, evidence across the population suggests that the preparation of the human visuomotor system links visual and motor areas already prior to birth.

  17. The relationship between eye movement and vision develops before birth

    PubMed Central

    Schöpf, Veronika; Schlegl, Thomas; Jakab, Andras; Kasprian, Gregor; Woitek, Ramona; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    While the visuomotor system is known to develop rapidly after birth, studies have observed spontaneous activity in vertebrates in visually excitable cortical areas already before extrinsic stimuli are present. Resting state networks and fetal eye movements were observed independently in utero, but no functional brain activity coupled with visual stimuli could be detected using fetal fMRI. This study closes this gap and links in utero eye movement with corresponding functional networks. BOLD resting-state fMRI data were acquired from seven singleton fetuses between gestational weeks 30–36 with normal brain development. During the scan time, fetal eye movements were detected and tracked in the functional MRI data. We show that already in utero spontaneous fetal eye movements are linked to simultaneous networks in visual- and frontal cerebral areas. In our small but in terms of gestational age homogenous sample, evidence across the population suggests that the preparation of the human visuomotor system links visual and motor areas already prior to birth. PMID:25324764

  18. Additive/Subtractive Manufacturing Research and Development in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    process control of direct manufacturing in the SLS process. Proceedings VR @P International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid...engineering, professional pedagogy , and systems engineering. The BIBA PPC has 110 employees (42 percent scientists). BIBA is involved in service

  19. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  20. Developing a vision and strategic action plan for future community-based residency training.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Jann B; Owen, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Community Pharmacy Residency Program (CPRP) Planning Committee convened to develop a vision and a strategic action plan for the advancement of community pharmacy residency training. Aligned with the profession's efforts to achieve provider status and expand access to care, the Future Vision and Action Plan for Community-based Residency Training will provide guidance, direction, and a strategic action plan for community-based residency training to ensure that the future needs of community-based pharmacist practitioners are met. National thought leaders, selected because of their leadership in pharmacy practice, academia, and residency training, served on the planning committee. The committee conducted a series of conference calls and an in-person strategic planning meeting held on January 13-14, 2015. Outcomes from the discussions were supplemented with related information from the literature. Results of a survey of CPRP directors and preceptors also informed the planning process. The vision and strategic action plan for community-based residency training is intended to advance training to meet the emerging needs of patients in communities that are served by the pharmacy profession. The group anticipated the advanced skills required of pharmacists serving as community-based pharmacist practitioners and the likely education, training and competencies required by future residency graduates in order to deliver these services. The vision reflects a transformation of community residency training, from CPRPs to community-based residency training, and embodies the concept that residency training should be primarily focused on training the individual pharmacist practitioner based on the needs of patients served within the community, and not on the physical location where pharmacy services are provided. The development of a vision statement, core values statements, and strategic action plan will provide support, guidance, and direction to the profession of pharmacy to

  1. Low vision rehabilitation and ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Omar, R; Knight, V F; Aziz Mohammed, M A

    2014-01-01

    Work-related ocular injuries and illnesses were among the major causes of job absenteeism. This study was conducted to determine if low vision rehabilitation was provided following work-related ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country. This was a retrospective analysis of case records. Randomly selected records of all employees from the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Medical Board for 2004 who suffered from ocular injuries and illnesses were selected. Rates of ocular injuries and illnesses according to age, gender, races, types of injuries, types of industries, visual rehabilitation and types of medical interventions were tabulated and analysed. A total of 26 cases of ocular injuries and illnesses were identified where 46.2% suffered from ocular injuries. The remaining 53.8% had ocular and/or systemic diseases. The 40-49-yearold age group suffered the greatest number of injuries (26.92%). Ocular perforating injuries (66.67%) and ocular contusions (33.33%) were the most common types of ocular injury among industrial workers in Kuala Lumpur. Most injuries occurred among workers in the service industry (50%). Almost 60% of these injured workers did not receive any low vision rehabilitation after medical intervention while 25% were given contact lenses or spectacles as rehabilitation and remaining had surgery. The low vision rehabilitation is still unexplored in the management of ocular injuries and illnesses among industrial workers. Introducing low vision rehabilitation can benefit both workers and employers as it provides care beyond spectacles or contact lens prescriptions.

  2. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  3. Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1999-02-23

    This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

  4. Developing a Professional Vision of Classroom Practices of a Mathematics Teacher: Views from a Researcher and a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kai Fai; Tan, Preston

    2013-01-01

    The term "professional vision" points to the many nuanced ways professionals see. This paper traces the development of a professional vision of a researcher and a teacher looking at classroom practices. The researcher's interest was to capture and study notable aspects of the teacher's practice. Through a coding scheme, disparate…

  5. Developing a Professional Vision of Classroom Practices of a Mathematics Teacher: Views from a Researcher and a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kai Fai; Tan, Preston

    2013-01-01

    The term "professional vision" points to the many nuanced ways professionals see. This paper traces the development of a professional vision of a researcher and a teacher looking at classroom practices. The researcher's interest was to capture and study notable aspects of the teacher's practice. Through a coding scheme, disparate…

  6. The Development and Field Testing of Materials on Diabetes for Persons with Low Vision or Low Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, A. W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Instructional materials on hypoglycemia, foot care, and exercise were developed and field tested with 98 diabetes patients who had low vision and/or low literacy. A pretest and posttest revealed an 81% reduction in wrong answers overall and a 72% reduction in wrong answers by a subset with low vision. (Author/DB)

  7. The development of a scanning strategy for the manufacture of porous biomaterials by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Stamp, R; Fox, P; O'Neill, W; Jones, E; Sutcliffe, C

    2009-09-01

    Porous structures are used in orthopaedics to promote biological fixation between metal implant and host bone. In order to achieve rapid and high volumes of bone ingrowth the structures must be manufactured from a biocompatible material and possess high interconnected porosities, pore sizes between 100 and 700 microm and mechanical strengths that withstand the anticipated biomechanical loads. The challenge is to develop a manufacturing process that can cost effectively produce structures that meet these requirements. The research presented in this paper describes the development of a 'beam overlap' technique for manufacturing porous structures in commercially pure titanium using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) rapid manufacturing technique. A candidate bone ingrowth structure (71% porosity, 440 microm mean pore diameter and 70 MPa compression strength) was produced and used to manufacture a final shape orthopaedic component. These results suggest that SLM beam overlap is a promising technique for manufacturing final shape functional bone ingrowth materials.

  8. Vision and Quality of Life: Development of Methods for the VisQoL Vision-Related Utility Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stuart; Misajon, RoseAnne; Iezzi, Angelo; Richardson, Jeff; Hawthorne, Graeme; Keeffe, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe the methods and innovations used in constructing the VisQoL, a vision-related utility instrument for the health economic evaluation of eye care and rehabilitation programs. Methods The VisQoL disaggregates vision into six items. Utilities were estimated for item worst responses (the worst level for each item, with all other items at their best level) and VisQoL all-worst responses (all items at their worst level) using the time trade-off procedure. Time trade-off questions require people to imagine living a fixed number of years with a particular health condition and then indicate how many of those years of life they would be willing to trade to have perfect health. Where respondents indicated a health state was “worse than death” negative utilities were estimated. Time trade-off questions minimized the “focusing effect,” which occurs if respondents discount the fact that all other aspects of health are at their best when answering questions, by using pictorial and verbal aids. Results Item utilities were combined using a multiplicative model, and VisQoL model utilities placed on a scale where 0.00 and 1.00 represent full health and death, respectively. The VisQoL allows utilities to be calculated for a wide range of vision-related conditions. Conclusion The 6-item VisQoL has excellent psychometric properties and is specifically designed to be sensitive to vision-related quality of life. It is the first instrument to permit the rapid estimation of utility values for use in economic evaluations of vision-related programs. PMID:18780254

  9. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  10. VISIONS for Greater Employment Opportunities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical Coll., Orangeburg, SC.

    The VISIONS project, a workplace literacy program held in two manufacturing plants and a regional medical center, was conducted during an 18-month period from July 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994. During the project, staff were hired and trained, task analyses and orientation sessions were held, and tests and curricula were developed. Employees were…

  11. The Development of Model for Measuring Railway Wheels Manufacturing Readiness Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inrawan Wiratmadja, Iwan; Mufid, Anas

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to grow the railway wheel industry in Indonesia and reduce the dependence on imports, Metal Industries Development Center (MIDC) makes the implementation of the railway wheel manufacturing technology in Indonesia. MIDC is an institution based on research and development having a task to research the production of railway wheels prototype and acts as a supervisor to the industry in Indonesia, for implementing the railway wheel manufacturing technology. The process of implementing manufacturing technology requires a lot of resources. Therefore it is necessary to measure the manufacturing readiness process. Measurement of railway wheels manufacturing readiness was in this study done using the manufacturing readiness level (MRL) model from the United States Department of Defense. MRL consists of 10 manufacturing readiness levels described by 90 criteria and 184 sub-criteria. To get a manufacturing readiness measurement instrument that is good and accurate, the development process involved experts through expert judgment method and validated with a content validity ratio (CVR). Measurement instrument developed in this study consist of 448 indicators. The measurement results show that MIDC's railway wheels manufacturing readiness is at the level 4. This shows that there is a gap between the current level of manufacturing readiness owned by MIDC and manufacturing readiness levels required to achieve the program objectives, which is level 5. To achieve the program objectives at level 5, a number of actions were required to be done by MIDC. Indicators that must be improved to be able to achieve level 5 are indicators related to the cost and financing, process capability and control, quality management, workers, and manufacturing management criteria.

  12. Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Earl L; Kee, Chea-Su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang

    2005-11-01

    Given the prominence of central vision in humans, it has been assumed that visual signals from the fovea dominate emmetropization. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peripheral vision on emmetropization. Bilateral, peripheral form deprivation was produced in 12 infant monkeys by rearing them with diffusers that had either 4- or 8-mm apertures centered on the pupils of each eye, to allow 24 degrees or 37 degrees of unrestricted central vision, respectively. At the end of the lens-rearing period, an argon laser was used to ablate the fovea in one eye of each of seven monkeys. Subsequently, all the animals were allowed unrestricted vision. Refractive error and axial dimensions were measured along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and 3 infants reared with binocular plano lenses. Nine of the 12 treated monkeys had refractive errors that fell outside the 10th- and 90th-percentile limits for the age-matched control subjects, and the average refractive error for the treated animals was more variable and significantly less hyperopic/more myopic (+0.03 +/- 2.39 D vs. +2.39 +/- 0.92 D). The refractive changes were symmetric in the two eyes of a given animal and axial in nature. After lens removal, all the treated monkeys recovered from the induced refractive errors. No interocular differences in the recovery process were observed in the animals with monocular foveal lesions. On the one hand, the peripheral retina can contribute to emmetropizing responses and to ametropias produced by an abnormal visual experience. On the other hand, unrestricted central vision is not sufficient to ensure normal refractive development, and the fovea is not essential for emmetropizing responses.

  13. Peripheral Vision Can Influence Eye Growth and Refractive Development in Infant Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Earl L.; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Given the prominence of central vision in humans, it has been assumed that visual signals from the fovea dominate emmetropization. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peripheral vision on emmetropization. METHODS Bilateral, peripheral form deprivation was produced in 12 infant monkeys by rearing them with diffusers that had either 4- or 8-mm apertures centered on the pupils of each eye, to allow 24° or 37° of unrestricted central vision, respectively. At the end of the lens-rearing period, an argon laser was used to ablate the fovea in one eye of each of seven monkeys. Subsequently, all the animals were allowed unrestricted vision. Refractive error and axial dimensions were measured along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and 3 infants reared with binocular plano lenses. RESULTS Nine of the 12 treated monkeys had refractive errors that fell outside the 10th- and 90th-percentile limits for the age-matched control subjects, and the average refractive error for the treated animals was more variable and significantly less hyperopic/more myopic (+0.03 ± 2.39 D vs. +2.39 ± 0.92 D). The refractive changes were symmetric in the two eyes of a given animal and axial in nature. After lens removal, all the treated monkeys recovered from the induced refractive errors. No interocular differences in the recovery process were observed in the animals with monocular foveal lesions. CONCLUSIONS On the one hand, the peripheral retina can contribute to emmetropizing responses and to ametropias produced by an abnormal visual experience. On the other hand, unrestricted central vision is not sufficient to ensure normal refractive development, and the fovea is not essential for emmetropizing responses. PMID:16249469

  14. Development of a Wireless Computer Vision Instrument to Detect Biotic Stress in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Joaquin J.; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A.; Evett, Steven R.; Rush, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications. PMID:25251410

  15. Emerging Issues from New Product Development in Food Manufacturing Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-19

    and powerful firms have raised concerns about food industry struc- ture and perfoLmance. We made this study to examine the nature and magnitude of the...changes taking place in the industry and to identify issues which relate to them. We did not attempt to provide resolution of the issues nor did we...makers in analyzing the performance of the food manufacturing industry . Most of the information presented in our study was gathered from published sources

  16. Design and Development of a CIM Architecture for Food Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    to support the IDEFIX Model Pro Software of D. Appleton, Inc., which requires a VGA monitor. This task, completed in the quarter ending April, 1990...architecture that covered both civilian and military product manufacture. This architecture, defined in IDEFIX modeling language, became the basis for...its extension, IDEFIX , is a methodology for modeling data entities and their relation- i ships. An entity is represented by a box labeled by a noun

  17. A conserved switch in sensory processing prepares developing neocortex for vision.

    PubMed

    Colonnese, Matthew T; Kaminska, Anna; Minlebaev, Marat; Milh, Mathieu; Bloem, Bernard; Lescure, Sandra; Moriette, Guy; Chiron, Catherine; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2010-08-12

    Developing cortex generates endogenous activity that modulates the formation of functional units, but how this activity is altered to support mature function is poorly understood. Using recordings from the visual cortex of preterm human infants and neonatal rats, we report a "bursting" period of visual responsiveness during which the weak retinal output is amplified by endogenous network oscillations, enabling a primitive form of vision. This period ends shortly before delivery in humans and eye opening in rodents with an abrupt switch to the mature visual response. The switch is causally linked to the emergence of an activated state of continuous cortical activity dependent on the ascending neuromodulatory systems involved in arousal. This switch is sensory system specific but experience independent and also involves maturation of retinal processing. Thus, the early development of visual processing is governed by a conserved, intrinsic program that switches thalamocortical response properties in anticipation of patterned vision. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A conserved switch in sensory processing prepares developing neocortex for vision

    PubMed Central

    Colonnese, Matthew T.; Kaminska, Anna; Minlebaev, Marat; Milh, Mathieu; Bloem, Bernard; Lescure, Sandra; Moriette, Guy; Chiron, Catherine; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2010-01-01

    Developing cortex generates endogenous activity that modulates the formation of functional units, but how this activity is altered to support mature function is poorly understood. Using recordings from the visual cortex of preterm human infants and neonatal rats, we report a novel “bursting” period of visual responsiveness during which the weak retinal output is amplified by endogenous network oscillations, enabling a primitive form of vision. This period ends shortly before delivery in humans and eye-opening in rodents with an abrupt switch to the mature visual response. The switch is causally linked to the emergence of an activated state of continuous cortical activity dependent on the ascending neuromodulatory systems involved in arousal. This switch is sensory-system specific but experience-independent, and also involves maturation of retinal processing. Thus the early development of visual processing is governed by a conserved, intrinsic program that switches thalamocortical response properties in anticipation of patterned vision. PMID:20696384

  19. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  20. Development of an Elderly Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire for less-developed areas of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoman; Chen, Jie; Xu, Gengui; Zhong, Yin; Jang, Longfei; Lin, Li; Lu, Fan

    2015-10-01

    To develop a quality of life questionnaire appropriate for elderly low-vision patients in less-developed areas of China. The study was conducted at the Wenzhou Medical University Affiliated Eye Hospital. In the initial development of the questionnaire, we identified visual function concerns with individual interviews and designed a questionnaire and an empirical assessment of the questionnaire. Each individual visual function concern was then transformed into a question and put into a rating scale from 0 to 4. Then, questionnaire interviews were conducted on 188 low-vision patients and 63 normal control patients for item reduction and evaluation of psychometric properties. We first identified 24 concerns that older adults with serious vision loss thought most affected their daily lives. The initial item list of the Elderly Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire (ELVQoL) consisted of 28 items, including the 24 identified items and 4 additional concerns about general vision. Psychometric item reduction removed 9 items, and a 19-item questionnaire was generated. Assessment showed that the resulting questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency, reliability, and validity (Cronbach's α > 0.9, mean item-total correlations >0.6, test-retest reliability >0.9, and concurrent validity range from 0.6 to 0.9). Low education level, need for a full range of working distances, and retinal diseases were all predictors of reduced visually related quality of life. A patient-derived ELVQoL Questionnaire was developed specifically for elderly, uneducated, rural Chinese. All the psychometric properties met accepted levels for a disease-specific Qol Questionnaire.

  1. Prolonged constant eye misalignment leads to failure to develop binocular vision in childhood ocular myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Yuko; Emoto, Hirofumi; Fujie, Waki; Wakakura, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Variable eye misalignment and blepharoptosis in childhood ocular myasthenia gravis can lead to permanent binocular visual loss. However, a standard ophthalmologic intervention for this condition has yet to be fully established. This study investigated the influence of variable eye misalignment and asymmetric blepharoptosis on the development of binocular vision in childhood ocular myasthenia gravis. The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical records of consecutive patients with childhood ocular myasthenia gravis whose age of onset was younger than 36 months and who had follow-up periods of more than 1 year. Five patients were enrolled and were treated medically with pyridostigmine or corticosteroids. Eye alignment, eye movements, and blepharoptosis were observed during the follow-up period. Stereoacuity was recorded before and at the end of follow-up using Titmus stereoscopic and major amblyoscopic tests. None of the patients had amblyopia or anisometropia, but all had blepharoptosis that improved within 2 weeks after medication was administered. There was only one case in which stereoacutiy failed to develop, and this patient had a long period of constant exotropia lasting 48 months. In the remaining four cases, there was constant exotropia lasting less than 4 months or intermittent exotropia throughout the follow-up period. All of these patients regained or maintained binocular vision. Prolonged constant eye misalignment may be attributable to impaired binocular vision, and prompt eye alignment may be necessary in childhood ocular myasthenia gravis. Therefore, treatment based on precise assessment by a neuro-ophthalmologist or pediatric ophthalmologist that evaluates even slight eye misalignment is essential in ensuring normal development of binocular vision. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Role of vaccine manufacturers in developing countries towards global healthcare by providing quality vaccines at affordable prices.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S; Gautam, M; Gairola, S

    2014-05-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of science and medicine in the fight against infectious diseases. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health tools to prevent infectious diseases. Significant progress has been made in expanding the coverage of vaccines globally, resulting in the prevention of more than two million deaths annually. In 2010, nearly 200 countries endorsed a shared vision to extend the benefits of vaccines to every person by 2020, known as the Decade of Vaccine Initiative (DoV). Vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, as represented by the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN), make a significant contribution to DoV by supplying quality vaccines at affordable prices to the people who need them most. About 70% of the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supplies are met by DCVMN. Besides EPI vaccine supplies, DCVMN is also targeting vaccines against rotavirus, Japanese encephalitis, pneumonia, human papillomavirus, meningitis and neglected tropical diseases. This article reviews the roles and contributions of DCVMN in making the vaccines accessible and affordable to all. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  4. Leveraging costs and reducing risk in the development of optics manufacturing technological thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Joe

    1992-01-01

    The Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) program has exerted a strong and lasting influence on the U.S. defense industrial base for more than 25 years. The defense industrial base can be described as the aggregate ability to provide the manufacturing technology, research, development, and resources necessary to produce defense material. The Army's MANTECH program is designed to develop manufacturing thrusts (such as optics) that will result in the development of new and improved manufacturing processes. The Joint Logistics Commanders' assessment of the precision optics industrial base emphasized the need to modernize optics fabrication techniques and equipment. As a result of the study, the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association (APOMA), the Department of the Army, and several academic institutions have collaborated to establish and support the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM) at the University of Rochester. Through this successful collaboration of knowledge and resources, participants are able to leverage and reduce the cost, risk, and difficulty of developing new automated optics manufacturing systems and supporting technologies. The optics manufacturing thrust is now in its second year and support from industrial, academic, and government participants continues to increase.

  5. An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ≤ 0.05) and for overall fit (P ≤ 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ≤ 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ≤ 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ≤ 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential.

  6. Development and testing of an active platen for IC manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.; Smith, T.; Darnold, J.

    1998-11-01

    The conflicting demands for finer features and increased production rates in integrated circuit manufacturing have emphasized the need for improved wafer positioning technology. In this paper we present operational test results from a magnetically levitated platen with structurally integrated piezoelectric acctuators. The strain based actuators provide active damping of the platen`s flexible body modes, enabling increased bandwidth on the mag-lev positioning system. Test results reveal a dramatic reduction in steady state positioning error and settling time through implementation of active vibration control.

  7. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  8. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  9. User-centered development of a Web-based preschool vision screening tool.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David P; Bray, Bruce E; Staggers, Nancy; Olson, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Although amblyopia is most successfully treated when detected in early childhood, many preschool-aged children are not being screened. This project explored the delivery of Web-based vision screenings, integrated with patient education, to parents and children, aged 3 to 6 years. Through a user-centered design methodology involving requirements gathering, iterative prototype development, and usability testing, a highly usable screening Website was created. Interviewing and testing parents and children in the home were essential in gathering accurate data about environments where the tool would actually be used. Frequent iterations of designing, testing, and modifying the tool were useful in identifying and correcting usability problems. Usability goals were set early in the project, and in the final phase a satisfaction questionnaire was administered to participants. Twenty-one out of 22 final usability objectives were achieved and the feasibility of Web-based vision screening was demonstrated.

  10. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    Background: When evaluating vision, it is important to assess not just the ability to read letters on a vision chart, but also how well one sees in real life scenarios. As part of the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program (WRESP), visual outcomes are assessed before and after refractive surgery. A Warfighter's ability to read signs and detect and identify objects is crucial, not only when deployed in a military setting, but also in their civilian lives. Objective: VIPER, a VIsion PERformance simulator was envisioned as actual video-based simulated driving to test warfighters' functional vision under realistic conditions. Designed to use interactive video image controlled environments at daytime, dusk, night, and with thermal imaging vision, it simulates the experience of viewing and identifying road signs and other objects while driving. We hypothesize that VIPER will facilitate efficient and quantifiable assessment of changes in vision and measurement of functional military performance. Study Design: Video images were recorded on an isolated 1.1 mile stretch of road with separate target sets of six simulated road signs and six objects of military interest, separately. The video footage were integrated with customdesigned C++ based software that presented the simulated drive to an observer on a computer monitor at 10, 20 or 30 miles/hour. VIPER permits the observer to indicate when a target is seen and when it is identified. Distances at which the observer recognizes and identifies targets are automatically logged. Errors in recognition and identification are also recorded. This first report describes VIPER's development and a preliminary study to establish a baseline for its performance. In the study, nine soldiers viewed simulations at 10 miles/hour and 30 miles/hour, run in randomized order for each participant seated at 36 inches from the monitor. Relevance: Ultimately, patients are interested in how their vision will affect their ability to perform daily

  11. Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed。Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

  12. Application of ICME Methods for the Development of Rapid Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald-Immer, T.; Göhler, T.; Fischersworring-Bunk, A.; Körner, C.; Osmanlic, F.; Bauereiß, A.

    Rapid manufacturing technologies are lately gaining interest as alternative manufacturing method. Due to the large parameter sets applicable in these manufacturing methods and their impact on achievable material properties and quality, support of the manufacturing process development by the use of simulation is highly attractive. This is especially true for aerospace applications with their high quality demands and controlled scatter in the resulting material properties. The applicable simulation techniques to these manufacturing methods are manifold. The paper will focus on the melt pool simulation for a SLM (selective laser melting) process which was originally developed for EBM (electron beam melting). It will be discussed in the overall context of a multi-scale simulation within a virtual process chain.

  13. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  14. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  15. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  16. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  17. Spatial distribution of early red lesions is a risk factor for development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Giovanni; Assheton, Phil; Calivá, Francesco; Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-09-07

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterised by morphological lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. It has previously been shown that the early development of retinal lesions temporal to the fovea may predict the development of treatment-requiring diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this study was to map accurately the area where lesions could predict progression to vision-threatening retinopathy. The predictive value of the location of the earliest red lesions representing haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms was studied by comparing their occurrence in a group of individuals later developing vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy with that in a group matched with respect to diabetes type, age, sex and age of onset of diabetes mellitus who did not develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy during a similar observation period. The probability of progression to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy was higher in a circular area temporal to the fovea, and the occurrence of the first lesions in this area was predictive of the development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The calculated peak value showed that the risk of progression was 39.5% higher than the average. There was no significant difference in the early distribution of lesions in participants later developing diabetic maculopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The location of early red lesions in diabetic retinopathy is predictive of whether or not individuals will later develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. This evidence should be incorporated into risk models used to recommend control intervals in screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Technical procedure features of nickel dry-powder developer manufacturing by method of plasma-electrolytic dispergating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerov, A. Z.; Nasibullin, R. T.; Sarimov, L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The following work describes means of nickel dry-powder developer manufacturing by plasma-electrolytic dispergating. For that purpose, a plasma-electrothermic device was developed that allows to manufacture dry-powders with wide range of parameters. Technical conditions for nickel dry-powder developer manufacturing by method of plasma-electrolytic dispergating were defined. By factorial design method regression equations were obtained, that make it possible to plan the process of dry-powders manufacturing with set average particle size and set manufacturing process rate. The described means allows to manufacture nicol dry-powder developer with a particle size of aprox. 100 nm.

  19. Heuristics in primary care for recognition of unreported vision loss in older people: a technology development study.

    PubMed

    Wijeyekoon, Skanda; Kharicha, Kalpa; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate heuristics (rules of thumb) for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care. Vision loss is associated with ageing, and its prevalence is increasing. Visual impairment has a broad impact on health, functioning and well-being. Unrecognised vision loss remains common, and screening interventions have yet to reduce its prevalence. An alternative approach is to enhance practitioners' skills in recognising undetected vision loss, by having a more detailed picture of those who are likely not to act on vision changes, report symptoms or have eye tests. This paper describes a qualitative technology development study to evaluate heuristics for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care. Using a previous modelling study, two heuristics in the form of mnemonics were developed to aid pattern recognition and allow general practitioners to identify potential cases of unreported vision loss. These heuristics were then analysed with experts. Findings It was concluded that their implementation in modern general practice was unsuitable and an alternative solution should be sort.

  20. Phase transformation considerations during process development and manufacture of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Law, Devalina; Schmitt, Eric A; Qiu, Yihong

    2004-02-23

    The quality and performance of a solid oral dosage form depends on the choice of the solid phase, the formulation design, and the manufacturing process. The potential for process-induced solid phase transformations must be evaluated during design and development of formulations and manufacturing processes. This article briefly reviews the basic principles of polymorphism, defines the classes of phase transformation and the underlying transformation mechanisms, and discusses respective kinetic factors. The potential phase transformations associated with common unit operations employed in manufacturing solid oral dosage forms are highlighted. Specific examples are given to illustrate the importance of solid phases, and process-induced phase transitions in formulation and process development.

  1. Economic Development Impacts in Colorado from Four Vestas Manufacturing Facilities, Wind Powering America Fact Sheet Series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits to Colorado from four Vestas manufacturing facilities: one in Windsor, two in Brighton, and one in Pueblo (which is planned to be the world's largest tower-manufacturing facility). In the midst of an economic slowdown during which numerous U.S. manufacturers have closed their doors, wind energy component manufacturing is one U.S. industry that has experienced unprecedented growth during the past few years. As demand for wind power in the United States has increased and transportation costs have increased around the world, states have seen a significant increase in the number of manufacturers that produce wind turbine components in the United States. Vestas' Colorado operations will bring approximately $700 million in capital investment and nearly 2,500 jobs to the state.

  2. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Development of the Ultra-Low Vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire (ULV-VFQ)

    PubMed Central

    Jeter, Pamela E.; Rozanski, Collin; Massof, Robert; Adeyemo, Olukemi; Dagnelie, Gislin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and psychometrically evaluate a visual functioning questionnaire (VFQ) in an ultra-low vision (ULV) population. Methods Questionnaire items, based on visual activities self-reported by a ULV population, were categorized by functional visual domain (e.g., mobility) and visual aspect (e.g., contrast) to ensure a representative distribution. In Round 1, an initial set of 149 items was generated and administered to 90 participants with ULV (visual acuity [VA] ≤ 20/500; mean [SD] age 61 [15] years), including six patients with a retinal implant. Psychometric properties were evaluated through Rasch analysis and a revised set (150 items) was administered to 80 participants in Round 2. Results In Round 1, the person measure distribution (range, 8.6 logits) was centered at −1.50 logits relative to the item measures. In Round 2, the person measure distribution (range, 9.5 logits) was centered at −0.86 relative to the item mean. The reliability index in both rounds was 0.97 for Items and 0.99 for Persons. Infit analysis showed four underfit items in Round 1, five underfit items in Round 2 with a z-score greater than 4 cutoff. Principal component analysis on the residuals found 69.9% explained variance; the largest component in the unexplained variance was less than 3%. Conclusions The ULV-VFQ, developed with content generated from a ULV population, showed excellent psychometric properties as well as superior measurement validity in a ULV population. Translational Relevance The ULV-VFQ, part of the Prosthetic Low Vision Rehabilitation (PLoVR) development program, is a new VFQ developed for assessment of functional vision in ULV populations. PMID:28573075

  4. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  5. Two-Phase Flow Technology Developed and Demonstrated for the Vision for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.; McQuillen, John B.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s vision for exploration will once again expand the bounds of human presence in the universe with planned missions to the Moon and Mars. To attain the numerous goals of this vision, NASA will need to develop technologies in several areas, including advanced power-generation and thermal-control systems for spacecraft and life support. The development of these systems will have to be demonstrated prior to implementation to ensure safe and reliable operation in reduced-gravity environments. The Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(PHI) FFy) Project will provide the path to these enabling technologies for critical multiphase fluid products. The safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing focused microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability, all of which are essential to exploration technology. The project--a multiyear effort initiated in 2004--will include concept development, normal-gravity testing (laboratories), reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns (NASA s KC-135 and C-9 aircraft), space-flight experimentation (International Space Station), and model development. This project will be implemented by a team from the NASA Glenn Research Center, QSS Group, Inc., ZIN Technologies, Inc., and the Extramural Strategic Research Team composed of experts from academia.

  6. A test battery of child development for examining functional vision (ABCDEFV).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J; Anker, S; Rae, S; Hughes, C; Braddick, O

    2002-12-01

    A battery of 22 tests is described, intended to give an integrated assessment of children's functional visual capacities between birth and four years of age. As well as sensory visual measures such as acuity, visual fields and stereopsis, the battery is intended to tap a range of perceptual, motor, spatial and cognitive aspects of visual function. Tests have been drawn from practice in ophthalmology and orthoptics, vision research, paediatric neurology, and developmental psychology to give an overall view of children's visual competences for guidance in diagnosis, further investigation, management and rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders. 'Core vision tests' require no motoric capacities beyond saccadic eye movements or linguistic skills and so assess basic visual capacities in children of any age. 'Additional tests' have age-specific requirements and are designed to pinpoint specific deficits in the perceptual, visuo-motor and spatio-cognitive domains. Normative data are reported on nine age groups between 0-6 weeks and 31-36 months, each including 32-43 typically developing children. Pass/fail criteria for each test are defined. These data allow the selection of a subset of tests for each age group which are passed by at least 85% of normally developing children, and so are appropriate for defining normal development. The normalized battery has been applied to a range of at-risk and clinical groups. Aspects of children's visual performance are discussed in relation to neurobiological models of visual development.

  7. Integrating computation into the undergraduate curriculum: A vision and guidelines for future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonacky, Norman; Winch, David

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence of a need to make computation an integral part of the undergraduate physics curriculum. This need is consistent with data from surveys in both the academy and the workplace, and has been reinforced by two years of exploratory efforts by a group of physics faculty for whom computation is a special interest. We have examined past and current efforts at reform and a variety of strategic, organizational, and institutional issues involved in any attempt to broadly transform existing practice. We propose a set of guidelines for development based on this past work and discuss our vision of computationally integrated physics.

  8. Development of the Triple Theta assembly station with machine vision feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Derek William

    2008-01-01

    Increased requirements for tighter tolerances on assembled target components in complex three-dimensional geometries with only days to assemble complete campaigns require the implementation of a computer-controlled high-precision assembly station. Over the last year, an 11-axis computer-controlled assembly station has been designed and built with custom software to handle the multiple coordinate systems and automatically calculate all relational positions. Preliminary development efforts have also been done to explore the benefit of a machine vision feedback module with a dual-camera viewing system to automate certain basic features like crosshair calibration, component leveling, and component centering.

  9. NASA's Additive Manufacturing Development Materials Science to Technology Infusion - Connecting the Digital Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2017-01-01

    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  10. "A Necessary Part of Good Teaching": Using Book Clubs to Develop Preservice Teachers' Visions of Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leigh A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the use of book clubs in a literacy methods class informed preservice, elementary teachers' visions of self as literacy teachers. Teachers began the study with the vision of teaching students the reading and writing skills they were weakest in. Teachers though transformed their visions to include culturally responsive…

  11. Simulation platform for application development on a vision-system-on-chip with integrated signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Peter; Döge, Jens; Hoppe, Christoph; Peter, Nico; Reichel, Andreas; Schneider, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Image sensors with integrated, programmable signal processing execute computationally intensive processing steps during or immediately after image acquisition, thereby allowing for reducing output data to relevant features only. In contrast to conventional image processing systems, the tasks of image acquisition and actual image processing in such a "vision chip" cannot be viewed independently of each other. Both for validating the architecture and supporting programming in the course of application development, modeling on the system level has been performed as part of the design process of the vision-system-on-chip. Apart from the implementation of all essential components of the integrated control unit as well as digital and analog signal processing, special attention has been paid to the integration into the development environment. Being able to purposefully insert parameter deviations and/or defects at different points of the analog processing enables investigations with respect to their influence on image processing algorithms performed on the image sensor. Due to its high simulation speed and compatibility to the real system, especially regarding the to-be-executed programs, the resulting simulation model is very well suited for use in application development.

  12. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism.

  13. Materials, Structures and Manufacturing: An Integrated Approach to Develop Expandable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Zander, Martin E.; Sleight, Daid W.; Connell, John; Holloway, Nancy; Palmieri, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Membrane dominated space structures are lightweight and package efficiently for launch; however, they must be expanded (deployed) in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry. These expandable structural systems include solar sails, solar power arrays, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices that are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. In this work, an integrated approach to development of thin-film damage tolerant membranes is explored using advanced manufacturing. Bio-inspired hierarchical structures were printed on films using additive manufacturing to achieve improved tear resistance and to facilitate membrane deployment. High precision, robust expandable structures can be realized using materials that are both space durable and processable using additive manufacturing. Test results show this initial work produced higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass. Future research and development opportunities for expandable structural systems designed using an integrated approach to structural design, manufacturing, and materials selection are discussed.

  14. Nanoimprint system development and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, Hiromi; Takabayashi, Yukio; Takashima, Tsuneo; Emoto, Keiji; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography* (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. For imprint lithography, recent attention has been given to the areas of overlay, throughput, defectivity, and mask replication. This paper reviews progress in these critical areas. Recent demonstrations have proven that mix and match overlay of less than 5nm can achieved. Further reductions require a higher order correction system. Modeling and experimental data are presented which provide a path towards reducing the overlay errors to less than 3nm. Throughput is mainly impacted by the fill time of the relief images on the mask. Improvement in resist materials provides a solution that allows 15 wafers per hour per station, or a tool throughput of 60 wafers per hour. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. Finally, on the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100NR2 is

  15. Enabling Smart Manufacturing Research and Development using a Product Lifecycle Test Bed.

    PubMed

    Helu, Moneer; Hedberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smart manufacturing technologies require a cyber-physical infrastructure to collect and analyze data and information across the manufacturing enterprise. This paper describes a concept for a product lifecycle test bed built on a cyber-physical infrastructure that enables smart manufacturing research and development. The test bed consists of a Computer-Aided Technologies (CAx) Lab and a Manufacturing Lab that interface through the product model creating a "digital thread" of information across the product lifecycle. The proposed structure and architecture of the test bed is presented, which highlights the challenges and requirements of implementing a cyber-physical infrastructure for manufacturing. The novel integration of systems across the product lifecycle also helps identify the technologies and standards needed to enable interoperability between design, fabrication, and inspection. Potential research opportunities enabled by the test bed are also discussed, such as providing publicly accessible CAx and manufacturing reference data, virtual factory data, and a representative industrial environment for creating, prototyping, and validating smart manufacturing technologies.

  16. Enabling Smart Manufacturing Research and Development using a Product Lifecycle Test Bed

    PubMed Central

    Helu, Moneer; Hedberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing technologies require a cyber-physical infrastructure to collect and analyze data and information across the manufacturing enterprise. This paper describes a concept for a product lifecycle test bed built on a cyber-physical infrastructure that enables smart manufacturing research and development. The test bed consists of a Computer-Aided Technologies (CAx) Lab and a Manufacturing Lab that interface through the product model creating a “digital thread” of information across the product lifecycle. The proposed structure and architecture of the test bed is presented, which highlights the challenges and requirements of implementing a cyber-physical infrastructure for manufacturing. The novel integration of systems across the product lifecycle also helps identify the technologies and standards needed to enable interoperability between design, fabrication, and inspection. Potential research opportunities enabled by the test bed are also discussed, such as providing publicly accessible CAx and manufacturing reference data, virtual factory data, and a representative industrial environment for creating, prototyping, and validating smart manufacturing technologies. PMID:28664167

  17. A Review of Agile and Lean Manufacturing as Issues in Selected International and National Research and Development Programs and Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Helio; Putnik, Goran D.; Shah, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze international and national research and development (R&D) programs and roadmaps for the manufacturing sector, presenting how agile and lean manufacturing models are addressed in these programs. Design/methodology/approach: In this review, several manufacturing research and development programs and…

  18. A Review of Agile and Lean Manufacturing as Issues in Selected International and National Research and Development Programs and Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Helio; Putnik, Goran D.; Shah, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze international and national research and development (R&D) programs and roadmaps for the manufacturing sector, presenting how agile and lean manufacturing models are addressed in these programs. Design/methodology/approach: In this review, several manufacturing research and development programs and…

  19. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb/sub 3/Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb/sub 3/Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil.

  20. Current situation of the development and manufacture of vary large scale integrated devices in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubiao, He

    1988-06-01

    The manufacture of Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices in foreign countries is a highly competitive high-tech industry. It requires high-precision manufacturing technology, and very expensive manufacturing equipment. Therefore, it is impossible to conduct research and form industrial production capability by merely relying on obsolete manufacturing equipment and semi-manual production techniques. According to the experience of our foreign counterparts and based on our current situation, it is highly desirable for domestic LSI and VLSI research institutes and manufacturers to establish unified development-manufacturing units, concentrate resources, amass available funds to upgrade equipment and technology, improve management, conduct theoretical research, and develop new technology and new devices under a unified planning and assigned responsibility. It is only in this way that we can reduce the gap between domestic and foreign VLSI device industries, and promote our micro-electronic industry. This should be the trend for the development of the microelectronic industry in China.

  1. Implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for artificial vision in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kamei, Motohiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yasuo; Fujikado, Takashi; Ozawa, Motoki; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical procedures involved in the implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for inducing artificial vision. The electrode device comprised seven wire stimulation electrodes and a return electrode (diameter 50 μm), one manipulation rod (diameter 100 μm), and a cylindrical silicone board (diameter 2.0 mm). The stimulation electrodes and the manipulation rod protruded through the board to allow implantation of the electrode tips into the optic disc of the rabbit eye. The surgical procedures required to insert the device into the vitreous cavity and implant the device into the optic disc were evaluated. When the electrodes were stimulated, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were recorded at the visual cortex. The electrode device was inserted into the vitreous cavity with no damage using a trocar through a scleral incision. The device was easily manipulated using vitreoretinal forceps in the vitreous cavity, and the electrode tips were implanted into the optic disc in a single insertion after vitrectomy. When electrical stimulation was applied, EEPs were recorded from all electrode pairs. The newly developed electrode device was inserted into the eye and implanted into the optic nerve disc smoothly and safely, suggesting that these surgical procedures are useful for our artificial vision system.

  2. Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four problems which concern engineering education in developing countries: (1) less value of handiwork; (2) lack of industrial culture; (3) low salary of faculty; and (4) cultural distortions. Describes three successful cases in Indonesia and Thailand. (YP)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  4. The role of information technology in the development of community pharmacy services: visions and strategic views of international experts.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anna M; Haikala, Veikko; Airaksinen, Marja

    2011-12-01

    Community pharmacy's strategic vision has been to extend practice responsibilities beyond dispensing and provide patient care services. Few studies have evaluated the strategic and long-term development of information technology (IT) systems to support this vision. The objective of this study was to explore international experts' visions and strategic views on IT development needs in relation to service provision in community pharmacies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 14 experts from 8 countries in 2007-2008. These experts had expertise in the development of community pharmacy services and IT. The interviews were content analyzed using a constant comparison approach and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis was undertaken. Most of the experts shared the vision for community pharmacy adopting a patient care orientation; supported by IT-based documentation, new technological solutions, access to information, and shared patient data. Opportunities to achieve this vision included IT solutions, professional skills, and interprofessional collaboration. Threats included costs, pharmacists' attitude, and the absence of IT solutions. Those responsible for IT development in community pharmacy sector should create long-term IT development strategies that are in line with community pharmacy service development strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NASA's First Year Progress with Fuel Cell Advanced Development in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industry partners, is leading a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) advanced development effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort encompasses the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program, and is directed at multiple power levels for both primary and regenerative fuel cell systems. The major emphasis is the replacement of active mechanical ancillary components with passive components in order to reduce mass and parasitic power requirements, and to improve system reliability. A dual approach directed at both flow-through and non flow-through PEMFC system technologies is underway. A brief overview of the overall PEMFC project and its constituent tasks will be presented, along with in-depth technical accomplishments for the past year. Future potential technology development paths will also be discussed.

  6. Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

  7. Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

  8. The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) is a critical constituency to ensure access to vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Suresh; Datla, Mahima; Kreeftenberg, Hans; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-03-20

    Six years after its establishment, the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) has become the main representing body for emerging vaccine manufacturers from the developing world. The Network's main strategic priority (increase access to DPT-based combination vaccines containing vaccines against Hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)) has now come close to fulfillment due in part to the transfer of conjugation technology from The Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) to various manufacturers of the Network. It is argued that at the international level more push mechanisms for product development involving DCVM are needed, including those promoting access to technology and transfer of technology, know how and technical skills from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries to developing countries. At the national level, governments of countries in which DCVMN manufacturers operate should provide more generous funding for all aspects of vaccines and immunization including incentives to manufacturers to develop and import new technologies. These two approaches will contribute to the long-term viability of domestic or regional vaccine manufacturing, which in itself is critical to ensure global equity of access to vaccines.

  9. Stereo-vision-based perception capabilities developed during the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Bajracharya, Max; Huertas, Andres; Howard, Andrew; Moghaddam, Baback; Brennan, Shane; Ansar, Adnan; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Matthies, Larry

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances (RCTA) program, which ran from 2001 to 2009, was funded by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and managed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems. The alliance brought together a team of government, industrial, and academic institutions to address research and development required to enable the deployment of future military unmanned ground vehicle systems ranging in size from man-portables to ground combat vehicles. Under RCTA, three technology areas critical to the development of future autonomous unmanned systems were addressed: advanced perception, intelligent control architectures and tactical behaviors, and human-robot interaction. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) participated as a member for the entire program, working four tasks in the advanced perception technology area: stereo improvements, terrain classification, pedestrian detection in dynamic environments, and long range terrain classification. Under the stereo task, significant improvements were made to the quality of stereo range data used as a front end to the other three tasks. Under the terrain classification task, a multi-cue water detector was developed that fuses cues from color, texture, and stereo range data, and three standalone water detectors were developed based on sky reflections, object reflections (such as trees), and color variation. In addition, a multi-sensor mud detector was developed that fuses cues from color stereo and polarization sensors. Under the long range terrain classification task, a classifier was implemented that uses unsupervised and self-supervised learning of traversability to extend the classification of terrain over which the vehicle drives to the far-field. Under the pedestrian detection task, stereo vision was used to identify regions-of-interest in an image, classify those regions based on shape, and track detected pedestrians in three-dimensional world coordinates. To improve the detectability of partially occluded

  10. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  11. Human resource development for Vision 2020 in developing countries: a change from absolute numbers.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Feyi G; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A; Pam, Victoria; Akanbi, Toyin B

    2011-01-01

    To critically review the numbers, distribution, staff mix, and productivity of eye care workers (ECW) in Kwara State, north central Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of all ECW identified from all eye care facilities in July 2008 was carried out using a structured questionnaire. Output data on cataract surgery of each institution were also collected and data analyzed using SPSS 16. A total of 157 ECW comprising 8 ophthalmologists, 4 diplomates, 16 residents training ophthalmologists, 96 mid-level ophthalmic personnel (67 ophthalmic nurses, 3 optometrists, and 26 others), and 33 administrative and supporting staff were available to a population of 2.37 million. Ophthalmologist to population ratio was 1:300,000, optometrist 1:790,000, and ophthalmic nurses 1:35,000. Eighty percent of ECW and institutions are located in the state capital. There were no orthoptists, low vision specialists, counselors, or cataract finders, while optometrists, managers, and primary ECW were inadequate. The staff mix was 1 surgeon to 12 other ECW and an average of 182 cataract surgeries per surgeon per year. Emphasis should shift to team building and ensuring available workers perform optimally rather than meeting the absolute numbers of some cadre, which does not guarantee improved output. Issues of equitable distribution, appropriate staff mix, filling identified gaps in human resources, and addressing poor service uptake should be the focus to reach the goals of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight.

  12. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network: doing good by making high-quality vaccines affordable for all.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Leite, Luciana C C; Datla, Mahima; Makhoana, Morena; Gao, Yongzhong; Suhardono, Mahendra; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Homma, Akira

    2013-04-18

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) is a unique model of a public and private international alliance. It assembles governmental and private organizations to work toward a common goal of manufacturing and supplying high-quality vaccines at affordable prices to protect people around the world from known and emerging infectious diseases. Together, this group of manufacturers has decades of experience in manufacturing vaccines, with technologies, know-how, and capacity to produce more than 40 vaccines types. These manufacturers have already contributed more than 30 vaccines in various presentations that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization for use by global immunization programmes. Furthermore, more than 45 vaccines are in the pipeline. Recent areas of focus include vaccines to protect against rotavirus, human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis E, poliovirus, influenza, and pertussis, as well as combined pentavalent vaccines for children. The network has a growing number of manufacturers that produce a growing number of products to supply the growing demand for vaccines in developing countries.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  14. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

  15. Development of Pulsed Processes for the Manufacture of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development status of the process based upon ion implantation for the introduction of junctions and back surface fields is described. A process sequence is presented employing ion implantation and pulse processing. Efforts to improve throughout and descrease process element costs for furnace annealing are described. Design studies for a modular 3,000 wafer per hour pulse processor are discussed.

  16. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

    2006-02-20

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

  17. Development of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Gaurav; Vats, D.P.; Parihar, J.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Development and standardization of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern test. Non-randomized comparative trial. Methods All candidates of SSB, Allahabad, reporting for SMB underwent color vision testing at the eye dept by computerized eye test and currently available tests. Results All candidates were subjected to Ishihara chart testing and those found to be CP III were subjected to the confirmatory test on Martin Lantern and the Software. Candidates requiring CP I standards for eligibility were tested on the same on Martin Lantern and on the new software method. On comparison between the Standard Martin Lantern and the Software, the results were consistent and comparable with 82 patients testing CP I on the Martin Lantern and 81 on the software. Of the CP III patients, 253 tested positive on the Standard lantern test as compared to 251 on the software and of the CP IV group, 147 tested positive on the Standard lantern and 149 by the software method. Conclusion It was found that the software replicated the existing Martin Lantern accurately and consistently. The Martin Lantern Software can be used as a replacement for existing old Lanterns which are not in production since the early 20th century. PMID:24532927

  18. Development of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Gaurav; Vats, D P; Parihar, J K S

    2013-01-01

    Development and standardization of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern test. Non-randomized comparative trial. All candidates of SSB, Allahabad, reporting for SMB underwent color vision testing at the eye dept by computerized eye test and currently available tests. All candidates were subjected to Ishihara chart testing and those found to be CP III were subjected to the confirmatory test on Martin Lantern and the Software. Candidates requiring CP I standards for eligibility were tested on the same on Martin Lantern and on the new software method. On comparison between the Standard Martin Lantern and the Software, the results were consistent and comparable with 82 patients testing CP I on the Martin Lantern and 81 on the software. Of the CP III patients, 253 tested positive on the Standard lantern test as compared to 251 on the software and of the CP IV group, 147 tested positive on the Standard lantern and 149 by the software method. It was found that the software replicated the existing Martin Lantern accurately and consistently. The Martin Lantern Software can be used as a replacement for existing old Lanterns which are not in production since the early 20th century.

  19. Development of Four Vision Camera System for a Micro-Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenzdörffer, G.; Niemeyer, F.; Schmidt, F.

    2012-07-01

    Due to regulations micro-UAV's with a maximum take-off weight of <5kg are commonly bound to applications within the line of sight. An extension of the ground coverage is possible by using a set of oblique cameras. The development of such a multi camera system with a total weight of 1 kg under photogrammetric aspects is quite challenging. The introduced four vision camera system consists of four industrial grade oblique 1.3 mega pixel cameras (four vision) with 9 mm lenses and one nadir looking camera with a 6 mm lens. Despite common consumer grade cameras triggering and image data is stored externally on a small PC with a hard disk of 64 GB and a weight of only 250 g. The key question to be answered in this paper is, how good in a photogrammetric and radiometric sense are the small cameras and do they need an individual calibration treatment or is a single set of calibration parameters sufficient for all cameras?

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James C. Leslie; Mr. Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2000-10-30

    This annual, technical report will discuss the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates the first iteration design of the tube and the tool joint interface. The report discusses standards and specifications to which the CDP design will be tailored and tested, and discusses conclusions of the first iteration design for future design enhancements.

  2. Vision for the development of an international nuclear fuel recycling program

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Kenneth D.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the development of an international nuclear fuel recycle program is to: - Demonstrate advanced recycling by working to prove the technologies needed to close the fuel cycle, minimize waste, and obtain more energy benefit for each unit of fuel. - Build a global vision by enlisting partners to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies in a way that enables nuclear power to meet global challenges. The program will begin with the establishment of a smaller scale secure fuel cycle facility that would serve as a model for international nuclear fuel reprocessing centers that would eventually be built in several countries world wide. The operating process plants will provide the secure and safe guarded environment for the recycle of spent fuel from nuclear power stations around the world. The demonstration site will provide for developing and testing processes that would lead to the more complete use of the energy available in nuclear fuels and the minimization of long lived nuclear waste. (author)

  3. Development of a multispectral active stereo vision system for video surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a multispectral active stereo vision system is developed for tracking the motion of moving objects in different environment. The development of such a multispectral surveillance system composed by combining visible(color) and infrared sensors. The aim is to behind proposing such a network of visible and thermal sensors is to give an optimal performance in various weather conditions (foggy, snowing, dark and rainy) and increase the detection performance. The detection of moving objects is performed by mean of the optical flow between the images of two different spectrum. The optical flow has been computed by formulating an energy minimization problem and subsequently solving it by a numerical optimization algorithm. The convergence of the numerical scheme is given in case of different images. Finally, a number of experimental results (optical flow from stereo images) are given to prove the applicability of such a system in various applications and situations where a robust surveillance and tracking system is needed.

  4. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  5. Development of a Manufacturing Process for High-Precision Cu EOS Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Castro, C; Hibbard, R L

    2006-01-12

    This document describes the development of a manufacturing process and the production of Cu EOS targets. The development of a manufacturing process for these targets required a great deal of research, because the specifications for the targets required a level of precision an order of magnitude beyond Target Fabrication's capabilities at the time. Strict limitations on the dimensions of the components and the interfaces between them required research efforts to develop bonding and deposition processes consistent with a manufacturing plan with a dimensional precision on the order of 0.1 {micro}m. Several months into this effort, the specifications for the targets were relaxed slightly as a result of discussions between the Target Fabrication Group and the physicists. The level of precision required for these targets remained an order of magnitude beyond previous capabilities, but the changes made it possible to manufacture targets to the specifications. The development efforts and manufacturing processes described in this document successfully produced a complete Cu EOS target that satisfied all of the fabrication and metrology specifications.

  6. Schooling behaviour of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis depends on their vision development.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, S; Fukuda, H; Suzuki, K; Takagi, T

    2011-11-01

    The effects of vision development and light intensity on schooling behaviour during growth in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were investigated using both behavioural and histological approaches. The schooling behaviour of three age groups [25, 40 and 55 days post hatching (dph)] of juvenile T. orinetalis were examined under various light intensities. Subsequently, schooling variables, such as the nearest neighbour distance (D(NN) ) and the separation swimming index (I(SS) ), were also measured under different light intensities. Furthermore, retinal indices of light adaptation in juvenile fish at each experimental light intensity and visual acuities in six stages (25-55 dph) of juveniles were examined histologically. During growth, the light intensity thresholds of I(SS) decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx, and D(NN) under light conditions (>300 lx) also decreased from 9·2 times the standard length (L(S) ) to 1·2 times L(S) . The thresholds of light intensities for the light adaptation of retinas in juveniles (25-55 dph) similarly decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx with growth. In addition, the visual acuities of juveniles developed from 0·04 to 0·17 with decreasing D(NN) . These data clearly indicate that the characteristics of schooling behaviour strongly correspond to the degree of vision development. Juvenile T. orinetalis also appear to be more dependent on cone rather than rod cells under low light intensity conditions, resulting in a relatively high light intensity threshold for schooling. These results suggest that juveniles can adapt to darker conditions during growth by developing improved visual capabilities.

  7. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  8. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  9. Jute: A Different Story about the Development of Manufacturing Industry and Trade between Britain and India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Examines the process used to develop a lesson plan from an academic research article. Includes a lesson plan developed from an article in the Spring 1997 issue of "The Journal of World History" tracing the history of jute (a substitute for flax) manufacturing in colonial India. (MJP)

  10. Jute: A Different Story about the Development of Manufacturing Industry and Trade between Britain and India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Examines the process used to develop a lesson plan from an academic research article. Includes a lesson plan developed from an article in the Spring 1997 issue of "The Journal of World History" tracing the history of jute (a substitute for flax) manufacturing in colonial India. (MJP)

  11. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in computer-integrated manufacturing. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  12. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  13. Computer vision and driver distraction: developing a behaviour-flagging protocol for naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M

    2014-11-01

    Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify the occurrence of driving behaviours, including those that are indicative of distraction, is becoming increasingly impractical. Current statistical solutions underutilise available data and create further epistemic problems. Similarly, technical solutions such as eye-tracking often require dedicated hardware that is not readily accessible or feasible to use. A computer vision solution based on open-source software was developed and tested to improve the accuracy and speed of processing NDS video data for the purpose of quantifying the occurrence of driver distraction. Using classifier cascades, manually-reviewed video data from a previously published NDS was reanalysed and used as a benchmark of current best practice for performance comparison. Two software coding systems were developed - one based on hierarchical clustering (HC), and one based on gender differences (MF). Compared to manual video coding, HC achieved 86 percent concordance, 55 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 69 percent of target behaviour not previously identified through manual review. MF achieved 67 percent concordance, a 75 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 35 percent of target behaviour not identified through manual review. The findings highlight the improvements in processing speed and correctly classifying target behaviours achievable through the use of custom developed computer vision solutions. Suggestions for improved system performance and wider implementation are discussed.

  14. Developing a data life cycle for carbon and greenhouse gas measurements: challenges, experiences and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental research infrastructures and big data integration networks require common data policies, standardized workflows and sophisticated e-infrastructure to optimise the data life cycle. This presentation summarizes the experiences in developing the data life cycle for the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a European Research Infrastructure. It will also outline challenges that still exist and visions for future development. As many other environmental research infrastructures ICOS RI built on a large number of distributed observational or experimental sites. Data from these sites are transferred to Thematic Centres and quality checked, processed and integrated there. Dissemination will be managed by the ICOS Carbon Portal. This complex data life cycle has been defined in detail by developing protocols and assigning responsibilities. Since data will be shared under an open access policy there is a strong need for common data citation tracking systems that allow data providers to identify downstream usage of their data so as to prove their importance and show the impact to stakeholders and the public. More challenges arise from interoperating with other infrastructures or providing data for global integration projects as done e.g. in the framework of GEOSS or in global integration approaches such as fluxnet or SOCAt. Here, common metadata systems are the key solutions for data detection and harvesting. The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). Risks may arise when data of high and low quality are mixed during this process or unexperienced data scientists without detailed knowledge on the data aquisition derive scientific theories through statistical analyses. The vision of fully open data availability is expressed in a recent GEO flagship initiative that will address important issues needed to build a connected and interoperable global network for carbon cycle and greenhouse gas

  15. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Low-energy ion implantation processes for the automated production of silicon solar cells were investigated. Phosphorus ions at an energy of 10 keV and dose of 2 x 10 to the 15th power/sq cm were implanted in silicon solar cells to produce junctions, while boron ions at 25 keV and 5 x 10 to the 15th power were implanted in the cells to produce effective back surface fields. An ion implantation facility with a beam current up to 4 mA and a production throughput of 300 wafers per hour was designed and installed. A design was prepared for a 100 mA, automated implanter with a production capacity of 100 MW sub e/sq cm per year. Two process sequences were developed which employ ion implantation and furnace or pulse annealing. A computer program was used to determine costs for junction formation by ion implantation and various furnace annealing cycles to demonstrate cost effectiveness of these methods.

  16. From e-manufacturing to Internet Product Process Development (IPPD) through remote - labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Nieto, Ernesto; Andres Cifuentes Parra, Paulo; Camilo Parra Díaz, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the research developed at Universidad Nacional de Colombia about the e-Manufacturing platform that is being developed and implemented at LabFabEx (acronym in Spanish as "Laboratorio Fabrica Experimental"). This platform besides has an approach to virtual-remote labs that have been tested by several students and engineers of different industrial fields. At this paper it is shown the physical and communication experimental platform, the general scope and characteristics of this e-Manufacturing platform and the virtual lab approach. This research project is funded by COLCIENCIAS (Administrative Department of science, technology and innovation in Colombia) and the enterprise IMOCOM S.A.

  17. (Development of industrial processes for manufacturing of silicon sampling hadron calorimeters)

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.; Walter, J.

    1991-01-04

    The travelers attended meetings in Dubna and in Zelenograd. Discussions in Dubna centered on (1) obtaining information on USSR capabilities in silicon detector manufacture and testing and on (2) strategy regarding the development of an industrial process and the manufacture of a large quantity of silicon detectors for the SSC L* collaboration. The ELMA plant in Zelenograd was inspected, and discussions were held on production process development and on a possible detector supply time line. In addition, J. Walter participated in technical and cost estimate forecast discussions with representatives of Wacker-Chemitronic Factory (Germany) about silicon crystals for possible use in the SSC.

  18. Development and validation of equations utilizing lamb vision system output to predict lamb carcass fabrication yields.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; LeValley, S B; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to validate previous equations and to develop and evaluate new regression equations for predicting lamb carcass fabrication yields using outputs from a lamb vision system-hot carcass component (LVS-HCC) and the lamb vision system-chilled carcass LM imaging component (LVS-CCC). Lamb carcasses (n = 149) were selected after slaughter, imaged hot using the LVS-HCC, and chilled for 24 to 48 h at -3 to 1 degrees C. Chilled carcasses yield grades (YG) were assigned on-line by USDA graders and by expert USDA grading supervisors with unlimited time and access to the carcasses. Before fabrication, carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th ribs and imaged using the LVS-CCC. Carcasses were fabricated into bone-in subprimal/primal cuts. Yields calculated included 1) saleable meat yield (SMY); 2) subprimal yield (SPY); and 3) fat yield (FY). On-line (whole-number) USDA YG accounted for 59, 58, and 64%; expert (whole-number) USDA YG explained 59, 59, and 65%; and expert (nearest-tenth) USDA YG accounted for 60, 60, and 67% of the observed variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. The best prediction equation developed in this trial using LVS-HCC output and hot carcass weight as independent variables explained 68, 62, and 74% of the variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. Addition of output from LVS-CCC improved predictive accuracy of the equations; the combined output equations explained 72 and 66% of the variability in SMY and SPY, respectively. Accuracy and repeatability of measurement of LM area made with the LVS-CCC also was assessed, and results suggested that use of LVS-CCC provided reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.59) and highly repeatable (repeatability = 0.98) measurements of LM area. Compared with USDA YG, use of the dual-component lamb vision system to predict cut yields of lamb carcasses improved accuracy and precision, suggesting that this system could have an application as an objective means for pricing carcasses in a value

  19. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  20. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  1. Development of a Machine-Vision System for Recording of Force Calibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heamawatanachai, Sumet; Chaemthet, Kittipong; Changpan, Tawat

    This paper presents the development of a new system for recording of force calibration data using machine vision technology. Real time camera and computer system were used to capture images of the reading from the instruments during calibration. Then, the measurement images were transformed and translated to numerical data using optical character recognition (OCR) technique. These numerical data along with raw images were automatically saved to memories as the calibration database files. With this new system, the human error of recording would be eliminated. The verification experiments were done by using this system for recording the measurement results from an amplifier (DMP 40) with load cell (HBM-Z30-10kN). The NIMT's 100-kN deadweight force standard machine (DWM-100kN) was used to generate test forces. The experiments setup were done in 3 categories; 1) dynamics condition (record during load changing), 2) statics condition (record during fix load), and 3) full calibration experiments in accordance with ISO 376:2011. The captured images from dynamics condition experiment gave >94% without overlapping of number. The results from statics condition experiment were >98% images without overlapping. All measurement images without overlapping were translated to number by the developed program with 100% accuracy. The full calibration experiments also gave 100% accurate results. Moreover, in case of incorrect translation of any result, it is also possible to trace back to the raw calibration image to check and correct it. Therefore, this machine-vision-based system and program should be appropriate for recording of force calibration data.

  2. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  3. "Vision for Action" in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy Munkenbeck; Kuroshima, Hika; Stone, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children's performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children's ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children's performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates.

  4. Design, Development and Hotfire Testing of Monolithic Copper and Bimetallic Additively Manufactured Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Barnett, Greg; Brandsmeier, Will; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM) otherwise commonly referred to as additive manufacturing. The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for the GRCop-84 copper-alloy commensurate with powder bed additive manufacturing, evaluate bimetallic deposition and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. As a direct spin off of this program, NASA is working with industry partners to further develop the printing process for the GRCop-84 material in addition to the C-18150 (CuCrZr) material. To advance the process further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic additively manufactured chambers. A 1.2k sized thrust-chamber was designed and developed to compare the printing process of the GRCop-84 and C-18150 SLM materials. A series of similar MCC liners also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRcop-84 liner evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser and arc-based techniques. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these combustion chambers and associated lessons learned throughout the design and development process.

  5. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  7. Assessing Early Language Development in Children with Vision Disability and Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for identifying test items as disability neutral for children with vision and motor disabilities. Graduate students rated 130 items of the Preschool Language Scale and obtained inter-rater correlation coefficients of 0.58 for ratings of items as disability neutral for children with vision disability, and 0.77 for…

  8. Developing a Transformative School Vision: Lessons from Peer-Nominated Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars argue or imply that schools should build transformative school visions that promote equity, diversity, and social justice. However, little empirical research has investigated the principal's role in this endeavor or analyzed the practical dimensions of transformative vision statements. This study re-examined relevant data from two…

  9. Developing a Transformative School Vision: Lessons from Peer-Nominated Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars argue or imply that schools should build transformative school visions that promote equity, diversity, and social justice. However, little empirical research has investigated the principal's role in this endeavor or analyzed the practical dimensions of transformative vision statements. This study re-examined relevant data from two…

  10. Development of a vision-based pH reading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Kong, Young Bae; Lee, Eun Je; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yang, Seung Dae; Moon, Ha Jung; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2015-10-01

    pH paper is generally used for pH interpretation in the QC (quality control) process of radiopharmaceuticals. pH paper is easy to handle and useful for small samples such as radio-isotopes and radioisotope (RI)-labeled compounds for positron emission tomography (PET). However, pHpaper-based detecting methods may have some errors due limitations of eye sight and inaccurate readings. In this paper, we report a new device for pH reading and related software. The proposed pH reading system is developed with a vision algorithm based on the RGB library. The pH reading system is divided into two parts. First is the reading device that consists of a light source, a CCD camera and a data acquisition (DAQ) board. To improve the accuracy of the sensitivity, we utilize the three primary colors of the LED (light emission diode) in the reading device. The use of three colors is better than the use of a single color for a white LED because of wavelength. The other is a graph user interface (GUI) program for a vision interface and report generation. The GUI program inserts the color codes of the pH paper into the database; then, the CCD camera captures the pH paper and compares its color with the RGB database image in the reading mode. The software captures and reports information on the samples, such as pH results, capture images, and library images, and saves them as excel files.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-10-20

    DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

  12. The Computer-Vision Symptom Scale (CVSS17): development and initial validation.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Mariano; Susi, Rosario; Antona, Beatriz; Barrio, Ana; González, Enrique

    2014-06-17

    To develop a questionnaire (in Spanish) to measure computer-related visual and ocular symptoms (CRVOS). A pilot questionnaire was created by consulting the literature, clinicians, and video display terminal (VDT) workers. The replies of 636 subjects completing the questionnaire were assessed using the Rasch model and conventional statistics to generate a new scale, designated the Computer-Vision Symptom Scale (CVSS17). Validity and reliability were determined by Rasch fit statistics, principal components analysis (PCA), person separation, differential item functioning (DIF), and item-person targeting. To assess construct validity, the CVSS17 was correlated with a Rasch-based visual discomfort scale (VDS) in 163 VDT workers, this group completed the CVSS17 twice in order to assess test-retest reliability (two-way single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and their 95% confidence intervals, and the coefficient of repeatability [COR]). The CVSS17 contains 17 items exploring 15 different symptoms. These items showed good reliability and internal consistency (mean square infit and outfit 0.88-1.17, eigenvalue for the first residual PCA component 1.37, person separation 2.85, and no DIF). Pearson's correlation with VDS scores was 0.60 (P < 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.849 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.800-0.887), and COR was 8.14. The Rasch-based linear-scale CVSS17 emerged as a useful tool to quantify CRVOS in computer workers. : Spanish Abstract. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  14. Semiconductor Manufacturing Comes to Virginia: Developing Partnerships for Workforce Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    In Virginia, a community college consortium for semiconductor education and training programs works with a semiconductor manufacturers' partnership to review programs based on a national core curriculum model. The results are being used to improve curriculum development, faculty training, facility improvement, and student recruitment. (SK)

  15. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  16. Community biomass handbook volume 4: enterprise development for integrated wood manufacturing

    Treesearch

    Eini Lowell; D.R. Becker; D. Smith; M. Kauffman; D. Bihn

    2017-01-01

    The Community Biomass Handbook Volume 4: Enterprise Development for Integrated Wood Manufacturing is a guide for creating sustainable business enterprises using small diameter logs and biomass. This fourth volume is a companion to three Community Biomass Handbook volumes: Volume 1: Thermal Wood Energy; Volume 2: Alaska, Where Woody Biomass Can Work; and Volume 3: How...

  17. Development of STEP-NC Adaptor for Advanced Web Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay Konapala, Mr.; Koona, Ramji, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Information systems play a key role in the modern era of Information Technology. Rapid developments in IT & global competition calls for many changes in basic CAD/CAM/CAPP/CNC manufacturing chain of operations. ‘STEP-NC’ an enhancement to STEP for operating CNC machines, creating new opportunities for collaborative, concurrent, adaptive works across the manufacturing chain of operations. Schemas and data models defined by ISO14649 in liaison with ISO10303 standards made STEP-NC file rich with feature based, rather than mere point to point information of G/M Code format. But one needs to have a suitable information system to understand and modify these files. Various STEP-NC information systems are reviewed to understand the suitability of STEP-NC for web manufacturing. Present work also deals with the development of an adaptor which imports STEP-NC file, organizes its information, allowing modifications to entity values and finally generates a new STEP-NC file to export. The system is designed and developed to work on web to avail additional benefits through the web and also to be part of a proposed ‘Web based STEP-NC manufacturing platform’ which is under development and explained as future scope.

  18. Semiconductor Manufacturing Comes to Virginia: Developing Partnerships for Workforce Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    In Virginia, a community college consortium for semiconductor education and training programs works with a semiconductor manufacturers' partnership to review programs based on a national core curriculum model. The results are being used to improve curriculum development, faculty training, facility improvement, and student recruitment. (SK)

  19. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  20. Development of Remote Laboratory for Understanding the Processes from Design to Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    Faculties at the Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology faces a problem how they can motivate their students who lack in substantial hands on experience of design and manufacture and let them understand the processes from design to manufacture. To overcome this difficulty, a Remote Laboratory system was developed using a Stirling engine by noting its simple structure and principle, with the aim of providing a student hands on experience. A student designs a connecting rod, and it is machined by a milling machine in the lab at a distance. The on-site lab attendant installs the connecting rod on the engine and conducts a trial run, which is viewed by the student via internet video at the remote location. Experiments demonstrated that the Remote Lab system will facilitate a student to understand the processes from design to manufacture.

  1. Emerging markets & emerging needs: developing countries vaccine manufacturers' perspective & its current status.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Suresh S; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil

    2009-06-01

    The success of vaccination has remained an important contribution towards public health in both industrialised and developing countries. However, there are still unmet public health needs in vaccine preventable diseases owing to issues related to affordability, supply, public awareness, research and development, intellectual property, skilled human resource, etc. Various global initiatives are being taken to tackle such issues. DCVMN, Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, is one of such novel initiatives by developing countries, and is playing an important role in facilitating cheaper and quality vaccines to children of the world. DCVMN has become an international body for emerging vaccine manufacturers from the developing world. This manuscript provides an overview of DCVMN with respect to its origin, objectives, achievements, limitations and expectations.

  2. A Quality by Design Approach to Developing and Manufacturing Polymeric Nanoparticle Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Greg; Nolan, Jim; Parsons, Donald; Van Geen Hoven, Christina; Zale, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    The translation of nanomedicines from concepts to commercial products has not reached its full potential, in part because of the technical and regulatory challenges associated with chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) development of such complex products. It is critical to take a quality by design (QbD) approach to developing nanomedicines-using a risk-based approach to identifying and classifying product attributes and process parameters and ultimately developing a deep understanding of the products, processes, and platform. This article exemplifies a QbD approach used by BIND Therapeutics, Inc., to industrialize a polymeric targeted nanoparticle drug delivery platform. The focus of the approach is on CMC affairs but consideration is also given to preclinical, clinical, and regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical development. Processes are described for developing a quality target product profile and designing supporting preclinical studies, defining critical quality attributes and process parameters, building a process knowledge map, and employing QbD to support outsourced manufacturing.

  3. Supervisor-Student Teacher Interactions: The Role of Conversational Frames in Developing a Vision of Ambitious Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jennifer J.; van Es, Elizabeth A.; Black, Rebecca W.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of current mathematics and science education reform, teachers are challenged to develop a vision of ambitious instruction (NRC, 2001; Windschitl, Thompson, & Braaten, 2011). This exploratory study examined the discourse of student teacher supervision, focusing on how the conversational frames of supervisors and student teachers…

  4. Supervisor-Student Teacher Interactions: The Role of Conversational Frames in Developing a Vision of Ambitious Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jennifer J.; van Es, Elizabeth A.; Black, Rebecca W.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of current mathematics and science education reform, teachers are challenged to develop a vision of ambitious instruction (NRC, 2001; Windschitl, Thompson, & Braaten, 2011). This exploratory study examined the discourse of student teacher supervision, focusing on how the conversational frames of supervisors and student teachers…

  5. [Comparison study between biological vision and computer vision].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yuan, X G; Yang, C X; Liu, Z Q; Wang, R

    2001-08-01

    The development and bearing of biology vision in structure and mechanism were discussed, especially on the aspects including anatomical structure of biological vision, tentative classification of reception field, parallel processing of visual information, feedback and conformity effect of visual cortical, and so on. The new advance in the field was introduced through the study of the morphology of biological vision. Besides, comparison between biological vision and computer vision was made, and their similarities and differences were pointed out.

  6. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  7. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-10-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter the software development was completed and the testing of the integrated software was completed. A user manual was written to complete software documentation. An installation CD-ROM including the following items was written: software installer, controller source code, proprietary CORBA wrapper templates for building local and remote servers, publicly available source code of the ACE/TAO CORBA library that needs to be built before compiling the controller source code, pre-built binaries of the publicly available XERCES XML library, and a PDF version of the software user's manual. The software was delivered to DOE. During the last quarter software demonstration tasks were completed. A few additional load points of Demo Case 1 were solved. Integrated simulations of Demo Case 2 with the proprietary HRSGSIM code and FLUENT CFD model were completed. The final task report describing Demo Case1 and Demo Case 2 simulation results was written and delivered to DOE.

  9. Strategic research on the sustainable development cost of manufacturing industry under the background of carbon allowance and trade policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhongmin; Cheng, Mengting; Wang, Mei

    2017-08-01

    The important subjects of energy consumption and carbon emission are manufacturing enterprises, with the deepening of international cooperation, and the implementation of carbon limit and trade policy, costs of manufacturing industry will rise sharply. How can the manufacturing industry survive in this reform, and it has to be a problem that the managers of the manufacturing industry need to solve. This paper analyses sustainable development cost connotation and value basis on the basis of sustainable development concept, discusses the influence of carbon allowance and trade policy for cost strategy of manufacturing industry, thinks that manufacturing industry should highlight social responsibility and realize maximization of social value, implement cost strategy the sustainable development, and pointed out the implementation way.

  10. Model Development and Process Analysis for Lean Cellular Design Planning in Aerospace Assembly and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, Monty D.

    Successful lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing execution relies upon a foundation of leadership commitment and strategic planning built upon solid data and robust analysis. The problem for this study was to create and employ a simple lean transformation planning model and review process that could be used to identify functional support staff resources required to plan and execute lean manufacturing cells within aerospace assembly and manufacturing sites. The lean planning model was developed using available literature for lean manufacturing kaizen best practices and validated through a Delphi panel of lean experts. The resulting model and a standardized review process were used to assess the state of lean transformation planning at five sites of an international aerospace manufacturing and assembly company. The results of the three day, on-site review were compared with baseline plans collected from each of the five sites to determine if there analyzed, with focus on three critical areas of lean planning: the number and type of manufacturing cells identified, the number, type, and duration of planned lean and continuous kaizen events, and the quantity and type of functional staffing resources planned to support the kaizen schedule. Summarized data of the baseline and on-site reviews was analyzed with descriptive statistics. ANOVAs and paired-t tests at 95% significance level were conducted on the means of data sets to determine if null hypotheses related to cell, kaizen event, and support resources could be rejected. The results of the research found significant differences between lean transformation plans developed by site leadership and plans developed utilizing the structured, on-site review process and lean transformation planning model. The null hypothesis that there was no difference between the means of pre-review and on-site cell counts was rejected, as was the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in kaizen event plans. These

  11. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  12. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Manufacturing technology education development project. Project accomplishment summary for 91-Y12P-050-A1

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, S.; Smith, R.

    1996-09-25

    The purpose of the project was to provide a set of supplemental instructional equipment and materials to Tennessee high school students to raise their level of knowledge about manufacturing technologies with the hope that some of the best and brightest would choose manufacturing as a career path. The role of the Y-12 Plant was primarily technical: renovate the portable classroom; select and purchase appropriate equipment; install and test the equipment; assist in the development of the curriculum; train the initial group of teachers; and provide technical assistance where needed after the laboratory was deployed. The role of the Department of Education was to provide the mobile facility; assist in the design of the laboratory; lead the development of the curriculum; deploy the trailer; and develop the structure for administering the selection of schools, training teachers, and movement of the laboratory. The Department of Education as subcontracted with Middle Tennessee State University to handle the details of laboratory deployment.

  14. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  15. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Husser, D. L.; Mohr, T. C.; Richardson, W. C.

    2004-02-01

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  16. Development of a healthy biscuit: an alternative approach to biscuit manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Boobier, WJ; Baker, JS; Davies, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective Obesity (BMI >30) and related health problems, including coronary heart disease (CHD), is without question a public health concern. The purpose of this study was to modify a traditional biscuit by the addition of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C and Prebiotic fibre, while reducing salt and sugar. Design Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer of International reputation. The raw materials traditionally referred to as essential in biscuit manufacture, i.e. sugar and fat, were targeted for removal or reduction. In addition, salt was completely removed from the recipe. Participants University students of both sexes (n = 25) agreed to act as subjects for the study. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the University ethics committee. The test was conducted as a single blind crossover design, and the modified and traditional biscuits were presented to the subjects under the same experimental conditions in a random fashion. Results No difference was observed between the original and the modified product for taste and consistency (P > 0.05). The modified biscuit was acceptable to the consumer in terms of eating quality, flavour and colour. Commercial acceptability was therefore established. Conclusion This study has confirmed that traditional high-fat and high-sugar biscuits which are not associated with healthy diets by most consumers can be modified to produce a healthy alternative that can be manufactured under strict commercial conditions. PMID:16539719

  17. Medications Development to Treat Alcohol Dependence: A Vision for the Next Decade

    PubMed Central

    Litten, Raye Z.; Egli, Mark; Heilig, Markus; Cui, Changhai; Fertig, Joanne B.; Ryan, Megan L.; Falk, Daniel E.; Moss, Howard; Huebner, Robert; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    More than 76 million people worldwide are estimated to have diagnosable Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) (alcohol abuse or dependence), making these disorders a major global health problem. Pharmacotherapy offers promising means for treating AUDs, and significant progress has been made in the past 20 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved three of the four medications for alcoholism in the last two decades. Unfortunately, these medications do not work for everyone, prompting the need for a personalized approach to optimize clinical benefit or more efficacious medications that can treat a wider range of patients, or both. To promote global health, the potential reorganization of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must continue to support the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s (NIAAA’s) vision of ensuring the development and delivery of new and more efficacious medications to treat AUDs in the coming decade. To achieve this objective, the NIAAA Medications Development Team has identified three fundamental long-range goals: 1) to make the drug development process more efficient; 2) to identify more efficacious medications, personalize treatment approaches, or both, and 3) to facilitate the implementation and adaptation of medications in real-world treatment settings. These goals will be carried out through seven key objectives. This paper describes those objectives in terms of rationale and strategy. Successful implementation of these objectives will result in the development of more efficacious and safe medications, provide a greater selection of therapy options, and ultimately lessen the impact of this devastating disorder. PMID:22458728

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhave Symlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-04-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper template was developed for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU. The session management tasks were completed. The multithreading capability was made functional so that user of the integrated simulation may directly interact with the CFD software. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO v.1.0. The testing and debugging of the upgraded software is ongoing. Testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested GUI enhancements was made. Remote simulation capability was successfully tested using two networked Windows machines. Work on preparing the release version progressed: CFD database was enhanced, a convergence detection capability was implemented, a Configuration Wizard for low-order models was developed, and the Configuration Wizard for Fluent was enhanced. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Various simplified versions of Demo Case 1 were used to debug Configuration Wizard and V21-Controller. The heat exchanger model in FLUENT was calibrated and the energy balance was verified. The INDVU code was integrated into the V21-Controller, and the integrated model is being debugged. A sensitivity loop was inserted into Demo Case 2 to check whether the simulation converges over the desired load range. Work on converting HRSGSIM code to run in batch mode was started. Work on calibrating Demo Case 2 was started.

  19. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    A software design review meeting was conducted (Task 2.0). A CFD Viewer was developed, to allow the process analyst to view CFD results from the process simulator (Task 2.14). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was continued (Task 2.15). The model-edit GUI was modified to allow the user to specify a solution strategy. Enhancements were made to the solution strategy implementation (Task 2.16). Testing of the integrated software was continued and several bug fixes and enhancements were made: ability to expose CFD parameters to the process analyst and support for velocity and pressure inlet boundary conditions (Task 2.21). Work on preparing the release version progressed: Version 0.3 of V21 Controller was released, a global configuration dialog was implemented, and a code review process was initiated (Task 2.24). The calibration of the tube bank CFD model for the RP&L case was completed. While integrating the tube bank CFD model into the flow sheet model, several development requirements were identified and communicated to the developers. The requirements of porting V21 Controller and Configuration Wizard to FLUENT 6.1, turning off the transfer of temperature dependent properties, exposing CFD parameters in Aspen Plus and supporting velocity boundary conditions have been implemented (Task 4.1). An initial grid for the HRSG component has been prepared (Task 4.2). A web-based advisory board meeting was conducted on December 18, 2003 (Task 5.0). Project personnel attended and gave presentations at the Aspen World Conference, October 28-30, 2002; AIChE Annual Meeting, November 8, 2002; and the Vision 21 Simulation meeting at Iowa State University, November 19-20, 2002 (Task 7.0).

  1. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    ) systems development, (iv) material feedstock, (v) process planning, (vi) residual stress & distortion, (vii) post-processing, (viii) qualification of parts, (ix) supply chain and (x) business case. Furthermore, an open innovation network methodology was proposed to accelerate the development and deployment of new large-scale metal additive manufacturing technology with the goal of creating a new generation of high deposition rate equipment, affordable feed stocks, and large metallic components to enhance America’s economic competitiveness.

  2. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of CellaVision competency software for external quality assessment and continuing professional development.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yuki; Tabe, Yoko; Idei, Mayumi; Bengtsson, Hans-Inge; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Horii, Takashi; Miyake, Kazunori; Satoh, Naotake; Miida, Takashi; Ohsaka, Akimichi

    2011-07-01

    Quality assessment of blood cell morphological testing, such as white blood cell (WBC) differential and its interpretation, is one of the most important and difficult assignments in haematology laboratories. A monthly survey was performed to assess the possible role of the proficiency testing program produced by CellaVision competency software (CCS) in external quality assessment (EQA) of the clinical laboratories of affiliated university hospitals and the effective utilisation of this program in continuing professional development (CPD). Four monthly proficiency surveys were conducted in collaboration with four clinical laboratories affiliated with the teaching hospitals of Juntendo University of Medicine in Japan. EQA results by the CCS proficiency testing program revealed a difference of performance levels of WBC differential and morphological interpretation and a discrepancy in the WBC differential criteria among laboratories. With regard to the utilisation of this proficiency program as a tool for CPD, this program successfully improved the performance of the low-scoring laboratories and less experienced individuals. The CCS proficiency testing program was useful for the quality assessment of laboratory performance, for education, and for the storage and distribution of cell images to be utilised for further standardisation and education.

  4. Development of Omnidirectional Vision System for Spacecraft On-Orbit Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Akito; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Matsuoka, Shinobu; Ijichi, Koichi; Nakamura, Shuji

    We have developed an OmniDirectional Vision system (ODV) using two reflecting mirrors to monitor a spacecraft on orbit. Recently, a spacecraft is loaded with many deployable structures. The ODV provides a panoramic image of 360 degree surroundings in real time and is possible to monitor two or more deployable structures at the same time. Moreover, the CCD and the lens are not exposed to cosmic rays, because these are covered with metallic mirrors. Therefore, a loss of the CCD element and a blur of the lens due to the cosmic rays are not occurred easily. We have designed the ODV for the Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System (USERS) spacecraft which was launched on September 10, 2002. The optical characteristics of the ODV has been evaluated and the results show that the ODV can acquire a sharp image. Two ODVs were adopted as monitor cameras of the USERS. From the input images of the ODVs on orbit, the deployment of the paddles and the Capillary Pumped Deployable Radiator (CPDR) and the separation of the Re-entry Module (REM) were confirmed.

  5. Development and evaluation of a vision based poultry debone line monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin T.; Daley, W. D. R.

    2013-05-01

    Efficient deboning is key to optimizing production yield (maximizing the amount of meat removed from a chicken frame while reducing the presence of bones). Many processors evaluate the efficiency of their deboning lines through manual yield measurements, which involves using a special knife to scrape the chicken frame for any remaining meat after it has been deboned. Researchers with the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have developed an automated vision system for estimating this yield loss by correlating image characteristics with the amount of meat left on a skeleton. The yield loss estimation is accomplished by the system's image processing algorithms, which correlates image intensity with meat thickness and calculates the total volume of meat remaining. The team has established a correlation between transmitted light intensity and meat thickness with an R2 of 0.94. Employing a special illuminated cone and targeted software algorithms, the system can make measurements in under a second and has up to a 90-percent correlation with yield measurements performed manually. This same system is also able to determine the probability of bone chips remaining in the output product. The system is able to determine the presence/absence of clavicle bones with an accuracy of approximately 95 percent and fan bones with an accuracy of approximately 80%. This paper describes in detail the approach and design of the system, results from field testing, and highlights the potential benefits that such a system can provide to the poultry processing industry.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-01-23

    To complete project planning, various project groups conducted several meetings and teleconferences. As a result a draft project management plan was written and circulated. The plan will be finalized in a project kick off meeting to be held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which will be attended by all project participants (Task 1.0). Various project personnel have been trained in the use of Fluent and Aspen Plus, which completes all the training tasks except for Aspen Plus and IDL training for Alstom Power (Task 2.1). A preliminary version of User Requirements Document (preURD) was written. This document will be sent to key users of Aspen Plus and FLUENT and their responses will be collected in January (Task 2.3). A prototype of Fluent integration with Aspen Plus was constructed for understanding the required software design. The development of a general architecture for the integrated software suite has been started (Task 2.6). Invitation letters for participation in an Advisory Board were sent out to several Vision 21 contractors. Their responses will be used to form an Advisory Board in January (Task 5.0). Fluent has awarded subcontracts to Alstom Power, CERC, and Aspen Tech and negotiations with Intergraph are underway. Aspen Plus and FLUENT were installed on a computer at CERC. The design of a project web site was completed, and the site setup was started (Task 7.0).

  7. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/LARC 160 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. K.; Jones, J. S.; Dynes, P. J.; Wykes, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of manufacturing technologies for the structural application of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide composite material is discussed. Process development and fabrication of demonstration components are discussed. Process development included establishing quality assurance of the basic composite material and processing, nondestructive inspection of fabricated components, developing processes for specific structural forms, and qualification of processes through mechanical testing. Demonstration components were fabricated. The demonstration components consisted of flat laminates, skin/stringer panels, honeycomb panels, chopped fiber compression moldings, and a technology demonstrator segment (TDS) representative of the space shuttle aft body flap.

  8. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  9. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  10. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  11. Development and Validation of a Safety Climate Scale for Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Khalkhali, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a scale for measuring safety climate. Methods This study was conducted in six manufacturing companies in Iran. The scale developed through conducting a literature review about the safety climate and constructing a question pool. The number of items was reduced to 71 after performing a screening process. Results The result of content validity analysis showed that 59 items had excellent item content validity index (≥ 0.78) and content validity ratio (> 0.38). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in eight safety climate dimensions. The reliability value for the final 45-item scale was 0.96. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the safety climate model is satisfactory. Conclusion This study produced a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in manufacturing companies. PMID:26106508

  12. Development and Validation of a Safety Climate Scale for Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Khalkhali, Hamid R

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a scale for measuring safety climate. This study was conducted in six manufacturing companies in Iran. The scale developed through conducting a literature review about the safety climate and constructing a question pool. The number of items was reduced to 71 after performing a screening process. The result of content validity analysis showed that 59 items had excellent item content validity index (≥ 0.78) and content validity ratio (> 0.38). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in eight safety climate dimensions. The reliability value for the final 45-item scale was 0.96. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the safety climate model is satisfactory. This study produced a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in manufacturing companies.

  13. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sfakianakis, Panagiotis; Tzia, Constatnina

    2014-01-01

    Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review. PMID:28234312

  14. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sfakianakis, Panagiotis; Tzia, Constatnina

    2014-03-11

    Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; Stephen Zitney

    2003-07-30

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU was upgraded to CO V1.0.0 and was successfully integrated with an Aspen Plus flowsheet. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO V.1.0.0, and the testing and debugging of the upgraded V21-Controller was completed. Two Aspen Plus analysis tools (sensitivity analysis and optimization) were successfully tested in an integrated simulation. Extensive testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested enhancements was given to the software development team. Work on software documentation was started. Work on preparing the release version progressed: Several enhancements were made in the V21-Controller and the Fluent Configuration Wizard GUIs. Work to add persistence functionality to the V21-Controller was started. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Demo Case 1 simulations were completed. This case, a conventional steam cycle with a CFD model representing the boiler module, was successfully demonstrated at 9 distinct load points from 33 MW to 19 MW. Much progress was made with Demo Case 2. Work on adding a CO wrapper to the HRSGSIM code was completed, and integrated simulations with the HRSGSIM code were conducted. The CFD heat exchanger model for Demo Case 2 was calibrated with HRSGSIM results. An Advisory Board meeting was held in Manchester, NH on May 6 during the Fluent Users Group Meeting. The preparation of the project final report was started.

  16. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  17. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  18. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  19. Vision for Action” in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children’s performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children’s ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children’s performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates. PMID:26440979

  20. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision.

  1. Managing design for manufacture and assembly in the development of MEMS-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Yao; Narasimhan, Nachchinarkkinian; Hariz, Alex J.

    2006-12-01

    Design for manufacturability, assembly and reliability of MEMS products is being applied to a multitude of novel MEMS products to make up for the lack of "Standard Process for MEMS" concept. The latter has proved a major handicap in commercialization of MEMS devices when compared to integrated circuits products. Furthermore, an examination of recent engineering literature seems to suggest convergence towards the development of the design for manufacturability and reliability of MEMS products. This paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques that have been pursued up to this point to achieve commercialization of MEMS products, identify some of the problems slowing down development, and explore measures that could be taken to try to address those problems. Successful commercialization critically depends on packaging and assembly, manufacturability, and reliability for micro scale products. However, a methodology that appropriately shadows next generation knowledge management will undoubtedly address most of the critical problems that are hampering development of MEMS industries. Finally this paper will also identify contemporary issues that are challenging the industry in regards to product commercialization and will recommend appropriate measures based on knowledge flow to address those shortcomings and lay out plans to expedient and successful paths to market.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

    2005-04-01

    To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were

  3. Enterprise Technologies Deployment for Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report is intended for high-level technical planners who are responsible for planning future developments for their company or Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) facilities. On one hand, the information may be too detailed or contain too much manufacturing technology jargon for a high-level, nontechnical executive, while at the same time an expert in any of the four infrastructure fields (Product Definition/Order Entry, Planning and Scheduling, Shop Floor Management, and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) will know more than is conveyed here. The purpose is to describe a vision of technology deployment for an agile manufacturing enterprise. According to the 21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy, the root philosophy of agile manufacturing is that ``competitive advantage in the new systems will belong to agile manufacturing enterprises, capable of responding rapidly to demand for high-quality, highly customized products.`` Such agility will be based on flexible technologies, skilled workers, and flexible management structures which collectively will foster cooperative initiatives in and among companies. The remainder of this report is dedicated to sharpening our vision and to establishing a framework for defining specific project or pre-competitive project goals which will demonstrate agility through technology deployment.

  4. Enterprise Technologies Deployment for Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report is intended for high-level technical planners who are responsible for planning future developments for their company or Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) facilities. On one hand, the information may be too detailed or contain too much manufacturing technology jargon for a high-level, nontechnical executive, while at the same time an expert in any of the four infrastructure fields (Product Definition/Order Entry, Planning and Scheduling, Shop Floor Management, and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) will know more than is conveyed here. The purpose is to describe a vision of technology deployment for an agile manufacturing enterprise. According to the 21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy, the root philosophy of agile manufacturing is that competitive advantage in the new systems will belong to agile manufacturing enterprises, capable of responding rapidly to demand for high-quality, highly customized products.'' Such agility will be based on flexible technologies, skilled workers, and flexible management structures which collectively will foster cooperative initiatives in and among companies. The remainder of this report is dedicated to sharpening our vision and to establishing a framework for defining specific project or pre-competitive project goals which will demonstrate agility through technology deployment.

  5. Interaction between language and vision: it's momentary, abstract, and it develops.

    PubMed

    Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a case study that explores the nature and development of the mechanisms by which language interacts with and influences our ability to represent and retain information from one of our most important non-linguistic systems - vision. In previous work (Dessalegn & Landau, 2008), we showed that 4 year-olds remembered conjunctions of visual features better when the visual target was accompanied by a sentence containing an asymmetric spatial predicate (e.g., the yellow is to the left of the black) but not when the visual target was accompanied by a sentence containing a novel noun (e.g., look at the dax) or a symmetric spatial predicate (e.g., the yellow is touching the black). In this paper, we extend these findings. In three experiments, 3, 4 and 6 year-olds were shown square blocks split in half by color vertically, horizontally or diagonally (e.g., yellow-left, black-right) and were asked to perform a delayed-matching task. We found that sentences containing spatial asymmetric predicates (e.g., the yellow is to the left of the black) and non-spatial asymmetric predicates (e.g., the yellow is prettier than the black) helped 4 year-olds, although not to the same extent. By contrast, 3 year-olds did not benefit from different linguistic instructions at all while 6 year-olds performed at ceiling in the task with or without the relevant sentences. Our findings suggest by age 4, the effects of language on non-linguistic tasks depend on highly abstract representations of the linguistic instructions and are momentary, seen only in the context of the task. We further speculate that language becomes more automatically engaged in nonlinguistic tasks over development.

  6. Development and Hotfire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy; Protz, Chris

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. MSFC’s efforts include a 4,000 pounds-force thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber. Small thrust chambers for 1,200 pounds-force LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications have also been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. Similar chambers have also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRCop-84 material, evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser- and arc-based techniques. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25,000-35,000 pounds-force main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  7. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  8. Development of a 3D Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm with Three Vertical-Axial Pneumatic Actuators Combined with a Stereo Vision System

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot’s end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H∞ tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  9. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... which nothing can be seen) Vision loss and blindness are the most severe vision problems. Considerations Regular ... that look faded. The most common cause of blindness in people over age 60. Eye infection, inflammation, ...

  10. Development of an advanced uncooled 10-Gb DFB laser for volume manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Gordon; Charles, Paul M.

    2003-03-01

    Optical communication systems operating at 10Gbit/s such as 10Gigabit Ethernet are becoming more and more important in Local Area Networks (LAN) and Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). This market requires optical transceivers of low cost, size and power consumption. This drives a need for uncooled DFB lasers directly modulated at 10Gbit/s. This paper describes the development of a state of the art uncooled high speed DFB laser which is capable of being manufactured in high volume at the low cost demanded by the GbE market. A DFB laser was designed by developing technological building blocks within the 'conventional" InGaAsP materials system, using existing well proven manufacturing processes modules wherever possible, limiting the design risk to a few key areas where innovation was required. The temperature and speed performance of the InGaAsP SMQW active layer system was carefully optimized and then coupled with a low parasitic lateral confinement system. Using concurrent engineering, new processes were demonstrated to have acceptable process capability within a manufacturing fabrication environment, proving their ability to support high volume manufacturing requirements. The DFB laser fabricated was shown to operate at 100C chip temperature with an open eye at 10Gbit/s operation (with an extinction ratio >5dB). Up to 90C operation this DFB shows threshold current as low as 29mA, optical power as high as 13mW and it meets the 10Gb scaled Ethernet mask with extinction ratio >6dB. It was found that the high temperature dynamic behavior of these lasers could not be fully predicted from static test data. A production test strategy was therefore followed where equipment was designed to fully test devices/subassemblies at 100C and up to 20Gbit/s at key points in the product build. This facilitated the rapid optimisation of product yields upon manufacturing ramp up and minimization of product costs. This state of the art laser is now transferred into volume manufacture.

  11. Leader vision and the development of adaptive and proactive performance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Mark A; Parker, Sharon K; Mason, Claire M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated how leader vision influences the change-oriented behaviors of adaptivity and proactivity in the workplace. The authors proposed that leader vision would lead to an increase in adaptivity for employees who were high in openness to work role change. In contrast, they proposed leader vision would be associated with an increase in proactivity when employees were high in role breadth self-efficacy. These propositions were supported in a longitudinal survey of 102 employees who provided self-report data about their leader and their work behaviors. The findings provide insight into the interaction between leaders and followers in responding to a change imperative. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Space Wear Vision -Development of a Wardrobe for Life in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndorff, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    A new vision is needed for the development of a wardrobe for NASA's journey to Mars in the 2030s. All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on long-duration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The logistical burden is at least twice as great for prolonged exploration and settlements on planetary surfaces compared to missions in low-Earth orbit. The space wear vision is to design apparel that uniquely meets criteria and constraints for sustaining human presence in space. For long duration missions without landing on planetary surface, humans can use only what they carry in their spacecraft, while for settlements, additional resources may be available. The immediate space wear goal is to develop those elements needed for prolonged manned exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Three major objectives have been identified for achieving this goal: satisfying crew preferences, logistics reduction and repurposing, and systems integration. Garments must be comfortable, durable, safe to wear, and aesthetically pleasing. In addition, with limited cleaning resources, garments must be developed to reduce the logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. Furthermore, garments must have minimal impact on the life support systems of spacecraft. The approach to achieving the immediate space wear goal is to conduct multiple studies on Earth and on the International Space Station (ISS), thus laying out the path for finding materials and designing garments that meet the three objectives of prolonged manned exploration. Several studies have been undertaken recently for the first time, namely, to ascertain garment length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Most garments in these studies have been exercise T-shirts and shorts, and routine-wear T-shirts. Eleven studies have been completed: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear T-shirts, and

  13. Effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision on the development of form-deprivation myopia in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Earl L; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Qiao, Ying

    2002-02-01

    To characterize the temporal integration properties of the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia (FDM), the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the degree of FDM were investigated in infant monkeys. Starting at approximately 3 weeks of age, unilateral form deprivation was produced in 24 infant rhesus monkeys by securing a diffuser spectacle lens in front of one eye and a clear, zero-powered lens in front of the fellow eye. During the treatment period (17 +/- 2 weeks), six infants wore the diffuser lenses continuously. In the other experimental infants, the diffuser lenses were removed each day and replaced with clear, zero-powered lenses for 1 (n = 7), 2 (n = 7), or 4 hours (n = 4). Refractive development was assessed by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from 11 normal infants and 3 infants reared with zero-powered lenses over both eyes. The degree of FDM varied significantly with the duration of unrestricted vision. Continuous form deprivation produced -5.2 +/- 3.6 D of relative axial myopia. However, 1 hour of unrestricted vision was sufficient to reduce the degree of axial FDM by more than 50% (-1.7 +/- 3.2 D). The infants that were allowed 4 hours of unrestricted vision exhibited only -0.4 +/- 0.5 D of FDM. As observed in chickens and tree shrews, relatively long periods of form deprivation can be counterbalanced by quite short periods of unrestricted vision. These results indicate that the processes or signals that promote axial elongation in monkeys are comparatively weak or easily overridden by factors that slow ocular growth.

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  15. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  16. Manufacturing Process Developments for Regeneratively-Cooled Channel Wall Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Brandsmeier, Will

    2016-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled channel wall nozzles incorporate a series of integral coolant channels to contain the coolant to maintain adequate wall temperatures and expand hot gas providing engine thrust and specific impulse. NASA has been evaluating manufacturing techniques targeting large scale channel wall nozzles to support affordability of current and future liquid rocket engine nozzles and thrust chamber assemblies. The development of these large scale manufacturing techniques focus on the liner formation, channel slotting with advanced abrasive water-jet milling techniques and closeout of the coolant channels to replace or augment other cost reduction techniques being evaluated for nozzles. NASA is developing a series of channel closeout techniques including large scale additive manufacturing laser deposition and explosively bonded closeouts. A series of subscale nozzles were completed evaluating these processes. Fabrication of mechanical test and metallography samples, in addition to subscale hardware has focused on Inconel 625, 300 series stainless, aluminum alloys as well as other candidate materials. Evaluations of these techniques are demonstrating potential for significant cost reductions for large scale nozzles and chambers. Hot fire testing is planned using these techniques in the future.

  17. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  18. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  19. Development of a laser-based process chain for manufacturing free form optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, S.; Richmann, A.; Willenborg, E.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a laser based process chain for manufacturing fused silica optics. Due to disadvantages of conventional methods concerning costs and time when manufacturing optics with nonspherical shape, this process chain focuses on aspherical and free form surface geometries, but it is also capable of producing spherical optics. It consists of three laser based processing steps, which in combination produce the optics. In a first step, fused silica is ablated with laser radiation to produce the geometry of the optics. A subsequent laser polishing step reduces the surface roughness and a third step uses laser micro ablation to remove the last remaining redundant material. Most of the conducted experiments are carried out using CO2 laser radiation, but it is also possible to ablate material with ultra short pulse laser radiation. Besides describing the experimental setup and the mechanisms of the ablation and polishing step, the paper presents and discusses results achieved to date. Although the process chain is still under development, the single process steps already reach promising results for themselves and moreover, first elements are manufactured using the first two process steps together.

  20. A Journey in Standard Development: The Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-Tsun Tina

    2015-01-01

    This report documents a journey “from research to an approved standard” of a NIST-led standard development activity. That standard, Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) information model, provides neutral structures for the efficient exchange of manufacturing data in a simulation environment. The model was standardized under the auspices of the international Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). NIST started the research in 2001 and initiated the standardization effort in 2004. The CMSD standard was published in two SISO Products. In the first Product, the information model was defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and published in 2010 as SISO-STD-008-2010. In the second Product, the information model was defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and published in 2013 as SISO-STD-008-01-2012. Both SISO-STD-008-2010 and SISO-STD-008-01-2012 are intended to be used together. PMID:26958450

  1. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies.

    PubMed

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-11-20

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product's life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time.

  2. A Journey in Standard Development: The Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) Information Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Tsun Tina

    2015-01-01

    This report documents a journey "from research to an approved standard" of a NIST-led standard development activity. That standard, Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) information model, provides neutral structures for the efficient exchange of manufacturing data in a simulation environment. The model was standardized under the auspices of the international Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). NIST started the research in 2001 and initiated the standardization effort in 2004. The CMSD standard was published in two SISO Products. In the first Product, the information model was defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and published in 2010 as SISO-STD-008-2010. In the second Product, the information model was defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and published in 2013 as SISO-STD-008-01-2012. Both SISO-STD-008-2010 and SISO-STD-008-01-2012 are intended to be used together.

  3. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies

    PubMed Central

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time. PMID:26610509

  4. Developing a Very Low Vision Orientation and Mobility Test Battery (O&M-VLV).

    PubMed

    Finger, Robert P; Ayton, Lauren N; Deverell, Lil; O'Hare, Fleur; McSweeney, Shane C; Luu, Chi D; Fenwick, Eva K; Keeffe, Jill E; Guymer, Robyn H; Bentley, Sharon A

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of an assessment of vision-related orientation and mobility (O&M) tasks in persons with severe vision loss. These tasks may be used for future low vision rehabilitation clinical assessments or as outcome measures in vision restoration trials. Forty legally blind persons (mean visual acuity logMAR 2.3, or hand movements) with advanced retinitis pigmentosa participated in the Orientation & Mobility-Very Low Vision (O&M-VLV) subtests from the Low Vision Assessment of Daily Activities (LoVADA) protocol. Four categories of tasks were evaluated: route travel in three indoor hospital environments, a room orientation task (the "cafe"), a visual exploration task (the "gallery"), and a modified version of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which assesses re-orientation and route travel. Spatial cognition was assessed using the Stuart Tactile Maps test. Visual acuity and visual fields were measured. A generalized linear regression model showed that a number of measures in the O&M-VLV tasks were related to residual visual function. The percentage of preferred walking speed without an aid on three travel routes was associated with visual field (p < 0.01 for all routes) whereas the number of contacts with obstacles during route travel was associated with acuity (p = 0.001). TUG-LV task time was associated with acuity (p = 0.003), as was the cafe time and distance traveled (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively). The gallery score was the only measure that was significantly associated with both residual acuity and fields (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The O&M-VLV was designed to capture key elements of O&M performance in persons with severe vision loss, which is a population not often studied previously. Performance on these tasks was associated with both binocular visual acuity and visual field. This new protocol includes assessments of orientation, which may be of benefit in vision restoration clinical trials.

  5. PICASSO VISION instrument design, engineering model test results, and flight model development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Akujärvi, Altti; Saari, Heikki; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK) and Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). The test campaign for the engineering model of the PICASSO VISION instrument, a miniaturized nanosatellite spectral imager, has been successfully completed. The test results look very promising. The proto-flight model of VISION has also been successfully integrated and it is waiting for the final integration to the satellite platform.

  6. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  7. Innovative Manufacturing of Launch Vehicle Structures - Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Tayon, Wesley; Bird, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing launch costs is essential to ensuring the success of NASA's visions for planetary exploration and earth science, economical support of the International Space Station, and competitiveness of the U.S. commercial launch industry. Reducing launch vehicle manufacturing cost supports NASA's budget and technology development priorities.

  8. USAF Cyber Capability Development: A Vision for Future Cyber Warfare & a Concept for Education of Cyberspace Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Significant and interrelated problems are hindering the Air Force’s development of cyber warfare capabilities. The first is a lack of awareness about...why the AF has chosen to take cyber warfare on as a core capability on par with air and space. The second stems from the lack of a commonly...the cyber capabilities needed in the future? The contributions of this research include a strategic vision for future cyber warfare capabilities that

  9. Lighting And Optics Expert System For Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novini, Amir

    1989-03-01

    Machine Vision and the field of Artificial Intelligence are both new technologies which have evolved mainly within the past decade with the growth of computers and microchips. And, although research continues, both have emerged from the experimental state to industrial reality. Today's machine vision systems are solving thousands of manufacturing problems in various industries, and the impact of Artificial Intelligence, and more specifically, the use of "Expert Systems" in industry is also being realized. This paper will examine how the two technologies can cross paths, and how an Expert System can become an important part of an overall machine vision solution. An actual example of a development of an Expert System that helps solve machine vision lighting and optics problems will be discussed. The lighting and optics Expert System was developed to assist the end user to configure the "Front End" of a vision system to help solve the overall machine vision problem more effectively, since lack of attention to lighting and optics has caused many failures of this technology. Other areas of machine vision technology where Expert Systems could apply will also be discussed.

  10. Lighting And Optics Expert System For Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novini, Amir

    1988-12-01

    Machine Vision and the field of Artificial Intelligence are both new technologies which have evolved mainly within the past decade with the growth of computers and microchips. And, although research continues, both have emerged from the experimental state to industrial reality. Today's machine vision systems are solving thousands of manufacturing problems in various industries, and the impact of Artificial Intelligence, and more specifically, the use of "Expert Systems" in industry is also being realized. This paper will examine how the two technologies can cross paths, and how an Expert System can become an important part of an overall machine vision solution. An actual example of a development of an Expert System that helps solve machine vision lighting and optics problems will be discussed. The lighting and optics Expert System was developed to assist the end user to configure the "Front End" of a vision system to help solve the overall machine vision problem more effectively, since lack of attention to lighting and optics has caused many failures of this technology. Other areas of machine vision technology where Expert Systems could apply will also be discussed.

  11. Lighting and optics expert system for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novini, Amir R.

    1991-03-01

    Machine Vision and the field of Artificial Intelligence are both new technologies which hive evolved mainly within the past decade with the growth of computers and microchips. And although research continues both have emerged from tF experimental state to industrial reality. Today''s machine vision systEns are solving thousands of manufacturing problems in various industries and the impact of Artificial Intelligence and more specifically the ue of " Expert Systems" in industry is also being realized. This pape will examine how the two technologies can cross paths and how an E7ert System can become an important part of an overall machine vision solution. An actual example of a development of an Expert System that helps solve machine vision lighting and optics problems will be discussed. The lighting and optics xpert System was developed to assist the end user to configure the " Front End" of a vision system to help solve the overall machine vision problem more effectively since lack of attention to lighting and optics has caused many failures of this technology. Other areas of machine vision technology where Expert Systems could apply will also be ciscussed.

  12. Manufacturing technology development of the Powergrid{trademark} linear focus photovoltaic concentrator system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.; Alexander, T.; Amaya, J.; Bottenberg, W.; Carrie, P.; Chen, K.; Gilbert, D.; Guzman, P.; Hobden, P.; Ross, J.; Sahagian, J.; Rodrigues, D.; Zimmermann, J.

    1999-03-01

    This article reports manufacturing technology improvements developed for the production of the PVI Powergrid{trademark} linear focus photovoltaic concentrator as part of a PVMaT project. The improvements include the development of an advanced, acrylic plastic extrusion system for Fresnel lenses, an automated receiver station, an EVA encapsulation process, an improved collector fabrication method and a lower cost panel frame. These project improvements have prepared PVI for entrance into large-scale production of PV power generation systems. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  14. 75 FR 60478 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing... importation of certain machine vision software, machine vision systems, or products containing same by reason... Soft'') of Japan; Fuji Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Japan and Fuji America Corporation of...

  15. National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) is a strategy, organization, and partnership focused on long-term technology development. The NCAM initially will be a regional partnership, however the intent is national in scope. Benchmarking is needed to follow the concept to the finished project, not using trial and error. Significant progress has been made to date, and NCAM is setting the vision for the future.

  16. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the…

  17. The Effectiveness of Two Programs To Develop Visual Perception in Spanish Schoolchildren with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Justicia, Maria D.; Martos, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared improvements in visual function of 20 Spanish children with low vision, ages 4 to 6 years. Children received either the Barraga and Morris program or the Frostig program, or placebo control or no treatment. No significant differences between treatment groups were found. (DB)

  18. Cyborg systems as platforms for computer-vision algorithm-development for astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Martínez, Eduardo Sebastián; Gómez Elvira, Javier; Díaz Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Neuffer, Kai; Giaquinta, Antonino; Camps Martínez, Fernando; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Pérez Mercader, Juan; Ritter, Helge; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg; Walter, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Employing the allegorical imagery from the film "The Matrix", we motivate and discuss our "Cyborg Astrobiologist" research program. In this research program, we are using a wearable computer and video camcorder in order to test and train a computer-vision system to be a field-geologist and field-astrobiologist.

  19. The Effectiveness of Two Programs To Develop Visual Perception in Spanish Schoolchildren with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Justicia, Maria D.; Martos, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared improvements in visual function of 20 Spanish children with low vision, ages 4 to 6 years. Children received either the Barraga and Morris program or the Frostig program, or placebo control or no treatment. No significant differences between treatment groups were found. (DB)

  20. The General College Vision: Integrating Intellectual Growth, Multicultural Perspectives, and Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.; Lundell, Dana B., Ed.; Arendale, David R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book explores the vision and contributions of the former General College, a program existing 74 years in the University of Minnesota, highlighting its history, mission, programs, research, and student services. This includes an evolving and dynamic program for teaching, learning, and research for student success in higher education. Following…

  1. A Poet's Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen Richards, Ph.D.; David Sloan, Ph.D.; Woodrow Fiveland, Ph.D.

    2002-08-31

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope is to develop an integrated suite of software tools that can be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software does not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which is needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE is to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that will link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remains to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software will be based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge is to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{trademark} CFD code (provided by Fluent Inc). ALSTOM Power has a task responsibility to select and run a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the linkage concept. This report summarizes and documents the unit selected to represent Case 2, a 250 MW, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. An analogous document for Demonstration Case 1 was previously submitted on April 30, 2001. Sufficient information is available from the plant to adequately benchmark the model. Hence, the proposed unit is deemed to be well suited as a demonstration case. However, as the combined cycle plant selected for this study contains recent technology, sensitivity to the commercial implications of this study prevents the release of the plant name and limits the quantity of operating/design information that can be presented. These

  3. Development of the supply chain oriented quality assurance system for aerospace manufacturing SMEs and its implementation perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdullahi; Cheng, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace manufacturing SMEs are continuously facing the challenge on managing their supply chain and complying with the aerospace manufacturing quality standard requirement due to their lack of resources and the nature of business. In this paper, the ERP system based approach is presented to quality control and assurance work in light of seamless integration of in-process production data and information internally and therefore managing suppliers more effectively and efficiently. The Aerospace Manufacturing Quality Assurance Standard (BS/EN9100) is one of the most recognised and essential protocols for developing the industry-operated-and-driven quality assurance systems. The research investigates using the ERP based system as an enabler to implement BS/EN9100 quality management system at manufacturing SMEs and the associated implementation and application perspectives. An application case study on a manufacturing SME is presented by using the SAP based implementation, which helps further evaluate and validate the approach and application system development.

  4. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  5. Development of Inorganic Precursors for Manufacturing of Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-308

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M.; Ginley, D.

    2013-06-01

    Both NREL and Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials are interested in the development of solution phase metal and semiconductive precursors for the manufacturing of photovoltaic devices. In particular, we intend to develop material sets for atmospheric deposition processes. The cooperation between these two parties will enable high value materials and processing solutions for the manufacturing of low cost, roll-to-roll photovoltaics.

  6. Manufacturing Road Map for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  7. Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Passive transdermal systems whitepaper incorporating current chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) development principles.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, Glenn A; Arsulowicz, Daniel; Basu, Prabir; Block, Lawrence; Cai, Bing; Cleary, Gary W; Ghosh, Tapash; González, Mario A; Kanios, David; Marques, Margareth; Noonan, Patrick K; Ocheltree, Terrance; Schwarz, Peter; Shah, Vinod; Spencer, Thomas S; Tavares, Lino; Ulman, Katherine; Uppoor, Rajendra; Yeoh, Thean

    2012-03-01

    In this whitepaper, the Manufacturing Technical Committee (MTC) of the Product Quality Research Institute has updated the 1997 Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems Scale-Up and Post Approval Change workshop report findings to add important new product development and control principles. Important topics reviewed include ICH harmonization, quality by design, process analytical technologies, product and process validation, improvements to control of critical excipients, and discussion of Food and Drug Administration's Guidance on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems as well as current thinking and trends on in vitro-in vivo correlation considerations for transdermal systems.

  9. Capacity Planning to Optimize the Profit of an Apparel Manufacturer in Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohafiqul, Kader Md.; Narita, Hirohisa; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo

    The export oriented apparel manufacturers of developing countries produce apparel on the make-to-order basis instead of make-to-sell. As a result, there is no chance of stockout of goods that could be sold or overstock that has to be liquidated at deep discount at the end of the period. But an analogy can be drawn between stock of goods and capacity of production as idle capacity or shortage of capacity exists frequently while matching capacity with orders obtained. Considering capacity as a resource in inventory to be used in the future this paper applies newsboy problem to decide its use in production.

  10. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6

  11. Development of a training protocol to improve reading performance in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Deyue; Legge, Gordon E.; Park, Heejung; Gage, Emily; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2009-01-01

    People with central-field loss must use peripheral vision for reading. Previous studies have shown that reading performance in peripheral vision can improve with extensive practice on a trigram letter-recognition task. The present study compared training on this task with training on two other character-based tasks (lexical decision and RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) reading) which might plausibly produce more improvement in peripheral reading speed. Twenty-eight normally sighted young adults were trained at 10° in the lower visual field in a pre/post design. All three training methods produced significant improvements in reading speed, with average gains of 39% for lexical-decision, 54% for trigram letter-recognition, and 72% for RSVP training. Although the RSVP training was most effective, the lexical-decision task has the advantage of easy self administration making it more practical for home-based training. PMID:19819251

  12. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  13. Concise Review: Guidance in Developing Commercializable Autologous/Patient-Specific Cell Therapy Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; Van't Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapy is poised to play an enormous role in regenerative medicine. However, little guidance is being made available to academic and industrial entities in the start-up phase. In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Special emphasis is placed on providing guidance to small academic or biotech researchers as to what simple questions can be addressed or answered at the bench in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production. We discuss the processes that are required for scale-out at the manufacturing level, and how many questions can be addressed at the bench level. The goal of this review is to provide guidance in the form of topics that can be addressed early in the process of development to better the chances of the product being successful for future commercialization. PMID:24101671

  14. Geneva-Seattle collaboration in support of developing country vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Michael A

    2016-10-19

    Vaccines were once produced almost exclusively by state-supported entities. While they remain essential tools for public health protection, the majority of the world's governments have allowed industry to assume responsibility for this function. This is significant because while the international harmonisation of quality assurance standards have effectively increased vaccine safety, they have also reduced the number of developing country vaccine producers, and Northern multinational pharmaceutical companies have shown little interest in offering the range of low-priced products needed in low and middle-income-country contexts. This article examines how public-private collaboration is relevant to contemporary efforts aimed at strengthening developing country manufacturers' capacity to produce high-quality, low-priced vaccines. Specifically, it casts light on the important and largely complimentary roles of the World Health Organization, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Seattle-based non-profit PATH, in this process. The take away message is that external support remains critical to ensuring that developing country vaccine manufacturers have the tools needed to produce for both domestic and global markets, and the United Nations supply chain, and collaboration at the public-private interface is driving organisational innovation focused on meeting these goals.

  15. Implementation of a configurable laboratory information management system for use in cellular process development and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Russom, Diana; Ahmed, Amira; Gonzalez, Nancy; Alvarnas, Joseph; DiGiusto, David

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for the manufacturing of cell products for clinical investigation require a significant level of record-keeping, starting early in process development and continuing through to the execution and requisite follow-up of patients on clinical trials. Central to record-keeping is the management of documentation related to patients, raw materials, processes, assays and facilities. To support these requirements, we evaluated several laboratory information management systems (LIMS), including their cost, flexibility, regulatory compliance, ongoing programming requirements and ability to integrate with laboratory equipment. After selecting a system, we performed a pilot study to develop a user-configurable LIMS for our laboratory in support of our pre-clinical and clinical cell-production activities. We report here on the design and utilization of this system to manage accrual with a healthy blood-donor protocol, as well as manufacturing operations for the production of a master cell bank and several patient-specific stem cell products. The system was used successfully to manage blood donor eligibility, recruiting, appointments, billing and serology, and to provide annual accrual reports. Quality management reporting features of the system were used to capture, report and investigate process and equipment deviations that occurred during the production of a master cell bank and patient products. Overall the system has served to support the compliance requirements of process development and phase I/II clinical trial activities for our laboratory and can be easily modified to meet the needs of similar laboratories.

  16. HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASONIC IMAGING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN MANUFACTURED ENGINEERED ORAL MUCOSAL TISSUE SURFACES

    PubMed Central

    Winterroth, Frank; Kato, Hiroko; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Hollister, Scott J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Hollman, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses high-resolution ultrasound to examine growth and development of engineered oral mucosal tissues manufactured under aseptic conditions. The specimens are a commercially available natural tissue scaffold, AlloDerm® and oral keratinocytes seeded onto AlloDerm® to form a ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) suitable for intraoral grafting. The seeded cells produce a keratinized protective upper layer which smooth’s out any remaining surface irregularities on the underlying AlloDerm®. Two-dimensional acoustic imaging of unseeded AlloDerm® and developing EVPOMEs were performed at each consecutive day of their growth and development, requiring imaging each of the tissue specimens under aseptic conditions (total time from seeding to maturation: 11 days). Ultrasonic monitoring offers us an ability to determine the constituents in the EVPOME that are responsible for changes in its mechanical behavior during the manufacturing process. Ultrasonic monitoring affords us an opportunity to non-invasively assess, in real time, tissue engineered constructs prior to release for use in patient care. PMID:24968758

  17. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of growth and development in manufactured engineered oral mucosal tissue surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winterroth, Frank; Kato, Hiroko; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E; Hollister, Scott J; Fowlkes, J Brian; Hollman, Kyle W

    2014-09-01

    This study uses high-resolution ultrasound to examine the growth and development of engineered oral mucosal tissues manufactured under aseptic conditions. The specimens are a commercially available natural tissue scaffold, AlloDerm, and oral keratinocytes seeded onto AlloDerm to form an ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) suitable for intra-oral grafting. The seeded cells produce a keratinized protective upper layer that smooths out any remaining surface irregularities on the underlying AlloDerm. Two-dimensional acoustic imaging of unseeded AlloDerm and developing EVPOMEs was performed on each day of their growth and development, each tissue specimen being imaged under aseptic conditions (total time from seeding to maturation: 11 d). Ultrasonic monitoring offers us the ability to determine the constituents of the EVPOME that are responsible for changes in its mechanical behavior during the manufacturing process. Ultrasonic monitoring affords us an opportunity to non-invasively assess, in real time, tissue-engineered constructs before release for use in patient care.

  18. Development Test II (Service Phase) of Night Vision Sight, Individual Served Weapons, AN/PVS-4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-20

    Reference H reports as a shortcoming that the shipping case liners are not pliable and prevent repacking of the sight in the case at all...the frozen condition, the eyeguard loses weapon-recoil protection. In 8. The insulation of the low-temperature adapter cable cracks and loses its...25 Is the sight an aid to night vision under all conditions, e.g., brush, open terrain, thickly wooded , moonlight, and starlight con- ditions? 3_

  19. [Drug development from natural fermentation products: establishing a manufacturing process which maximizes the potential of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Koji; Ueda, Satoshi; Kanda, Munekazu; Oohata, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Michio; Hino, Motohiro

    2010-11-01

    Natural fermentation products have long been studied as attractive targets for drug discovery due to their amazing diverse, complex chemical structures and biological activities. As such, a number of revolutionary drugs developed from natural fermentation products have contributed to global human health. To commercialize a drug derived from natural fermentation products, an effective chemical entity must be identified and thoroughly researched, and an effective manufacturing process to prepare a commercial supply must be developed. To construct such a manufacturing process for tacrolimus and micafungin, the following studies were conducted: first, we focused on controlling the production of the tacrolimus-related compound FR900525, a fermentation by-product of tacrolimus which was critical for quality assurance of the drug substance. FR900525 production was reduced by using a mutant strain which produced more pipecolic acid, the biosynthesis material of tacrolimus, than the original strain. Then, to optimize the fermentation process of FR901379, an intermediate of micafungin, a fed-batch culture was adopted to increase FR901379 productivity. Additionally, FULLZONE(TM) impeller was installed into the scaled-up fermenter, reducing the agitation-induced damage to the mycelium. As a result, the mycelial form changed from filamentous to pellet-shaped, and the air uptake rate during fermentation was drastically improved. Finally, we conducted screening for FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms, as FR901379 acylase is necessary to manufacture micafungin. We were able to easily discover FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms in soil samples using our novel, convenient screening method, which involves comparing the difference in antibiotic activity between FR901379 and its deacylated product.

  20. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  1. Superintendent Leadership and Districtwide Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The concept of superintendent "vision" as a key element of effective leadership is discussed in this paper, which develops a framework for understanding the creation of vision, its implementation and articulation, and organizational impact. Vision differs from strategy in that it represents a set of beliefs about the school district's aspiring…

  2. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  3. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  4. Environment for thin-film manufacturing process development for product engineering of micro and nano devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Popp, Jens; Schmidt, Thilo; Brück, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Product engineering of micro and nano technology (MNT) devices differs substantially from product engineering in more traditional industries. The general development approach is mostly bottom up, as it centers around the available fabrication techniques and is characterised by application specific fabrication flows, i.e. fabrication processes depending on the later product. In the first part of this paper we introduce a comprehensive customer-oriented product engineering methodology for MNT products that regards the customer as the driving force behind new product developments. The MNT product engineering process is analyzed with regard to application-specific procedures and interfaces. An environment for the development of MNT manufacturing processes has been identified as a technical foundation for the methodology and will be described in the second part of this paper.

  5. Exploring barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing based new product development in manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengfeng; Van der Velde, David; Chatzakis, Emmanouil; McStea, Terry; Smith, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Crowdsourcing is an innovative business practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content or even funds by soliciting contributions from a large group of people (the `Crowd'). The potential benefits of utilizing crowdsourcing in product design are well-documented, but little research exists on what are the barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing in new product development (NPD) of manufacturing SMEs. In order to answer the above questions, a Proof of Market study is carried out on crowdsourcing-based product design under an Innovate UK funded Smart project, which aims at identifying the needs, challenges and future development opportunities associated with adopting crowdsourcing strategies for NPD. The research findings from this study are reported here and can be used to guide future development of crowdsourcing-based collaborative design methods and tools and provide some practical references for industry to adopt this new and emerging collaborative design method in their business.

  6. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Jordan, Brian H.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  7. Development of a method for manufacturing customized nasal mask cushion for CPAP therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ding-Yang; Cheng, Yih-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2015-12-01

    A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is considered one of the most effective treatments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, many patients receiving this treatment complain of mask discomfort and other issues. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a customized nasal mask cushion to reduce the discomfort associated with conventional masks. First, a 3D face scanner was used to obtain 3D facial data of participants. Second, a model of the face was created by reverse-engineering and then used for the computer-aided design (CAD) of the cushion. Finally, computer numerical control (CNC) was used to manufacture the mold, into which silicone was then injected slowly. A perceived comfort questionnaire was used to compare the customized and conventional cushions. 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the control group used a conventional cushion, and the remaining 20 patients used the customized cushion. The customized cushion was found to be superior to the conventional cushion. There are clear differences in the headgear force of the two cushion types (P = 0.001). The customized cushion applied less force to a patient’s face than a conventional cushion. Furthermore, there were obvious differences in the fit of the cushions (P = 0.001). Patients using the customized cushions experienced a better fit than those using the conventional cushions. This study has developed a new method for manufacturing customized cushions with better cushion fit through rapid tooling.

  8. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

  9. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  10. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  11. Development of modified release 3D printed tablets (printlets) with pharmaceutical excipients using additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Fina, Fabrizio; Martorana, Annalisa; Sedough, Daniel; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study was to manufacture 3D printed tablets (printlets) from enteric polymers by single filament fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP). Hot melt extrusion was used to generate paracetamol-loaded filaments from three different grades of the pharmaceutical excipient hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), grades LG, MG and HG. One-step 3DP was used to process these filaments into enteric printlets incorporating up to 50% drug loading with two different infill percentages (20 and 100%). X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) analysis revealed that printlets with 20% infill had cavities in the core compared to 100% infill, and that the density of the 50% drug loading printlets was higher than the equivalent formulations loaded with 5% drug. In biorelevant bicarbonate dissolution media, drug release from the printlets was dependent on the polymer composition, drug loading and the internal structure of the formulations. All HPMCAS-based printlets showed delayed drug release properties, and in the intestinal conditions, drug release was faster from the printlets prepared with polymers with a lower pH-threshold: HPMCAS LG > HPMCAS MG > HPMCAS HG. These results confirm that FDM 3D printing makes it possible not only to manufacture delayed release printlets without the need for an outer enteric coating, but it is also feasible to adapt the release profile in response to the personal characteristics of the patient, realizing the full potential of additive manufacturing in the development of personalised dose medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  13. Multicomputer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Levialdi, S. . Ist. di Genetica)

    1988-01-01

    The animating principle of these Workshops is to provide an informal frame of reference: more than reporting on current work participants speak out their doubts and problems in the design and development of algorithms, architectures or languages aimed at the best exploitation of multiprocessor systems. The typical problems that have been considered are: evaluation of systems and algorithms by means of cleverly thought benchmarks, representation of pictorial data and definition of the different levels of abstraction (from the pixel level to the symbolic one), definitions of the borderlines between low level and high level vision tasks, primitive functions that should necessarily be embedded in the elementary processing unit, ways to disseminate, reuse and expand existing software for image analysis.

  14. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  15. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, N.; Lejard, C.; Deltel, G.; Bijl, P.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, MODs and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The Image Intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, PHOTONIS has investigated the link between its products physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include 1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, 2) an image-based night vision simulation and 3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: i) being able to support the need of the integrators and end users, and ii) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, PHOTONIS and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. With respect to the image-based simulation, PHOTONIS performs physical and performance comparisons between artificial and real imagery, promising exciting further development of a model based on the merging of the different approaches of night vision evaluation and modelling. In this paper, we present the PHOTONIS night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices and show range prediction examples.

  16. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Inspection And Adaptive Robot Applications Based On Three-Dimensional Vision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Richard Q.

    1985-01-01

    Several industrial applications have been implemented based on a 3-D vision sensor developed by Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. (RVSI). The sensor, known as the Robo Sensor, uses structured light and optical triangulation to obtain 3-D data in real time on surfaces within its field of view. This paper will describe the Robo Sensor vision system and some of the manufacturing tasks in which the sensors have been installed. The applications range from adaptively positioning welding robots for the General Motors car production to inspection of large propeller surfaces for the U.S. Navy. Extension of the technology to provide 3-D volumetric sensing is also presented.

  18. Manufacturing the Future: Federal Priorities for Manufacturing Research and Development. Report of the Interagency Working Group on Manufacturing R&D, Committee on Technology, National Science and Technology Council

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) Executive Office of the President,National Science and Technology Council,Washington,DC 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...and virtual elimination of vehicular emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Low- cost, high-volume manufacturing processes and development

  19. Complete machine vision solution for tube inspection in nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seulin, Ralph; Voisin, Yvon; Fofi, David; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents various applications of machine vision systems. These systems are used at four strategic points in a company manufacturing pipes for the nuclear industry. For each system, the vision problematic is presented including the industrial constraints, then, the proposed solution is detailed (acquisition conditions, image processing algorithms...), finally, the implementation on the industrial line is described and results are discussed. The first system used in the R&D department controls tube deformation under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The second vision system deals with the surface inspection of outer part as well as inner part of the tubes for scratches as well as oxidation mark detection. After the lamination, tubes are heated to release the mechanical constraints which took place during the lamination process. During the heating, oxidation may occur. Based on color analysis, a machine vision system was developed to measure the oxidation time. Once manufactured, tubes are thoroughly cleaned by air propulsed plugs and packaged in boxes. A system which detects any missing or occluded tubes was realized. The results show that the nuclear industry can take important benefits from machine vision systems. The four validated and implemented applications give satisfactory results and are currently used in the factory.

  20. Supercritical fluid chromatography for GMP analysis in support of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing activities.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael B; Regalado, Erik L; Tan, Feng; Gong, Xiaoyi; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-01-05

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has long been a preferred method for enantiopurity analysis in support of pharmaceutical discovery and development, but implementation of the technique in regulated GMP laboratories has been somewhat slow, owing to limitations in instrument sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness. In recent years, commercialization of next generation analytical SFC instrumentation has addressed previous shortcomings, making the technique better suited for GMP analysis. In this study we investigate the use of modern SFC for enantiopurity analysis of several pharmaceutical intermediates and compare the results with the conventional HPLC approaches historically used for analysis in a GMP setting. The findings clearly illustrate that modern SFC now exhibits improved precision, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness; also providing superior resolution and peak capacity compared to HPLC. Based on these findings, the use of modern chiral SFC is recommended for GMP studies of stereochemistry in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing.

  1. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... exam. People who are at risk of developing macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  2. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    DOE PAGES

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; ...

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modifiedmore » alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.« less

  3. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  4. The development of tool manufacture in humans: what helps young children make innovative tools?

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jackie; Cutting, Nicola; Apperly, Ian A; Beck, Sarah R

    2013-11-19

    We know that even young children are proficient tool users, but until recently, little was known about how they make tools. Here, we will explore the concepts underlying tool making, and the kinds of information and putative cognitive abilities required for children to manufacture novel tools. We will review the evidence for novel tool manufacture from the comparative literature and present a growing body of data from children suggesting that innovation of the solution to a problem by making a tool is a much more challenging task than previously thought. Children's difficulty with these kinds of tasks does not seem to be explained by perseveration with unmodified tools, difficulty with switching to alternative strategies, task pragmatics or issues with permission. Rather, making novel tools (without having seen an example of the required tool within the context of the task) appears to be hard, because it is an example of an 'ill-structured problem'. In this type of ill-structured problem, the starting conditions and end goal are known, but the transformations and/or actions required to get from one to the other are not specified. We will discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the development of problem-solving in humans and other animals.

  5. Concepts for the Development of Nanoscale Stable Precipitation-Strengthened Steels Manufactured by Conventional Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y.-W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, Ö. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    The development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  6. The development of tool manufacture in humans: what helps young children make innovative tools?

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Jackie; Cutting, Nicola; Apperly, Ian A.; Beck, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    We know that even young children are proficient tool users, but until recently, little was known about how they make tools. Here, we will explore the concepts underlying tool making, and the kinds of information and putative cognitive abilities required for children to manufacture novel tools. We will review the evidence for novel tool manufacture from the comparative literature and present a growing body of data from children suggesting that innovation of the solution to a problem by making a tool is a much more challenging task than previously thought. Children's difficulty with these kinds of tasks does not seem to be explained by perseveration with unmodified tools, difficulty with switching to alternative strategies, task pragmatics or issues with permission. Rather, making novel tools (without having seen an example of the required tool within the context of the task) appears to be hard, because it is an example of an ‘ill-structured problem’. In this type of ill-structured problem, the starting conditions and end goal are known, but the transformations and/or actions required to get from one to the other are not specified. We will discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the development of problem-solving in humans and other animals. PMID:24101620

  7. Development and manufacture of an investigational human living dermal equivalent (ICX-SKN).

    PubMed

    Flasza, Marzena; Kemp, Paul; Shering, David; Qiao, Jizeng; Marshall, Damian; Bokta, Ausha; Johnson, Penny A

    2007-11-01

    To design and manufacture an investigational living skin graft replacement (ICX-SKN) that is able to incorporate into the host, providing healing by primary intent without the need for a second intervention. The ICX-SKN skin graft replacement has been designed as an allogeneic dermal substitute comprising an extracellular matrix composed largely of human collagen and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs). ICX-SKN is first formed by casting a provisional matrix of fibrin, into which HDFs are seeded. Through a process of maturation, HDFs are induced to lay down collagen and other extracellular matrix materials and, as the construct matures, the original fibrin is largely replaced by collagen, which provides tensile strength and flexibility to the construct. In order to design a product and manufacturing system that lends itself to large-scale production the process was developed as a discontinuous process consisting of four stages: 1. batch casting and maturation of the initial construct (pSKN), 2. freeze-drying of pSKN to produce a second intermediate (dSKN), 3. sterilization by gamma-irradiation of dSKN to produce a third intermediate (sSKN), and finally, 4. repopulation of sSKN by fresh HDFs to produce the final product, ICX-SKN skin graft replacement. Preliminary characterization of ICX-SKN and its application in a preclinical model are described. The 7-week maturation period resulted in a construct (pSKN) with robust handling properties, which was composed mainly of human collagen I. Following development of a process for freeze-drying and subsequent sterilization, the matrix was successfully repopulated with fresh HDFs. In addition, it was demonstrated that human keratinocytes attached and differentiated on the matrix. Application of human keratinocytes to the repopulated constructs (ICX-SKN) resulted in expression of markers of basement membranes that was largely dependent on the presence of living HDFs on the constructs. ICX-SKN graft replacements applied to

  8. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  9. Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services.

  10. Clinical effect of low vision aids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y H; Park, H J; Oh, S Y

    1999-06-01

    The number of patients with low vision is increasing as life expectancy increases. In addition, the interest and demand for low vision aids are also increasing with improved socioeconomic status and the development of mass media. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize the importance of low vision aids. We reviewed the clinical records of 118 patients who visited our low vision clinic more than twice. According to the data analyzed, optic nerve atrophy, retinal degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were the most common causes of low vision in these patients. The best corrected visual acuities without low vision aids were less than 0.3, but with the help of low vision aids, vision improved to more than 0.4 in 87% of the patients for near vision, and 56% for distant vision. The patients had complained that they could not read books, see a blackboard, recognize a person at a distance, and had other problems because of low vision. However, with the use of low vision aids their satisfaction with their vision rose to 70%. Hand magnifiers, high-powered spectacle lenses, and stand magnifiers were the low vision aids commonly used by people for near vision, while the Galilean telescope and Keplerian telescope were the most popular devices used for distant vision. In conclusion, low vision aids are very helpful devices to patients with low vision.

  11. Feature-Free Activity Classification of Inertial Sensor Data With Machine Vision Techniques: Method, Development, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dominguez Veiga, Jose Juan; O'Reilly, Martin; Whelan, Darragh; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas E

    2017-08-04

    Inertial sensors are one of the most commonly used sources of data for human activity recognition (HAR) and exercise detection (ED) tasks. The time series produced by these sensors are generally analyzed through numerical methods. Machine learning techniques such as random forests or support vector machines are popular in this field for classification efforts, but they need to be supported through the isolation of a potentially large number of additionally crafted features derived from the raw data. This feature preprocessing step can involve nontrivial digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. However, in many cases, the researchers interested in this type of activity recognition problems do not possess the necessary technical background for this feature-set development. The study aimed to present a novel application of established machine vision methods to provide interested researchers with an easier entry path into the HAR and ED fields. This can be achieved by removing the need for deep DSP skills through the use of transfer learning. This can be done by using a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for machine vision purposes for exercise classification effort. The new method should simply require researchers to generate plots of the signals that they would like to build classifiers with, store them as images, and then place them in folders according to their training label before retraining the network. We applied a CNN, an established machine vision technique, to the task of ED. Tensorflow, a high-level framework for machine learning, was used to facilitate infrastructure needs. Simple time series plots generated directly from accelerometer and gyroscope signals are used to retrain an openly available neural network (Inception), originally developed for machine vision tasks. Data from 82 healthy volunteers, performing 5 different exercises while wearing a lumbar-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU), was collected. The ability of the

  12. Feature-Free Activity Classification of Inertial Sensor Data With Machine Vision Techniques: Method, Development, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Martin; Whelan, Darragh; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas E

    2017-01-01

    Background Inertial sensors are one of the most commonly used sources of data for human activity recognition (HAR) and exercise detection (ED) tasks. The time series produced by these sensors are generally analyzed through numerical methods. Machine learning techniques such as random forests or support vector machines are popular in this field for classification efforts, but they need to be supported through the isolation of a potentially large number of additionally crafted features derived from the raw data. This feature preprocessing step can involve nontrivial digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. However, in many cases, the researchers interested in this type of activity recognition problems do not possess the necessary technical background for this feature-set development. Objective The study aimed to present a novel application of established machine vision methods to provide interested researchers with an easier entry path into the HAR and ED fields. This can be achieved by removing the need for deep DSP skills through the use of transfer learning. This can be done by using a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for machine vision purposes for exercise classification effort. The new method should simply require researchers to generate plots of the signals that they would like to build classifiers with, store them as images, and then place them in folders according to their training label before retraining the network. Methods We applied a CNN, an established machine vision technique, to the task of ED. Tensorflow, a high-level framework for machine learning, was used to facilitate infrastructure needs. Simple time series plots generated directly from accelerometer and gyroscope signals are used to retrain an openly available neural network (Inception), originally developed for machine vision tasks. Data from 82 healthy volunteers, performing 5 different exercises while wearing a lumbar-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU), was

  13. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  14. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    identify new paths to lower cost fabrication. Through systematic exploration of fabrication process capabilities and associated cost structures, the MBI is developing volume-sensitive cost estimation models for predicting manufacturing costs of MPT devices fabricated using different processing technologies. The process-based cost models are used to develop an understanding of the economic trade-offs between candidate processes and are utilized in a design for manufacturing approach to MPT device fabrication. In this paper we present results and analysis of the cost modeling effort to date and apply the methodology in case study of a stainless steel MPT device designed, built and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Extensions of the model to adjacent material sets and the interaction of device designs with fabrication processes will be discussed.

  15. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  16. Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of a parenteral formulation of a novel antitumor agent, VNP40101M.

    PubMed

    Krishna, G; Hodnick, W F; Lang, W; Lin, X; Karra, S; Mao, J; Almassian, B

    2001-08-26

    The objective of this study was to develop and manufacture a stable parenteral formulation for Phase I clinical trials of VNP40101M (1,2-Bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(2-methylamino)carbonyl] hydrazine), a novel antitumor agent. The solubility and stability of the drug was determined. Solubility studies suggested that VNP40101M exhibited poor aqueous solubility but showed appreciable solubility in nonaqueous solvents. The aqueous solubility of the drug could not be increased by adjusting the pH. At a pH above 7, base-catalyzed decomposition of VNP40101M occurred. The low octanol-water partition coefficient of 0.75 suggested poor solubility in lipophilic solvents. Based on these preformulation observations, a parenteral formulation containing 10 mg/mL of VNP40101M was prepared in a solvent system consisting of 30% ethyl alcohol and 70% polyethylene glycol-300 (PEG-300). To minimize base-catalyzed hydrolytic degradation, citric acid at 0.6% concentration was included to acidify the formulation. Rubber closures, filter membranes, and liquid transfer tubing were selected on the basis of compatibility studies and absence of loss of drug due to adsorption of these components. The formulation was subjected to accelerated stability studies and dilution studies with large volume parenteral (LVP) solutions, normal saline, and 5% dextrose injection (D5W). The results of the dilution study indicated that the formulation could be diluted in these solutions up to 2 mg/mL for 8 hours without drug precipitation and degradation. Accelerated stability studies suggested that the product should be kept at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C for long-term storage. The developed formulation was successfully scaled up and manufactured for use in clinical trials.

  17. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  18. Laser Direct Manufacturing Developments State-of-the-Art and Activities in the French Aerospace Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    TA6V AeroMet specimens (see figure 3) proved the great interest for laser additive manufacturing process. The figure 3 indicates the static and fatigue ... Manufacturing (DM) for fully dense aerospace parts without forming tooling and link directly to CAD model. Two additive processes based on metal... Manufacturing processes Laser additive deposition Selective Laser melting Laser process LASFORM by AeroMet LENS by OPTOMEC MCP, EOS, PHENIX

  19. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient.

  20. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  1. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  2. Development and characterization of a cell culture manufacturing process using quality by design (QbD) principles.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Daniel M; Gao, Jinxin; Griffiths, Kristi; Froggatt, Christopher; Wang, Tongtong; Wei, Gan

    2014-01-01

    The principles of quality by design (QbD) have been applied in cell culture manufacturing process development and characterization in the biotech industry. Here we share our approach and practice in developing and characterizing a cell culture manufacturing process using QbD principles for establishing a process control strategy. Process development and characterization start with critical quality attribute identification, followed by process parameter and incoming raw material risk assessment, design of experiment, and process parameter classification, and conclude with a design space construction. Finally, a rational process control strategy is established and documented.

  3. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  4. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  5. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  6. Development of Manufacturing Technology for Fabrication of a Composite Helicopter Main Rotor Spar by Tubular Braiding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    the manufacturer’s lot numbers of adhesives, primers, prepregs, glass fabric and roving used., a record of the mix batches of resin used which is...traceable to the resin sys- tem component manufacturer’s lot numbers (see 3.3.3), a record of time between cleaning, priming and curing in those cases

  7. Novel In-Space Manufacturing Concepts for the Development of Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James T.; Reardon, Patrick; Gregory Don; Manning, Andrew; Blackmon, Jim; Howsman, Tom; Williams, Philip; Brantley, Whitt; Rakoczy, John; Herren, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes. Over the past several decades, we have seen the evolution from launchable 2 meter-class telescopes (such as Hubble), to today s demand for deployable 6 meter-class telescopes (such as JWST), to tomorrow s need for up to 150 meter-class telescopes. As the apertures continue to grow, it will become much more difficult and expensive to launch assembled telescope structures. To address this issue, we are seeing the emergence of new novel structural concepts, such as inflatable structures and membrane optics. While these structural concepts do show promise, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain high surface figure quality. Another potential solution to develop large space telescopes is to move the fabrication facility into space and launch the raw materials. In this paper we present initial in-space manufacturing concepts to enable the development of large telescopes. This includes novel approaches for the fabrication of both the optical elements and the telescope support structure. We will also discuss potential optical designs for large space telescopes and describe their relation to the fabrication methods. These concepts are being developed to meet the demanding requirements of DARPA s LASSO (Large Aperture Space Surveillance Optic) program which currently requires a 150 meter optical aperture with a 17 degree field of view.

  8. Model development and simulation of a slurry-based fiberglass preform manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently supporting the development of a computer-based model to simulate a slurry process under development to manufacture fiberglass mattes in complex shapes for automobile components. The Automotive Composites Consortium of USCAR has provided oversight and direction for the modeling effort currently underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall objective of the sponsored work is to minimize nonuniformity of fiberglass mass per unit area in the complex mattes in order to ensure desired properties for the final component. A model has been developed to simulate the buildup of fiberglass on a screen mounted in the center of a piston which is driven through the slurry. The screen is constructed to have the shape of the desired component. The present paper discusses the physics of the slurry process, the approach used to build a computer model of the process, model simulations and comparison of the model simulations with experimental data from actual fiberglass preforms.

  9. Development of service-oriented products based on the inverse manufacturing concept.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Jun; Umeda, Yasushi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2003-12-01

    To achieve sustainability, resource consumption and waste generation must be drastically decreased. For societal acceptance, preservation of both quality of life and corporate profits are essential. One promising approach is to shift the source of value from the amount of product sold to the quality of services the product provides. This paper describes the need for redesigning recycling systems from a manufacturing perspective and then discusses the possibility of this "servicification" of products, describing our experience with prototype development. We discuss development of product prototypes and their business, using consumer facsimile machines as an example of "service-oriented products". Traditional thought presumes that only products comprising new materials and components are valuable. Consideration of a service-oriented product can serve as a stimulus to revise this mode of thought and to control delivery and quality of disposed products. This paper also provides a life cycle simulation of the developed service-oriented business. Simulation results indicate that service-oriented business can potentially reduce environmental impact while extending business opportunities from the viewpoint of whole product life cycles.

  10. Vision development over an extended follow-up period in babies after successful vitrectomy for stage 4b retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Salil; Kamdar, Rushita; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Deshpande, Madan; Taras, Sudhir

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate improvement in the vision of babies after successful vitrectomy for stage 4b retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) over an extended period of time. This was an observational prospective case series. Eight babies who had undergone successful vitrectomy in either their only seeing eye (or both eyes) with stage 4b ROP were followed up post-operatively for a period of 80 weeks or more. Vision with Teller acuity chart, refraction, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and documentation with RetCam was done at each visit. Vision of the (only/better) seeing operated eye with corrective glasses was graded for the purpose of statistical evaluation. Paired t test was performed to compare the vision prior to 30 weeks and at or after 80 weeks. Statistically significant improvement in vision was noted at or after 80 weeks as compared to the vision recorded before 30 weeks (p = 0.0062). Unlike in adult intraocular surgeries where stable visual acuity is reached well before 30 weeks, continuing improvement at 80 weeks and beyond is noted. Gradual restoration of the retinal architecture and plasticity of the infant's developing brain are thought to be responsible.

  11. [Central vision].

    PubMed

    Fahle, M

    2004-07-01

    The clinical assessment of vision by means of optotypes does by no means test just two-point resolution, since a correct naming of the letters or digits requires a preceding visual object recognition. Cortical lesions can massively deteriorate vision up to a "Seelenblindheit" in spite of intact optics and retina. There are different processing levels involved in the analysis which can be individually defective, leading to disorders from visual indiscrimination to agnosia or anomia.

  12. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  13. Developability studies before initiation of process development: improving manufacturability of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Wei; Dukleska, Svetlana; Benchaar, Sabrina; Mengisen, Selina; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Cheung, Jason; Mann, Leslie; Babadjanova, Zulfia; Rowand, Jason; Gunawan, Rico; McCampbell, Alexander; Beaumont, Maribel; Meininger, David; Richardson, Daisy; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies constitute a robust class of therapeutic proteins. Their stability, resistance to stress conditions and high solubility have allowed the successful development and commercialization of over 40 antibody-based drugs. Although mAbs enjoy a relatively high probability of success compared with other therapeutic proteins, examples of projects that are suspended due to the instability of the molecule are not uncommon. Developability assessment studies have therefore been devised to identify early during process development problems associated with stability, solubility that is insufficient to meet expected dosing or sensitivity to stress. This set of experiments includes short-term stability studies at 2-8 þC, 25 þC and 40 þC, freeze-thaw studies, limited forced degradation studies and determination of the viscosity of high concentration samples. We present here three case studies reflecting three typical outcomes: (1) no major or unexpected degradation is found and the study results are used to inform early identification of degradation pathways and potential critical quality attributes within the Quality by Design framework defined by US Food and Drug Administration guidance documents; (2) identification of specific degradation pathway(s) that do not affect potency of the molecule, with subsequent definition of proper process control and formulation strategies; and (3) identification of degradation that affects potency, resulting in program termination and reallocation of resources.

  14. Optimal management of reconfigurable manufacturing system modeling with Petri nets developed three-dimensional - RPD3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, F.; Marinescu, V.; Epureanu, A.

    2016-11-01

    Modeling of reconfigurable manufacturing systems would have done using existing Petri net types, but the complexity and dynamics of the new manufacturing system, mainly data reconfiguration feature, required looking for a more compact representation with many variables that to model as accurately not only the normal operation of the production system but can capture and model and reconfiguration process. Thus, it was necessary to create a new class of Petri nets, called RPD3D (Developed Petri nets with three dimensional) showing the name of both lineage (new class derived from Petri nets developed, created in 2000 by Prof. Dr. Ing Vasile Marinescu in his doctoral thesis) [1], but the most important of the new features defining (transformation from one 2D model into a 3D model).The idea was to introduce the classical model of a Petri third dimension to be able to overlay multiple levels (layers) formed in 2D or 3D Petri nets that interact with each other (receiving or giving commands to enable or disable the various modules together simulating the operation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems). The aim is to present a new type of Petri nets called RPD3D - Developed Petri three-dimensional model used for optimal control and simulation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems manufacture of products such systems.

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  16. Development of a retrospective job exposure matrix for PCB-exposed workers in capacitor manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Nancy B; Waters, Martha A; Ruder, Avima M; Prince, Mary M

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and one congener, PCB126, has been rated as a known human carcinogen. A period-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) was developed for former PCB-exposed capacitor manufacturing workers (n=12,605) (1938-1977). A detailed exposure assessment for this plant was based on a number of exposure determinants (proximity, degree of contact with PCBs, temperature, ventilation, process control, job mobility). The intensity and frequency of PCB exposures by job for both inhalation and dermal exposures, and additional chemical exposures were reviewed. The JEM was developed in nine steps: (1) all unique jobs (n=1,684) were assessed using (2) defined PCB exposure determinants; (3) the exposure determinants were used to develop exposure profiles; (4) similar exposure profiles were combined into categories having similar PCB exposures; (5) qualitative intensity (high-medium-low-baseline) and frequency (continuous-intermittent) ratings were developed, and (6) used to qualitatively rate inhalation and dermal exposure separately for each category; (7) quantitative intensity ratings based on available air concentrations were developed for inhalation and dermal exposures based on equal importance of both routes of exposure; (8) adjustments were made for overall exposure, and (9) for each category the product of intensity and frequency was calculated, and exposure in the earlier era was weighted. A period-specific JEM modified for two eras of stable PCB exposure conditions. These exposure estimates, derived from a systematic and rigorous use of the exposure determinant data, lead to cumulative PCB exposure-response relationships in the epidemiological cancer mortality and incidence studies of this cohort.

  17. Software development for the evaluation of the ergonomic compatibility on the selection of advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Macías, A; Reyes, R; Guillen, L; García, J

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) is one of the most relevant resources that companies have to achieve competitiveness and best performance. The selection of AMT is a complex problem which involves significant amount of information and uncertainty when multiple aspects must be taken into consideration. Actual models for the selection of AMT are found scarce of the Human Factors and Ergonomics perspective which can lead to a more complete and reliable decision. This paper presents the development of software that enhances the application of an Ergonomic Compatibility Evaluation Model that supports decision making processes taking into consideration ergonomic attributes of designs. Ergonomic Compatibility is a construct used in this model and it is mainly based in the concept of human-artifact compatibility on human compatible systems. Also, an Axiomatic Design approach by the use of the Information Axiom was evolved under a fuzzy environment to obtain the Ergonomic Incompatibility Content. The extension of this axiom for the evaluation of ergonomic compatibility requirements was the theoretical framework of this research. An incremental methodology of four stages was used to design and develop the software that enables to compare AMT alternatives by the evaluation of Ergonomic Compatibility Attributes.

  18. Development of Friction Stir Welding Technologies for In-Space Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, William R.; Cox, Chase D.; Gibson, Brian T.; Cook, George E.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Wilbur, Isaac C.; Osborne, Brandon E.

    2016-08-26

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has emerged as an attractive process for fabricating aerospace vehicles. Current FSW state-of-the-art uses large machines that are not portable. However, there is a growing need for fabrication and repair operations associated with in-space manufacturing. This need stems from a desire for prolonged missions and travel beyond low-earth orbit. To address this need, research and development is presented regarding two enabling technologies. The first is a self-adjusting and aligning (SAA) FSW tool that drastically reduces the axial force that has historically been quite large. The SAA-FSW tool is a bobbin style tool that floats freely, without any external actuators, along its vertical axis to adjust and align with the workpiece s position and orientation. Successful butt welding of 1/8 in. (3.175 mm) thick aluminum 1100 was achieved in conjunction with a drastic reduction and near elimination of the axial process force. Along with the SAA-FSW, an innovative in-process monitor technique is presented in which a magnetoelastic force rate-of-change sensor is employed. The sensor consists of a magnetized FSW tool that is used to induce a voltage in a coil surrounding the tool when changes to the process forces occur. The sensor was able to detect 1/16 in. (1.5875 mm) diameter voids. It is concluded that these technologies could be applied toward the development of a portable FSW machine for use in space.

  19. Development of the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people with visual impairment: the FVQ_CYP.

    PubMed

    Tadić, Valerija; Cooper, Andrew; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2013-12-01

    To develop a novel age-appropriate measure of functional vision (FV) for self-reporting by visually impaired (VI) children and young people. Questionnaire development. A representative patient sample of VI children and young people aged 10 to 15 years, visual acuity of the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) worse than 0.48, and a school-based (nonrandom) expert group sample of VI students aged 12 to 17 years. A total of 32 qualitative semistructured interviews supplemented by narrative feedback from 15 eligible VI children and young people were used to generate draft instrument items. Seventeen VI students were consulted individually on item relevance and comprehensibility, instrument instructions, format, and administration methods. The resulting draft instrument was piloted with 101 VI children and young people comprising a nationally representative sample, drawn from 21 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Initial item reduction was informed by presence of missing data and individual item response pattern. Exploratory factor analysis (FA) and parallel analysis (PA), and Rasch analysis (RA) were applied to test the instrument's psychometric properties. Psychometric indices and validity assessment of the Functional Vision Questionnaire for Children and Young People (FVQ_CYP). A total of 712 qualitative statements became a 56-item draft scale, capturing the level of difficulty in performing vision-dependent activities. After piloting, items were removed iteratively as follows: 11 for high percentage of missing data, 4 for skewness, and 1 for inadequate item infit and outfit values in RA, 3 having shown differential item functioning across age groups and 1 across gender in RA. The remaining 36 items showed item fit values within acceptable limits, good measurement precision and targeting, and ordered response categories. The reduced scale has a clear unidimensional structure, with all items having a high factor loading on the single factor in FA and

  20. Development of a night-driving simulator concept for night vision image-intensification device training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Piccione, Dino; Woodward, Kim G.

    1997-06-01

    The use of night vision devices (NVDs) by US Army foot soldiers, aviator,s and drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles has enhanced operations at night by allowing increased mobility and potentially safer operations. With this increased capability in the night environment has come an increased exposure to the hazards of that environment and the risks that the command structure must manage and balance with mission requirements. Numerous vehicular accidents have occurred during night filed exercises involving drivers wearing image intensification (I2) systems. These accidents can frequently be attributed to perceptual problems experienced by the drivers. Performance with NVDs generally increases with practice and experience. However, there is little formal training provided in night driving skills and few opportunities to practice these skills under realistic conditions. This paper reports the approach and preliminary result of an effort to define and demonstrate a low-cost night driving simulator concept for training night driving skills with I2 devices and to identify and evaluate the techniques and resources that are available for implementing this approach.

  1. Development of a vision non-contact sensing system for telerobotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoub, M.; Her, M.-G.; Ho, M.-I.; Huang, C.-C.

    2013-08-01

    The study presented here describes a novel vision-based motion detection system for telerobotic operations such as distant surgical procedures. The system uses a CCD camera and image processing to detect the motion of a master robot or operator. Colour tags are placed on the arm and head of a human operator to detect the up/down, right/left motion of the head as well as the right/left motion of the arm. The motion of the colour tags are used to actuate a slave robot or a remote system. The determination of the colour tags' motion is achieved through image processing using eigenvectors and colour system morphology and the relative head, shoulder and wrist rotation angles through inverse dynamics and coordinate transformation. A program is used to transform this motion data into motor control commands and transmit them to a slave robot or remote system through wireless internet. The system performed well even in complex environments with errors that did not exceed 2 pixels with a response time of about 0.1 s. The results of the experiments are available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFxLaVWE3f8 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nvRcOzlWHw

  2. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review.

    PubMed

    Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; López-Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Erenas, Miguel M; Palma, Alberto J

    2015-10-29

    Chemical analysis based on colour changes recorded with imaging devices is gaining increasing interest. This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly analytical procedures in many areas that demand out-of-lab applications for in situ and real-time monitoring. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based analytical (CVAC) procedures and systems from 2005 to 2015, a period of time when 87.5% of the papers on this topic were published. The background regarding colour spaces and recent analytical system architectures of interest in analytical chemistry is presented in the form of a tutorial. Moreover, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analysing digital images are addressed. Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, our opinion about future perspectives is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 71146 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain machine vision software, machine..., California; Techno Soft Systemnics, Inc. (``Techno Soft'') of Japan; Fuji Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd....

  4. A Design Methodology For Industrial Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Waltz, F. M.; Snyder, M. A.

    1988-11-01

    The cost of design, rather than that of target system hardware, represents the principal factor inhibiting the adoption of machine vision systems by manufacturing industry. To reduce design costs to a minimum, a number of software and hardware aids have been developed or are currently being built by the authors. These design aids are as follows: a. An expert system for giving advice about which image acquisition techniques (i.e. lighting/viewing techniques) might be appropriate in a given situation. b. A program to assist in the selection and setup of camera lenses. c. A rich repertoire of image processing procedures, integrated with the Al language Prolog. This combination (called ProVision) provides a facility for experimenting with intelligent image processing techniques and is intended to allow rapid prototyping of algorithms and/or heuristics. d. Fast image processing hardware, capable of implementing commands in the ProVision language. The speed of operation of this equipment is sufficiently high for it to be used, without modification, in many industrial applications. Where this is not possible, even higher execution speed may be achieved by adding extra modules to the processing hardware. In this way, it is possible to trade speed against the cost of the target system hardware. New and faster implementations of a given algorithm/heuristic can usually be achieved with the expenditure of only a small effort. Throughout this article, the emphasis is on designing an industrial vision system in a smooth and effortless manner. In order to illustrate our main thesis that the design of industrial vision systems can be made very much easier through the use of suitable utilities, the article concludes with a discussion of a case study: the dissection of tiny plants using a visually controlled robot.

  5. The vision trap.

    PubMed

    Langeler, G H

    1992-01-01

    At Mentor Graphics Corporation, Gerry Langeler was the executive responsible for vision, and vision, he discovered, has the power to weaken a strong company. Mentor helped to invent design-automation electronics in the early 1980s, and by the end of the decade, it dominated the industry. In its early days, fighting to survive, Mentor's motto was Build Something People Will Buy. Then when clear competition emerged in the form of Daisy Systems, a startup that initially outsold Mentor, the watchword became Beat Daisy. Both "visions" were pragmatic and immediate. They gave Mentor a sense of purpose as it developed its products and gathered momentum. Once Daisy was beaten, however, company vision began to self-inflate. As Mentor grew more and more successful, Langeler formulated vision statements that were more and more ambitious, grand, and inspirational. The company traded its gritty determination to survive for a dream of future glory. The once explicit call for effective action became a fervid cry for abstract perfection. The first step was Six Boxes, a transitional vision that combined goals for success in six business areas with grandiose plans to compete with IBM at the level of billion-dollar revenues. From there, vision stepped up to the 10X Imperative, a quality-improvement program that focused on arbitrary goals and measures that were, in fact, beyond the company's control. The last escalation came when Mentor Graphics decided to Change the Way the World Designs. The company had stopped making product and was making poetry. Finally, in 1991, after six years of increasing self-infatuation, Mentor hit a wall of decreasing indicators. Langeler, who had long since begun to doubt the value of abstract visions, reinstated Build Something People Will Buy. And Mentor was back to basics, a sense of purpose back to its workplace.

  6. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  7. Development and manufacture of an adaptive lightweight mirror for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Johannes K.; Honke, Robert; von Alberti, Mathias; Sippel, Rudolf

    2003-12-01

    Currently, scientific space missions based on interferometric optical and infrared astronomical instruments are under development in the United States as well as in Europe. These instruments require optical path length accuracy in the order of a few nanometres across structural dimensions of several metres. This puts extreme demands on static and dynamic structural stability. It is expected that actively controlled, adaptive structures will increasingly have to be used for these satellite applications to overcome the limits of passive structural accuracy. Based on the evaluation of different piezo-active concepts, analysis and design of an adaptive lightweight satellite mirror primarily made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic with embedded piezoceramic actuators for shape control is described. Simulation of global mirror performance takes different wavefront sensors and controls for several cases of loading into account. Extensive finite-element optimization of various structural details was performed while testing of active sub-components served as a basis for a final update of finite-element models. Local material properties of sub-assemblies or geometry effects at the edges of the structure were investigated with respect to their impact on mirror performance. The major result of the analysis was the lay-out of the adaptive mirror and the specific design of embedded piezoceramic actuators. Manufacture of structural components and successfully completed mirror integration is described. The paper concludes with an outline of testing, and space qualification of the demonstrator of an actively controllable lightweight satellite mirror currently under way.

  8. Technical note: development of a quantitative PCR method for monitoring strain dynamics during yogurt manufacture.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Dudley, E G; Roberts, R F

    2012-09-01

    Yogurt starter cultures may consist of multiple strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). Conventional plating methods for monitoring LB and ST levels during yogurt manufacture do not allow for quantification of individual strains. The objective of the present work was to develop a quantitative PCR method for quantification of individual strains in a commercial yogurt starter culture. Strain-specific primers were designed for 2 ST strains (ST DGCC7796 and ST DGCC7710), 1 LB strain (DGCC4078), and 1 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis strain (LL; DGCC4550). Primers for the individual ST and LB strains were designed to target unique DNA sequences in clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats. Primers for LL were designed to target a putative mannitol-specific IIbC component of the phosphotransferase system. Following evaluation of primer specificity, standard curves relating cell number to cycle threshold were prepared for each strain individually and in combination in yogurt mix, and no significant differences in the slopes were observed. Strain balance data was collected for yogurt prepared at 41 and 43°C to demonstrate the potential application of this method. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maintaining population diversity in a genetic algorithm: an example in developing control schemes for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietman, Edward A.

    1997-10-01

    Genetic algorithms are a computational paradigm modeled after biological genetics. They allow one to efficiently search a very large optimization-space for good solutions. In this paper we report on two methods of maintaining genetic diversity in a population of organisms being acted on by a genetic algorithm. In both cases the organisms are on a square grid and only interact with their nearest neighbors. The number of interactions is based on the fitness. One method results in ecological niches in sizes from a few organisms to several dozen. In the second method almost every organism in the population remains in a unique ecological niche searching the fitness landscape. The two methods can be used in finding multiple solutions. These methods have been applied to a semiconductor manufacturing process in developing robust plasma etch recipes that reduce the variance about a target mean and allow the dc bias to drift within 15% of a nominal value. The tapered via etch process in our production environment results in an oxide film with a mean value of about 7093 angstroms and a standard deviation of 730 angstroms. In simulations using real production data and a neural network model of the process our new recipes have reduced the standard deviation below 200 angstroms. These results indicate that significant improvement in the proces can be realized by applying these techniques.

  10. Testing Starshade Manufacturing and Deployment Through NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Lo, A.; Macintosh, B.

    2014-01-01

    An external occulter is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In this poster we report on the results of our two Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) studies. In the first we examined the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals, successfully constructing a full size petal from flight like materials and showing through precise edge shape measurements that an occulter made with petals consistent with the measured accuracy would achieve close to 10^-10 contrast. Our second TDEM tested the deployment precision of a roughly half-scale starshade. We demonstrated the deployment of an existing deployable truss outfitted with four sub-scale petals and a custom designed central hub. We showed that the system can be deployed multiple times with a repeatable positioning accuracy of the petals better than the requirement of 1.0 mm. The combined results of these two TDEM projects has significantly advanced the readiness level of occulter technology and moved the community closer to a realizable mission.

  11. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  12. Development of 3D modeling technology for manufacturing finned ribbons from heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyashkov, A. A.; Vasil'ev, E. V.; Popov, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    The process of shaping a workpiece by a tool using the rolling method is, from the geometric point of view, a process of interaction of two conjugate surfaces. The technology of rolling finned stainless steel ribbons is close to the technology of shaping details by cutting. However, the problems of its practical implementation in the well-known papers analyzing this issue are practically not considered. As a result of the analysis of conjugate surfaces profiling methods in relation to the problem, it was concluded that it seems urgent to develop a methodology for the formation of corrugated ribbon based on 3D modeling use. The implementation of this methodology includes the creation of solid models of the product and the tool, as well as computer simulation of their shaping processes using rolling method. So, at the first stage, a 3D model of finned ribbon was developed, which was then used to produce a profile of a rolling tool. The modeling of this profile was carried out on the basis of the proposed software package in the CAD environment. The created theoretical model of the tool profile was replaced from the technological point of view by a rectilinear profile. To carry out the analysis of the obtained results, the inverse shaping problem was solved - according to the corrected profile of the tool, real profile of the corrugated ribbon is obtained. Computer modeling of extruded volumes in the process of shaping was performed. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the extruded volumes made it possible to give recommendations on setting the increment of the tool motion parameter. Based on the results of the studies, profile parameters of the roller are assigned for its practical implementation. The proposed methodology, based on 3D-modeling, allowed to develop a technology for manufacturing finned ribbons from heat-resistant steels by rolling with high productivity, accuracy and stability of the sizes obtained.

  13. Development of a configurable growth chamber with a computer vision system to study circadian rhythm in plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro J; Fernández, Carlos; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2012-11-09

    Plant development is the result of an endogenous morphogenetic program that integrates environmental signals. The so-called circadian clock is a set of genes that integrates environmental inputs into an internal pacing system that gates growth and other outputs. Study of circadian growth responses requires high sampling rates to detect changes in growth and avoid aliasing. We have developed a flexible configurable growth chamber comprising a computer vision system that allows sampling rates ranging between one image per 30 s to hours/days. The vision system has a controlled illumination system, which allows the user to set up different configurations. The illumination system used emits a combination of wavelengths ensuring the optimal growth of species under analysis. In order to obtain high contrast of captured images, the capture system is composed of two CCD cameras, for day and night periods. Depending on the sample type, a flexible image processing software calculates different parameters based on geometric calculations. As a proof of concept we tested the system in three different plant tissues, growth of petunia- and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers and of cladodes from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica. We found that petunia flowers grow at a steady pace and display a strong growth increase in the early morning, whereas Opuntia cladode growth turned out not to follow a circadian growth pattern under the growth conditions imposed. Furthermore we were able to identify a decoupling of increase in area and length indicating that two independent growth processes are responsible for the final size and shape of the cladode.

  14. Development of a Configurable Growth Chamber with a Computer Vision System to Study Circadian Rhythm in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro J.; Fernández, Carlos; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Plant development is the result of an endogenous morphogenetic program that integrates environmental signals. The so-called circadian clock is a set of genes that integrates environmental inputs into an internal pacing system that gates growth and other outputs. Study of circadian growth responses requires high sampling rates to detect changes in growth and avoid aliasing. We have developed a flexible configurable growth chamber comprising a computer vision system that allows sampling rates ranging between one image per 30 s to hours/days. The vision system has a controlled illumination system, which allows the user to set up different configurations. The illumination system used emits a combination of wavelengths ensuring the optimal growth of species under analysis. In order to obtain high contrast of captured images, the capture system is composed of two CCD cameras, for day and night periods. Depending on the sample type, a flexible image processing software calculates different parameters based on geometric calculations. As a proof of concept we tested the system in three different plant tissues, growth of petunia- and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers and of cladodes from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica. We found that petunia flowers grow at a steady pace and display a strong growth increase in the early morning, whereas Opuntia cladode growth turned out not to follow a circadian growth pattern under the growth conditions imposed. Furthermore we were able to identify a decoupling of increase in area and length indicating that two independent growth processes are responsible for the final size and shape of the cladode. PMID:23202214

  15. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on the triangle orientation discrimination methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Nicolas; Bijl, Piet; Deltel, Geoffroy

    2015-02-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, ministry of defenses and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The image intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, Photonis investigates the link between its products' physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include (1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, (2) an image-based night vision simulation, and (3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: (1) being able to support the need of the integrators and end-users and (2) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, Photonis and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. We present the Photonis night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices, and show range prediction examples.

  16. Application of mid-infrared spectroscopy to the development and transfer of a manufacturing process for an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Ian M; Daly, Adrian M; Donnelly, Craig; Hardy, Ruth; Harris, Denise; Jackman, Hayley; Jones, Ricky; Luan, Amy; McAndrew, Douglas; McGauley, Pat; Pearce, John; Scotney, Gemma; Yeow, May-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The use of in situ mid-infrared spectroscopy to support the development of a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is disclosed. Data on this two-stage telescoped reaction from several reaction scales (<50 mL to 1600 liters) and at multiple manufacturing locations is shown. In addition to providing data on both reactions in the telescope, the mid-IR data has been used to monitor an intermediate distillation operation and therefore it has been possible to profile the whole process. Data is also shown on aliquot addition during the first chemical transformation, which is used to check the instrumentation.

  17. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 21, Materials and processes selection. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.R.

    1995-08-15

    This document identifies the candidate materials and manufacturing processes selected for development of the TPX Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet. Supporting rationale and selection criteria are provided for justification and the materials properties database report is included for completeness. Specific properties for each material selection are included in this document.

  18. Update On The Development, Testing, And Manufacture Of High Density LEU-Foil Targets For The Production Of Mo-99

    SciTech Connect

    Creasy, John T

    2015-05-12

    This project has the objective to reduce and/or eliminate the use of HEU in commerce. Steps in the process include developing a target testing methodology that is bounding for all Mo-99 target irradiators, establishing a maximum target LEU-foil mass, developing a LEU-foil target qualification document, developing a bounding target failure analysis methodology (failure in reactor containment), optimizing safety vs. economics (goal is to manufacture a safe, but relatively inexpensive target to offset the inherent economic disadvantage of using LEU in place of HEU), and developing target material specifications and manufacturing QC test criteria. The slide presentation is organized under the following topics: Objective, Process Overview, Background, Team Structure, Key Achievements, Experiment and Activity Descriptions, and Conclusions. The High Density Target project has demonstrated: approx. 50 targets irradiated through domestic and international partners; proof of concept for two front end processing methods; fabrication of uranium foils for target manufacture; quality control procedures and steps for manufacture; multiple target assembly techniques; multiple target disassembly devices; welding of targets; thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical modeling; robust target assembly parametric studies; and target qualification analysis for insertion into very high flux environment. The High Density Target project has tested and proven several technologies that will benefit current and future Mo-99 producers.

  19. Manufacture and testing of fibre composite rotor components (fibre composite flywheel development program for road vehicle applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, M.B.; Flanagan, R.C.; McCrea, J.; Miyase, A.

    1982-08-01

    The manufacturing and testing portion of the flywheel development program has four main aims: (i) To evaluate flywheel manufacturing processes, (ii) To develop a full-size flywheel dynamic test capability, (iii) To develop materials data bases required for the design of flywheels, and (iv) to permit materials data correlations for different specimens/testing conditions. Manufacturing processes for composite materials have been evaluated with most of the effort concentrated on wet filament winding. Manufacturing parameters such as pot life, strand tension, strand damage and void content have been investigated for a large number of fibres and resin/hardener systems. The dynamic test facility has a high-speed evacuated chamber capable of containing and monitoring the high energy flywheel components under dynamic failure. Low speed (16,000 and 30,000 RPM) test rotors have been used to complete system proofing and to develop a drive system critical whirl frequency program. High-speed testing of the 22 in. diameter fibre composite rings is being evaluated. The basic materials data on E-Glass, S2 glass, Kevlar 49, and carbon/epoxy composites required for flywheel design have been determined from quasistatic tensile tests on ASTM longitudinal and transverse specimens and controlled strain rate hydroburst tests of 10.5 in. diameter filament wound rings. Data correlation studies are underway on the mechanical properties of ASTM flat bars (quasi-static testing), 10.5 in. diameter rings (hydroburst testing) and 22 in. diameter rings (spin testing).

  20. The measurement of vision disability.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    The American Medical Association's (AMA) visual efficiency scale, a vision disability metric based on visual impairment measurements, was adopted in 1925. That scale was based on a 30-year history of theoretical models in vision economics, a misinterpretation of Snellen notation for visual acuity, and an erroneous application of Weber's psychophysical law. The AMA visual efficiency scale survived uncontested for 75 years. In 2001, the AMA adopted a new vision disability scale based on logarithmic transformations of visual acuity and visual field diameter. Like the earlier visual efficiency scale, the new scale is theoretical-it is not supported by any data that speak to the relationship between vision disability and visual impairments. Attempts to measure vision disability date to the early 1980s with the development of self-assessment visual function rating scale questionnaires. Nearly all of the questionnaires developed over the last 20 years use Likert scales, but use them incorrectly. The development of a vision disability metric based on Likert scaling parallels the historical development of other forms of measurement. A tutorial review of psychometrics-classical test theory, item response theory, and Rasch analysis-shows how vision disability measurement scales can be estimated from Likert-type visual function rating scales. We conclude that preliminary data relating measures of vision disability to measures of visual acuity and visual fields support the new AMA vision disability scale.