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Sample records for many-facet rasch model

  1. Validating Translation Test Items via the Many-Facet Rasch Model.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Su, Tzi-Ying; Nix, John-Michael L

    2018-01-01

    This study applied the many-facet Rasch model to assess learners' translation ability in an English as a foreign language context. Few attempts have been made in extant research to detect and calibrate rater severity in the domain of translation testing. To fill the research gap, this study documented the process of validating a test of Chinese-to-English sentence translation and modeled raters' scoring propensity defined by harshness or leniency, expert/novice effects on severity, and concomitant effects on item difficulty. Two hundred twenty-five, third-year senior high school Taiwanese students and six educators from tertiary and secondary educational institutions served as participants. The students' mean age was 17.80 years ( SD = 1.20, range 17-19). The exam consisted of 10 translation items adapted from two entrance exam tests. The results showed that this subjectively scored performance assessment exhibited robust unidimensionality, thus reliably measuring translation ability free from unmodeled disturbances. Furthermore, discrepancies in ratings between novice and expert raters were also identified and modeled by the many-facet Rasch model. The implications for applying the many-facet Rasch model in translation tests at the tertiary level were discussed.

  2. An Analysis of Peer Assessment through Many Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Melek Gülsah; Teker, Gülsen Tasdelen; Güler, Nese

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses peer assessment through many facet Rasch model (MFRM). The research was performed with 91 undergraduate students and with lecturer teaching the course. The research data were collected with holistic rubric employed by 6 peers and the lecturer in rating the projects prepared by 85 students taking the course. This study analyses…

  3. Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ning; Stahl, John

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

  4. Calibrating Charisma: The many-facet Rasch model for leader measurement and automated coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Matt

    2016-11-01

    No one is a leader unless others follow. Consequently, leadership is fundamentally a social judgment construct, and may be best measured via a Many Facet Rasch Model designed for this purpose. Uniquely, the MFRM allows for objective, accurate and precise estimation of leader attributes, along with identification of rater biases and other distortions of the available information. This presentation will outline a mobile computer-adaptive measurement system that measures and develops charisma, among others. Uniquely, the approach calibrates and mass-personalizes artificially intelligent, Rasch-calibrated electronic coaching that is neither too hard nor too easy but “just right” to help each unique leader develop improved charisma.

  5. Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    2008-01-01

    A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the…

  6. Oral Performace Scoring Using Generalizability Theory and Many-Facet Rasch Measurement: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkahtani, Saif F.

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to better guide the Quranic recitation appraisal practice by presenting an application of Generalizability theory and Many-facet Rasch Measurement Model for assessing the dependability and fit of two suggested rubrics. Recitations of 93 students were rated holistically and analytically by 3 independent…

  7. Using the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard-Setting Judgments: Setting Performance Standards for Advanced Placement® Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…

  8. Using the Many-Faceted Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard Setting Judgments: An Illustration with the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela K.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Reshetar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    The many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model has been used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR model for examining the quality of ratings obtained from a standard…

  9. Analysis of the Rater Effects on the Scoring of Diagnostic Trees Prepared by Teacher Candidates with the Many-Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalbantoglu Yilmaz, Funda

    2017-01-01

    In the study, it was aimed to investigate the leniency/severity, bias and halo effect of the raters which were used in the scoring of the diagnostic tree prepared by the teacher candidates with the many-facet Rasch model. The research study group constitutes 24 teacher candidates who are taking measurement and evaluation lesson from the students…

  10. An Application of Generalizability Theory and Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Using a Complex Problem-Solving Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jr., Everett V.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the use of generalizability theory (GT) and many-facet Rasch measurement (MFRM) to evaluate psychometric properties of responses obtained from an assessment designed to measure complex problem-solving skills. The assessment revolved around the school activity of kickball. The task required of each student was to decide on a…

  11. A Comparison of the Results of Many-Facet Rasch Analyses Based on Crossed and Judge Pair Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of many-facet Rasch analyses based on crossed and judge pair designs. The study was conducted with 168 eighth grade students and five judges. The study data were collected using an achievement test with open-ended questions and a holistic rubric that was used to rate the responses. In the data…

  12. Funding Medical Research Projects: Taking into Account Referees' Severity and Consistency through Many-Faceted Rasch Modeling of Projects' Scores.

    PubMed

    Tesio, Luigi; Simone, Anna; Grzeda, Mariuzs T; Ponzio, Michela; Dati, Gabriele; Zaratin, Paola; Perucca, Laura; Battaglia, Mario A

    2015-01-01

    The funding policy of research projects often relies on scores assigned by a panel of experts (referees). The non-linear nature of raw scores and the severity and inconsistency of individual raters may generate unfair numeric project rankings. Rasch measurement (many-facets version, MFRM) provides a valid alternative to scoring. MFRM was applied to the scores achieved by 75 research projects on multiple sclerosis sent in response to a previous annual call by FISM-Italian Foundation for Multiple Sclerosis. This allowed to simulate, a posteriori, the impact of MFRM on the funding scenario. The applications were each scored by 2 to 4 independent referees (total = 131) on a 10-item, 0-3 rating scale called FISM-ProQual-P. The rotation plan assured "connection" of all pairs of projects through at least 1 shared referee.The questionnaire fulfilled satisfactorily the stringent criteria of Rasch measurement for psychometric quality (unidimensionality, reliability and data-model fit). Arbitrarily, 2 acceptability thresholds were set at a raw score of 21/30 and at the equivalent Rasch measure of 61.5/100, respectively. When the cut-off was switched from score to measure 8 out of 18 acceptable projects had to be rejected, while 15 rejected projects became eligible for funding. Some referees, of various severity, were grossly inconsistent (z-std fit indexes less than -1.9 or greater than 1.9). The FISM-ProQual-P questionnaire seems a valid and reliable scale. MFRM may help the decision-making process for allocating funds to MS research projects but also in other fields. In repeated assessment exercises it can help the selection of reliable referees. Their severity can be steadily calibrated, thus obviating the need to connect them with other referees assessing the same projects.

  13. Multi-faceted Rasch measurement and bias patterns in EFL writing performance assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Gou, Wen Johnny; Chien, Ya-Chen; Chen, I-Shan Jenny; Chang, Shan-Mao

    2013-04-01

    This study applied multi-faceted Rasch measurement to examine rater bias in the assessment of essays written by college students learning English as a foreign language. Four raters who had received different academic training from four distinctive disciplines applied a six-category rating scale to analytically rate essays on an argumentative topic and on a descriptive topic. FACETS, a Rasch computer program, was utilized to pinpoint bias patterns by analyzing the rater-topic, rater-category, and topic-category interactions. Results showed: argumentative essays were rated more severely than were descriptive essays; the linguistics-major rater was the most lenient rater, while the literature-major rater was the severest one; and the category of language use received the severest ratings, whereas content was given the most lenient ratings. The severity hierarchies for raters, essay topics, and rating categories suggested that raters' academic training and their perceptions of the importance of categories were associated with their bias patterns. Implications for rater training are discussed.

  14. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Rasch Models Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Mok, Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of Rasch measurement models that begins with a conceptualization of continuous experiences often captured as discrete observations. Discusses the mathematical properties of the Rasch family of models that allow the transformation of discrete deterministic counts into continuous probabilistic abstractions. Also discusses six of…

  15. The Many Facets of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Trying to understand PISA is analogous to the parable of the blind men and the elephant. There are many facets of the PISA program, and thus many ways to both applaud and critique this ambitious international program of assessment that has gained enormous importance in the crafting of contemporary educational policy. One of the facets discussed in…

  16. Assessment of examiner leniency and stringency ('hawk-dove effect') in the MRCP(UK) clinical examination (PACES) using multi-facet Rasch modelling

    PubMed Central

    McManus, IC; Thompson, M; Mollon, J

    2006-01-01

    Background A potential problem of clinical examinations is known as the hawk-dove problem, some examiners being more stringent and requiring a higher performance than other examiners who are more lenient. Although the problem has been known qualitatively for at least a century, we know of no previous statistical estimation of the size of the effect in a large-scale, high-stakes examination. Here we use FACETS to carry out a multi-facet Rasch modelling of the paired judgements made by examiners in the clinical examination (PACES) of MRCP(UK), where identical candidates were assessed in identical situations, allowing calculation of examiner stringency. Methods Data were analysed from the first nine diets of PACES, which were taken between June 2001 and March 2004 by 10,145 candidates. Each candidate was assessed by two examiners on each of seven separate tasks. with the candidates assessed by a total of 1,259 examiners, resulting in a total of 142,030 marks. Examiner demographics were described in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, and total number of candidates examined. Results FACETS suggested that about 87% of main effect variance was due to candidate differences, 1% due to station differences, and 12% due to differences between examiners in leniency-stringency. Multiple regression suggested that greater examiner stringency was associated with greater examiner experience and being from an ethnic minority. Male and female examiners showed no overall difference in stringency. Examination scores were adjusted for examiner stringency and it was shown that for the present pass mark, the outcome for 95.9% of candidates would be unchanged using adjusted marks, whereas 2.6% of candidates would have passed, even though they had failed on the basis of raw marks, and 1.5% of candidates would have failed, despite passing on the basis of raw marks. Conclusion Examiners do differ in their leniency or stringency, and the effect can be estimated using Rasch modelling. The reasons for

  17. Examining Teacher Grades Using Rasch Measurement Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jennifer; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present an approach to questionnaire design within educational research based on Guttman's mapping sentences and Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Theory. We designed a 54-item questionnaire using Guttman's mapping sentences to examine the grading practices of teachers. Each item in the questionnaire represented a unique student…

  18. Causal Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Stenner, A Jackson; Fisher, William P; Stone, Mark H; Burdick, Donald S

    2013-01-01

    Rasch's unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured) support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct). We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained.

  19. Causal Rasch models

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Fisher, William P.; Stone, Mark H.; Burdick, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Rasch's unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured) support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct). We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained. PMID:23986726

  20. Examining the Invariance of Rater and Project Calibrations Using a Multi-facet Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Lunz, Mary E.

    To generalize test results beyond the particular test administration, an examinee's ability estimate must be independent of the particular items attempted, and the item difficulty calibrations must be independent of the particular sample of people attempting the items. This stability is a key concept of the Rasch model, a latent trait model of…

  1. Rasch Mixture Models for DIF Detection

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, Carolin; Zeileis, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Rasch mixture models can be a useful tool when checking the assumption of measurement invariance for a single Rasch model. They provide advantages compared to manifest differential item functioning (DIF) tests when the DIF groups are only weakly correlated with the manifest covariates available. Unlike in single Rasch models, estimation of Rasch mixture models is sensitive to the specification of the ability distribution even when the conditional maximum likelihood approach is used. It is demonstrated in a simulation study how differences in ability can influence the latent classes of a Rasch mixture model. If the aim is only DIF detection, it is not of interest to uncover such ability differences as one is only interested in a latent group structure regarding the item difficulties. To avoid any confounding effect of ability differences (or impact), a new score distribution for the Rasch mixture model is introduced here. It ensures the estimation of the Rasch mixture model to be independent of the ability distribution and thus restricts the mixture to be sensitive to latent structure in the item difficulties only. Its usefulness is demonstrated in a simulation study, and its application is illustrated in a study of verbal aggression. PMID:29795819

  2. Polytomous Rasch Models in Counseling Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willse, John T.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the Rasch model. Motivation for using Rasch analyses is provided. Important Rasch model concepts and key aspects of result interpretation are introduced, with major points reinforced using a simulation demonstration. Concrete guidelines are provided regarding sample size and the evaluation of items.

  3. Likelihood Ratio Tests for Special Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a general class of special Rasch models for dichotomous item scores is considered. Although Andersen's likelihood ratio test can be used to test whether a Rasch model fits to the data, the test does not differentiate between special Rasch models. Therefore, in this article, new likelihood ratio tests are proposed for testing…

  4. On Local Homogeneity and Stochastically Ordered Mixed Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend; Hansen, Mogens; Hansen, Carsten Rosenberg

    2006-01-01

    Mixed Rasch models add latent classes to conventional Rasch models, assuming that the Rasch model applies within each class and that relative difficulties of items are different in two or more latent classes. This article considers a family of stochastically ordered mixed Rasch models, with ordinal latent classes characterized by increasing total…

  5. Sample Size and Statistical Conclusions from Tests of Fit to the Rasch Model According to the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (Rumm) Program in Health Outcome Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. Few sample size recommendations for testing fit to the Rasch model concern the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) software, which features chi-square and ANOVA/F-ratio based fit statistics, including Bonferroni and algebraic sample size adjustments. This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Data with simulated Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales and sample sizes ranging from N = 50 to N = 2500 were analysed with and without algebraically adjusted sample sizes. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N less then or equal to 500, and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Our observations suggest that sample sizes around N = 250 to N = 500 may provide a good balance for the statistical interpretation of the RUMM fit statistics studied here with respect to Type I errors and under the assumption of Rasch model fit within the examined frame of reference (i.e., about 25 item parameters well targeted to the sample).

  6. FIM measurement properties and Rasch model details.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Linacre, J M; Smith, R M; Heinemann, A W; Granger, C V

    1997-12-01

    To summarize, we take issue with the criticisms of Dickson & Köhler for two main reasons: 1. Rasch analysis provides a model from which to approach the analysis of the FIM, an ordinal scale, as an interval scale. The existence of examples of items or individuals which do not fit the model does not disprove the overall efficacy of the model; and 2. the principal components analysis of FIM motor items as presented by Dickson & Köhler tends to undermine rather than support their argument. Their own analyses produce a single major factor explaining between 58.5 and 67.1% of the variance, depending upon the sample, with secondary factors explaining much less variance. Finally, analysis of item response, or latent trait, is a powerful method for understanding the meaning of a measure. However, it presumes that item scores are accurate. Another concern is that Dickson & Köhler do not address the issue of reliability of scoring the FIM items on which they report, a critical point in comparing results. The Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMRSM) expends extensive effort in the training of clinicians of subscribing facilities to score items accurately. This is followed up with a credentialing process. Phase 1 involves the testing of individual clinicians who are submitting data to determine if they have achieved mastery over the use of the FIM instrument. Phase 2 involves examining the data for outlying values. When Dickson & Köhler investigate more carefully the application of the Rasch model to their FIM data, they will discover that the results presented in their paper support rather than contradict their application of the Rasch model! This paper is typical of supposed refutations of Rasch model applications. Dickson & Köhler will find that idiosyncrasies in their data and misunderstandings of the Rasch model are the only basis for a claim to have disproven the relevance of the model to FIM data. The Rasch model is a mathematical theorem (like

  7. Some Improved Diagnostics for Failure of The Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1983-01-01

    Goodness of fit tests for the Rasch model are typically large-sample, global measures. This paper offers suggestions for small-sample exploratory techniques for examining the fit of item data to the Rasch model. (Author/JKS)

  8. A gentle introduction to Rasch measurement models for metrologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Wilson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    The talk introduces the basics of Rasch models by systematically interpreting them in the conceptual and lexical framework of the International Vocabulary of Metrology, third edition (VIM3). An admittedly simple example of physical measurement highlights the analogies between physical transducers and tests, as they can be understood as measuring instruments of Rasch models and psychometrics in general. From the talk natural scientists and engineers might learn something of Rasch models, as a specifically relevant case of social measurement, and social scientists might re-interpret something of their knowledge of measurement in the light of the current physical measurement models.

  9. A Note on Item-Restscore Association in Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    To rule out the need for a two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model during item analysis by Rasch models, it is important to check the Rasch model's assumption that all items have the same item discrimination. Biserial and polyserial correlation coefficients measuring the association between items and restscores are often used in an informal…

  10. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  11. A Monte Carlo Approach to Unidimensionality Testing in Polytomous Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Kreiner, Svend

    2007-01-01

    Many statistical tests are designed to test the different assumptions of the Rasch model, but only few are directed at detecting multidimensionality. The Martin-Lof test is an attractive approach, the disadvantage being that its null distribution deviates strongly from the asymptotic chi-square distribution for most realistic sample sizes. A Monte…

  12. Measurement of change in health status with Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Pasquale; Vidotto, Giulio; Bettinardi, Ornella; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2015-02-07

    The traditional approach to the measurement of change presents important drawbacks (no information at individual level, ordinal scores, variance of the measurement instrument across time points), which Rasch models overcome. The article aims to illustrate the features of the measurement of change with Rasch models. To illustrate the measurement of change using Rasch models, the quantitative data of a longitudinal study of heart-surgery patients (N = 98) were used. The scale "Perception of Positive Change" was used as an example of measurement instrument. All patients underwent cardiac rehabilitation, individual psychological intervention, and educational intervention. Nineteen patients also attended progressive muscle relaxation group trainings. The scale was administered before and after the interventions. Three Rasch approaches were used. Two separate analyses were run on the data from the two time points to test the invariance of the instrument. An analysis was run on the stacked data from both time points to measure change in a common frame of reference. Results of the latter analysis were compared with those of an analysis that removed the influence of local dependency on patient measures. Statistics t, χ(2) and F were used for comparing the patient and item measures estimated in the Rasch analyses (a-priori α = .05). Infit, Outfit, R and item Strata were used for investigating Rasch model fit, reliability, and validity of the instrument. Data of all 98 patients were included in the analyses. The instrument was reliable, valid, and substantively unidimensional (Infit, Outfit < 2 for all items, R = .84, item Strata range = 3.93-6.07). Changes in the functioning of the instrument occurred across the two time, which prevented the use of the two separate analyses to unambiguously measure change. Local dependency had a negligible effect on patient measures (p ≥ .8674). Thirteen patients improved, whereas 3 worsened. The patients who

  13. Using the Rasch model to validate stages of understanding the energy concept.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiufeng; Collard, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts to bridge science education with developmental psychology to develop theories on students developing understanding of science concepts from elementary to high school and beyond. The present study intends to test one such theory on students developing understanding of the energy concept. The theory states that students develop understanding of the energy concept by going through the following qualitatively distinct stages: (a) energy as activity/work; (b) energy as sources/forms, (c) energy transfer, (d) energy degradation, and (e) energy conservation. Three classes, one each from 4th grade, 8th grade, and high school physics class (grades 10, 11, and 12), completed a performance assessment. Students' performances were scored based on three traits of energy understanding: attention capacity, qualitative relations, and quantitative relations; each of the traits was defined into five hierarchical levels consistent with the five stages of understanding the energy concept. The Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) model was used to analyze the effects of rater scoring severity, students' stages of energy understanding (theta), and difficulties of energy understanding traits. Results show that there was a discontinuity among the stages of understanding the energy concept, supporting the theory on students developing the understanding of the energy concept.

  14. Rasch Mixture Models for DIF Detection: A Comparison of Old and New Score Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Hannah; Strobl, Carolin; Zeileis, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Rasch mixture models can be a useful tool when checking the assumption of measurement invariance for a single Rasch model. They provide advantages compared to manifest differential item functioning (DIF) tests when the DIF groups are only weakly correlated with the manifest covariates available. Unlike in single Rasch models, estimation of Rasch…

  15. Psychometric Properties on Lecturers' Beliefs on Teaching Function: Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofreh, Samah Ali Mohsen; Ghafar, Mohammed Najib Abdul; Omar, Abdul Hafiz Hj; Mosaku, Monsurat; Ma'ruf, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the psychometric analysis of lecturers' beliefs on teaching function (LBTF) survey using Rasch Model analysis. The sample comprised 34 Community Colleges' lecturers. The Rasch Model is applied to produce specific measurements on the lecturers' beliefs on teaching function in order to generalize results and inferential…

  16. Analysis of Open-Ended Statistics Questions with Many Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güler, Nese

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most significant disadvantage of open-ended items that allow the valid measurement of upper level cognitive behaviours, such as synthesis and evaluation, is scoring. The difficulty associated with objectively scoring the answers to the items contributes to the reduction of the reliability of the scores. Moreover, other…

  17. Exact Tests for the Rasch Model via Sequential Importance Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuguo; Small, Dylan

    2005-01-01

    Rasch proposed an exact conditional inference approach to testing his model but never implemented it because it involves the calculation of a complicated probability. This paper furthers Rasch's approach by (1) providing an efficient Monte Carlo methodology for accurately approximating the required probability and (2) illustrating the usefulness…

  18. Foundations of reusable and interoperable facet models using category theory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and light-weight ontologies, but in many regards, they are implementations of faceted browsing rather than a specification of the basic, underlying structures and interactions. We will demonstrate that category theory allows us to specify faceted objects and study the relationships and interactions within a faceted browsing system. Resulting implementations can then be constructed through a category-theoretic lens using these models, allowing abstract comparison and communication that naturally support interoperability and reuse. PMID:27942248

  19. Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holster, Trevor A.; Lake, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stewart questioned Beglar's use of Rasch analysis of the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) and advocated the use of 3-parameter logistic item response theory (3PLIRT) on the basis that it models a non-zero lower asymptote for items, often called a "guessing" parameter. In support of this theory, Stewart presented fit statistics derived from…

  20. Predicting responses from Rasch measures.

    PubMed

    Linacre, John M

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing family of Rasch models for polytomous observations. Selecting a suitable model for an existing dataset, estimating its parameters and evaluating its fit is now routine. Problems arise when the model parameters are to be estimated from the current data, but used to predict future data. In particular, ambiguities in the nature of the current data, or overfit of the model to the current dataset, may mean that better fit to the current data may lead to worse fit to future data. The predictive power of several Rasch and Rasch-related models are discussed in the context of the Netflix Prize. Rasch-related models are proposed based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Boltzmann Machines.

  1. Detecting Aberrant Response Patterns in the Rasch Model. Rapport 87-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogut, Jan

    In this paper, the detection of response patterns aberrant from the Rasch model is considered. For this purpose, a new person fit index, recently developed by I. W. Molenaar (1987) and an iterative estimation procedure are used in a simulation study of Rasch model data mixed with aberrant data. Three kinds of aberrant response behavior are…

  2. Candidate Evaluation Using Targeted Construct Assessment in the Multiple Mini-Interview: A Multifaceted Rasch Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Singer, David; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-01-01

    Construct: A 7-station multiple mini-interview (MMI) circuit was implemented and assessed for 214 candidates rated by 37 interviewers (N = 1,498 ratings). The MMI stations were designed to assess 6 specific constructs (adaptability, empathy, integrity, critical thinking, teamwork [receiving instruction], teamwork [giving instruction]) and one open station about the candidate's interest in the school. Despite the apparent benefits of the MMI, construct-irrelevant variance continues to be a topic of study. Refining the MMI to more effectively measure candidate ability is critical to improving our ability to identify and select candidates that are equipped for success within health professions education and the workforce. Each station assessed a single construct and was rated by a single interviewer who was provided only the name of the candidate and no additional information about the candidate's background, application, or prior academic performance. All interviewers received online and in-person training in the fall prior to the MMI and the morning of the MMI. A 3-facet multifaceted Rasch measurement analysis was completed to determine interviewer severity, candidate ability, and MMI station difficulty and examine how the model performed overall (e.g., rating scale). Altogether, the Rasch measures explained 62.84% of the variance in the ratings. Differences in candidate ability explained 45.28% of the variance in the data, whereas differences in interviewer severity explained 16.09% of the variance in the data. None of the interviewers had Infit or Outfit mean-square scores greater than 1.7, and only 2 (5.4%) had mean-square scores less than 0.5. The data demonstrated acceptable fit to the multifaceted Rasch measurement model. This work is the first of its kind in pharmacy and provides insight into the development of an MMI that provides useful and meaningful candidate assessment ratings for institutional decision making.

  3. The Rasch Model and Missing Data, with an Emphasis on Tailoring Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gruijter, Dato N. M.

    Many applications of educational testing have a missing data aspect (MDA). This MDA is perhaps most pronounced in item banking, where each examinee responds to a different subtest of items from a large item pool and where both person and item parameter estimates are needed. The Rasch model is emphasized, and its non-parametric counterpart (the…

  4. Mixture Rasch model for guessing group identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siow, Hoo Leong; Mahdi, Rasidah; Siew, Eng Ling

    2013-04-01

    Several alternative dichotomous Item Response Theory (IRT) models have been introduced to account for guessing effect in multiple-choice assessment. The guessing effect in these models has been considered to be itemrelated. In the most classic case, pseudo-guessing in the three-parameter logistic IRT model is modeled to be the same for all the subjects but may vary across items. This is not realistic because subjects can guess worse or better than the pseudo-guessing. Derivation from the three-parameter logistic IRT model improves the situation by incorporating ability in guessing. However, it does not model non-monotone function. This paper proposes to study guessing from a subject-related aspect which is guessing test-taking behavior. Mixture Rasch model is employed to detect latent groups. A hybrid of mixture Rasch and 3-parameter logistic IRT model is proposed to model the behavior based guessing from the subjects' ways of responding the items. The subjects are assumed to simply choose a response at random. An information criterion is proposed to identify the behavior based guessing group. Results show that the proposed model selection criterion provides a promising method to identify the guessing group modeled by the hybrid model.

  5. Development and Validation of a Teacher Success Questionnaire Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaee-Yazdi, Mona; Motallebzadeh, Khalil; Ashraf, Hamid; Baghaei, Purya

    2018-01-01

    An increased enthusiasm on teacher accountability, in recent times, has led policy makers and teachers to a significant care over evaluating teachers' success. To this aim, a 40-item Teacher Success questionnaire was developed and validated by the application of the Rasch model. The Rasch model is used to decide whether the scores of an instrument…

  6. Latent Trait Theory in the Affective Domain--Applications of the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Allen R.; Riegel, N. Blyth

    The Rasch model of test theory is described in general terms, compared with latent trait theory, and shown to have interesting applications for the measurement of affective as well as cognitive traits. Three assumption of the Rasch model are stated to support the conclusion that calibration of the items and tests is independent of the examinee…

  7. Extensions of Rasch's Multiplicative Poisson Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Margo G. H.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A model developed by G. Rasch that assumes scores on some attainment tests can be realizations of a Poisson process is explained and expanded by assuming a prior distribution, with fixed but unknown parameters, for the subject parameters. How additional between-subject and within-subject factors can be incorporated is discussed. (SLD)

  8. Mixture Rasch Models with Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willse, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This research provides a demonstration of the utility of mixture Rasch models. Specifically, a model capable of estimating a mixture partial credit model using joint maximum likelihood is presented. Like the partial credit model, the mixture partial credit model has the beneficial feature of being appropriate for analysis of assessment data…

  9. Optimal Designs for the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasshoff, Ulrike; Holling, Heinz; Schwabe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, optimal designs will be derived for estimating the ability parameters of the Rasch model when difficulty parameters are known. It is well established that a design is locally D-optimal if the ability and difficulty coincide. But locally optimal designs require that the ability parameters to be estimated are known. To attenuate this…

  10. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study. PMID:19426512

  11. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

    PubMed

    Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-05-09

    There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.

  12. The Rasch Wars: The Emergence of Rasch Measurement in Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Knoch, Ute

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the uptake of Rasch measurement in language testing through a consideration of research published in language testing research journals in the period 1984 to 2009. Following the publication of the first papers on this topic, exploring the potential of the simple Rasch model for the analysis of dichotomous language test data, a…

  13. Indonesian teacher engagement index: a rasch model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmoko; Abbas, B. S.; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to calibrate Indonesian Teacher Engagement Index (ITEI) using instrument with RASCH MODEL. The respondents were 672 teachers of elementary, junior high, high school and vocational school. The number of items planned was 165 items with the initial reliability of 0.98. The ITEI scale uses Likert Scale (1 to 4) which was converted from ordinal scale to Equal Interval Scale. RASCH MODEL analysis was done by selecting based on Outfit Mean Square (MNSQ) between 0.5-1.5 as a good item, and measuring Point Measure Correlation (Pt Mean Corr) with the criterion of 0.4-0.85. Moderate Outfit Z-Standard (ZSTD) was ignored because the sample was >500. Conclusions: ITEI is valid with 30 items and reliability of 0.97, and less engage teachers significantly at α <0.05.

  14. A Comparison of Uniform DIF Effect Size Estimators under the MIMIC and Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Ying; Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon; Penfield, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    The Rasch model, a member of a larger group of models within item response theory, is widely used in empirical studies. Detection of uniform differential item functioning (DIF) within the Rasch model typically employs null hypothesis testing with a concomitant consideration of effect size (e.g., signed area [SA]). Parametric equivalence between…

  15. Scale construction utilising the Rasch unidimensional measurement model: A measurement of adolescent attitudes towards abortion.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jacqueline; Fyfe, Sue; Styles, Irene; Skinner, S Rachel; Merriman, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Measurement scales seeking to quantify latent traits like attitudes, are often developed using traditional psychometric approaches. Application of the Rasch unidimensional measurement model may complement or replace these techniques, as the model can be used to construct scales and check their psychometric properties. If data fit the model, then a scale with invariant measurement properties, including interval-level scores, will have been developed. This paper highlights the unique properties of the Rasch model. Items developed to measure adolescent attitudes towards abortion are used to exemplify the process. Ten attitude and intention items relating to abortion were answered by 406 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, as part of the "Teen Relationships Study". The sampling framework captured a range of sexual and pregnancy experiences. Items were assessed for fit to the Rasch model including checks for Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by gender, sexual experience or pregnancy experience. Rasch analysis of the original dataset initially demonstrated that some items did not fit the model. Rescoring of one item (B5) and removal of another (L31) resulted in fit, as shown by a non-significant item-trait interaction total chi-square and a mean log residual fit statistic for items of -0.05 (SD=1.43). No DIF existed for the revised scale. However, items did not distinguish as well amongst persons with the most intense attitudes as they did for other persons. A person separation index of 0.82 indicated good reliability. Application of the Rasch model produced a valid and reliable scale measuring adolescent attitudes towards abortion, with stable measurement properties. The Rasch process provided an extensive range of diagnostic information concerning item and person fit, enabling changes to be made to scale items. This example shows the value of the Rasch model in developing scales for both social science and health disciplines.

  16. Spurious Latent Classes in the Mixture Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexeev, Natalia; Templin, Jonathan; Cohen, Allan S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixture Rasch models have been used to study a number of psychometric issues such as goodness of fit, response strategy differences, strategy shifts, and multidimensionality. Although these models offer the potential for improving understanding of the latent variables being measured, under some conditions overextraction of latent classes may…

  17. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  18. Measuring coping in parents of children with disabilities: a rasch model approach.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Bharani, Seelam; Reddy, Shailaja P

    2015-01-01

    Parents of a child with disability must cope with greater demands than those living with a healthy child. Coping refers to a person's cognitive or behavioral efforts to manage the demands of a stressful situation. The Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) is a well-recognized measure of coping among parents of chronically ill children and assesses different coping patterns using its three subscales. The purpose of this study was to provide further insights into the psychometric properties of the CHIP subscales in a sample of parents of children with disabilities. In this cross-sectional study, 220 parents (mean age, 33.4 years; 85% mothers) caring for a child with disability enrolled in special schools as well as in mainstream schools completed the 45-item CHIP. Rasch analysis was applied to the CHIP data and the psychometric performance of each of the three subscales was tested. Subscale revision was performed in the context of Rasch analysis statistics. Response categories were not used as intended, necessitating combining categories, thereby reducing the number from 4 to 3. The subscale - 'maintaining social support' satisfied all the Rasch model expectations. Four item misfit the Rasch model in the subscale -maintaining family integration', but their deletion resulted in a 15-item scale with items that fit the Rasch model well. The remaining subscale - 'understanding the healthcare situation' lacked adequate measurement precision (<2.0 logits). The current Rasch analyses add to the evidence of measurement properties of the CHIP and show that the two of its subscales (one original and the other revised) have good psychometric properties and work well to measure coping patterns in parents of children with disabilities. However the third subscale is limited by its inadequate measurement precision and requires more items.

  19. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in "Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies," ed. by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T.…

  20. Person-Fit and the Rasch Model, with an Application to Knowledge of Logical Quantors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Ivo W.; Hoijtink, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Some specific person-fit results for the Rasch model are presented, followed by an application to a test measuring knowledge of reasoning with logical quantors. Some issues are relevant to all attempts to use person-fit statistics in research, but the special role of the Rasch model is highlighted. (SLD)

  1. The Nature of Objectivity with the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Susan E.; Dawis, Rene V.

    Although it has been claimed that the Rasch model leads to a higher degree of objectivity in measurement than has been previously possible, this model has had little impact on test development. Population-invariant item and ability calibrations along with the statistical equivalency of any two item subsets are supposedly possible if the item pool…

  2. Rasch model of a dynamic assessment: an investigation of the children's inferential thinking modifiability test.

    PubMed

    Rittner, Linda L; Pulos, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a general procedure for evaluation of a dynamic assessment and to demonstrate an analysis of a dynamic assessment, the CITM (Tzuriel, 1995b), as an objective measure for use as a group assessment. The techniques used to determine the fit of the CITM to a Rasch partial credit model are explicitly outlined. A modified format of the CITM was administered to 266 diverse second grade students in the USA; 58% of participants were identified as low SES. The participants (males n = 144) were White Anglo and Latino American students (55%), many of whom were first generation Mexican immigrants. The CITM was found to adequately fit a Rasch partial credit model (PCM) indicating that the CITM is a likely candidate for a group administered dynamic assessment that can be measured objectively. Data also supported that a model for objectively measuring change in learning ability for inferential thinking in the CITM was feasible.

  3. Quality Control of an OSCE Using Generalizability Theory and Many-Faceted Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Myford, Carol M.; Downing, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an effective method for evaluating competencies. However, scores obtained from an OSCE are vulnerable to many potential measurement errors that cases, items, or standardized patients (SPs) can introduce. Monitoring these sources of errors is an important quality control mechanism to ensure…

  4. Application of the Rasch Model to the Measurement of Creativity: The Creative Achievement Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Ho, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Chih-Ling; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to provide multiple sources of evidence of the validity of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) and to clarify the hierarchy of creative achievement using Rasch analyses. A total of 905 Taiwanese participants (345 men and 558 women) completed the CAQ online. The Rasch model was used to assess model-data fit. A…

  5. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draxler, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  6. The Rasch Rating Model and the Disordered Threshold Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Rasch rating (or partial credit) model is a widely applied item response model that is used to model ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the model there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…

  7. Rasch-family models are more valuable than score-based approaches for analysing longitudinal patient-reported outcomes with missing data.

    PubMed

    de Bock, Élodie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Blanchin, Myriam; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Dantan, Étienne; Sébille, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to compare classical test theory and Rasch-family models derived from item response theory for the analysis of longitudinal patient-reported outcomes data with possibly informative intermittent missing items. A simulation study was performed in order to assess and compare the performance of classical test theory and Rasch model in terms of bias, control of the type I error and power of the test of time effect. The type I error was controlled for classical test theory and Rasch model whether data were complete or some items were missing. Both methods were unbiased and displayed similar power with complete data. When items were missing, Rasch model remained unbiased and displayed higher power than classical test theory. Rasch model performed better than the classical test theory approach regarding the analysis of longitudinal patient-reported outcomes with possibly informative intermittent missing items mainly for power. This study highlights the interest of Rasch-based models in clinical research and epidemiology for the analysis of incomplete patient-reported outcomes data. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Measuring Engagement in Later Life Activities: Rasch-Based Scenario Scales for Work, Caregiving, Informal Helping, and Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Matz-Costa, Christina; Johnson, Clair; Brown, Melissa; Besen, Elyssa; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2014-01-01

    The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple…

  9. Exploring the Effects of Rater Linking Designs and Rater Fit on Achievement Estimates within the Context of Music Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Wesolowski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    When good model-data fit is observed, the Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) model acts as a linking and equating model that can be used to estimate student achievement, item difficulties, and rater severity on the same linear continuum. Given sufficient connectivity among the facets, the MFR model provides estimates of student achievement that are equated to…

  10. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  11. Rasch model based analysis of the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinic, Maja; Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana

    2010-06-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is an important diagnostic instrument which is widely used in the field of physics education research. It is therefore very important to evaluate and monitor its functioning using different tools for statistical analysis. One of such tools is the stochastic Rasch model, which enables construction of linear measures for persons and items from raw test scores and which can provide important insight in the structure and functioning of the test (how item difficulties are distributed within the test, how well the items fit the model, and how well the items work together to define the underlying construct). The data for the Rasch analysis come from the large-scale research conducted in 2006-07, which investigated Croatian high school students’ conceptual understanding of mechanics on a representative sample of 1676 students (age 17-18 years). The instrument used in research was the FCI. The average FCI score for the whole sample was found to be (27.7±0.4)% , indicating that most of the students were still non-Newtonians at the end of high school, despite the fact that physics is a compulsory subject in Croatian schools. The large set of obtained data was analyzed with the Rasch measurement computer software WINSTEPS 3.66. Since the FCI is routinely used as pretest and post-test on two very different types of population (non-Newtonian and predominantly Newtonian), an additional predominantly Newtonian sample ( N=141 , average FCI score of 64.5%) of first year students enrolled in introductory physics course at University of Zagreb was also analyzed. The Rasch model based analysis suggests that the FCI has succeeded in defining a sufficiently unidimensional construct for each population. The analysis of fit of data to the model found no grossly misfitting items which would degrade measurement. Some items with larger misfit and items with significantly different difficulties in the two samples of students do require further examination

  12. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  13. A critique of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Karabatsos, G

    2000-01-01

    In test analysis involving the Rasch model, a large degree of importance is placed on the "objective" measurement of individual abilities and item difficulties. The degree to which the objectivity properties are attained, of course, depends on the degree to which the data fit the Rasch model. It is therefore important to utilize fit statistics that accurately and reliably detect the person-item response inconsistencies that threaten the measurement objectivity of persons and items. Given this argument, it is somewhat surprising that there is far more emphasis placed in the objective measurement of person and items than there is in the measurement quality of Rasch fit statistics. This paper provides a critical analysis of the residual fit statistics of the Rasch model, arguably the most often used fit statistics, in an effort to illustrate that the task of Rasch fit analysis is not as simple and straightforward as it appears to be. The faulty statistical properties of the residual fit statistics do not allow either a convenient or a straightforward approach to Rasch fit analysis. For instance, given a residual fit statistic, the use of a single minimum critical value for misfit diagnosis across different testing situations, where the situations vary in sample and test properties, leads to both the overdetection and underdetection of misfit. To improve this situation, it is argued that psychometricians need to implement residual-free Rasch fit statistics that are based on the number of Guttman response errors, or use indices that are statistically optimal in detecting measurement disturbances.

  14. Power analysis on the time effect for the longitudinal Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Feddag, M L; Blanchin, M; Hardouin, J B; Sebille, V

    2014-01-01

    Statistics literature in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences typically stress the importance of power analysis. Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) such as quality of life and other perceived health measures (pain, fatigue, stress,...) are increasingly used as important health outcomes in clinical trials or in epidemiological studies. They cannot be directly observed nor measured as other clinical or biological data and they are often collected through questionnaires with binary or polytomous items. The Rasch model is the well known model in the item response theory (IRT) for binary data. The article proposes an approach to evaluate the statistical power of the time effect for the longitudinal Rasch model with two time points. The performance of this method is compared to the one obtained by simulation study. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated on one subscale of the SF-36 questionnaire.

  15. Formulation and Application of the Generalized Multilevel Facets Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chih-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors develop a generalized multilevel facets model, which is not only a multilevel and two-parameter generalization of the facets model, but also a multilevel and facet generalization of the generalized partial credit model. Because the new model is formulated within a framework of nonlinear mixed models, no efforts are…

  16. Rasch Model Based Analysis of the Force Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinic, Maja; Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is an important diagnostic instrument which is widely used in the field of physics education research. It is therefore very important to evaluate and monitor its functioning using different tools for statistical analysis. One of such tools is the stochastic Rasch model, which enables construction of linear…

  17. Rasch analysis on OSCE data : An illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Tor, E; Steketee, C

    2011-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a widely used tool for the assessment of clinical competence in health professional education. The goal of the OSCE is to make reproducible decisions on pass/fail status as well as students' levels of clinical competence according to their demonstrated abilities based on the scores. This paper explores the use of the polytomous Rasch model in evaluating the psychometric properties of OSCE scores through a case study. The authors analysed an OSCE data set (comprised of 11 stations) for 80 fourth year medical students based on the polytomous Rasch model in an effort to answer two research questions: (1) Do the clinical tasks assessed in the 11 OSCE stations map on to a common underlying construct, namely clinical competence? (2) What other insights can Rasch analysis offer in terms of scaling, item analysis and instrument validation over and above the conventional analysis based on classical test theory? The OSCE data set has demonstrated a sufficient degree of fit to the Rasch model (Χ(2) = 17.060, DF=22, p=0.76) indicating that the 11 OSCE station scores have sufficient psychometric properties to form a measure for a common underlying construct, i.e. clinical competence. Individual OSCE station scores with good fit to the Rasch model (p > 0.1 for all Χ(2) statistics) further corroborated the characteristic of unidimensionality of the OSCE scale for clinical competence. A Person Separation Index (PSI) of 0.704 indicates sufficient level of reliability for the OSCE scores. Other useful findings from the Rasch analysis that provide insights, over and above the analysis based on classical test theory, are also exemplified using the data set. The polytomous Rasch model provides a useful and supplementary approach to the calibration and analysis of OSCE examination data.

  18. An introduction to multidimensional measurement using Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek C; Wilson, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The act of constructing a measure requires a number of important assumptions. Principle among these assumptions is that the construct is unidimensional. In practice there are many instances when the assumption of unidimensionality does not hold, and where the application of a multidimensional measurement model is both technically appropriate and substantively advantageous. In this paper we illustrate the usefulness of a multidimensional approach to measurement with the Multidimensional Random Coefficient Multinomial Logit (MRCML) model, an extension of the unidimensional Rasch model. An empirical example is taken from a collection of embedded assessments administered to 541 students enrolled in middle school science classes with a hands-on science curriculum. Student achievement on these assessments are multidimensional in nature, but can also be treated as consecutive unidimensional estimates, or as is most common, as a composite unidimensional estimate. Structural parameters are estimated for each model using ConQuest, and model fit is compared. Student achievement in science is also compared across models. The multidimensional approach has the best fit to the data, and provides more reliable estimates of student achievement than under the consecutive unidimensional approach. Finally, at an interpretational level, the multidimensional approach may well provide richer information to the classroom teacher about the nature of student achievement.

  19. A Semi-Parametric Bayesian Mixture Modeling Approach for the Analysis of Judge Mediated Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muckle, Timothy Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Existing methods for the analysis of ordinal-level data arising from judge ratings, such as the Multi-Facet Rasch model (MFRM, or the so-called Facets model) have been widely used in assessment in order to render fair examinee ability estimates in situations where the judges vary in their behavior or severity. However, this model makes certain…

  20. Psychometric assessment of HIV/STI sexual risk scale among MSM: a Rasch model approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Feng, Tiejian; Cai, Yumao

    2011-10-05

    Little research has assessed the degree of severity and ordering of different types of sexual behaviors for HIV/STI infection in a measurement scale. The purpose of this study was to apply the Rasch model on psychometric assessment of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale among men who have sex with men (MSM). A cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted among 351 MSM in Shenzhen, China. The Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale including nine types of sexual behaviors. The Rasch analysis of the nine items met the unidimensionality and local independence assumption. Although the person reliability was low at 0.35, the item reliability was high at 0.99. The fit statistics provided acceptable infit and outfit values. Item difficulty invariance analysis showed that the item estimates of the risk behavior items were invariant (within error). The findings suggest that the Rasch model can be utilized for measuring the level of sexual risk for HIV/STI infection as a single latent construct and for establishing the relative degree of severity of each type of sexual behavior in HIV/STI transmission and acquisition among MSM. The measurement scale provides a useful measurement tool to inform, design and evaluate behavioral interventions for HIV/STI infection among MSM.

  1. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  2. Rasch validation of the Arabic version of the lower extremity functional scale.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal construct validity of the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (20-item Arabic LEFS) using Rasch analysis. Patients (n = 170) with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction were recruited. Rasch analysis of 20-item Arabic LEFS was performed. Once the initial Rasch analysis indicated that the 20-item Arabic LEFS did not fit the Rasch model, follow-up analyses were conducted to improve the fit of the scale to the Rasch measurement model. These modifications included removing misfitting individuals, changing item scoring structure, removing misfitting items, addressing bias caused by response dependency between items and differential item functioning (DIF). Initial analysis indicated deviation of the 20-item Arabic LEFS from the Rasch model. Disordered thresholds in eight items and response dependency between six items were detected with the scale as a whole did not meet the requirement of unidimensionality. Refinements led to a 15-item Arabic LEFS that demonstrated excellent internal consistency (person separation index [PSI] = 0.92) and satisfied all the requirement of the Rasch model. Rasch analysis did not support the 20-item Arabic LEFS as a unidimensional measure of lower extremity function. The refined 15-item Arabic LEFS met all the requirement of the Rasch model and hence is a valid objective measure of lower extremity function. The Rasch-validated 15-item Arabic LEFS needs to be further tested in an independent sample to confirm its fit to the Rasch measurement model. Implications for Rehabilitation The validity of the 20-item Arabic Lower Extremity Functional Scale to measure lower extremity function is not supported. The 15-item Arabic version of the LEFS is a valid measure of lower extremity function and can be used to quantify lower extremity function in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

  3. Applying Rasch model analysis in the development of the cantonese tone identification test (CANTIT).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Y S; Lam, Joffee H S; Chan, Kit T Y; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C F

    2017-01-01

    Applying Rasch analysis to evaluate the internal structure of a lexical tone perception test known as the Cantonese Tone Identification Test (CANTIT). A 75-item pool (CANTIT-75) with pictures and sound tracks was developed. Respondents were required to make a four-alternative forced choice on each item. A short version of 30 items (CANTIT-30) was developed based on fit statistics, difficulty estimates, and content evaluation. Internal structure was evaluated by fit statistics and Rasch Factor Analysis (RFA). 200 children with normal hearing and 141 children with hearing impairment were recruited. For CANTIT-75, all infit and 97% of outfit values were < 2.0. RFA revealed 40.1% of total variance was explained by the Rasch measure. The first residual component explained 2.5% of total variance in an eigenvalue of 3.1. For CANTIT-30, all infit and outfit values were < 2.0. The Rasch measure explained 38.8% of total variance, the first residual component explained 3.9% of total variance in an eigenvalue of 1.9. The Rasch model provides excellent guidance for the development of short forms. Both CANTIT-75 and CANTIT-30 possess satisfactory internal structure as a construct validity evidence in measuring the lexical tone identification ability of the Cantonese speakers.

  4. Rasch Measurement and Item Banking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    The Rasch Model is an item response theory, one parameter model developed that states that the probability of a correct response on a test is a function of the difficulty of the item and the ability of the candidate. Item banking is useful for language testing. The Rasch Model provides estimates of item difficulties that are meaningful,…

  5. Using Rasch model to analyze the ability of pre-university students in vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Faridah Mohamed; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Tahir, Rohayatimah Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Evaluating students' performance only from overall examination marks does not give accurate evidence of their achievement on a particular subject. For a more detailed analysis, an instrument called Rasch Measurement Model (Rasch Model), widely used in education research, may be applied. Using the analysis map, the level of each student's ability and the level of the questions difficulty can be measured. This paper describes how the Rasch Model is used to evaluate students' achivement and performance in Vector, a subject taken by students enrolled in the Physical Science Program at the Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya. Usually, students' understanding of the subject and performance are assessed and examined at the end of the semester in the final examination, apart from continuous assessment done throughout the course. In order to evaluate the individual achievement and get a better and accurate evidence on the performance, 28 male and 28 female students' marks were taken randomly from the final examination results and analysed using the Rasch Model. Observation made from the map showed that more than half of the questions were categorized as difficult while the two most difficult questions could be answered correctly by 33.9% of the students. Results showed that the students performed very well and their achievement was above expectation. About 27% of the sudents could be considered as having very high ability in answering all the questions, with one student being able to answer well, obtaining perfect score. However, two students were found to be misfits since they were able to answer difficult questions but gave poor response to easy ones.

  6. Rasch Analysis of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Emma; Siegert, Richard J; Medvedev, Oleg; Roberts, Margaret H

    2018-05-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a widely used multisymptom assessment tool in cancer and palliative care settings, but its psychometric properties have not been widely tested using modern psychometric methods such as Rasch analysis. To apply Rasch analysis to the ESAS in a community palliative care setting and determine its suitability for assessing symptom burden in this group. ESAS data collected from 229 patients enrolled in a community hospice service were evaluated using a partial credit Rasch model with RUMM2030 software (RUMM Laboratory Pty, Ltd., Duncraig, WA). Where disordered thresholds were discovered, item rescoring was undertaken. Rasch model fit and differential item functioning were evaluated after each iterative phase. Uniform rescoring was necessary for all 12 items to display ordered thresholds. The best model fit was achieved after item rescoring and combining three pairs of locally dependent items into three superitems (χ 2  = 29.56 [27]; P = 0.33) that permitted ordinal-to-interval conversion. The ESAS satisfied unidimensional Rasch model expectations in a 12-item format after minor modifications. This included uniform rescoring of the disordered response categories and creating superitems to improve model fit and clinical utility. The accuracy of the ESAS scores can be improved by using ordinal-to-interval conversion tables published in the article. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of Three Different Forms of Daly and Miller's Writing Apprehension Test through Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güler, Nese; Ilhan, Mustafa; Güneyli, Ahmet; Demir, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the psychometric properties of three different forms of the Writing Apprehension Test (WAT; Daly & Miller, 1975) through Rasch analysis. For this purpose, the fit statistics and correlation coefficients, and the reliability, separation ratio, and chi-square values for the facets of item and person calculated for the…

  8. Rasch Model Analysis Gives New Insights Into the Structural Validity of the QuickDASH in Patients With Musculoskeletal Shoulder Pain.

    PubMed

    Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Chester, Rachel; Shepstone, Lee

    2017-09-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Background The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) is a widely used outcome measure that has been extensively evaluated using classical test theory. Rasch model analysis can identify strengths and weaknesses of rating scales and goes beyond classical test theory approaches. It uses a mathematical model to test the fit between the observed data and expected responses and converts ordinal-level scores into interval-level measurement. Objective To test the structural validity of the QuickDASH using Rasch analysis. Methods A prospective cohort study of 1030 patients with shoulder pain provided baseline data. Rasch analysis was conducted to (1) assess how the QuickDASH fits the Rasch model, (2) identify sources of misfit, and (3) explore potential solutions to these. Results There was evidence of multidimensionality and significant misfit to the Rasch model (χ 2 = 331.09, P<.001). Two items had disordered threshold responses with strong floor effects. Response bias was detected in most items for age and sex. Rescoring resulted in ordered thresholds; however, the 11-item scale still did not meet the expectations of the Rasch model. Conclusion Rasch model analysis on the QuickDASH has identified a number of problems that cannot be easily detected using traditional analyses. While revisions to the QuickDASH resulted in better fit, a "shoulder-specific" version is not advocated at present. Caution needs to be exercised when interpreting results of the QuickDASH outcome measure, as it does not meet the criteria for interval-level measurement and shows significant response bias by age and sex. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):664-672. Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7288.

  9. The Equivalence of Two Methods of Parameter Estimation for the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Bradley, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of estimating parameters in the Rasch model are compared. The equivalence of likelihood estimations from the model of G. J. Mellenbergh and P. Vijn (1981) and from usual unconditional maximum likelihood (UML) estimation is demonstrated. Mellenbergh and Vijn's model is a convenient method of calculating UML estimates. (SLD)

  10. A diffuse interface model of grain boundary faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, F.; Medlin, D. L.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Hattar, K.; Foiles, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Interfaces, free or internal, greatly influence the physical properties and stability of materials microstructures. Of particular interest are the processes that occur due to anisotropic interfacial properties. In the case of grain boundaries (GBs) in metals, several experimental observations revealed that an initially flat GB may facet into hill-and-valley structures with well defined planes and corners/edges connecting them. Herein, we present a diffuse interface model that is capable of accounting for strongly anisotropic GB properties and capturing the formation of hill-and-valley morphologies. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to independently examine the various factors affecting GB faceting and subsequent facet coarsening. More specifically, our formulation incorporates higher order expansions to account for the excess energy due to facet junctions and their non-local interactions. As a demonstration of the modeling capability, we consider the Σ5 <001 > tilt GB in body-centered-cubic iron, where faceting along the {210} and {310} planes was experimentally observed. Atomistic calculations were utilized to determine the inclination-dependent GB energy, which was then used as an input in our model. Linear stability analysis and simulation results highlight the role of junction energy and associated non-local interactions on the resulting facet length scales. Broadly speaking, our modeling approach provides a general framework to examine the microstructural stability of polycrystalline systems with highly anisotropic GBs.

  11. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  12. Setting, Evaluating, and Maintaining Certification Standards with the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.; Wright, Benjamin D.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the standard setting procedures or the American Board of Preventive Medicine for their Core Test, this article describes how Rasch measurement can facilitate using test content judgments in setting a standard. Rasch measurement can then be used to evaluate and improve the precision of the standard and to hold it constant across time.…

  13. Rasch analysis of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and research implications

    PubMed Central

    Cheifetz, O.; Packham, T.L.; MacDermid, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable and valid assessment of the disease burden across all forms of cancer is critical to the evaluation of treatment effectiveness and patient progress. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (esas) is used for routine evaluation of people attending for cancer care. In the present study, we used Rasch analysis to explore the measurement properties of the esas and to determine the effect of using Rasch-proposed interval-level esas scoring compared with traditional scoring when evaluating the effects of an exercise program for cancer survivors. Methods Polytomous Rasch analysis (Andrich’s rating-scale model) was applied to data from 26,645 esas questionnaires completed at the Juravinski Cancer Centre. The fit of the esas to the polytomous Rasch model was investigated, including evaluations of differential item functioning for sex, age, and disease group. The research implication was investigated by comparing the results of an observational research study previously analysed using a traditional approach with the results obtained by Rasch-proposed interval-level esas scoring. Results The Rasch reliability index was 0.73, falling short of the desired 0.80–0.90 level. However, the esas was found to fit the Rasch model, including the criteria for uni-dimensional data. The analysis suggests that the current esas scoring system of 0–10 could be collapsed to a 6-point scale. Use of the Rasch-proposed interval-level scoring yielded results that were different from those calculated using summarized ordinal-level esas scores. Differential item functioning was not found for sex, age, or diagnosis groups. Conclusions The esas is a moderately reliable uni-dimensional measure of cancer disease burden and can provide interval-level scaling with Rasch-based scoring. Further, our study indicates that, compared with the traditional scoring metric, Rasch-based scoring could result in substantive changes to conclusions. PMID:24764703

  14. Rasch analysis of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and research implications.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, O; Packham, T L; Macdermid, J C

    2014-04-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of the disease burden across all forms of cancer is critical to the evaluation of treatment effectiveness and patient progress. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (esas) is used for routine evaluation of people attending for cancer care. In the present study, we used Rasch analysis to explore the measurement properties of the esas and to determine the effect of using Rasch-proposed interval-level esas scoring compared with traditional scoring when evaluating the effects of an exercise program for cancer survivors. Polytomous Rasch analysis (Andrich's rating-scale model) was applied to data from 26,645 esas questionnaires completed at the Juravinski Cancer Centre. The fit of the esas to the polytomous Rasch model was investigated, including evaluations of differential item functioning for sex, age, and disease group. The research implication was investigated by comparing the results of an observational research study previously analysed using a traditional approach with the results obtained by Rasch-proposed interval-level esas scoring. The Rasch reliability index was 0.73, falling short of the desired 0.80-0.90 level. However, the esas was found to fit the Rasch model, including the criteria for uni-dimensional data. The analysis suggests that the current esas scoring system of 0-10 could be collapsed to a 6-point scale. Use of the Rasch-proposed interval-level scoring yielded results that were different from those calculated using summarized ordinal-level esas scores. Differential item functioning was not found for sex, age, or diagnosis groups. The esas is a moderately reliable uni-dimensional measure of cancer disease burden and can provide interval-level scaling with Rasch-based scoring. Further, our study indicates that, compared with the traditional scoring metric, Rasch-based scoring could result in substantive changes to conclusions.

  15. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  16. An evaluation of the structural validity of the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) using the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Chester, Rachel; Shepstone, Lee; Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C

    2018-02-01

    The shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) has been extensively evaluated for its psychometric properties using classical test theory (CTT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its structural validity using Rasch model analysis. Responses to the SPADI from 1030 patients referred for physiotherapy with shoulder pain and enrolled in a prospective cohort study were available for Rasch model analysis. Overall fit, individual person and item fit, response format, dependence, unidimensionality, targeting, reliability and differential item functioning (DIF) were examined. The SPADI pain subscale initially demonstrated a misfit due to DIF by age and gender. After iterative analysis it showed good fit to the Rasch model with acceptable targeting and unidimensionality (overall fit Chi-square statistic 57.2, p = 0.1; mean item fit residual 0.19 (1.5) and mean person fit residual 0.44 (1.1); person separation index (PSI) of 0.83. The disability subscale however shows significant misfit due to uniform DIF even after iterative analyses were used to explore different solutions to the sources of misfit (overall fit (Chi-square statistic 57.2, p = 0.1); mean item fit residual 0.54 (1.26) and mean person fit residual 0.38 (1.0); PSI 0.84). Rasch Model analysis of the SPADI has identified some strengths and limitations not previously observed using CTT methods. The SPADI should be treated as two separate subscales. The SPADI is a widely used outcome measure in clinical practice and research; however, the scores derived from it must be interpreted with caution. The pain subscale fits the Rasch model expectations well. The disability subscale does not fit the Rasch model and its current format does not meet the criteria for true interval-level measurement required for use as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. Clinicians should therefore exercise caution when interpreting score changes on the disability subscale and attempt to compare their scores to age- and sex

  17. Rasch analysis of SF-Qualiveen in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Tennant, Alan; A Young, Carolyn

    2017-04-01

    A 30-item Qualiveen questionnaire was developed to measure the impact of urinary problems on everyday living in spinal cord injury, and subsequently an 8-item SF-Qualiveen was developed for those with multiple sclerosis (MS). The validity of this short form has not been previously examined using modern psychometric techniques, such as the Rasch measurement model. The aim of this study is to test if the short form meets the requirements of the Rasch model. A total of 401 patients with clinically definite MS were given the questionnaire at three neuroscience centres in the UK. A total of 258 patients (64.3% response) completed the questionnaire. The original scale failed to meet the expectations of the Rasch model. A two-testlet solution was sought to account for local dependence, differential item functioning and disordered thresholds. After the modifications were made the scale fitted the model (χ 2  = 5.93 P = 0.4305), had high internal consistency (α = 0.88) and was unidimensional. SF-Qualiveen is a simple and valid measure of the impact of urinary problems in multiple sclerosis, which meets the requirements of the Rasch measurement model. Summed ordinal scores can be converted to interval-level using the transformation table provided. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantifying Local, Response Dependence between Two Polytomous Items Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Humphry, Stephen M.; Marais, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Models of modern test theory imply statistical independence among responses, generally referred to as "local independence." One violation of local independence occurs when the response to one item governs the response to a subsequent item. Expanding on a formulation of this kind of violation as a process in the dichotomous Rasch model,…

  19. Rasch analysis of the Patient Rated Elbow Evaluation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; King, Graham J W; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-06-20

    The Patient Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) was developed as an elbow joint specific measure of pain and disability and validated with classical psychometric methods. More recently, Rasch analysis has contributed new methods for analyzing the clinical measurement properties of self-report outcome measures. The objective of the study was to determine aspects of validity of the PREE using the Rasch model to assess the overall fit of the PREE data, the response scaling, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF), local dependency, unidimensionality and person separation index (PSI). A convenience sample of 236 patients (Age range 21-79 years; M: F- 97:139) with elbow disorders were recruited from the Roth│McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. The baseline scores of the PREE were used. Rasch analysis was conducted using RUMM 2030 software on the 3 sub scales of the PREE separately. The 3 sub scales showed misfit initially with disordered thresholds on17 out of 20 items), uniform DIF was observed for two items ("Carrying a 10lbs object" from specific activities subscale for age group; and "household work" from the usual activities subscale for gender); multidimensionality and local dependency. The Pain subscale satisfied Rasch expectations when item 2 "Pain - At rest" was split for age group, while the usual activities subscale readily stood up to Rasch requirements when the item 2 "household work" was split for gender. The specific activities subscale demonstrated fit to the Rasch model when sub test analysis accounted for local dependency. All three subscales of the PREE were well targeted and had high reliability (PSI >0.80). The three subscales of the PREE appear to be robust when tested against the Rasch model when subject to a few alterations. The value of changing the 0-10 format is questionable given its widespread use; further Rasch-based analysis of whether these findings are stable in other samples is warranted.

  20. Rasch analysis of the Trypophobia Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Shu; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-14

    This study aimed to assess Rasch-based psychometric properties of the Trypophobia Questionnaire measuring proneness to trypophobia, which refers to disgust and unpleasantness induced by the observation of clusters of objects (e.g., lotus seed pods). Rasch analysis was performed on data from 582 healthy Japanese adults. The results suggested that Trypophobia Questionnaire has a unidimensional structure with ordered response categories and sufficient person and item reliabilities, and that it does not have differential item functioning across sexes and age groups, whereas the targeting of the scale leaves room for improvements. When items that did not fit the Rasch model were removed, the shortened version showed slightly improved psychometric properties. However, results were not conclusive in determining whether the full or shortened version is better for practical use. Further assessment and validation are needed.

  1. Increasing meaning in measurement: a Rasch analysis of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Judith A; DiFazio, Rachel L; Strout, Tania D

    2012-01-01

    In today's increasingly violent society, many childhood incidents that begin as simple teasing deteriorate into persistent bullying. The Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale (CATS) was developed to measure self-perceived teasing in youths aged 11-15 years. It was validated initially using the principles of classical test theory and deemed to be a reliable and valid measure of teasing; it has been responsive to change in intervention studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate further the psychometric properties of the CATS by evaluating the degree to which the CATS items are congruent with the primary assumptions of the Rasch measurement model. A methodological study design using a Rasch Rating Scale Model was utilized to examine the psychometric properties of the 32-item CATS. The sample of the CATS consisted of 666 youths aged 11-15 years from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds and geographic regions. Unidimensionality, hierarchical ordering, and stretching of the variable's responses along a continuum were examined. The current CATS subscales do not fit the criteria for the Rasch model. The subscales are not unidimensional or hierarchical and do not exist on upon a continuum upon which items can be ordered and children can be placed. The divergent results between the classical test theory and Rasch analyses, although not completely surprising, underscore the need for continued refinement of an instrument's psychometric properties to ensure it is measuring the concept of interest in the way it was intended.

  2. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  3. Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

  4. An Application of the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitch, William R.

    The one parameter latent trait theory of Georg Rasch has two assumptions: that student abilities can be measured on an equal interval scale, and that the success of a student with a given item is a function of student achievement and item difficulty. The grade four Michigan Educational Assessment Program reading test was designed to measure…

  5. The Impact of Various Class-Distinction Features on Model Selection in the Mixture Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, In-Hee; Paek, Insu; Cho, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the performance of four information criteria (Akaike's information criterion [AIC], corrected AIC [AICC] Bayesian information criterion [BIC], sample-size adjusted BIC [SABIC]) for detecting the correct number of latent classes in the mixture Rasch model through simulations. The simulation study…

  6. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  7. Rasch family models in e-learning: analyzing architectural sketching with a digital pen.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Kathleen; Cheng, Nancy Yen-Wen; Oskui, Nargas

    2009-01-01

    Since architecture students studying design drawing are usually assessed qualitatively on the basis of their final products, the challenges and stages of their learning have remained masked. To clarify the challenges in design drawing, we have been using the BEAR Assessment System and Rasch family models to measure levels of understanding for individuals and groups, in order to correct pedagogical assumptions and tune teaching materials. This chapter discusses the analysis of 81 drawings created by architectural students to solve a space layout problem, collected and analyzed with digital pen-and-paper technology. The approach allows us to map developmental performance criteria and perceive achievement overlaps in learning domains assumed separate, and then re-conceptualize a three-part framework to represent learning in architectural drawing. Results and measurement evidence from the assessment and Rasch modeling are discussed.

  8. A diffuse interface model of grain boundary faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, Fadi; Medlin, Douglas; Zimmerman, Jonathan; Hattar, Khalid; Foiles, Stephen

    Incorporating anisotropy into thermodynamic treatments of interfaces dates back to over a century ago. For a given orientation of two abutting grains in a pure metal, depressions in the grain boundary (GB) energy may exist as a function of GB inclination, defined by the plane normal. Therefore, an initially flat GB may facet resulting in a hill-and-valley structure. Herein, we present a diffuse interface model of GB faceting that is capable of capturing anisotropic GB energies and mobilities, and accounting for the excess energy due to facet junctions and their non-local interactions. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to independently examine the role of each of the interface properties on the faceting behavior. As a demonstration, we consider the Σ 5 < 001 > tilt GB in iron, where faceting along the { 310 } and { 210 } planes was experimentally observed. Linear stability analysis and numerical examples highlight the role of junction energy and associated non-local interactions on the resulting facet length scales. On the whole, our modeling approach provides a general framework to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of highly anisotropic GBs in polycrystalline metals. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Accounting for Local Dependence with the Rasch Model: The Paradox of Information Increase.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David

    Test theories imply statistical, local independence. Where local independence is violated, models of modern test theory that account for it have been proposed. One violation of local independence occurs when the response to one item governs the response to a subsequent item. Expanding on a formulation of this kind of violation between two items in the dichotomous Rasch model, this paper derives three related implications. First, it formalises how the polytomous Rasch model for an item constituted by summing the scores of the dependent items absorbs the dependence in its threshold structure. Second, it shows that as a consequence the unit when the dependence is accounted for is not the same as if the items had no response dependence. Third, it explains the paradox, known, but not explained in the literature, that the greater the dependence of the constituent items the greater the apparent information in the constituted polytomous item when it should provide less information.

  10. An Introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Models for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed…

  11. Psychometric properties of the NEPSY-II affect recognition subtest in a preschool sample: a Rasch modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shih-Ying; Bull, Rebecca; Khng, Kiat Hui; Rahim, Anisa

    2018-01-01

    Understanding a child's ability to decode emotion expressions is important to allow early interventions for potential difficulties in social and emotional functioning. This study applied the Rasch model to investigate the psychometric properties of the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest, a U.S. normed measure for 3-16 year olds which assesses the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. Data were collected from 1222 children attending preschools in Singapore. We first performed the Rasch analysis with the raw item data, and examined the technical qualities and difficulty pattern of the studied items. We subsequently investigated the relation of the estimated affect recognition ability from the Rasch analysis to a teacher-reported measure of a child's behaviors, emotions, and relationships. Potential gender differences were also examined. The Rasch model fits our data well. Also, the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest was found to have reasonable technical qualities, expected item difficulty pattern, and desired association with the external measure of children's behaviors, emotions, and relationships for both boys and girls. Overall, findings from this study suggest that the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest is a promising measure of young children's affect recognition ability. Suggestions for future test improvement and research were discussed.

  12. A Note on the Usefulness of the Behavioural Rasch Selection Model for Causal Inference in the Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbitt, Matthew P.

    2016-11-01

    Social scientists are often interested in examining causal relationships where the outcome of interest is represented by an intangible concept, such as an individual's well-being or ability. Estimating causal relationships in this scenario is particularly challenging because the social scientist must rely on measurement models to measure individual's properties or attributes and then address issues related to survey data, such as omitted variables. In this paper, the usefulness of the recently proposed behavioural Rasch selection model is explored using a series of Monte Carlo experiments. The behavioural Rasch selection model is particularly useful for these types of applications because it is capable of estimating the causal effect of a binary treatment effect on an outcome that is represented by an intangible concept using cross-sectional data. Other methodology typically relies of summary measures from measurement models that require additional assumptions, some of which make these approaches less efficient. Recommendations for application of the behavioural Rasch selection model are made based on results from the Monte Carlo experiments.

  13. Examining the Association between Patient-Reported Symptoms of Attention and Memory Dysfunction with Objective Cognitive Performance: A Latent Regression Rasch Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Root, James C; Atkinson, Thomas M; Ahles, Tim A

    2016-06-01

    Patient-reported cognition generally exhibits poor concordance with objectively assessed cognitive performance. In this article, we introduce latent regression Rasch modeling and provide a step-by-step tutorial for applying Rasch methods as an alternative to traditional correlation to better clarify the relationship of self-report and objective cognitive performance. An example analysis using these methods is also included. Introduction to latent regression Rasch modeling is provided together with a tutorial on implementing it using the JAGS programming language for the Bayesian posterior parameter estimates. In an example analysis, data from a longitudinal neurocognitive outcomes study of 132 breast cancer patients and 45 non-cancer matched controls that included self-report and objective performance measures pre- and post-treatment were analyzed using both conventional and latent regression Rasch model approaches. Consistent with previous research, conventional analysis and correlations between neurocognitive decline and self-reported problems were generally near zero. In contrast, application of latent regression Rasch modeling found statistically reliable associations between objective attention and processing speed measures with self-reported Attention and Memory scores. Latent regression Rasch modeling, together with correlation of specific self-reported cognitive domains with neurocognitive measures, helps to clarify the relationship of self-report with objective performance. While the majority of patients attribute their cognitive difficulties to memory decline, the Rash modeling suggests the importance of processing speed and initial learning. To encourage the use of this method, a step-by-step guide and programming language for implementation is provided. Implications of this method in cognitive outcomes research are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Spurious Latent Class Problem in the Mixed Rasch Model: A Comparison of Three Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods under Different Ability Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has shown that over-extraction of latent classes can be observed in the Bayesian estimation of the mixed Rasch model when the distribution of ability is non-normal. This study examined the effect of non-normal ability distributions on the number of latent classes in the mixed Rasch model when estimated with maximum likelihood…

  15. The pregnancy-related anxiety scale: A validity examination using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Robyn J; Dryer, Rachel; Krägeloh, Chris; Saliba, Anthony; Kohlhoff, Jane; Medvedev, Oleg

    2018-04-27

    Pregnancy-related anxiety is increasingly recognised as a common condition that is associated with many deleterious outcomes for both the mother and infant (e.g., preterm birth, postnatal depression). Limitations in the psychometric properties and/or breadth of existing scales for pregnancy-related anxiety highlight the need for a psychometrically sound measure to facilitate effective screening and possible early interventions. The recently developed Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale (PrAS) was evaluated using Rasch analysis to explore how the scale's psychometric properties could be fine-tuned. A sample of 497 pregnant women completed the PrAS. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis, and the resulting scale structure examined using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. After minor modifications, the Rasch model with 33-items and 8-factors demonstrated good fit, unidimensionality and excellent targeting and internal consistency. Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the final structure, and Cronbach's alpha demonstrated excellent reliability. The use of the same sample for all analyses was a potential limitation due to the possibility of sample-specific influences. The Rasch analysis further supports the internal construct validity of the PrAS. Ordinal to interval score conversions provide added precision to the analysis of the PrAS scores. The Rasch results, together with previous validation evidence, point to the PrAS as a comprehensive and psychometrically sound screening scale for pregnancy-related anxiety. The PrAS offers clinicians the ability to screen for pregnancy-related anxiety. The subscales provide additional insights into a woman's pregnancy-related anxiety and her specific areas of concern, enabling more targeted interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Mixture Rasch Model-Based Computerized Adaptive Test for Latent Class Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Macready, George; Liu, Junhui; Cho, Youngmi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a computerized adaptive test delivery algorithm for latent class identification based on the mixture Rasch model. Four item selection methods based on the Kullback-Leibler (KL) information were proposed and compared with the reversed and the adaptive KL information under simulated testing conditions. When item separation was…

  17. Rasch measurement: the Arm Activity measure (ArmA) passive function sub-scale.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Stephen; Siegert, Richard J; Alexandrescu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the conformity of the Arm Activity measure (ArmA) passive function sub-scale to the Rasch model. A consecutive cohort of patients (n = 92) undergoing rehabilitation, including upper limb rehabilitation and spasticity management, at two specialist rehabilitation units were included. Rasch analysis was used to examine scaling and conformity to the model. Responses were analysed using Rasch unidimensional measurement models (RUMM 2030). The following aspects were considered: overall model and individual item fit statistics and fit residuals, internal reliability, item response threshold ordering, item bias, local dependency and unidimensionality. ArmA contains both active and passive function sub-scales, but in this analysis only the passive function sub-scale was considered. Four of the seven items in the ArmA passive function sub-scale initially had disordered thresholds. These items were rescored to four response options, which resulted in ordered thresholds for all items. Once the items with disordered thresholds had been rescored, item bias was not identified for age, global disability level or diagnosis, but with a small difference in difficulty between males and females for one item of the scale. Local dependency was not observed and the unidimensionality of the sub-scale was supported and good fit to the Rasch model was identified. The person separation index (PSI) was 0.95 indicating that the scale is able to reliably differentiate at least two groups of patients. The ArmA passive function sub-scale was shown in this evaluation to conform to the Rasch model once disordered thresholds had been addressed. Using the logit scores produced by the Rasch model it was possible to convert this back to the original scale range. Implications for Rehabilitation The ArmA passive function sub-scale was shown, in this evaluation, to conform to the Rasch model once disordered thresholds had been addressed and therefore to be a clinically applicable and

  18. A Psychometric Revision of the Asian Values Scale Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Hong, Sehee

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the 36-item Asian Values Scale (B. S. K. Kim, D. R. Atkinson, & P. H. Yang, 1999) was revised on the basis of G. Rasch's (1960) model and data from 618 Asian Americans. The results led to the establishment of a 25-item measure named the Asian Values Scale-Revised.

  19. Invariance, Artifact, and the Psychological Setting of Rasch's Model: Comments on Engelhard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    In the following, I confine my comments mainly to the issue of invariance in relation to Rasch's model for dichotomous, ability test items. "It is senseless to seek in the logical process of mathematical elaboration a psychologically significant precision that was not present in the psychological setting of the problem." (Boring, 1920)

  20. A model for the geomorphic development of normal-fault facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, G. E.; Hobley, D. E. J.; McCoy, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Triangular facets are among the most striking landforms associated with normal faulting. The genesis of facets is of great interest both for the information facets contain about tectonic motion, and because the progressive emergence of facets makes them potential recorders of both geomorphic and tectonic history. In this report, we present observations of triangular facets in the western United States and in the Italian Central Apennines. Facets in these regions typically form quasi-planar surfaces that are aligned in series along and above the trace of an active fault. Some facet surfaces consist mainly of exposed bedrock, with a thin and highly discontinuous cover of loose regolith. Other facets are mantled by a several-decimeter-thick regolith cover. Over the course of its morphologic development, a facet slope segment may evolve from a steep (~60 degree) bedrock fault scarp, well above the angle of repose for soil, to a gentler (~20-40 degree) slope that can potentially sustain a coherent regolith cover. This evolutionary trajectory across the angle of repose renders nonlinear diffusion theory inapplicable. To formulate an alternative process-based theory for facet evolution, we use a particle-based approach that acknowledges the possibility for both short- and long-range sediment-grain motions, depending on the topography. The processes of rock weathering, grain entrainment, and grain motion are represented as stochastic state-pair transitions with specified transition rates. The model predicts that facet behavior can range smoothly along the spectrum from a weathering-limited mode to a transport-limited mode, depending on the ratio of fault-slip rate to bare-bedrock regolith production rate. The model also implies that facets formed along a fault with pinned tips should show systematic variation in slope angle that correlates with along-fault position and slip rate. Preliminary observations from central Italy and the eastern Basin and Range are consistent

  1. Using the GLIMMIX Procedure in SAS 9.3 to Fit a Standard Dichotomous Rasch and Hierarchical 1-PL IRT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ryan A.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Although Rasch models have been shown to be a sound methodological approach to develop and validate measures of psychological constructs for more than 50 years, they remain underutilized in psychology and other social sciences. Until recently, one reason for this underutilization was the lack of syntactically simple procedures to fit Rasch and…

  2. An alternative to Rasch analysis using triadic comparisons and multi-dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C.; Massof, R. W.

    2016-11-01

    Rasch analysis is a principled approach for estimating the magnitude of some shared property of a set of items when a group of people assign ordinal ratings to them. In the general case, Rasch analysis not only estimates person and item measures on the same invariant scale, but also estimates the average thresholds used by the population to define rating categories. However, Rasch analysis fails when there is insufficient variance in the observed responses because it assumes a probabilistic relationship between person measures, item measures and the rating assigned by a person to an item. When only a single person is rating all items, there may be cases where the person assigns the same rating to many items no matter how many times he rates them. We introduce an alternative to Rasch analysis for precisely these situations. Our approach leverages multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and requires only rank orderings of items and rank orderings of pairs of distances between items to work. Simulations show one variant of this approach - triadic comparisons with non-metric MDS - provides highly accurate estimates of item measures in realistic situations.

  3. Estimation of the Proportion of Underachieving Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain: An Application of the Rasch Model

    PubMed Central

    Veas, Alejandro; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo; Castejón, Juan-Luis

    2016-01-01

    There are very few studies in Spain that treat underachievement rigorously, and those that do are typically related to gifted students. The present study examined the proportion of underachieving students using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 643 first-year high school students (mean age = 12.09; SD = 0.47) from 8 schools in the province of Alicante (Spain) completed the Battery of Differential and General Skills (Badyg), and these students' General Points Average (GPAs) were recovered by teachers. Dichotomous and Partial credit Rasch models were performed. After adjusting the measurement instruments, the individual underachievement index provided a total sample of 181 underachieving students, or 28.14% of the total sample across the ability levels. This study confirms that the Rasch measurement model can accurately estimate the construct validity of both the intelligence test and the academic grades for the calculation of underachieving students. Furthermore, the present study constitutes a pioneer framework for the estimation of the prevalence of underachievement in Spain. PMID:26973586

  4. Rasch Modeling of Revised Token Test Performance: Validity and Sensitivity to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William; Doyle, Patrick J.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Mikolic, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of the 55-item Revised Token Test (RTT) and to compare traditional and Rasch-based scores in their ability to detect group differences and change over time. The 55-item RTT was administered to 108 left- and right-hemisphere stroke survivors, and the data were submitted to Rasch analysis.…

  5. Using Rasch Analysis to Identify Uncharacteristic Responses to Undergraduate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Antony; Alcock, Lara

    2010-01-01

    Rasch Analysis is a statistical technique that is commonly used to analyse both test data and Likert survey data, to construct and evaluate question item banks, and to evaluate change in longitudinal studies. In this article, we introduce the dichotomous Rasch model, briefly discussing its assumptions. Then, using data collected in an…

  6. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: a comparison of gender differences on eighth grade science items in the United States and Spain.

    PubMed

    Babiar, Tasha Calvert

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, women and minorities have not been fully represented in science and engineering. Numerous studies have attributed these differences to gaps in science achievement as measured by various standardized tests. Rather than describe mean group differences in science achievement across multiple cultures, this study focused on an in-depth item-level analysis across two countries: Spain and the United States. This study investigated eighth-grade gender differences on science items across the two countries. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the nature of gender differences using the many-faceted Rasch Model as a way to estimate gender DIF. A secondary analysis of data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to address three questions: 1) Does gender DIF in science achievement exist? 2) Is there a relationship between gender DIF and characteristics of the science items? 3) Do the relationships between item characteristics and gender DIF in science items replicate across countries. Participants included 7,087 eight grade students from the United States and 3,855 students from Spain who participated in TIMSS. The Facets program (Linacre and Wright, 1992) was used to estimate gender DIF. The results of the analysis indicate that the content of the item seemed to be related to gender DIF. The analysis also suggests that there is a relationship between gender DIF and item format. No pattern of gender DIF related to cognitive demand was found. The general pattern of gender DIF was similar across the two countries used in the analysis. The strength of item-level analysis as opposed to group mean difference analysis is that gender differences can be detected at the item level, even when no mean differences can be detected at the group level.

  7. Fitting the Mixed Rasch Model to a Reading Comprehension Test: Identifying Reader Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2013-01-01

    Standard unidimensional Rasch models assume that persons with the same ability parameters are comparable. That is, the same interpretation applies to persons with identical ability estimates as regards the underlying mental processes triggered by the test. However, research in cognitive psychology shows that persons at the same trait level may…

  8. Rasch analysis of the UK Functional Assessment Measure in patients with complex disability after stroke.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Oleg N; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Ashford, Stephen; Siegert, Richard J

    2018-02-28

    To determine whether the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) fits the Rasch model in stroke patients with complex disability and, if so, to derive a conversion table of Rasch-transformed interval level scores. The sample included a UK multicentre cohort of 1,318 patients admitted for specialist rehabilitation following a stroke. Rasch analysis was conducted for the 30-item scale including 3 domains of items measuring physical, communication and psychosocial functions. The fit of items to the Rasch model was examined using 3 different analytical approaches referred to as "pathways". The best fit was achieved in the pathway where responses from motor, communication and psychosocial domains were summarized into 3 super-items and where some items were split because of differential item functioning (DIF) relative to left and right hemisphere location (χ2 (10) = 14.48, p = 0.15). Re-scoring of items showing disordered thresholds did not significantly improve the overall model fit. The UK FIM+FAM with domain super-items satisfies expectations of the unidimensional Rasch model without the need for re-scoring. A conversion table was produced to convert the total scale scores into interval-level data based on person estimates of the Rasch model. The clinical benefits of interval-transformed scores require further evaluation.

  9. Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Anna; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Taft, Charles; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa

    2015-02-12

    Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model. A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale. An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales. This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

  10. Rasch analysis of the patient-rated wrist evaluation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Esakki, Saravanan; MacDermid, Joy C; Vincent, Joshua I; Packham, Tara L; Walton, David; Grewal, Ruby

    2018-01-01

    The Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) was developed as a wrist joint specific measure of pain and disability and evidence of sound validity has been accumulated through classical psychometric methods. Rasch analysis (RA) has been endorsed as a newer method for analyzing the clinical measurement properties of self-report outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the PRWE using Rasch modeling. We employed the Rasch model to assess overall fit, response scaling, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF), local dependency, unidimensionality and person separation index (PSI). A convenience sample of 382 patients with distal radius fracture was recruited from the hand and upper limb clinic at large academic healthcare organization, London, Ontario, Canada, 6-month post-injury scores of the PRWE was used. RA was conducted on the 3 subscales (pain, specific activities, and usual activities) of the PRWE separately. The pain subscale adequately fit the Rasch model when item 4 "Pain - When it is at its worst" was deleted to eliminate non-uniform DIF by age group, and item 5 "How often do you have pain" was rescored by collapsing into 8 intervals to eliminate disordered thresholds. Uniform DIF for "Use my affected hand to push up from the chair" (by work status) and "Use bathroom tissue with my affected hand" (by injured hand) was addressed by splitting the items for analysis. After background rescoring of 2 items in pain subscale, 2 items in specific activities and 3 items in usual activities, all three subscales of the PRWE were well targeted and had high reliability (PSI = 0.86). These changes provided a unidimensional, interval-level scaled measure. Like a previous analysis of the Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation, this study found the PRWE could be fit to the Rasch model with rescoring of multiple items. However, the modifications required to achieve fit were not the same across studies, our fit statistics also suggested one

  11. FacetModeller: Software for manual creation, manipulation and analysis of 3D surface-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, Peter G.; Carter-McAuslan, Angela E.; Dunham, Michael W.; Jones, Drew J.; Nalepa, Mariella; Squires, Chelsea L.; Tycholiz, Cassandra J.; Vallée, Marc A.; Farquharson, Colin G.

    2018-01-01

    The creation of 3D models is commonplace in many disciplines. Models are often built from a collection of tessellated surfaces. To apply numerical methods to such models it is often necessary to generate a mesh of space-filling elements that conforms to the model surfaces. While there are meshing algorithms that can do so, they place restrictive requirements on the surface-based models that are rarely met by existing 3D model building software. Hence, we have developed a Java application named FacetModeller, designed for efficient manual creation, modification and analysis of 3D surface-based models destined for use in numerical modelling.

  12. Bully-Victimization Scale: Using Rasch Modeling in the Analysis of a Qualitative Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Marybeth

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether the data from the qualitative study fit Rasch model requirements for the definition of a measure, as well as to address concern in the extant literature regarding the appropriate number of items needed in analysis to assure unidimensionality. The self-report victimization scale was…

  13. Using the Mixed Rasch Model to analyze data from the beliefs and attitudes about memory survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett V; Ying, Yuping; Brown, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Mixed Rasch Model (MRM) to analyze data from the Beliefs and Attitudes About Memory Survey (BAMS; Brown, Garry, Silver, and Loftus, 1997). We used the original 5-point BAMS data to investigate the functioning of the "Neutral" category via threshold analysis under a 2-class MRM solution. The "Neutral" category was identified as not eliciting the model expected responses and observations in the "Neutral" category were subsequently treated as missing data. For the BAMS data without the "Neutral" category, exploratory MRM analyses specifying up to 5 latent classes were conducted to evaluate data-model fit using the consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC). For each of three BAMS subscales, a two latent class solution was identified as fitting the mixed Rasch rating scale model the best. Results regarding threshold analysis, person parameters, and item fit based on the final models are presented and discussed as well as the implications of this study.

  14. Rasch analysis of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps scale.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Megan; Morris, Christopher; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Horton, Mike C

    2017-02-01

    Aim To assess whether the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) 36-item total scale and subscales fit the unidimensional Rasch model. Method The CATCH was administered to 1881 children, aged 7-16 years in a cross-sectional survey. Data were used from a random sample of 416 for the initial Rasch analysis. The analysis was performed on the 36-item scale and then separately for each subscale. The analysis explored fit to the Rasch model in terms of overall scale fit, individual item fit, item response categories, and unidimensionality. Item bias for gender and school level was also assessed. Revised scales were then tested on an independent second random sample of 415 children. Results Analyses indicated that the 36-item overall scale was not unidimensional and did not fit the Rasch model. Two scales of affective attitudes and behavioural intention were retained after four items were removed from each due to misfit to the Rasch model. Additionally, the scaling was improved when the two most negative response categories were aggregated. There was no item bias by gender or school level on the revised scales. Items assessing cognitive attitudes did not fit the Rasch model and had low internal consistency as a scale. Conclusion Affective attitudes and behavioural intention CATCH sub-scales should be treated separately. Caution should be exercised when using the cognitive subscale. Implications for Rehabilitation The 36-item Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) scale as a whole did not fit the Rasch model; thus indicating a multi-dimensional scale. Researchers should use two revised eight-item subscales of affective attitudes and behavioural intentions when exploring interventions aiming to improve children's attitudes towards disabled people or factors associated with those attitudes. Researchers should use the cognitive subscale with caution, as it did not create a unidimensional and internally consistent scale

  15. A rasch analysis of the Manchester foot pain and disability index

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sara; Roddy, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background There is currently no interval-level measure of foot-related disability and this has hampered research in this area. The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (FPDI) could potentially fill this gap. Objective To assess the fit of the three subscales (function, pain, appearance) of the FPDI to the Rasch unidimensional measurement model in order to form interval-level scores. Methods A two-stage postal survey at a general practice in the UK collected data from 149 adults aged 50 years and over with foot pain. The 17 FPDI items, in three subscales, were assessed for their fit to the Rasch model. Checks were carried out for differential item functioning by age and gender. Results The function and pain items fit the Rasch model and interval-level scores can be constructed. There were too few people without extreme scores on the appearance subscale to allow fit to the Rasch model to be tested. Conclusion The items from the FPDI function and pain subscales can be used to obtain interval level scores for these factors for use in future research studies in older adults. Further work is needed to establish the interval nature of these subscale scores in more diverse populations and to establish the measurement properties of these interval-level scores. PMID:19878536

  16. Development of a Microsoft Excel tool for one-parameter Rasch model of continuous items: an application to a safety attitude survey.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Shao, Yang; Kuo, Shu-Chun

    2017-01-10

    Many continuous item responses (CIRs) are encountered in healthcare settings, but no one uses item response theory's (IRT) probabilistic modeling to present graphical presentations for interpreting CIR results. A computer module that is programmed to deal with CIRs is required. To present a computer module, validate it, and verify its usefulness in dealing with CIR data, and then to apply the model to real healthcare data in order to show how the CIR that can be applied to healthcare settings with an example regarding a safety attitude survey. Using Microsoft Excel VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), we designed a computer module that minimizes the residuals and calculates model's expected scores according to person responses across items. Rasch models based on a Wright map and on KIDMAP were demonstrated to interpret results of the safety attitude survey. The author-made CIR module yielded OUTFIT mean square (MNSQ) and person measures equivalent to those yielded by professional Rasch Winsteps software. The probabilistic modeling of the CIR module provides messages that are much more valuable to users and show the CIR advantage over classic test theory. Because of advances in computer technology, healthcare users who are familiar to MS Excel can easily apply the study CIR module to deal with continuous variables to benefit comparisons of data with a logistic distribution and model fit statistics.

  17. Georg Rasch and Benjamin Wright's Struggle with the Unidimensional Polytomous Model with Sufficient Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2016-01-01

    This article reproduces correspondence between Georg Rasch of The University of Copenhagen and Benjamin Wright of The University of Chicago in the period from January 1966 to July 1967. This correspondence reveals their struggle to operationalize a unidimensional measurement model with sufficient statistics for responses in a set of ordered…

  18. A Model of Job Facet Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Elements of the job that lead to overall job satisfaction were surveyed among public employees. The 17-facet model included promotion, training, supervisor, upper management, organization of work tasks, work stress, work challenge and autonomy, physical work space and equipment, work group, organizational structure, pay, etc. (Author/MH)

  19. Photometric model of diffuse surfaces described as a distribution of interfaced Lambertian facets.

    PubMed

    Simonot, Lionel

    2009-10-20

    The Lambertian model for diffuse reflection is widely used for the sake of its simplicity. Nevertheless, this model is known to be inaccurate in describing a lot of real-world objects, including those that present a matte surface. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a photometric model where the surfaces are described as a distribution of facets where each facet consists of a flat interface on a Lambertian background. Compared to the Lambertian model, it includes two additional physical parameters: an interface roughness parameter and the ratio between the refractive indices of the background binder and of the upper medium. The Torrance-Sparrow model--distribution of strictly specular facets--and the Oren-Nayar model--distribution of strictly Lambertian facets--appear as special cases.

  20. Rough surface scattering based on facet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khamsi, H. R.; Fung, A. K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    A model for the radar return from bare ground was developed to calculate the radar cross section of bare ground and the effect of the frequency averaging on the reduction of the variance of the return. It is shown that, by assuming that the distribution of the slope to be Gaussian and that the distribution of the length of the facet to be in the form of the positive side of a Gaussian distribution, the results are in good agreement with experimental data collected by an 8- to 18-GHz radar spectrometer system. It is also shown that information on the exact correlation length of the small structure on the ground is not necessary; an effective correlation length may be calculated based on the facet model and the wavelength of the incident wave.

  1. Psychometric validation of the Persian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale using classic test theory and Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Nilsen, Per; Griffiths, Mark D; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), a six-item self-report scale that is a brief and effective psychometric instrument for assessing at-risk social media addiction on the Internet. However, its psychometric properties in Persian have never been examined and no studies have applied Rasch analysis for the psychometric testing. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian BSMAS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models among 2,676 Iranian adolescents. Methods In addition to construct validity, measurement invariance in CFA and differential item functioning (DIF) in Rasch analysis across gender were tested for in the Persian BSMAS. Results Both CFA [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.057; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.039] and Rasch (infit MnSq = 0.88-1.28; outfit MnSq = 0.86-1.22) confirmed the unidimensionality of the BSMAS. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA including metric invariance (ΔCFI = -0.001; ΔSRMR = 0.003; ΔRMSEA = -0.005) and scalar invariance (ΔCFI = -0.002; ΔSRMR = 0.005; ΔRMSEA = 0.001) across gender. No item displayed DIF (DIF contrast = -0.48 to 0.24) in Rasch across gender. Conclusions Given the Persian BSMAS was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess how an adolescent is addicted to social media on the Internet. Moreover, users of the instrument may comfortably compare the sum scores of the BSMAS across gender.

  2. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in Testlet-Based Items Using the Rasch Testlet Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a procedure for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous and polytomous items in testlet-based tests, whereby DIF is taken into account by adding DIF parameters into the Rasch testlet model. Simulations were conducted to assess recovery of the DIF and other parameters. Two independent variables, test type…

  3. Rasch analysis of Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction in nursing population.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nora; Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Danilov, Alyona

    2017-01-01

    One of the most commonly used tools for measuring job satisfaction in nursing is the Stamps Index of Work Satisfaction. Several studies have reported on the reliability of the Stamps' tool based on traditional statistical model. The aim of this study was to apply the Rasch model to examine the adequacy of Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction for measuring nurses' job satisfaction cross-culturally and to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument using the Rasch criteria. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a sample of 556 registered nurses from two countries. The RUMM 2030 software was used to analyse the psychometric properties of the Index of Work Satisfaction. The persons mean location of -0.018 approximated the items mean of 0.00, suggesting a good alignment of the measure and the traits being measured. However, at the items level, some items were misfiting to the Rasch model.

  4. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  5. An in-depth psychometric analysis of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale: calibration with Rasch-Andrich model.

    PubMed

    Arias González, Víctor B; Crespo Sierra, María Teresa; Arias Martínez, Benito; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P

    2015-09-23

    The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is inarguably one of the best-known instruments in the field of resilience assessment. However, the criteria for the psychometric quality of the instrument were based only on classical test theory. The aim of this paper has focused on the calibration of the CD-RISC with a nonclinical sample of 444 adults using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model, in order to clarify its structure and analyze its psychometric properties at the level of item. Two items showed misfit to the model and were eliminated. The remaining 22 items form basically a unidimensional scale. The CD-RISC has good psychometric properties. The fit of both the items and the persons to the Rasch model was good, and the response categories were functioning properly. Two of the items showed differential item functioning. The CD-RISC has an obvious ceiling effect, which suggests to include more difficult items in future versions of the scale.

  6. Controlling the judge variable in grading essay-type items: an application of Rasch analyses to the recruitment exam for Korean public school teachers.

    PubMed

    Chae, S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the Rasch measurement model can be used to control the effects of judge variable on the grading of essay-type items in the recruitment test for Korean teachers. Special attention is given to two aspects of judges' involvement in the grading. One is to identify a way to minimize the variation of grading due to judge severity. The other concern is to figure out a way to reduce the number of judges without threatening objectivity of ability estimates. Results from the FACETS analyses tell us not only how much grading standards vary among judges and how to adjust them but also it produces comparably reliable ability estimates with fewer judges.

  7. Evaluating the Bookmark Judgments of Standard-Setting Panelists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new approach for evaluating the judgments of standard-setting panelists within the context of the bookmark procedure. The bookmark procedure is widely used for setting performance standards on high-stakes assessments. A many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model is proposed for evaluating the bookmark judgments of…

  8. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among Chinese cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianchai; Chen, Ziyan; Jin, Ling; Gao, Wuyou; Qu, Bo; Zuo, Yajing; Liu, Rongjiao; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Chinese cataract population. A total of 275 participants with unilateral or bilateral cataract were recruited to complete the Chinese version of HADS. The patients' demographic and ophthalmic characteristics were documented. Rasch analysis was conducted to examine the model fit statistics, the thresholds ordering of the polytomous items, targeting, person separation index and reliability, local dependency, unidimentionality, differential item functioning (DIF) and construct validity of the HADS individual and summary measures. Rasch analysis was performed on anxiety and depression subscales as well as HADS-Total score respectively. The items of original HADS-Anxiety, HADS-Depression and HADS-Total demonstrated evidence of misfit of the Rasch model. Removing items A7 for anxiety subscale and rescoring items D14 for depression subscale significantly improved Rasch model fit. A 12-item higher order total scale with further removal of D12 was found to fit the Rasch model. The modified items had ordered response thresholds. No uniform DIF was detected, whereas notable non-uniform DIF in high-ability group was found. The revised cut-off points were given for the modified anxiety and depression subscales. The modified version of HADS with HADS-A and HADS-D as subscale and HADS-T as a higher-order measure is a reliable and valid instrument that may be useful for assessing anxiety and depression states in Chinese cataract population.

  9. ISYQOL: a Rasch-consistent questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in adolescents with spinal deformities.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Sciumè, Luciana; Donzelli, Sabrina; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    Spinal deformities are commonly associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Several questionnaires (eg, Scoliosis Research Society-24 [SRS-24] and Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22]) have been developed to evaluate HRQOL in these conditions. In adults as well as during growth, the HRQOL is considered one of the most relevant outcomes of both conservative and surgical treatments. Rasch analysis is a powerful statistical technique for developing high-quality and valid questionnaires. The SRS-24 and SRS-22 have been evaluated using the Rasch analysis but showed poor measurement properties. Thus, a proper measure of HRQOL in people with a spine condition is still missing. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire that is totally Rasch consistent for measuring the HRQOL in young people with a spine condition. This is a cross-sectional study for developing a new HRQOL measure. A total of 402 participants with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or Scheuermann juvenile kyphosis were included in the study. The outcome measure used was the Italian Spine Youth Quality of Life (ISYQOL) questionnaire. The study consisted of different stages: a conventional approach content analysis, an opinion poll among clinicians trained in spine deformities, and the Rasch analysis (partial credit model). The Rasch analysis showed that all items of the ISYQOL questionnaire had ordered thresholds and a good fit to the model. Differential item functioning was present for Item 1, with bracing only, and was solved with a conventional items splitting procedure. The ISYQOL item map spans an adequate range of HRQOL. The principal component analysis for Rasch residuals showed, in practical terms, the ISYQOL unidimensionality. The reliability of ISYQOL was high enough so that approximately three significantly different levels of HRQOL could be discerned. Two questionnaire versions were provided for patients with and without the brace, respectively. ISYQOL is the first HRQOL

  10. Should the SCOPA-COG be modified? A Rasch analysis perspective.

    PubMed

    Forjaz, M J; Frades-Payo, B; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C; Ayala, A; Martinez-Martin, P

    2010-02-01

    The SCales for Outcomes in PArkinson's disease-Cognition (SCOPA-COG) is a specific measure of cognitive function for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Previous studies, under the frame of the classic test theory, indicate satisfactory psychometric properties. The Rasch model, an item response theory approach, provides new information about the scale, as well as results in a linear scale. This study aims at analysing the SCOPA-COG according to the Rasch model and, on the basis of results, suggesting modification to the SCOPA-COG. Fit to the Rasch model was analysed using a sample of 384 PD patients. A good fit was obtained after rescoring for disordered thresholds. The person separation index, a reliability measure, was 0.83. Differential item functioning was observed by age for three items and by gender for one item. The SCOPA-COG is a unidimensional measure of global cognitive function in PD patients, with good scale targeting and no empirical evidence for use of the subscale scores. Its adequate reliability and internal construct validity were supported. The SCOPA-COG, with the proposed scoring scheme, generates true linear interval scores.

  11. Comparison of formula and number-right scoring in undergraduate medical training: a Rasch model analysis.

    PubMed

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Medema, Harro; Collares, Carlos Fernando; Schuwirth, Lambert; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Tio, René A

    2017-11-09

    Progress testing is an assessment tool used to periodically assess all students at the end-of-curriculum level. Because students cannot know everything, it is important that they recognize their lack of knowledge. For that reason, the formula-scoring method has usually been used. However, where partial knowledge needs to be taken into account, the number-right scoring method is used. Research comparing both methods has yielded conflicting results. As far as we know, in all these studies, Classical Test Theory or Generalizability Theory was used to analyze the data. In contrast to these studies, we will explore the use of the Rasch model to compare both methods. A 2 × 2 crossover design was used in a study where 298 students from four medical schools participated. A sample of 200 previously used questions from the progress tests was selected. The data were analyzed using the Rasch model, which provides fit parameters, reliability coefficients, and response option analysis. The fit parameters were in the optimal interval ranging from 0.50 to 1.50, and the means were around 1.00. The person and item reliability coefficients were higher in the number-right condition than in the formula-scoring condition. The response option analysis showed that the majority of dysfunctional items emerged in the formula-scoring condition. The findings of this study support the use of number-right scoring over formula scoring. Rasch model analyses showed that tests with number-right scoring have better psychometric properties than formula scoring. However, choosing the appropriate scoring method should depend not only on psychometric properties but also on self-directed test-taking strategies and metacognitive skills.

  12. The many facets of auditory display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  13. Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: A Rasch Analysis of the Portuguese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Jose P.; Silva, Jose T.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) in a sample of Portuguese secondary education students using the Rasch model. The results indicate that the 25 items of the CDSE-SF are well fitted to a latent unidimensional structure, as required by Rasch modeling. The response…

  14. Formulating the Rasch Differential Item Functioning Model under the Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation Context and Its Comparison with Mantel-Haenszel Procedure in Short Test and Small Sample Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu; Wilson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborates the Rasch differential item functioning (DIF) model formulation under the marginal maximum likelihood estimation context. Also, the Rasch DIF model performance was examined and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure in small sample and short test length conditions through simulations. The theoretically known…

  15. Rasch Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in Workers with Traumatic Limb Injuries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Yu, Wan-Hui; Huang, Chien-Yu; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply Rasch analysis to examine the unidimensionality and reliability of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Furthermore, if the items of the GSE fitted the Rasch model's assumptions, we transformed the raw sum ordinal scores of the GSE into Rasch interval scores. Methods A total of 1076 participants completed the GSE at 1 month post injury. Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality and person reliability of the GSE. The unidimensionality of the GSE was verified by determining whether the items fit the Rasch model's assumptions: (1) item fit indices: infit and outfit mean square (MNSQ) ranged from 0.6 to 1.4; and (2) the eigenvalue of the first factor extracted from principal component analysis (PCA) for residuals was <2. Person reliability was calculated. Results The unidimensionality of the 10-item GSE was supported in terms of good item fit statistics (infit and outfit MNSQ ranging from 0.92 to 1.32) and acceptable eigenvalues (1.6) of the first factor of the PCA, with person reliability = 0.89. Consequently, the raw sum scores of the GSE were transformed into Rasch scores. Conclusions The results indicated that the items of GSE are unidimensional and have acceptable person reliability in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Additionally, the raw sum scores of the GSE can be transformed into Rasch interval scores for prospective users to quantify workers' levels of self-efficacy and to conduct further statistical analyses.

  16. Measuring Math Anxiety (in Spanish) with the Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Two successive studies probed the psychometric properties of a Math Anxiety questionnaire (in Spanish) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Participants were 411 and 216 Spanish adolescents. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the scale with both the Fennema and Sherman Attitude Scale and a math achievement test. The results show that the scores are psychometrically appropriate, and replicate those reported in meta-analyses: medium-sized negative correlations with achievement and with attitudes toward mathematics, as well as moderate sex-related differences (with girls presenting higher anxiety levels than boys).

  17. Rasch models suggested the satisfactory psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief among lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Yang, Szu-Chun; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Jung-Der

    2017-03-01

    The study examined whether the items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire can assess its four underlying domains (Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environment) in a sample of lung cancer patients. All patients ( n = 1150) were recruited from a medical center in Tainan, and each participant completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief. Several Rasch rating scale models were used to examine the data-model fit, and Rasch analyses corroborated that each domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief could be unidimensional. Although three items were found to have a poor fit, all the other items fit the unidimensionality with ordered thresholds.

  18. Psychometric Assessment of the Job Embeddedness Instrument: A Rasch Perspective.

    PubMed

    Reitz, O Ed; Smith, Everett V

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the job embeddedness instrument (JEI) using a Rasch perspective in a sample of Registered Nurses (RNs). A secondary analysis of data was conducted from a previous study examining the job embeddedness of rural and urban RNs. A Rasch analysis supported the six underlying dimensions: organizational fit, community fit, organizational links, community links, organizational sacrifice, and community sacrifice. The results of this study also demonstrate additional evidence of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the JEI inferences with a sample of RNs. In total, 38 of 39 items of the original JEI were retained in the model. The psychometric evaluation attained through this multidimensional Rasch analysis provided support for using the JEI to assess the level of job embeddedness for RNs.

  19. On an Extension of the Rasch Model to the Case of Polychotomously Scored Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dorothee K.

    The Rasch model for the probability of a person's response to an item is extended to the case where this response depends on a set of scoring or category weights, in addition to person and item parameters. The maximum likelihood approach introduced by Wright for the dichotomous case is applicable here also, and it is shown to yield a unique…

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Nurse Recruitment: Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire short form.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Austyn; Watson, Roger; Stenhouse, Rosie; Hale, Claire

    2015-12-01

    To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form in September 2013. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Participants (N = 938) completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Rasch analysis showed the majority of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form items made a unique contribution to the latent trait of emotional intelligence. Five items did not fit the model and differential item functioning (gender) accounted for this misfit. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consisting of: self-confidence, empathy, uncertainty and social connection. All five misfitting items from the Rasch analysis belonged to the 'social connection' factor. The concurrent use of Rasch and factor analysis allowed for novel interpretation of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Much of the response variation in Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form can be accounted for by the social connection factor. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Note on the Computation of the Second-Order Derivatives of the Elementary Symmetric Functions in the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formann, Anton K.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that for equal parameters explicit formulas exist, facilitating the application of the Newton-Raphson procedure to estimate the parameters in the Rasch model and related models according to the conditional maximum likelihood principle. (Author/LMO)

  2. Item Information in the Rasch Model. Project Psychometric Aspects of Item Banking No. 34. Research Report 88-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelen, Ron J. H.; And Others

    Fisher's information measure for the item difficulty parameter in the Rasch model and its marginal and conditional formulations are investigated. It is shown that expected item information in the unconditional model equals information in the marginal model, provided the assumption of sampling examinees from an ability distribution is made. For the…

  3. Stroke Self-efficacy Questionnaire: a Rasch-refined measure of confidence post stroke.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Afsane; Aspden, Trefor; Jones, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    Measuring self-efficacy during rehabilitation provides an important insight into understanding recovery post stroke. A Rasch analysis of the Stroke Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) was undertaken to establish its use as a clinically meaningful and scientifically rigorous measure. One hundred and eighteen stroke patients completed the SSEQ with the help of an interviewer. Participants were recruited from local acute stroke units and community stroke rehabilitation teams. Data were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis conducted using AMOS and Rasch analysis conducted using RUMM2030 software. Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analyses demonstrated the presence of two separate scales that measure stroke survivors' self-efficacy with: i) self-management and ii) functional activities. Guided by Rasch analyses, the response categories of these two scales were collapsed from an 11-point to a 4-point scale. Modified scales met the expectations of the Rasch model. Items satisfied the Rasch requirements (overall and individual item fit, local response independence, differential item functioning, unidimensionality). Furthermore, the two subscales showed evidence of good construct validity. The new SSEQ has good psychometric properties and is a clinically useful assessment of self-efficacy after stroke. The scale measures stroke survivors' self-efficacy with self-management and activities as two unidimensional constructs. It is recommended for use in clinical and research interventions, and in evaluating stroke self-management interventions.

  4. Rasch Measurement: A Response to Payanides, Robinson and Tymms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    A response is made to a paper that urges the use of the Rasch model for educational assessment. This paper argues that the model is inadequate and that claims for its efficacy are exaggerated and technically weak.

  5. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

    2014-04-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  6. X-Ray Your Data with Rasch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David D.; Boman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    By using the Rasch model, much detailed diagnostic information is available to developers of survey and assessment instruments and to the researchers who use them. We outline an approach to the analysis of data obtained from the administration of survey instruments that can enable researchers to recognise and diagnose difficulties with those…

  7. Calibrating perceived understanding and competency in probability concepts: A diagnosis of learning difficulties based on Rasch probabilistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Porter, Anne; Salikin, Masniyati; Ghani, Nor Azura Md

    2015-12-01

    Students' understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. Competency on the other hand is often measured separately in the form of test structure. This study was set out to show that perceived understanding and competency can be calibrated and assessed together using Rasch measurement tools. Forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW have volunteered to participate in the study. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model is used to calibrate the responses from two survey instruments and investigate the interactions between them. Data were captured from the e-learning platform Moodle where students provided their responses through an online quiz. The study shows that majority of the students perceived little understanding about conditional and independent events prior to learning about it but tend to demonstrate a slightly higher competency level afterward. Based on the Rasch map, there is indication of some increase in learning and knowledge about some probability concepts at the end of the two weeks lessons on probability concepts.

  8. Using the Mixture Rasch Model to Explore Knowledge Resources Students Invoke in Mathematic and Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…

  9. Rasch Analysis for Instrument Development: Why, When, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes Rasch analysis psychometric techniques and how such techniques can be used by life sciences education researchers to guide the development and use of surveys and tests. Specifically, Rasch techniques can be used to document and evaluate the measurement functioning of such instruments. Rasch techniques also allow researchers to…

  10. Exploring the measurement properties of the osteopathy clinical teaching questionnaire using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Brett

    2018-01-01

    Clinical teaching evaluations are common in health profession education programs to ensure students are receiving a quality clinical education experience. Questionnaires students use to evaluate their clinical teachers have been developed in professions such as medicine and nursing. The development of a questionnaire that is specifically for the osteopathy on-campus, student-led clinic environment is warranted. Previous work developed the 30-item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. The current study utilised Rasch analysis to investigate the construct validity of the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire and provide evidence for the validity argument through fit to the Rasch model. Senior osteopathy students at four institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom rated their clinical teachers using the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. Three hundred and ninety-nine valid responses were received and the data were evaluated for fit to the Rasch model. Reliability estimations (Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega) were also evaluated for the final model. The initial analysis demonstrated the data did not fit the Rasch model. Accordingly, modifications to the questionnaire were made including removing items, removing person responses, and rescoring one item. The final model contained 12 items and fit to the Rasch model was adequate. Support for unidimensionality was demonstrated through both the Principal Components Analysis/t-test, and the Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega reliability estimates. Analysis of the questionnaire using McDonald's omega hierarchical supported a general factor (quality of clinical teaching in osteopathy). The evidence for unidimensionality and the presence of a general factor support the calculation of a total score for the questionnaire as a sufficient statistic. Further work is now required to investigate the reliability of the 12-item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire to provide evidence

  11. Using the Rasch Measurement Model in Psychometric Analysis of the Family Effectiveness Measure

    PubMed Central

    McCreary, Linda L.; Conrad, Karen M.; Conrad, Kendon J.; Scott, Christy K; Funk, Rodney R.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Valid assessment of family functioning can play a vital role in optimizing client outcomes. Because family functioning is influenced by family structure, socioeconomic context, and culture, existing measures of family functioning--primarily developed with nuclear, middle class European American families--may not be valid assessments of families in diverse populations. The Family Effectiveness Measure was developed to address this limitation. Objectives To test the Family Effectiveness Measure with data from a primarily low-income African American convenience sample, using the Rasch measurement model. Method A sample of 607 adult women completed the measure. Rasch analysis was used to assess unidimensionality, response category functioning, item fit, person reliability, differential item functioning by race and parental status, and item hierarchy. Criterion-related validity was tested using correlations with five other variables related to family functioning. Results The Family Effectiveness Measure measures two separate constructs: The effective family functioning construct was a psychometrically sound measure of the target construct that was more efficient due to the deletion of 22 items. The ineffective family functioning construct consisted of 16 of those deleted items but was not as strong psychometrically. Items in both constructs evidenced no differential item functioning by race. Criterion-related validity was supported for both. Discussion In contrast to the prevailing conceptualization that family functioning is a single construct, assessed by positively and negatively worded items, use of the Rasch analysis suggested the existence of two constructs. While the effective family functioning is a strong and efficient measure of family functioning, the ineffective family functioning will require additional item development and psychometric testing. PMID:23636342

  12. Comparison of CTT and Rasch-based approaches for the analysis of longitudinal Patient Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Blanchard, Claire; Mirallié, Eric; Sébille, Véronique

    2011-04-15

    Health sciences frequently deal with Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data for the evaluation of concepts, in particular health-related quality of life, which cannot be directly measured and are often called latent variables. Two approaches are commonly used for the analysis of such data: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). Longitudinal data are often collected to analyze the evolution of an outcome over time. The most adequate strategy to analyze longitudinal latent variables, which can be either based on CTT or IRT models, remains to be identified. This strategy must take into account the latent characteristic of what PROs are intended to measure as well as the specificity of longitudinal designs. A simple and widely used IRT model is the Rasch model. The purpose of our study was to compare CTT and Rasch-based approaches to analyze longitudinal PRO data regarding type I error, power, and time effect estimation bias. Four methods were compared: the Score and Mixed models (SM) method based on the CTT approach, the Rasch and Mixed models (RM), the Plausible Values (PV), and the Longitudinal Rasch model (LRM) methods all based on the Rasch model. All methods have shown comparable results in terms of type I error, all close to 5 per cent. LRM and SM methods presented comparable power and unbiased time effect estimations, whereas RM and PV methods showed low power and biased time effect estimations. This suggests that RM and PV methods should be avoided to analyze longitudinal latent variables. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Clarification to "Examining Rater Errors in the Assessment of Written Composition with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehard, George, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data presented in figure three of the article cited may be misleading in that the automatic scaling procedure used by the computer program that generated the histogram highlighted spikes that would look different with different histogram methods. (SLD)

  14. Defeaturing CAD models using a geometry-based size field and facet-based reduction operators.

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan; Owen, Steven James

    2010-04-01

    We propose a method to automatically defeature a CAD model by detecting irrelevant features using a geometry-based size field and a method to remove the irrelevant features via facet-based operations on a discrete representation. A discrete B-Rep model is first created by obtaining a faceted representation of the CAD entities. The candidate facet entities are then marked for reduction by using a geometry-based size field. This is accomplished by estimating local mesh sizes based on geometric criteria. If the field value at a facet entity goes below a user specified threshold value then it is identified as an irrelevant featuremore » and is marked for reduction. The reduction of marked facet entities is primarily performed using an edge collapse operator. Care is taken to retain a valid geometry and topology of the discrete model throughout the procedure. The original model is not altered as the defeaturing is performed on a separate discrete model. Associativity between the entities of the discrete model and that of original CAD model is maintained in order to decode the attributes and boundary conditions applied on the original CAD entities onto the mesh via the entities of the discrete model. Example models are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.« less

  15. Stability of Rasch Scales over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…

  16. Evolving faceted surfaces: From continuum modeling, to geometric simulation, to mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Scott A.

    We first consider the directional solidification, in two dimensions, of a dilute binary alloy having a large anisotropy of surface energy, where the sample is pulled in a high-energy direction such that the planar state is thermodynamically prohibited. Analyses including reduction of dynamics, matched asymptotic analysis, and energy minimization are used to show that the interface assumes a faceted profile with small wavelength. Questions on stability and other dynamic behavior lead to the derivation of a facet-velocity law. This shows the that faceted steady solutions are stable in the absence of constitutional supercooling, while in its presence, coarsening replaces cell formation as the mechanism of instability. We next proceed to introduce a computational-geometry tool which, given a facet-velocity law, performs large-scale simulations of fully-faceted coarsening surfaces, first in the special case with only three allowed facet orientations (threefold symmetry), and then for arbitrary surfaces. Topological events including coarsening are comprehensively considered, and are treated explicitly by our method using both a priori knowledge of event outcomes and a novel graph-rewriting algorithm. While careful attention must be paid to both non-unique topological events and the imposition of a discrete time-stepping scheme, the resulting method allows rapid simulation of large surfaces and easy extraction of statistical data. Example statistics are provided for the threefold case based on simulations totaling one million facets. Finally, a mean-field theory is developed for the scale-invariant length distributions observed during the coarsening of one-dimensional faceted surfaces. This theory closely follows the LSW theory of Ostwald ripening in two-phase systems, but the mechanism of coarsening in faceted surfaces requires the derivation of additional terms to model the coalescence of facets. The model is solved by the exponential distribution, but agreement with

  17. Rasch-modeling the Portuguese SOCRATES in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo; Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R; Gamito, Pedro; Trigo, Hélder

    2010-06-01

    The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) assesses motivation for treatment in the drug-dependent population. The development of adequate measures of motivation is needed in order to properly understand the role of this construct in rehabilitation. This study probed the psychometric properties of the SOCRATES in the Portuguese population by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, which allows the conjoint measurement of items and persons. The participants were 166 substance abusers under treatment for their addiction. Results show that the functioning of the five response categories is not optimal; our re-analysis indicates that a three-category system is the most appropriate one. By using this response category system, both model fit and estimation accuracy are improved. The discussion takes into account other factors such as item format and content in order to make suggestions for the development of better motivation-for-treatment scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of fields…

  19. Job Stress, Employee Health, and Organizational Effectiveness: A Facet Analysis, Model, and Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; Newman, John E.

    1978-01-01

    The empirical research on job stress and employee health is reviewed within the context of six facets (environmental, personal, process, human consequences, organizational consequences, and time) of a seven facet conceptualization of the job stress-employee health research domain. Models are proposed for tying the facets together. (Author/SJL)

  20. Rasch analysis indicates that the Simple Shoulder Test is robust, but minor item modifications and attention to gender differences should be considered.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jayaprakash; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David; Athwal, George S

    Repeated cross-sectional study. Multiple studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) through traditional methods supporting it as valid and reliable. Since the evidentiary pool supporting the use of the SST has only partially addressed key measurement properties and the development of SST pre-dates the common use of Rasch model, validation of SST has become a necessity to establish as a reliable and valid PRO for shoulder conditions. To date, no study has analysed SST through Rasch, a modern method for analyzing properties of measurement tools. The purpose of this study was to perform a Rasch analysis of the SST to assess the overall fit to the Rasch model, individual item fit, gender-based DIF, local dependency of items and the unidimensionality of the scale. A secondary purpose was to determine the stability of fit to the Rasch model when captured pre-operatively or post-operatively. Patients completed SST before surgery and between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Rasch analysis was performed to analyse the carious properties of SST through the Rasch model. SST appears to be robust when tested against the Rasch model. Rasch analysis has highlighted potential areas for to improve in the SST questionnaire. The potential areas to improve are to consider questions that measure the ability of a person to lift the arm above shoulder level and to consider gender differences when measuring the ability to carry weights with the affected arm. This study adds to previous body of empirical evidence arising classical measurement approaches that have suggested that the SST has robust measurement properties, by providing evidence of adequate fit to the Rasch model after minor adjustments. The results of this study should provide confidence to clinicians on SST who wish to use a brief shoulder-specific measure in their practice. The SST appears to be robust when tested against the Rasch model despite some potential areas for

  1. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2014-07-31

    Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients.

  2. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: a latent trait analysis of items from the 'Claim Evaluation Tools' database using Rasch modelling.

    PubMed

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Guttersrud, Øystein; Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-05-25

    The Claim Evaluation Tools database contains multiple-choice items for measuring people's ability to apply the key concepts they need to know to be able to assess treatment claims. We assessed items from the database using Rasch analysis to develop an outcome measure to be used in two randomised trials in Uganda. Rasch analysis is a form of psychometric testing relying on Item Response Theory. It is a dynamic way of developing outcome measures that are valid and reliable. To assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of 88 items addressing 22 key concepts using Rasch analysis. We administrated four sets of multiple-choice items in English to 1114 people in Uganda and Norway, of which 685 were children and 429 were adults (including 171 health professionals). We scored all items dichotomously. We explored summary and individual fit statistics using the RUMM2030 analysis package. We used SPSS to perform distractor analysis. Most items conformed well to the Rasch model, but some items needed revision. Overall, the four item sets had satisfactory reliability. We did not identify significant response dependence between any pairs of items and, overall, the magnitude of multidimensionality in the data was acceptable. The items had a high level of difficulty. Most of the items conformed well to the Rasch model's expectations. Following revision of some items, we concluded that most of the items were suitable for use in an outcome measure for evaluating the ability of children or adults to assess treatment claims. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Rasch analysis of the carers quality of life questionnaire for parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Pillas, Marios; Selai, Caroline; Schrag, Anette

    2017-03-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Carers Quality of Life Questionnaire for Parkinsonism using a Rasch modeling approach and determine the optimal cut-off score. We performed a Rasch analysis of the survey answers of 430 carers of patients with atypical parkinsonism. All of the scale items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and no notable differential item functioning was detected in the items regarding age and disease type. Rating categories were functioning adequately in all scale items. The scale had high reliability (.95) and construct validity and a high degree of precision, distinguishing between 5 distinct groups of carers with different levels of quality of life. A cut-off score of 62 was found to have the optimal screening accuracy based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscores. The results suggest that the Carers Quality of Life Questionnaire for Parkinsonism is a useful scale to assess carers' quality of life and allows analyses requiring interval scaling of variables. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Study of Bias in 2012-Placement Test through Rasch Model in Terms of Gender Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkan, Azmi; Cetin, Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Validity and reliability are among the most crucial characteristics of a test. One of the steps to make sure that a test is valid and reliable is to examine the bias in test items. The purpose of this study was to examine the bias in 2012 Placement Test items in terms of gender variable using Rasch Model in Turkey. The sample of this study was…

  5. Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (R-ODS) for immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    van Nes, S I; Vanhoutte, E K; van Doorn, P A; Hermans, M; Bakkers, M; Kuitwaard, K; Faber, C G; Merkies, I S J

    2011-01-25

    To develop a patient-based, linearly weighted scale that captures activity and social participation limitations in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and gammopathy-related polyneuropathy (MGUSP). A preliminary Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (R-ODS) containing 146 activity and participation items was constructed, based on the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, literature search, and patient interviews. The preliminary R-ODS was assessed twice (interval: 2-4 weeks; test-retest reliability studies) in 294 patients who experienced GBS in the past (n = 174) or currently have stable CIDP (n = 80) or MGUSP (n = 40). Data were analyzed using the Rasch unidimensional measurement model (RUMM2020). The preliminary R-ODS did not meet the Rasch model expectations. Based on disordered thresholds, misfit statistics, item bias, and local dependency, items were systematically removed to improve the model fit, regularly controlling the class intervals and model statistics. Finally, we succeeded in constructing a 24-item scale that fulfilled all Rasch requirements. "Reading a newspaper/book" and "eating" were the 2 easiest items; "standing for hours" and "running" were the most difficult ones. Good validity and reliability were obtained. The R-ODS is a linearly weighted scale that specifically captures activity and social participation limitations in patients with GBS, CIDP, and MGUSP. Compared to the Overall Disability Sum Score, the R-ODS represents a wider range of item difficulties, thereby better targeting patients with different ability levels. If responsive, the R-ODS will be valuable for future clinical trials and follow-up studies in these conditions.

  6. Identifying Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items with the Rasch Model: An Introduction and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study (a) provided a conceptual introduction to differential item functioning (DIF), (b) introduced the multifaceted Rasch rating scale model (MRSM) and an associated statistical procedure for identifying DIF in rating scale items, and (c) applied this procedure to previously collected data from American coaches who responded to the coaching…

  7. Rasch Analysis for Instrument Development: Why, When, and How?

    PubMed Central

    Boone, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes Rasch analysis psychometric techniques and how such techniques can be used by life sciences education researchers to guide the development and use of surveys and tests. Specifically, Rasch techniques can be used to document and evaluate the measurement functioning of such instruments. Rasch techniques also allow researchers to construct “Wright maps” to explain the meaning of a test score or survey score and develop alternative forms of tests and surveys. Rasch techniques provide a mechanism by which the quality of life sciences–related tests and surveys can be optimized and the techniques can be used to provide a context (e.g., what topics a student has mastered) when explaining test and survey results. PMID:27856555

  8. Height of a faceted macrostep for sticky steps in a step-faceting zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2018-02-01

    The driving force dependence of the surface velocity and the average height of faceted merged steps, the terrace-surface slope, and the elementary step velocity are studied using the Monte Carlo method in the nonequilibrium steady state. The Monte Carlo study is based on a lattice model, the restricted solid-on-solid model with point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model). The main focus of this paper is a change of the "kink density" on the vicinal surface. The temperature is selected to be in the step-faceting zone [N. Akutsu, AIP Adv. 6, 035301 (2016), 10.1063/1.4943400] where the vicinal surface is surrounded by the (001) terrace and the (111) faceted step at equilibrium. Long time simulations are performed at this temperature to obtain steady states for the different driving forces that influence the growth/recession of the surface. A Wulff figure of the p-RSOS model is produced through the anomalous surface tension calculated using the density-matrix renormalization group method. The characteristics of the faceted macrostep profile at equilibrium are classified with respect to the connectivity of the surface tension. This surface tension connectivity also leads to a faceting diagram, where the separated areas are, respectively, classified as a Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov zone, step droplet zone, and step-faceting zone. Although the p-RSOS model is a simplified model, the model shows a wide variety of dynamics in the step-faceting zone. There are four characteristic driving forces: Δ μy,Δ μf,Δ μc o , and Δ μR . For the absolute value of the driving force, |Δ μ | is smaller than Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf] , the step attachment-detachments are inhibited, and the vicinal surface consists of (001) terraces and the (111) side surfaces of the faceted macrosteps. For Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf]<|Δ μ |<Δ μc o , the surface grows/recedes intermittently through the two-dimensional (2D) heterogeneous nucleation at the facet edge of the macrostep. For Δ

  9. Using the Rasch measurement model to design a report writing assessment instrument.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Wayne R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the Rasch measurement model was used to develop an assessment instrument designed to measure student ability to write law enforcement incident and investigative reports. The ability to write reports is a requirement of all law enforcement recruits in the state of Michigan and is a part of the state's mandatory basic training curriculum, which is promulgated by the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards (MCOLES). Recently, MCOLES conducted research to modernize its training and testing in the area of report writing. A structured validation process was used, which included: a) an examination of the job tasks of a patrol officer, b) input from content experts, c) a review of the professional research, and d) the creation of an instrument to measure student competency. The Rasch model addressed several measurement principles that were central to construct validity, which were particularly useful for assessing student performances. Based on the results of the report writing validation project, the state established a legitimate connectivity between the report writing standard and the essential job functions of a patrol officer in Michigan. The project also produced an authentic instrument for measuring minimum levels of report writing competency, which generated results that are valid for inferences of student ability. Ultimately, the state of Michigan must ensure the safety of its citizens by licensing only those patrol officers who possess a minimum level of core competency. Maintaining the validity and reliability of both the training and testing processes can ensure that the system for producing such candidates functions as intended.

  10. Predicting dimensions of personality disorder from domains and facets of the Five-Factor Model.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S K; Clark, L A

    2001-04-01

    We compared the utility of several trait models for describing personality disorder in a heterogeneous clinical sample (N = 94). Participants completed the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993b), a self-report measure that assesses traits relevant to personality disorder, and two measures of the Five-Factor Model: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa and McCrae, 1992) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991). Regression analyses indicated substantial overlap between the SNAP scales and the NEO-PI-R facets. In addition, use of the NEO-PI-R facets afforded substantial improvement over the Five-Factor Model domains in predicting interview-based ratings of DSM-IV personality disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), such that the NEO facets and the SNAP scales demonstrated roughly equivalent levels of predictive power. Results support assessment of the full range of NEO-PI-R facets over the Five-Factor Model domains for both research and clinical use.

  11. Update on the Child's Challenging Behaviour Scale following evaluation using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, H M; Pallant, J F; Law, M

    2014-03-01

    The Child's Challenging Behaviour Scale (CCBS) was designed to measure a mother's rating of her child's challenging behaviours. The CCBS was initially developed for mothers of school-aged children with developmental disability and has previously been shown to have good psychometric properties using classical test theory techniques. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to fully evaluate all aspects of the scale, including response format, item fit, dimensionality and targeting. The sample consisted of 152 mothers of a school-aged child (aged 5-18 years) with a disability. Mothers were recruited via websites and mail-out newsletters through not-for-profit organizations that supported families with disabilities. Respondents completed a survey which included the 11 items of the CCBS. Rasch analysis was conducted on these responses using the RUMM2030 package. Rasch analysis of the CCBS revealed serious threshold disordering for nine of the 11 items, suggesting problems with the 5-point response format used for the scale. The neutral midpoint of the response format was subsequently removed to create a 4-point scale. High levels of local dependency were detected among two pairs of items, resulting in the removal of two items (item 7 and item 1). The final nine-item version of the scale (CCBS Version 2) was unidimensional, well targeted, showed good fit to the Rasch model, and strong internal consistency. To achieve fit to the Rasch model it was necessary to make two modifications to the CCBS scale. The resulting nine-item scale with a 4-point response format showed excellent psychometric properties, supporting its internal validity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cultural differences in functional status measurement: analyses of person fit according to the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Custers, J W; Hoijtink, H; van der Net, J; Helders, P J

    2000-01-01

    For many reasons it is preferable to use established health related outcome instruments. The validity of an instrument, however, can be affected when used in another culture or language other than what it was originally developed. In this paper, the outcome on functional status measurement using a preliminary version of the Dutch translated 'Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory' (PEDI) was studied involving a sample of 20 non-disabled Dutch children and American peers, to see if a cross-cultural validation procedure is needed before using the instrument in the Netherlands. The Rasch model was used to analyse the Dutch data. Score profiles were not found to be compatible with the score profiles of American children. In particular, ten items were scored differently with strong indications that these were based on inter-cultural differences. Based on our study, it is argued that cross-cultural validation of the PEDI is necessary before using the instrument in the Netherlands.

  13. Inverse gravity modeling for depth varying density structures through genetic algorithm, triangulated facet representation, and switching routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Thomas Steven

    A hybrid gravity modeling method is developed to investigate the structure of sedimentary mass bodies. The method incorporates as constraints surficial basement/sediment contacts and topography of a mass target with a quadratically varying density distribution. The inverse modeling utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) to scan a wide range of the solution space to determine initial models and the Marquardt-Levenberg (ML) nonlinear inversion to determine final models that meet pre-assigned misfit criteria, thus providing an estimate of model variability and uncertainty. The surface modeling technique modifies Delaunay triangulation by allowing individual facets to be manually constructed and non-convex boundaries to be incorporated into the triangulation scheme. The sedimentary body is represented by a set of uneven prisms and edge elements, comprised of tetrahedrons, capped by polyhedrons. Each underlying prism and edge element's top surface is located by determining its point of tangency with the overlying terrain. The remaining overlying mass is gravitationally evaluated and subtracted from the observation points. Inversion then proceeds in the usual sense, but on an irregular tiered surface with each element's density defined relative to their top surface. Efficiency is particularly important due to the large number of facets evaluated for surface representations and the many repeated element evaluations of the stochastic GA. The gravitation of prisms, triangular faceted polygons, and tetrahedrons can be formulated in different ways, either mathematically or by physical approximations, each having distinct characteristics, such as evaluation time, accuracy over various spatial ranges, and computational singularities. A decision tree or switching routine is constructed for each element by combining these characteristics into a single cohesive package that optimizes the computation for accuracy and speed while avoiding singularities. The GA incorporates a subspace

  14. Validation of VARK learning modalities questionnaire using Rasch analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitkov-Norris, E. D.; Yeghiazarian, A.

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the application of Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of a four sub-scale VARK (Visual, Auditory, Read/Write and Kinaesthetic) learning styles instrument. The results from the analysis show that the Rasch model fits the majority of the VARK questionnaire data and the sample data support the internal validity of the four sub-constructs at 1% level of significance for all but one item. While this suggests that the instrument could potentially be used as a predictor for a person's learning preference orientation, further analysis is necessary to confirm the invariability of the instrument across different user groups across factors such as gender, age, educational and cultural background.

  15. Vertical Scaling with the Rasch Model Utilizing Default and Tight Convergence Settings with WINSTEPS and BILOG-MG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Michael; Omar, Md Hafidz; Pomplun, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study compared vertical scaling results for the Rasch model from BILOG-MG and WINSTEPS. The item and ability parameters for the simulated vocabulary tests were scaled across 11 grades; kindergarten through 10th. Data were based on real data and were simulated under normal and skewed distribution assumptions. WINSTEPS and BILOG-MG were each…

  16. Interpretation of the Rasch Ability and Difficulty Scales for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Richard W.

    Though many test developers have utilized item response theory in their work, few have taken advantage of the potential of item response theory for providing new interpretation procedures that accentuate the educational implications to be drawn from test scores. This paper describes several features, based upon the Rasch difficulty and ability…

  17. Application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model to the Assessment of Quality of Life of Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Laura E.; Arias, Benito; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Navas, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most instruments that assess quality of life have been validated by means of the classical test theory (CTT). However, CTT limitations have resulted in the development of alternative models, such as the Rasch rating scale model (RSM). The main goal of this paper is testing and improving the psychometric properties of the INTEGRAL…

  18. Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN-R-ODS).

    PubMed

    Binda, D; Vanhoutte, E K; Cavaletti, G; Cornblath, D R; Postma, T J; Frigeni, B; Alberti, P; Bruna, J; Velasco, R; Argyriou, A A; Kalofonos, H P; Psimaras, D; Ricard, D; Pace, A; Galiè, E; Briani, C; Dalla Torre, C; Lalisang, R I; Boogerd, W; Brandsma, D; Koeppen, S; Hense, J; Storey, D; Kerrigan, S; Schenone, A; Fabbri, S; Rossi, E; Valsecchi, M G; Faber, C G; Merkies, I S J; Galimberti, S; Lanzani, F; Mattavelli, L; Piatti, M L; Bidoli, P; Cazzaniga, M; Cortinovis, D; Lucchetta, M; Campagnolo, M; Bakkers, M; Brouwer, B; Boogerd, W; Grant, R; Reni, L; Piras, B; Pessino, A; Padua, L; Granata, G; Leandri, M; Ghignotti, I; Plasmati, R; Pastorelli, F; Heimans, J J; Eurelings, M; Meijer, R J; Grisold, W; Lindeck Pozza, E; Mazzeo, A; Toscano, A; Russo, M; Tomasello, C; Altavilla, G; Penas Prado, M; Dominguez Gonzalez, C; Dorsey, S G

    2013-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common neurological side-effect of cancer treatment and may lead to declines in patients' daily functioning and quality of life. To date, there are no modern clinimetrically well-evaluated outcome measures available to assess disability in CIPN patients. The objective of the study was to develop an interval-weighted scale to capture activity limitations and participation restrictions in CIPN patients using the Rasch methodology and to determine its validity and reliability properties. A preliminary Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (pre-R-ODS) comprising 146 items was assessed twice (interval: 2-3 weeks; test-retest reliability) in 281 CIPN patients with a stable clinical condition. The obtained data were subjected to Rasch analyses to determine whether model expectations would be met, and if necessarily, adaptations were made to obtain proper model fit (internal validity). External validity was obtained by correlating the CIPN-R-ODS with the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) neuropathy scales and the Pain-Intensity Numeric-Rating-Scale (PI-NRS). The preliminary R-ODS did not meet Rasch model's expectations. Items displaying misfit statistics, disordered thresholds, item bias or local dependency were systematically removed. The final CIPN-R-ODS consisting of 28 items fulfilled all the model's expectations with proper validity and reliability, and was unidimensional. The final CIPN-R-ODS is a Rasch-built disease-specific, interval measure suitable to detect disability in CIPN patients and bypasses the shortcomings of classical test theory ordinal-based measures. Its use is recommended in future clinical trials in CIPN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlling Guessing Bias in the Dichotomous Rasch Model Applied to a Large-Scale, Vertically Scaled Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The…

  20. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Stage Development: A Rasch Re-Analysis of Longitudinal Socio-Moral Reasoning Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boom, Jan; Wouters, Hans; Keller, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Kohlberg's characterization of moral development as displaying an invariant hierarchical order of structurally consistent stages is losing ground. However, by applying Rasch analysis, Dawson recently gave new interpretation and support to his characterization of stage development. Using Rasch models, we replicated and strengthened her findings in…

  1. Developing the Impossible Figures Task to Assess Visual-Spatial Talents among Chinese Students: A Rasch Measurement Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Data of item responses to the Impossible Figures Task (IFT) from 492 Chinese primary, secondary, and university students were analyzed using the dichotomous Rasch measurement model. Item difficulty estimates and person ability estimates located on the same logit scale revealed that the pooled sample of Chinese students, who were relatively highly…

  2. Measuring situational avoidance in older drivers: An application of Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jessica; Conlon, Elizabeth; Ownsworth, Tamara; Morrissey, Shirley

    2016-02-01

    Situational avoidance is a form of driving self-regulation at the strategic level of driving behaviour. It has typically been defined as the purposeful avoidance of driving situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. To date, assessment of the psychometric properties of existing scales that measure situational avoidance has been sparse. This study examined the contribution of Rasch analysis to the situational avoidance construct. Three hundred and ninety-nine Australian drivers (M=66.75, SD=10.14, range: 48-91 years) completed the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ). Following removal of the item Parallel Parking, the scale conformed to a Rasch model, showing good person separation, sufficient reliability, little disordering of thresholds, and no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender. The residuals were independent supporting the assumption of unidimensionality and in conforming to a Rasch model, SAQ items were found to be hierarchical or cumulative. Increased avoidance was associated with factors known to be related to driving self-regulation more broadly, including older age, female gender, reduced driving space and frequency, reporting a change in driving in the past five years and poorer indices of health (i.e., self-rated mood, vision and cognitive function). Overall, these results support the use of the SAQ as a psychometrically sound measure of situational avoidance. Application of Rasch analysis to this area of research advances understanding of the driving self-regulation construct and its practice by drivers in baby boomer and older adult generations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aligning physical elements with persons' attitude: an approach using Rasch measurement theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, F. R.; Henson, B.

    2013-09-01

    Affective engineering uses mathematical models to convert the information obtained from persons' attitude to physical elements into an ergonomic design. However, applications in the domain have not in many cases met measurement assumptions. This paper proposes a novel approach based on Rasch measurement theory to overcome the problem. The research demonstrates that if data fit the model, further variables can be added to a scale. An empirical study was designed to determine the range of compliance where consumers could obtain an impression of a moisturizer cream when touching some product containers. Persons, variables and stimulus objects were parameterised independently on a linear continuum. The results showed that a calibrated scale preserves comparability although incorporating further variables.

  4. A Comparison of Video- and Audio-Mediated Listening Tests with Many-Facet Rasch Modeling and Differential Distractor Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Aaron Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The rise in the affordability of quality video production equipment has resulted in increased interest in video-mediated tests of foreign language listening comprehension. Although research on such tests has continued fairly steadily since the early 1980s, studies have relied on analyses of raw scores, despite the growing prevalence of item…

  5. A Rasch-validated version of the upper extremity functional index for interval-level measurement of upper extremity function.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Clayon B; Chesworth, Bert M

    2013-11-01

    The original 20-item Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI) has not undergone Rasch validation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rasch analysis supports the UEFI as a measure of a single construct (ie, upper extremity function) and whether a Rasch-validated UEFI has adequate reproducibility for individual-level patient evaluation. This was a secondary analysis of data from a repeated-measures study designed to evaluate the measurement properties of the UEFI over a 3-week period. Patients (n=239) with musculoskeletal upper extremity disorders were recruited from 17 physical therapy clinics across 4 Canadian provinces. Rasch analysis of the UEFI measurement properties was performed. If the UEFI did not fit the Rasch model, misfitting patients were deleted, items with poor response structure were corrected, and misfitting items and redundant items were deleted. The impact of differential item functioning on the ability estimate of patients was investigated. A 15-item modified UEFI was derived to achieve fit to the Rasch model where the total score was supported as a measure of upper extremity function only. The resultant UEFI-15 interval-level scale (0-100, worst to best state) demonstrated excellent internal consistency (person separation index=0.94) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1]=.95). The minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval was 8.1. Patients who were ambidextrous or bilaterally affected were excluded to allow for the analysis of differential item functioning due to limb involvement and arm dominance. Rasch analysis did not support the validity of the 20-item UEFI. However, the UEFI-15 was a valid and reliable interval-level measure of a single dimension: upper extremity function. Rasch analysis supports using the UEFI-15 in physical therapist practice to quantify upper extremity function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in cancer patients: confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Laura; Smith, Adam B; Keding, Ada; Jones, Helen; Velikova, Galina; Wright, Penny

    2013-12-01

    To provide new insights into the psychometrics of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in cancer patients. To undertake, for the first time using data from breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patients, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess the validity of the IPQ-R's core seven-factor structure. Also, for the first time in any illness group, to undertake Rasch analysis to explore the extent to which the IPQ-R factors form unidimensional scales, with linear measurement properties and no Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Patients with potentially curable breast, colorectal or prostate cancer, within 6months post-diagnosis, completed the IPQ-R online (N=531). CFA was conducted, including multi-sample analysis, and for each IPQ-R factor fit to the Rasch model was assessed by examining, amongst other things, item fit, DIF and unidimensionality. The CFA showed a moderate fit of the data to the IPQ-R model, and stability across diagnosis, although fit was significantly improved following the removal of selected items. All seven factors achieved fit to the Rasch model, and exhibited unidimensionality and minimal DIF, although in most cases this was after some item rescoring and/or deletion. In both analyses, IPQ-R items 12, 18 and 24 were indicated as misfitting and removed. Given the rigorous standard of Rasch measurement, and the generic nature of the IPQ-R, it stood up well to the demands of the Rasch model in this study. Importantly, the results show that with some relatively minor, pragmatic modifications the IPQ-R could possess Rasch-standard measurement in cancer patients. © 2013.

  7. Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale for Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN-RODS(©) ).

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Els K; Faber, Catharina G; van Nes, Sonja I; Cats, Elisabeth A; Van der Pol, W-Ludo; Gorson, Kenneth C; van Doorn, Pieter A; Cornblath, David R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2015-09-01

    Clinical trials in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) have often used ordinal-based measures that may not accurately capture changes. We aimed to construct a disability interval outcome measure specifically for MMN using the Rasch model and to examine its clinimetric properties. A total of 146 preliminary activity and participation items were assessed twice (reliability studies) in 96 clinically stable MMN patients. These patients also assessed the ordinal-based overall disability sum score (construct, sample-dependent validity). The final Rasch-built overall disability scale for MMN (MMN-RODS(©) ) was serially applied in 26 patients with newly diagnosed or relapsing MMN, treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (1-year follow-up; responsiveness study). The magnitude of change for each patient was calculated using the minimum clinically important difference technique related to the individually obtained standard errors. A total of 121 items not fulfilling Rasch requirements were removed. The final 25-item MMN-RODS(©) fulfilled all Rasch model's expectations and showed acceptable reliability and validity including good discriminatory capacity. Most serially examined patients improved, but its magnitude was low, reflecting poor responsiveness. The constructed MMN-RODS(©) is a disease-specific, interval measure to detect activity limitations in patients with MMN and overcomes the shortcomings of ordinal scales. However, future clinimetric studies are needed to improve the MMN-RODS(©) 's responsiveness by longer observations and/or more rigorous treatment regimens. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  8. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: A Demonstration of the Utility of the Rasch Model. IR Applications. Volume 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. This paper addresses the erroneous assumptions institutional researchers often make with regard to survey research and provides an alternative method to producing more valid and reliable measures. Rasch measurement models are discussed and…

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the HIV Disclosure Belief Scale: A Rasch Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxiang; Serovich, Julianne M; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Brown, Monique J; Kimberly, Judy A

    2017-01-01

    This study provides psychometric assessment of an HIV disclosure belief scale (DBS) among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study used baseline data from a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of an HIV serostatus disclosure intervention of 338 HIV-positive MSM. The Rasch model was used after unidimensionality and local independence assumptions were tested for application of the model. Results suggest that there was only one item that did not fit the model well. After removing the item, the DBS showed good model-data fit and high item and person reliabilities. This instrument showed measurement invariance across two different age groups, but some items showed differential item functioning between Caucasian and other minority groups. The findings suggest that the DBS is suitable for measuring the HIV disclosure beliefs, but it should be cautioned when the DBS is used to compare the disclosure beliefs between different racial/ethnic groups.

  11. A Facet Theory Model for Integrating Contextual and Personal Experiences of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…

  12. The Revised Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire: Development Into a Unidimensional Scale Using Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragesund, Tove; Strand, Liv Inger; Grotle, Margreth

    2018-02-01

    The Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) is a self-report questionnaire aimed at capturing how people with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain reflect on their own body awareness. Methods based on classical test theory were applied to the development of the instrument and resulted in 4 subscales. However, the scales were not correlated, and construct validity might be questioned. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of developing a unidimensional scale from items initially collected for the BARQ using Rasch analysis. A secondary purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a revised version of the BARQ. This was a methodological study. Rasch and reliability analyses were performed for 3 samples of participants with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain. The first Rasch analysis was carried out on 66 items generated for the original BARQ and scored by 300 participants. The items supported by the first analysis were scored by a new group of 127 participants and analyzed in a second Rasch analysis. For the test-retest reliability analysis, 48 participants scored the revised BARQ items twice within 1 week. The 2-step Rasch analysis resulted in a unidimensional 12-item revised version of the BARQ with a 4-point response scale (scores from 0 to 36). It showed a good fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory fit residuals, and no disordered thresholds. Test-retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .83 (95% CI = .71-.89) and a smallest detectable change of 6.3 points. The small sample size in the second Rasch analysis was a study limitation. The revised BARQ is a unidimensional and feasible measurement of body awareness, recommended for use in the context of body-mind physical therapy approaches for musculoskeletal conditions. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  13. FACET: Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmoria, Karl D.; Banavar, Sridhar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Sheth, Kapil S.; Grabbe, Shon

    2000-01-01

    FACET (Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool) is an Air Traffic Management research tool being developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This paper describes the design, architecture and functionalities of FACET. The purpose of FACET is to provide E simulation environment for exploration, development and evaluation of advanced ATM concepts. Examples of these concepts include new ATM paradigms such as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management, airspace redesign and new Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for controllers working within the operational procedures of the existing air traffic control system. FACET is currently capable of modeling system-wide en route airspace operations over the contiguous United States. Airspace models (e.g., Center/sector boundaries, airways, locations of navigation aids and airports) are available from databases. A core capability of FACET is the modeling of aircraft trajectories. Using round-earth kinematic equations, aircraft can be flown along flight plan routes or great circle routes as they climb, cruise and descend according to their individual aircraft-type performance models. Performance parameters (e.g., climb/descent rates and speeds, cruise speeds) are obtained from data table lookups. Heading, airspeed and altitude-rate dynamics are also modeled. Additional functionalities will be added as necessary for specific applications. FACET software is written in Java and C programming languages. It is platform-independent, and can be run on a variety of computers. FACET has been designed with a modular software architecture to enable rapid integration of research prototype implementations of new ATM concepts. There are several advanced ATM concepts that are currently being implemented in FACET airborne separation assurance, dynamic density predictions, airspace redesign (re-sectorization), benefits of a controller DST for direct-routing, and the integration of commercial space transportation system operations into the U.S. National

  14. A mixed Rasch model of dual-process conditional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Eid, Michael; Vautier, Stéphane; Jmel, Saïd

    2008-05-01

    A fine-grained dual-process approach to conditional reasoning is advocated: Responses to conditional syllogisms are reached through the operation of either one of two systems, each of which can rely on two different mechanisms. System1 relies either on pragmatic implicatures or on the retrieval of information from semantic memory; System2 operates first through inhibition of System1, then (but not always) through activation of analytical processes. It follows that reasoners will fall into one of four groups of increasing reasoning ability, each group being uniquely characterized by (a) the modal pattern of individual answers to blocks of affirming the consequent (AC), denying the antecedent (DA), and modus tollens (MT) syllogisms featuring the same conditional; and (b) the average rate of determinate answers to AC, DA, and MT. This account receives indirect support from the extant literature and direct support from a mixed Rasch model of responses given to 18 syllogisms by 486 adult reasoners.

  15. Fitting the Mixed Rasch Model to a Reading Comprehension Test: Exploring Individual Difference Profiles in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Zhang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the mixed Rasch model (MRM) to identify subgroups of readers within a sample of students taking an EFL reading comprehension test. Six hundred and two (602) Chinese college students took a reading test and a lexico-grammatical knowledge test and completed a Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use Questionnaire (MCSUQ)…

  16. A 7-item version of the fatigue severity scale has better psychometric properties among HIV-infected adults: an application of a Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Kottorp, Anders; Gay, Caryl; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Portillo, Carmen J; Lee, Kathryn A

    2011-11-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the 9-item Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) using a Rasch model application. A convenience sample of HIV-infected adults was recruited, and a subset of the sample was assessed at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Socio-demographic, clinical, and symptom data were collected by self-report questionnaires. CD4 T-cell count and viral load measures were obtained from medical records. The Rasch analysis included 316 participants with 698 valid questionnaires. FSS item 2 did not advanced monotonically, and items 1 and 2 did not show acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. A reduced FSS 7-item version demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit and explained 61.2% of the total variance in the scale. In the FSS-7 item version, no uniform Differential Item Functioning was found in relation to time of evaluation or to any of the socio-demographic or clinical variables. This study demonstrated that the FSS-7 has better psychometric properties than the FSS-9 in this HIV sample and that responses to the different items are comparable over time and unrelated to socio-demographic and clinical variables.

  17. Measuring leader perceptions of school readiness for reforms: use of an iterative model combining classical and Rasch methods.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2002-01-01

    This study examines validity of data generated by the School Readiness for Reforms: Leader Questionnaire (SRR-LQ) using an iterative procedure that combines classical and Rasch rating scale analysis. Following content-validation and pilot-testing, principal axis factor extraction and promax rotation of factors yielded a five factor structure consistent with the content-validated subscales of the original instrument. Factors were identified based on inspection of pattern and structure coefficients. The rotated factor pattern, inter-factor correlations, convergent validity coefficients, and Cronbach's alpha reliability estimates supported the hypothesized construct properties. To further examine unidimensionality and efficacy of the rating scale structures, item-level data from each factor-defined subscale were subjected to analysis with the Rasch rating scale model. Data-to-model fit statistics and separation reliability for items and persons met acceptable criteria. Rating scale results suggested consistency of expected and observed step difficulties in rating categories, and correspondence of step calibrations with increases in the underlying variables. The combined approach yielded more comprehensive diagnostic information on the quality of the five SRR-LQ subscales; further research is continuing.

  18. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A

    2013-11-15

    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating Instrument Quality in Science Education: Rasch-based analyses of a Nature of Science test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Irene; Neumann, Knut; Nehm, Ross

    2011-07-01

    Given the central importance of the Nature of Science (NOS) and Scientific Inquiry (SI) in national and international science standards and science learning, empirical support for the theoretical delineation of these constructs is of considerable significance. Furthermore, tests of the effects of varying magnitudes of NOS knowledge on domain-specific science understanding and belief require the application of instruments validated in accordance with AERA, APA, and NCME assessment standards. Our study explores three interrelated aspects of a recently developed NOS instrument: (1) validity and reliability; (2) instrument dimensionality; and (3) item scales, properties, and qualities within the context of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (Rasch modeling). A construct analysis revealed that the instrument did not match published operationalizations of NOS concepts. Rasch analysis of the original instrument-as well as a reduced item set-indicated that a two-dimensional Rasch model fit significantly better than a one-dimensional model in both cases. Thus, our study revealed that NOS and SI are supported as two separate dimensions, corroborating theoretical distinctions in the literature. To identify items with unacceptable fit values, item quality analyses were used. A Wright Map revealed that few items sufficiently distinguished high performers in the sample and excessive numbers of items were present at the low end of the performance scale. Overall, our study outlines an approach for how Rasch modeling may be used to evaluate and improve Likert-type instruments in science education.

  20. Is Going Beyond Rasch Analysis Necessary to Assess the Construct Validity of a Motor Function Scale?

    PubMed

    Guillot, Tiffanie; Roche, Sylvain; Rippert, Pascal; Hamroun, Dalil; Iwaz, Jean; Ecochard, René; Vuillerot, Carole

    2018-04-03

    To examine whether a Rasch analysis is sufficient to establish the construct validity of the Motor Function Measure (MFM) and discuss whether weighting the MFM item scores would improve the MFM construct validity. Observational cross-sectional multicenter study. Twenty-three physical medicine departments, neurology departments, or reference centers for neuromuscular diseases. Patients (N=911) aged 6 to 60 years with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD), or myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). None. Comparison of the goodness-of-fit of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model vs that of a modified multidimensional Rasch model on MFM item scores in each considered disease. The CFA model showed good fit to the data and significantly better goodness of fit than the modified multidimensional Rasch model regardless of the disease (P<.001). Statistically significant differences in item standardized factor loadings were found between DM1, CMT, and FSHD in only 6 of 32 items (items 6, 27, 2, 7, 9 and 17). For multidimensional scales designed to measure patient abilities in various diseases, a Rasch analysis might not be the most convenient, whereas a CFA is able to establish the scale construct validity and provide weights to adapt the item scores to a specific disease. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rasch modeling to assess Albanian and South African learners' preferences for real-life situations to be used in mathematics: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kacerja, Suela; Julie, Cyril; Hadjerrouit, Said

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation on the real-life situations students in grades 8 and 9 in South Africa and Albania prefer to use in Mathematics. The functioning of the instrument used to assess the order of preference learners from both countries have for contextual situations is assessed using Rasch modeling techniques. For both the cohorts, the data fit the Rasch model. The differential item functioning (DIF) analysis rendered 3 items operating differentially for the two cohorts. Explanations for these differences are provided in terms of differences in experiences learners in the two countries have related to some of the contextual situations. Implications for interpretation of international comparative tests are offered, as are the possibilities for the cross-country development of curriculum materials related to contexts that learners prefer to use in Mathematics.

  2. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  3. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: a latent trait analysis of items from the ‘Claim Evaluation Tools’ database using Rasch modelling

    PubMed Central

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Guttersrud, Øystein; Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background The Claim Evaluation Tools database contains multiple-choice items for measuring people’s ability to apply the key concepts they need to know to be able to assess treatment claims. We assessed items from the database using Rasch analysis to develop an outcome measure to be used in two randomised trials in Uganda. Rasch analysis is a form of psychometric testing relying on Item Response Theory. It is a dynamic way of developing outcome measures that are valid and reliable. Objectives To assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of 88 items addressing 22 key concepts using Rasch analysis. Participants We administrated four sets of multiple-choice items in English to 1114 people in Uganda and Norway, of which 685 were children and 429 were adults (including 171 health professionals). We scored all items dichotomously. We explored summary and individual fit statistics using the RUMM2030 analysis package. We used SPSS to perform distractor analysis. Results Most items conformed well to the Rasch model, but some items needed revision. Overall, the four item sets had satisfactory reliability. We did not identify significant response dependence between any pairs of items and, overall, the magnitude of multidimensionality in the data was acceptable. The items had a high level of difficulty. Conclusion Most of the items conformed well to the Rasch model’s expectations. Following revision of some items, we concluded that most of the items were suitable for use in an outcome measure for evaluating the ability of children or adults to assess treatment claims. PMID:28550019

  4. Psychometric properties of the pain stages of change questionnaire as evaluated by rasch analysis in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ) and its four subscales Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action and Maintenance. Methods A total of 231 patients, median age 42 years, with chronic musculoskeletal pain responded to the 30 items in PSOCQ. Thresholds for item scores, and unidimensionality and invariance of the PSOCQ and its four subscales were evaluated by Rasch analysis, partial credit model. Results The items had disordered threshold and needed to be rescored. The 30 items in the PSOCQ did not fit the Rasch model Chi- square item trait statistics. All subscales fitted the Rasch models. The associations to pain (11 point numeric rating scale), emotional distress (Hopkins symptom check list v 25) and self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale) were highest for the Precontemplation subscale. Conclusion The present analysis revealed that all four subscales in PSOCQ fitted the Rasch model. No common construct for all subscales were identified, but the Action and Maintenance subscales were closely related. PMID:24646065

  5. Measurement properties of painDETECT: Rasch analysis of responses from community-dwelling adults with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Packham, Tara L; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Sadosky, Alesia; MacDermid, Joy C; Brunner, Florian

    2017-03-04

    painDETECT (PD-Q) is a self-reported assessment of pain qualities developed as a screening tool for pain of neuropathic origin. Rasch analysis is a strategy for examining the measurement characteristics of a scale using a form of item response theory. We conducted a Rasch analysis to consider if the scoring and measurement properties of PD-Q would support its use as an outcome measure. Rasch analysis was conducted on PD-Q scores drawn from a cross-sectional study of the burden and costs of NeP. The analysis followed an iterative process based on recommendations in the literature, including examination of sequential scoring categories, unidimensionality, reliability and differential item function. Data from 624 persons with a diagnosis of painful diabetic polyneuropathy, small fibre neuropathy, and neuropathic pain associated with chronic low back pain, spinal cord injury, HIV-related pain, or chronic post-surgical pain was used for this analysis. PD-Q demonstrated fit to the Rasch model after adjustments of scoring categories for four items, and omission of the time course and radiating questions. The resulting seven-item scale of pain qualities demonstrated good reliability with a person-separation index of 0.79. No scoring bias (differential item functioning) was found for this version. Rasch modelling suggests the seven pain-qualities items from PD-Q may be used as an outcome measure. Further research is required to confirm validity and responsiveness in a clinical setting.

  6. GPU accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) molecular dynamics for conservative, faceted particle simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Spellings, Matthew; Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Marson, Ryan L.

    Faceted shapes, such as polyhedra, are commonly found in systems of nanoscale, colloidal, and granular particles. Many interesting physical phenomena, like crystal nucleation and growth, vacancy motion, and glassy dynamics are challenging to model in these systems because they require detailed dynamical information at the individual particle level. Within the granular materials community the Discrete Element Method has been used extensively to model systems of anisotropic particles under gravity, with friction. We provide an implementation of this method intended for simulation of hard, faceted nanoparticles, with a conservative Weeks–Chandler–Andersen (WCA) interparticle potential, coupled to a thermodynamic ensemble. This method ismore » a natural extension of classical molecular dynamics and enables rigorous thermodynamic calculations for faceted particles.« less

  7. A Rasch-Validated Version of the Upper Extremity Functional Index for Interval-Level Measurement of Upper Extremity Function

    PubMed Central

    Chesworth, Bert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The original 20-item Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI) has not undergone Rasch validation. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rasch analysis supports the UEFI as a measure of a single construct (ie, upper extremity function) and whether a Rasch-validated UEFI has adequate reproducibility for individual-level patient evaluation. Design This was a secondary analysis of data from a repeated-measures study designed to evaluate the measurement properties of the UEFI over a 3-week period. Methods Patients (n=239) with musculoskeletal upper extremity disorders were recruited from 17 physical therapy clinics across 4 Canadian provinces. Rasch analysis of the UEFI measurement properties was performed. If the UEFI did not fit the Rasch model, misfitting patients were deleted, items with poor response structure were corrected, and misfitting items and redundant items were deleted. The impact of differential item functioning on the ability estimate of patients was investigated. Results A 15-item modified UEFI was derived to achieve fit to the Rasch model where the total score was supported as a measure of upper extremity function only. The resultant UEFI-15 interval-level scale (0–100, worst to best state) demonstrated excellent internal consistency (person separation index=0.94) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1]=.95). The minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval was 8.1. Limitations Patients who were ambidextrous or bilaterally affected were excluded to allow for the analysis of differential item functioning due to limb involvement and arm dominance. Conclusion Rasch analysis did not support the validity of the 20-item UEFI. However, the UEFI-15 was a valid and reliable interval-level measure of a single dimension: upper extremity function. Rasch analysis supports using the UEFI-15 in physical therapist practice to quantify upper extremity function in patients with musculoskeletal

  8. Rasch Analyses of Very Low Food Security among Households and Children in the Three City Study*

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Robert A.; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The longitudinal Three City Study of low-income families with children measures food hardships using fewer questions and some different questions from the standard U.S. instrument for measuring food security, the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) in the Current Population Survey (CPS). We utilize a Rasch measurement model to identify thresholds of very low food security among households and very low food security among children in the Three City Study that are comparable to thresholds from the HFSSM. We also use the Three City Study to empirically investigate the determinants of food insecurity and of these specific food insecurity outcomes, estimating a multivariate behavioral Rasch model that is adapted to address longitudinal data. The estimation results indicate that participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program reduce food insecurity, while poverty and disability among caregivers increase it. Besides its longitudinal structure, the Three City Study measures many more characteristics about households than the CPS. Our estimates reveal that financial assistance through social networks and a household's own financial assets reduce food insecurity, while its outstanding loans increase insecurity. PMID:29187764

  9. Rasch Analyses of Very Low Food Security among Households and Children in the Three City Study.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Robert A; Ribar, David C

    2016-04-01

    The longitudinal Three City Study of low-income families with children measures food hardships using fewer questions and some different questions from the standard U.S. instrument for measuring food security, the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) in the Current Population Survey (CPS). We utilize a Rasch measurement model to identify thresholds of very low food security among households and very low food security among children in the Three City Study that are comparable to thresholds from the HFSSM. We also use the Three City Study to empirically investigate the determinants of food insecurity and of these specific food insecurity outcomes, estimating a multivariate behavioral Rasch model that is adapted to address longitudinal data. The estimation results indicate that participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program reduce food insecurity, while poverty and disability among caregivers increase it. Besides its longitudinal structure, the Three City Study measures many more characteristics about households than the CPS. Our estimates reveal that financial assistance through social networks and a household's own financial assets reduce food insecurity, while its outstanding loans increase insecurity.

  10. Is the pain visual analogue scale linear and responsive to change? An exploration using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Paula; White, Peter J; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Pain visual analogue scales (VAS) are commonly used in clinical trials and are often treated as an interval level scale without evidence that this is appropriate. This paper examines the internal construct validity and responsiveness of the pain VAS using Rasch analysis. Patients (n = 221, mean age 67, 58% female) with chronic stable joint pain (hip 40% or knee 60%) of mechanical origin waiting for joint replacement were included. Pain was scored on seven daily VASs. Rasch analysis was used to examine fit to the Rasch model. Responsiveness (Standardized Response Means, SRM) was examined on the raw ordinal data and the interval data generated from the Rasch analysis. Baseline pain VAS scores fitted the Rasch model, although 15 aberrant cases impacted on unidimensionality. There was some local dependency between items but this did not significantly affect the person estimates of pain. Daily pain (item difficulty) was stable, suggesting that single measures can be used. Overall, the SRMs derived from ordinal data overestimated the true responsiveness by 59%. Changes over time at the lower and higher end of the scale were represented by large jumps in interval equivalent data points; in the middle of the scale the reverse was seen. The pain VAS is a valid tool for measuring pain at one point in time. However, the pain VAS does not behave linearly and SRMs vary along the trait of pain. Consequently, Minimum Clinically Important Differences using raw data, or change scores in general, are invalid as these will either under- or overestimate true change; raw pain VAS data should not be used as a primary outcome measure or to inform parametric-based Randomised Controlled Trial power calculations in research studies; and Rasch analysis should be used to convert ordinal data to interval data prior to data interpretation.

  11. A systematic literature review on the application of Rasch analysis in musculoskeletal disease -- a special interest group report of OMERACT 11.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Png, May-Ee; Conaghan, Philip; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Rasch measurement model provides robust analysis of the internal construct validity of outcome measures. We reviewed the application of Rasch analysis in musculoskeletal medicine as part of the work leading to discussion in a Special Interest Group in Rasch Analysis at Outcome Measures in Rheumatology 11. A systematic literature review of SCOPUS and MEDLINE was performed (January 1, 1985, to February 29, 2012. Original research reports in English using "Rasch" or "Item Response Theory" in musculoskeletal diseases were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. The topics of focus and analysis methodology details were recorded. Of 212 articles reviewed, 114 were included. The number of publications rose from 1 in 1991-1992 to 23 in 2011-February 2012. Disease areas included rheumatoid arthritis (28%), osteoarthritis (16.6%), and general musculoskeletal disorders (43%). Sixty-six reports (57.9%) evaluated psychometric properties of existing scales and 35 (30.7%) involved development of new scales. Nine articles (7.9%) were on methodology illustration. Four articles were on item banking and computer adaptive testing. A majority of the articles reported fit statistics, while the basic Rasch model assumption (i.e., unidimensionality) was examined in only 57.2% of the articles. An improvement in reporting qualities with Rasch articles was noted over time. In addition, only 11.4% of the articles provided a transformation table for interval scale measurement in clinical practice. The Rasch model has been increasingly used in rheumatology over the last 2 decades in a wide range of applications. The majority of the articles demonstrated reasonable quality of reporting. Improvements in quality of reporting over time were revealed.

  12. A Computer Program for Solving a Set of Conditional Maximum Likelihood Equations Arising in the Rasch Model for Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Erling B.

    A computer program for solving the conditional likelihood equations arising in the Rasch model for questionnaires is described. The estimation method and the computational problems involved are described in a previous research report by Andersen, but a summary of those results are given in two sections of this paper. A working example is also…

  13. Scale invariance and longitudinal stability of the Physical Functioning Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index using the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Alba; Bilbao, Amaia; Garcia-Perez, Sonia; Escobar, Antonio; Forjaz, Maria João

    2018-03-01

    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) measures the quality of life of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and there is a specific scale for the physical functioning dimension, the short version with seven items WOMAC-pf. This study describes the application of the Rasch model to explore scale invariance and response stability of the WOMAC-pf short version across affected joint and over time. A sample of 884 patients with OA, from 15 hospitals in Spain, completed the WOMAC-pf before surgery (baseline) and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery of hip or knee. The invariance by joint was explored through the differential item functioning (DIF) analysis of the Rasch model using baseline data, and time stability (DIF by time) were evaluated in stack data (each participant is represented four times, one by time point). Mean age of the patients was of 69.13 years (SD 10.01), 59.3% of them were women (n = 524), 59.2% had knee OA (n = 523) and 40.8% hip OA (n = 361). Item "putting on socks" showed DIF by joint and time. Fit to the Rasch model using stack data improved when this item was removed. Good reliability for individual use, local independency and unidimensionality of the models were confirmed. WOMAC-pf 7-item short version was invariant over time and joint when item "putting on socks" was removed. Researchers should carefully evaluate this item as it presents problems in scale invariance and stability, which could affect results when comparing data by joint or when computing change scores.

  14. Development and Validation of the Faceted Inventory of the Five-Factor Model (FI-FFM).

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Nus, Ericka; Wu, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    The Faceted Inventory of the Five-Factor Model (FI-FFM) is a comprehensive hierarchical measure of personality. The FI-FFM was created across five phases of scale development. It includes five facets apiece for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness; four facets within agreeableness; and three facets for openness. We present reliability and validity data obtained from three samples. The FI-FFM scales are internally consistent and highly stable over 2 weeks (retest rs ranged from .64 to .82, median r = .77). They show strong convergent and discriminant validity vis-à-vis the NEO, the Big Five Inventory, and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Moreover, self-ratings on the scales show moderate to strong agreement with corresponding ratings made by informants ( rs ranged from .26 to .66, median r = .42). Finally, in joint analyses with the NEO Personality Inventory-3, the FI-FFM neuroticism facet scales display significant incremental validity in predicting indicators of internalizing psychopathology.

  15. The Standardization of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) for People with Stroke Using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Doo Han; Hong, Deok Gi; Lee, Jae Shin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to standardize the clock drawing test (CDT) for people with stroke using Rasch analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen items of the CDT identified through a literature review were performed by 159 stroke patients. The data was analyzed with Winstep version 3.57 using the Rasch model to examine the unidimensionality of the items’ fit, the distribution of the items’ difficulty, and the reliability and appropriateness of the rating scale. [Result] Ten out of the 159 participations (6.2%) were considered misfit subjects, and one item of the CDT was determined to be a misfit item based on Rasch analysis. The rating scales were judged as suitable because the observed average showed an array of vertical orders and MNSQ values < 2. The separate index and reliability of the subject (1.98, 0.80) and item (6.45, 0.97) showed relatively high values. [Conclusion] This study is the first to examine the CDT scale in stroke patients by Rasch analysis. The CDT is expected to be useful for screening stroke patients with cognitive problems. PMID:24409026

  16. Patient self-report section of the ASES questionnaire: a Spanish validation study using classical test theory and the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Silió, Félix; Rodriguez, Miguel Ángel; Garay, Daniel; Busto, Gorka; Trancho, Ziortza; Escobar, Antonio

    2016-10-18

    The aim of the current study was to validate the self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons questionnaire (ASES-p) into Spanish. Shoulder pathology patients were recruited and followed up to 6 months post treatment. The ASES-p, Constant, SF-36 and Barthel scales were filled-in pre and post treatment. Reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity with Spearman's correlations coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the Rasch model were implemented for assessing structural validity and unidimensionality of the scale. Models with and without the pain item were considered. Responsiveness to change was explored via standardised effect sizes. Results were acceptable for both tested models. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91, total scale correlations with Constant and physical SF-36 dimensions were >0.50. Factor loadings for CFA were >0.40. The Rasch model confirmed unidimensionality of the scale, even though item 10 "do usual sport" was suggested as non-informative. Finally, patients with improved post treatment shoulder function and those receiving surgery had higher standardised effect sizes. The adapted Spanish ASES-p version is a valid and reliable tool for shoulder evaluation and its unidimensionality is supported by the data.

  17. Validation of the malaysian versions of parents and children health survey for asthma by using rasch-model.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Maryam Se; Akram, Waqas; Mamat, Mohd Nor; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important outcome measure in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. For patients with asthma there are many instruments but most of them have been developed in English. With the increase in research project, researchers working in other languages have two options; either to develop a new measure or to translate an already developed measure. Children Health Survey for Asthma is developed by American Academy of Paediatrics which has two versions one for the parents (CHSA) and the other for the child (CHSA-C). However, there is no Malay version of the CHSA or the CHSA-C. The aim of this study was to translate and determine the validity and reliability of the Malaysian versions of Parent and Children Health Survey for Asthma. Questionnaires were translated to Bahasa Malayu using previously established guidelines, data from 180 respondents (asthmatic children and their parent) were analysed using Rasch-Model; as, it is an approach that has been increasingly used in health field and also it explores the performance of each item rather than total set score. The internal consistency was high for the parent questionnaire (CHSA) (reliability score for persons = 0.88 and for items was 0.97), and good for child questionnaire (CHSA-C) (reliability score for persons = 0.83 and for items was 0.94). Also, this study shows that all items measure for both questionnaires (CHSA and CHSA-C) are fitted to Rasch-Model. This study produced questionnaires that are conceptually equivalent to the original, easy to understand for the children and their parents, and good in terms of internal consistency. Because of the questionnaire has two versions one for the child and the other for the parents, they could be used in clinical practice to measure the effect of asthma on the child and their families. This current research had translated two instruments to other language (BahasaMalayu) and evaluated their reliability and

  18. A Response to Holster and Lake Regarding Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey; McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Stewart questioned vocabulary size estimation methods proposed by Beglar and Nation for the Vocabulary Size Test, further arguing Rasch mean square (MSQ) fit statistics cannot determine the proportion of random guesses contained in the average learner's raw score, because the average value will be near 1 by design. He illustrated this by…

  19. Validating independent ratings of executive functioning following acquired brain injury using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Simblett, Sara K; Badham, Rachel; Greening, Kate; Adlam, Anna; Ring, Howard; Bateman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of everyday problems with executive functioning following acquired brain injury (ABI) is greatly valued by neurorehabilitation services. Reliance on self-report measures alone is problematic within this client group who may experience difficulties with awareness and memory. The construct validity and reliability of independent ratings (i.e., ratings provided by a carer/relative) on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-I) was explored in this study. Consistent with the results recently reported on the self-rated version of the DEX (DEX-S; Simblett & Bateman, 2011 ), Rasch analysis completed on 271 responses to the DEX-I revealed that the scale did not fit the Rasch model and did not meet the assumption of unidimensionality, that is, a single underlying construct could not be found for the DEX-I that would allow development of an interval-level measure as a whole. Subscales, based on theoretical conceptualisations of executive functioning (Stuss, 2007 ) previously suggested for the DEX-S, were able to demonstrate fit to the Rasch model and unidimensionality. Reliability of independent responses to these subscales in comparison to self-reported ratings is discussed. These results contribute to a greater understanding of how assessment of executive functioning can be improved.

  20. Blooms' separation of the final exam of Engineering Mathematics II: Item reliability using Rasch measurement model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuaad, Norain Farhana Ahmad; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Tawil, Norgainy Mohd; Othman, Haliza; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Osman, Mohd Hanif; Ismail, Nur Arzilah

    2014-06-01

    In engineering studies and researches, Mathematics is one of the main elements which express physical, chemical and engineering laws. Therefore, it is essential for engineering students to have a strong knowledge in the fundamental of mathematics in order to apply the knowledge to real life issues. However, based on the previous results of Mathematics Pre-Test, it shows that the engineering students lack the fundamental knowledge in certain topics in mathematics. Due to this, apart from making improvements in the methods of teaching and learning, studies on the construction of questions (items) should also be emphasized. The purpose of this study is to assist lecturers in the process of item development and to monitor the separation of items based on Blooms' Taxonomy and to measure the reliability of the items itself usingRasch Measurement Model as a tool. By using Rasch Measurement Model, the final exam questions of Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) for semester 2 sessions 2012/2013 were analysed and the results will provide the details onthe extent to which the content of the item providesuseful information about students' ability. This study reveals that the items used in Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) final exam are well constructed but the separation of the items raises concern as it is argued that it needs further attention, as there is abig gap between items at several levels of Blooms' cognitive skill.

  1. Rasch validation of the PHQ-9 in people with visual impairment in South India.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Bagga, Deepak K; Sumalini, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a widely used screening instrument for depression. Recently, its properties as a measure were investigated using Rasch analysis in an Australian population with visual impairment (VI) and it was demonstrated to possess excellent measurement properties, but the response scale required shortening (modified PHQ-9). However, further validation was recommended to substantiate its use with the growing population of VI. Therefore, we aimed to use Rasch analysis to evaluate the measurement properties of the modified PHQ-9 in an Indian population with VI. 303 patients with VI (mean age 40.2 years; 71% male) referred to Vision Rehabilitation Centres were administered the PHQ-9 by trained interviewer. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified PHQ-9. Rasch analysis showed good fit to the model, no misfitting items and an acceptable person separation reliability (0.82). Dimensionality testing supported combining 9 items to create a total score. Targeting was sub-optimal (-1.30 logits); more difficult items are needed. One item ('trouble falling asleep') showed notable differential item functioning, DIF (1.18 logits) by duration of VI. The generalisability of these results might be restricted to patients with VI presenting to a tertiary eye care centre. Except for DIF, the performance of the modified PHQ-9 is consistent with that of the original, albeit in a different cultural context (Indian population with VI). Clinicians/researchers can readily use the modified PHQ-9 without formal training in Rasch procedures given the provision of ready-to-use spreadsheets that convert raw to Rasch-scaled scores. However the conversions will apply only if the sample being tested is similar to that of the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multibeam Altimeter Navigation Update Using Faceted Shape Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul; Broschart, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A method of incorporating information, acquired by a multibeam laser or radar altimeter system, pertaining to the distance and direction between the system and a nearby target body, into an estimate of the state of a vehicle upon which the system is mounted, involves the use of a faceted model to represent the shape of the target body. Fundamentally, what one seeks to measure is the distance from the vehicle to the target body.

  3. Construct validity of the Swedish version of the revised piper fatigue scale in an oncology sample--a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa; Dencker, Anna; Jakobsson, Sofie; Taft, Charles; Tennant, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom in cancer patients due to both the disease and its treatments. The concept of fatigue is multidimensional and includes both physical and mental components. The 22-item Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) is a multidimensional instrument developed to assess cancer-related fatigue. This study reports on the construct validity of the Swedish version of the RPFS from the perspective of Rasch measurement. The Swedish version of the RPFS was answered by 196 cancer patients fatigued after 4 to 5 weeks of curative radiation therapy. Data from the scale were fitted to the Rasch measurement model. This involved testing a series of assumptions, including the stochastic ordering of items, local response dependency, and unidimensionality. A series of fit statistics were computed, differential item functioning (DIF) was tested, and local response dependency was accommodated through testlets. The Behavioral, Affective and Sensory domains all satisfied the Rasch model expectations. No DIF was observed, and all domains were found to be unidimensional. The Mood/Cognitive scale failed to fit the model, and substantial multidimensionality was found. Splitting the scale between Mood and Cognitive items resolved fit to the Rasch model, and new domains were unidimensional without DIF. The current Rasch analyses add to the evidence of measurement properties of the scale and show that the RPFS has good psychometric properties and works well to measure fatigue. The original four-factor structure, however, was not supported. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Planning a Study for Testing the Rasch Model given Missing Values due to the use of Test-booklets.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Takuya; Kubinger, Klaus D; Rasch, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Though calibration of an achievement test within a psychological and educational context is very often carried out by the Rasch model, data sampling is hardly designed according to statistical foundations. However, Kubinger, Rasch, and Yanagida (2009, 2011) suggested an approach for the determination of sample size according to a given Type-I and Type-II risk and a certain effect of model contradiction when testing the Rasch model. The approach uses a three-way analysis of variance design with mixed classification. For the while, their simulation studies deal with complete data, meaning every examinee is administered with all of the items of an item pool. The simulation study now presented in this paper deals with the practical relevant case, in particular for large-scale assessments, that item presentation happens to use several test-booklets. As a consequence, there are missing values by design. Therefore, the question to be considered is, whether this approach works in this case as well. Besides the fact, that data are not normally distributed but there is a dichotomous variable (an examinee either solves an item or fails to solve it), only a single entry for each cell exists in the given three-way analysis of variance design, if at all, due to missing values. Hence, the obligatory test-statistic's distribution may not be retained, in contrast to the case of having no missing values. The result of our simulation study, despite applying only to a very special scenario, is that this approach works, indeed: Whether test-booklets were used or every examinee is administered all of the items changes nothing in respect to the actual Type-I risk or to the power of the test, given almost the same amount of information of examinees per item. However, as the results are limited to a special scenario, we currently recommend any interested researcher to simulate the appropriate one in advance by him/herself.

  5. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  6. Investigating Young Children's Human Figure Drawings Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Claire; Bond, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GHDT) is a non-verbal assessment designed to infer young children's levels of intellectual development and understanding via the collection of three human figure drawings (HFDs)--one each of a man, a woman and a self-portrait. This paper presents findings from a research project that applied the Rasch model for…

  7. A Comparison between Discrimination Indices and Item-Response Theory Using the Rasch Model in a Clinical Course Written Examination of a Medical School.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Cook; Kim, Kwang Sig

    2012-03-01

    The reliability of test is determined by each items' characteristics. Item analysis is achieved by classical test theory and item response theory. The purpose of the study was to compare the discrimination indices with item response theory using the Rasch model. Thirty-one 4th-year medical school students participated in the clinical course written examination, which included 22 A-type items and 3 R-type items. Point biserial correlation coefficient (C(pbs)) was compared to method of extreme group (D), biserial correlation coefficient (C(bs)), item-total correlation coefficient (C(it)), and corrected item-total correlation coeffcient (C(cit)). Rasch model was applied to estimate item difficulty and examinee's ability and to calculate item fit statistics using joint maximum likelihood. Explanatory power (r2) of Cpbs is decreased in the following order: C(cit) (1.00), C(it) (0.99), C(bs) (0.94), and D (0.45). The ranges of difficulty logit and standard error and ability logit and standard error were -0.82 to 0.80 and 0.37 to 0.76, -3.69 to 3.19 and 0.45 to 1.03, respectively. Item 9 and 23 have outfit > or =1.3. Student 1, 5, 7, 18, 26, 30, and 32 have fit > or =1.3. C(pbs), C(cit), and C(it) are good discrimination parameters. Rasch model can estimate item difficulty parameter and examinee's ability parameter with standard error. The fit statistics can identify bad items and unpredictable examinee's responses.

  8. Using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on patients with epilepsy: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-02-01

    The problems of mood disorders are critical in people with epilepsy. Therefore, there is a need to validate a useful tool for the population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used on the population, and showed that it is a satisfactory screening tool. However, more evidence on its construct validity is needed. A total of 1041 people with epilepsy were recruited in this study, and each completed the HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to understand the construct validity of the HADS. In addition, internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs' α, person separation reliability, and item separation reliability. Ordering of the response descriptors and the differential item functioning (DIF) were examined using the Rasch models. The HADS showed that 55.3% of our participants had anxiety; 56.0% had depression based on its cutoffs. CFA and Rasch analyses both showed the satisfactory construct validity of the HADS; the internal consistency was also acceptable (α=0.82 in anxiety and 0.79 in depression; person separation reliability=0.82 in anxiety and 0.73 in depression; item separation reliability=0.98 in anxiety and 0.91 in depression). The difficulties of the four-point Likert scale used in the HADS were monotonically increased, which indicates no disordering response categories. No DIF items across male and female patients and across types of epilepsy were displayed in the HADS. The HADS has promising psychometric properties on construct validity in people with epilepsy. Moreover, the additive item score is supported for calculating the cutoff. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FacetGist: Collective Extraction of Document Facets in Large Technical Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Tarique; Ren, Xiang; Parameswaran, Aditya; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets (e.g., application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in. Facet Extraction has numerous applications, including document summarization, literature search, patent search and business intelligence. The major challenge in performing Facet Extraction arises from multiple sources: concept extraction, concept to facet matching, and facet disambiguation. To tackle these challenges, we develop FacetGist, a framework for facet extraction. Facet Extraction involves constructing a graph-based heterogeneous network to capture information available across multiple local sentence-level features, as well as global context features. We then formulate a joint optimization problem, and propose an efficient algorithm for graph-based label propagation to estimate the facet of each concept mention. Experimental results on technical corpora from two domains demonstrate that Facet Extraction can lead to an improvement of over 25% in both precision and recall over competing schemes. PMID:28210517

  10. FacetGist: Collective Extraction of Document Facets in Large Technical Corpora.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tarique; Ren, Xiang; Parameswaran, Aditya; Han, Jiawei

    2016-10-01

    Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets ( e.g. , application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in. Facet Extraction has numerous applications, including document summarization, literature search, patent search and business intelligence. The major challenge in performing Facet Extraction arises from multiple sources: concept extraction, concept to facet matching, and facet disambiguation. To tackle these challenges, we develop FacetGist, a framework for facet extraction. Facet Extraction involves constructing a graph-based heterogeneous network to capture information available across multiple local sentence-level features, as well as global context features. We then formulate a joint optimization problem, and propose an efficient algorithm for graph-based label propagation to estimate the facet of each concept mention. Experimental results on technical corpora from two domains demonstrate that Facet Extraction can lead to an improvement of over 25% in both precision and recall over competing schemes.

  11. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score (AOFAS) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: application of the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Cristiano Sena da; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Neto, Anolino Costa; Mendes, Selena M D; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Sá, Kátia Nunes

    2016-01-01

    To tested the reliability and validity of Aofas in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The scale was applicable to rheumatoid arthritis patients, twice by the interviewer 1 and once by the interviewer 2. The Aofas was subjected to test-retest reliability analysis (with 20 Rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis on 33 Rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were (0.90Rasch analysis showed that eight items was satisfactory. One erroneous item have been identified, showing percentages above the 5% allowed by the statistical model. Further Rasch modeling suggested revising the original item 8. The results suggest that the Brazilian versions of Aofas exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability. These findings indicate that Aofas Ankle-Hindfoot scale presents a significant potential for clinical applicability in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Other studies in populations with other characteristics are now underway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. MultiFacet: A Faceted Interface for Browsing Large Multimedia Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael J.; Hampton, Shawn D.; Endert, Alexander

    2013-10-31

    Faceted browsing is a common technique for exploring collections where the data can be grouped into a number of pre-defined categories, most often generated from textual metadata. Historically, faceted browsing has been applied to a single data type such as text or image data. However, typical collections contain multiple data types, such as information from web pages that contain text, images, and video. Additionally, when browsing a collection of images and video, facets are often created based on the metadata which may be incomplete, inaccurate, or missing altogether instead of the actual visual content contained within those images and video.more » In this work we address these limitations by presenting MultiFacet, a faceted browsing interface that supports multiple data types. MultiFacet constructs facets for images and video in a collection from the visual content using computer vision techniques. These visual facets can then be browsed in conjunction with text facets within a single interface to reveal relationships and phenomena within multimedia collections. Additionally, we present a use case based on real-world data, demonstrating the utility of this approach towards browsing a large multimedia data collection.« less

  13. Rasch-Transformed Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (RT-TNSc(©) ) in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Binda, Davide; Cavaletti, Guido; Cornblath, David R; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2015-09-01

    Composite scales such as the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc(©) ) have been widely used to measure neurological impairment in a standardized manner but they have been criticized due to their ordinal setting having no fixed unit. This study aims to improve impairment assessment in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) by subjecting TNSc(©) records to Rasch analyses. In particular, we wanted to investigate the influence of factors affecting the use of the TNSc(©) in clinical practice. TNSc(©) has 7 domains (sensory, motor, autonomic, pin-prick, vibration, strength, and deep tendon reflexes [DTR]) each being scored 0-4. Data obtained in 281 patients with stable CIPN were subjected to Rasch analyses to determine the fit to the model. The TNSc(©) did not meet Rasch model's expectations primarily because of misfit statistics in autonomic and DTR domains. Removing these two, acceptable model fit and uni-dimensionality were obtained. However, disordered thresholds (vibration and strength) and item bias (mainly cultural) were still seen, but these findings were kept to balance the assessment range of the Rasch-Transformed TNSc(©) (RT-TNSc(©) ). Acceptable reliability findings were also obtained. A 5-domains RT-TNSc(©) may be a more proper assessment tool in patients with CIPN. Future studies are needed to examine its responsive properties. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Hagquist, Curt; Andrich, David

    2017-09-19

    Rasch analysis with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is increasingly used for examination of psychometric properties of health outcome measures. To take account of DIF in order to retain precision of measurement, split of DIF-items into separate sample specific items has become a frequently used technique. The purpose of the paper is to present and summarise recent advances of analysis of DIF in a unified methodology. In particular, the paper focuses on the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method to simultaneously detect uniform and non-uniform DIF, the need to distinguish between real and artificial DIF and the trade-off between reliability and validity. An illustrative example from health research is used to demonstrate how DIF, in this case between genders, can be identified, quantified and under specific circumstances accounted for using the Rasch model. Rasch analyses of DIF were conducted of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems using Swedish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study for grade 9 students collected during the 1985-2014 time periods. The procedures demonstrate how DIF can be identified efficiently by ANOVA of residuals, and how the magnitude of DIF can be quantified and potentially accounted for by resolving items according to identifiable groups and using principles of test equating on the resolved items. The results of the analysis also show that the real DIF in some items does affect person measurement estimates. Firstly, in order to distinguish between real and artificial DIF, the items showing DIF initially should not be resolved simultaneously but sequentially. Secondly, while resolving instead of deleting a DIF item may retain reliability, both options may affect the content validity negatively. Resolving items with DIF is not justified if the source of the DIF is relevant for the content of the variable; then resolving DIF may deteriorate the validity of the instrument. Generally

  15. Facet-controlled facilitation of PbS nanoarchitectures by understanding nanocrystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loc, Welley Siu; Quan, Zewei; Lin, Cuikun; Pan, Jinfong; Wang, Yuxuan; Yang, Kaikun; Jian, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Howard; Fang, Jiye

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured lead sulphide is a significant component in a number of energy-related sustainable applications such as photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric components. In many micro-packaging processes, dimensionality-controlled nano-architectures as building blocks with unique properties are required. This study investigates different facet-merging growth behaviors through a wet-chemical synthetic strategy to produce high-quality controlled nanostructures of lead sulphide in various dimensionalities. It was found that 1D nanowires or 2D nanosheets can be obtained by the merging of reactive {111}- or {110}-facets, respectively, while promoting {100} facets in the early stages after nucleation leads to the growth of 0D nanocubes. The influence of temperature, capping ligands and co-solvent in facilitating the crystal facet growth of each intermediate seed is also demonstrated. The novelty of this work is characterized by the delicate manipulation of various PbS nanoarchitectures based on the comprehension of the facet-merging evolution. The synthesis of facet-controlled PbS nanostructures could provide novel building blocks with desired properties for use in many applications.Nanostructured lead sulphide is a significant component in a number of energy-related sustainable applications such as photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric components. In many micro-packaging processes, dimensionality-controlled nano-architectures as building blocks with unique properties are required. This study investigates different facet-merging growth behaviors through a wet-chemical synthetic strategy to produce high-quality controlled nanostructures of lead sulphide in various dimensionalities. It was found that 1D nanowires or 2D nanosheets can be obtained by the merging of reactive {111}- or {110}-facets, respectively, while promoting {100} facets in the early stages after nucleation leads to the growth of 0D nanocubes. The influence of temperature, capping ligands and co-solvent in

  16. Measurement of Online Student Engagement: Utilization of Continuous Online Student Behavior Indicators as Items in a Partial Credit Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has been shown to be essential to the development of research-based best practices for K-12 education. It has been defined and measured in numerous ways. The purpose of this research study was to develop a measure of online student engagement for grades 3 through 8 using a partial credit Rasch model and validate the measure…

  17. FACETS: multi-faceted functional decomposition of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

    2012-10-15

    The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of high-throughput PPIs remains a daunting task because of the amount of data they present. In this article, we propose a novel PPI network decomposition algorithm called FACETS in order to make sense of the deluge of interaction data using Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. FACETS finds not just a single functional decomposition of the PPI network, but a multi-faceted atlas of functional decompositions that portray alternative perspectives of the functional landscape of the underlying PPI network. Each facet in the atlas represents a distinct interpretation of how the network can be functionally decomposed and organized. Our algorithm maximizes interpretative value of the atlas by optimizing inter-facet orthogonality and intra-facet cluster modularity. We tested our algorithm on the global networks from IntAct, and compared it with gold standard datasets from MIPS and KEGG. We demonstrated the performance of FACETS. We also performed a case study that illustrates the utility of our approach. Supplementary data are available at the Bioinformatics online. Our software is available freely for non-commercial purposes from: http://www.cais.ntu.edu.sg/~assourav/Facets/

  18. Examining the validity and reliability of the Taita symptom checklist using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ling; Pan, Ay-Woan; Chung, LyInn; Chen, Tsyr-Jang

    2015-03-01

    The Taita symptom checklist (TSCL) is a standardized self-rating psychiatric symptom scale for outpatients with mental illness in Taiwan. This study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the TSCL using Rasch analysis. The TSCL was given to 583 healthy people and 479 people with mental illness. Rasch analysis was used to examine the appropriateness of the rating scale, the unidimensionality of the scale, the differential item functioning across sex and diagnosis, and the Rasch cut-off score of the scale. Rasch analysis confirmed that the revised 37 items with a three-point rating scale of the TSCL demonstrated good internal consistency and met criteria for unidimensionality. The person and item reliability indices were high. The TSCL could reliably measure healthy participants and patients with mental illness. Differential item functioning due to sex or psychiatric diagnosis was evident for three items. A Rasch cut-off score for TSCL was produced for detecting participants' psychiatric symptoms based on an eight-level classification. The TSCL is a reliable and valid assessment to evaluate the participants' perceived disturbance of psychiatric symptoms based on Rasch analysis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)

    PubMed Central

    Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings. PMID:19545445

  20. Application of Rasch Measurement to a Measure of Musical Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Kathleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Rasch calibration of a portion of the Watkins Farnum Performance Scale (J. Watkins and S. Farnum, 1954), a test of instructional music performance, for 218 sixth graders. Results show how Rasch scaling allows item difficulties to be estimated, the test to be administered more efficiently, and diagnostic information to be obtained.…

  1. The Assessment Revolution that Has Passed England By: Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayides, Panayiotis; Robinson, Colin; Tymms, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Assessment has been dominated by Classical Test Theory for the last half century although the radically different approach known as Rasch measurement briefly blossomed in England during the 1960s and 1970s. Its open development was stopped dead in the 1980s, whilst some work has continued almost surreptitiously. Elsewhere Rasch has assumed…

  2. Validating the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire in people with type 2 diabetes: Latent trait analyses applying multidimensional Rasch modelling and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Finbråten, Hanne Søberg; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun; Trollvik, Anne; Guttersrud, Øystein

    2017-11-01

    To validate the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HLS-EU-Q47 latent variable is outlined in a framework with four cognitive domains integrated in three health domains, implying 12 theoretically defined subscales. Valid and reliable health literacy measurers are crucial to effectively adapt health communication and education to individuals and groups of patients. Cross-sectional study applying confirmatory latent trait analyses. Using a paper-and-pencil self-administered approach, 388 adults responded in March 2015. The data were analysed using the Rasch methodology and confirmatory factor analysis. Response violation (response dependency) and trait violation (multidimensionality) of local independence were identified. Fitting the "multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit" model, 1-, 3- and 12-dimensional Rasch models were applied and compared. Poor model fit and differential item functioning were present in some items, and several subscales suffered from poor targeting and low reliability. Despite multidimensional data, we did not observe any unordered response categories. Interpreting the domains as distinct but related latent dimensions, the data fit a 12-dimensional Rasch model and a 12-factor confirmatory factor model best. Therefore, the analyses did not support the estimation of one overall "health literacy score." To support the plausibility of claims based on the HLS-EU score(s), we suggest: removing the health care aspect to reduce the magnitude of multidimensionality; rejecting redundant items to avoid response dependency; adding "harder" items and applying a six-point rating scale to improve subscale targeting and reliability; and revising items to improve model fit and avoid bias owing to person factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluating a technical university's placement test using the Rasch measurement model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Bakri, Norhayati; Zin, Zalhan Mohd

    2016-10-01

    This study discusses the process of validating a mathematics placement test at a technical university. The main objective is to produce a valid and reliable test to measure students' prerequisite knowledge to learn engineering technology mathematics. It is crucial to have a valid and reliable test as the results will be used in a critical decision making to assign students into different groups of Technical Mathematics 1. The placement test which consists of 50 mathematics questions were tested on 82 new diplomas in engineering technology students at a technical university. This study employed rasch measurement model to analyze the data through the Winsteps software. The results revealed that there are ten test questions lower than less able students' ability. Nevertheless, all the ten questions satisfied infit and outfit standard values. Thus, all the questions can be reused in the future placement test at the technical university.

  4. [Rasch Model in the Validation of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0™) in Colombian Children and Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vélez, Claudia Marcela; Villada Ramírez, Adriana C; Arias, Ana Carolina Amaya; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the PedsQL 4.0™ in Colombian children and adolescents using the Rasch model. The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0™) has demonstrated to be a reliable and sensitive measurement to changes in health status, as well as being quick and easy to use. Validation study of measurement tools. The PedsQL 4.0™ was applied to a convenience sample of 375 children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years old and 500 caregivers of children between 2 and 18 years old in five Colombian cities. The psychometric properties were analysed according to the Rasch model, including adjustment, separation, and differential item functioning (DIF). The Rasch model provided adequate fits to data. The social dimension, for both versions, had greater difficulty than the physical health dimension. Internal consistency for the items was observed, while for individuals, the values of reliability and separation were lower than that established. The DIF occurred in very few variables, especially when comparing cities. The characteristic curves for the items presented disordered thresholds. The items had adequate internal consistency. Analysis showed adequate individual separation, but disordered thresholds were found in the response categories. No DIF was observed by sex or disease, but it is noteworthy that the DIF occurred between cities. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  6. FACETS: multi-faceted functional decomposition of protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S.; Forbes Dewey, C.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of high-throughput PPIs remains a daunting task because of the amount of data they present. In this article, we propose a novel PPI network decomposition algorithm called FACETS in order to make sense of the deluge of interaction data using Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. FACETS finds not just a single functional decomposition of the PPI network, but a multi-faceted atlas of functional decompositions that portray alternative perspectives of the functional landscape of the underlying PPI network. Each facet in the atlas represents a distinct interpretation of how the network can be functionally decomposed and organized. Our algorithm maximizes interpretative value of the atlas by optimizing inter-facet orthogonality and intra-facet cluster modularity. Results: We tested our algorithm on the global networks from IntAct, and compared it with gold standard datasets from MIPS and KEGG. We demonstrated the performance of FACETS. We also performed a case study that illustrates the utility of our approach. Contact: seah0097@ntu.edu.sg or assourav@ntu.edu.sg Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at the Bioinformatics online. Availability: Our software is available freely for non-commercial purposes from: http://www.cais.ntu.edu.sg/∼assourav/Facets/ PMID:22908217

  7. Facet-controlled facilitation of PbS nanoarchitectures by understanding nanocrystal growth.

    PubMed

    Loc, Welley Siu; Quan, Zewei; Lin, Cuikun; Pan, Jinfong; Wang, Yuxuan; Yang, Kaikun; Jian, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Howard; Fang, Jiye

    2015-12-07

    Nanostructured lead sulphide is a significant component in a number of energy-related sustainable applications such as photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric components. In many micro-packaging processes, dimensionality-controlled nano-architectures as building blocks with unique properties are required. This study investigates different facet-merging growth behaviors through a wet-chemical synthetic strategy to produce high-quality controlled nanostructures of lead sulphide in various dimensionalities. It was found that 1D nanowires or 2D nanosheets can be obtained by the merging of reactive {111}- or {110}-facets, respectively, while promoting {100} facets in the early stages after nucleation leads to the growth of 0D nanocubes. The influence of temperature, capping ligands and co-solvent in facilitating the crystal facet growth of each intermediate seed is also demonstrated. The novelty of this work is characterized by the delicate manipulation of various PbS nanoarchitectures based on the comprehension of the facet-merging evolution. The synthesis of facet-controlled PbS nanostructures could provide novel building blocks with desired properties for use in many applications.

  8. Lookup Tables Versus Stacked Rasch Analysis in Comparing Pre- and Postintervention Adult Strabismus-20 Data.

    PubMed

    Leske, David A; Hatt, Sarah R; Liebermann, Laura; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    We compare two methods of analysis for Rasch scoring pre- to postintervention data: Rasch lookup table versus de novo stacked Rasch analysis using the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20). One hundred forty-seven subjects completed the AS-20 questionnaire prior to surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively. Subjects were classified 6 weeks postoperatively as "success," "partial success," or "failure" based on angle and diplopia status. Postoperative change in AS-20 scores was compared for all four AS-20 domains (self-perception, interactions, reading function, and general function) overall and by success status using two methods: (1) applying historical Rasch threshold measures from lookup tables and (2) performing a stacked de novo Rasch analysis. Change was assessed by analyzing effect size, improvement exceeding 95% limits of agreement (LOA), and score distributions. Effect sizes were similar for all AS-20 domains whether obtained from lookup tables or stacked analysis. Similar proportions exceeded 95% LOAs using lookup tables versus stacked analysis. Improvement in median score was observed for all AS-20 domains using lookup tables and stacked analysis ( P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). The Rasch-scored AS-20 is a responsive and valid instrument designed to measure strabismus-specific health-related quality of life. When analyzing pre- to postoperative change in AS-20 scores, Rasch lookup tables and de novo stacked Rasch analysis yield essentially the same results. We describe a practical application of lookup tables, allowing the clinician or researcher to score the Rasch-calibrated AS-20 questionnaire without specialized software.

  9. Lookup Tables Versus Stacked Rasch Analysis in Comparing Pre- and Postintervention Adult Strabismus-20 Data

    PubMed Central

    Leske, David A.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Liebermann, Laura; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compare two methods of analysis for Rasch scoring pre- to postintervention data: Rasch lookup table versus de novo stacked Rasch analysis using the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20). Methods One hundred forty-seven subjects completed the AS-20 questionnaire prior to surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively. Subjects were classified 6 weeks postoperatively as “success,” “partial success,” or “failure” based on angle and diplopia status. Postoperative change in AS-20 scores was compared for all four AS-20 domains (self-perception, interactions, reading function, and general function) overall and by success status using two methods: (1) applying historical Rasch threshold measures from lookup tables and (2) performing a stacked de novo Rasch analysis. Change was assessed by analyzing effect size, improvement exceeding 95% limits of agreement (LOA), and score distributions. Results Effect sizes were similar for all AS-20 domains whether obtained from lookup tables or stacked analysis. Similar proportions exceeded 95% LOAs using lookup tables versus stacked analysis. Improvement in median score was observed for all AS-20 domains using lookup tables and stacked analysis (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Conclusions The Rasch-scored AS-20 is a responsive and valid instrument designed to measure strabismus-specific health-related quality of life. When analyzing pre- to postoperative change in AS-20 scores, Rasch lookup tables and de novo stacked Rasch analysis yield essentially the same results. Translational Relevance We describe a practical application of lookup tables, allowing the clinician or researcher to score the Rasch-calibrated AS-20 questionnaire without specialized software. PMID:26933524

  10. Validation of the brief version of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-B) using Rasch measurement theory.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Skye P; Kidd, Sean A; Davidson, Larry; McKenzie, Kwame; O'Connell, Maria J

    2015-12-01

    In psychiatry, the recovery paradigm is increasingly identified as the overarching framework for service provision. Currently, the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA), a 36-item rating scale, is commonly used to assess the uptake of a recovery orientation in clinical services. However, the consumer version of the RSA has been found challenging to complete because of length and the reading level required. In response to this feedback, a brief 12-item version of the RSA was developed (RSA-B). This article describes the development of the modified instrument and the application of traditional psychometric analysis and Rasch Measurement Theory to test the psychometrics properties of the RSA-B. Data from a multisite study of adults with serious mental illnesses (n = 1256) who were followed by assertive community treatment teams were examined for reliability, clinical meaning, targeting, response categories, model fit, reliability, dependency, and raw interval-level measurement. Analyses were performed using the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (RUMM 2030). Adequate fit to the Rasch model was observed (χ2 = 112.46, df = 90, p = .06) and internal consistency was good (r = .86). However, Rasch analysis revealed limitations of the 12-item version, with items covering only 39% of the targeted theoretical continuum, 2 misfitting items, and strong evidence for the 5 option response categories not working as intended. This study revealed areas for improvement in the shortened version of the 12-item RSA-B. A revisit of the conceptual model and original 36-item rating scale is encouraged to select items that will help practitioners and researchers measure the full range of recovery orientation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Rasch Modeling of the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition with a Sample of K1 Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Shih-Ying; Muñez, David; Bull, Rebecca; Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Poon, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition (TEMA-3) is a commonly used measure of early mathematics knowledge for children aged 3 years to 8 years 11 months. In spite of its wide use, research on the psychometric properties of TEMA-3 remains limited. This study applied the Rasch model to investigate the psychometric properties of TEMA-3…

  12. Evaluation of the internal construct validity of the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Darzins, Susan; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn; Taylor, Nicholas F; Pallant, Julie F

    2014-11-05

    The Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) is a 43-item, clinician-administered assessment, designed to identify patients' unmet needs (participation restrictions) in activities of daily living (ADL) required for community life. This information is important for identifying problems that need addressing to enable, for example, discharge from inpatient settings to community living. The objective of this study was to evaluate internal construct validity of the PC-PART using Rasch methods. Fit to the Rasch model was evaluated for 41 PC-PART items, assessing threshold ordering, overall model fit, individual item fit, person fit, internal consistency, Differential Item Functioning (DIF), targeting of items and dimensionality. Data used in this research were taken from admission data from a randomised controlled trial conducted at two publically funded inpatient rehabilitation units in Melbourne, Australia, with 996 participants (63% women; mean age 74 years) and with various impairment types. PC-PART items assessed as one scale, and original PC-PART domains evaluated as separate scales, demonstrated poor fit to the Rasch model. Adequate fit to the Rasch model was achieved in two newly formed PC-PART scales: Self-Care (16 items) and Domestic Life (14 items). Both scales were unidimensional, had acceptable internal consistency (PSI =0.85, 0.76, respectively) and well-targeted items. Rasch analysis did not support conventional summation of all PC-PART item scores to create a total score. However, internal construct validity of the newly formed PC-PART scales, Self-Care and Domestic Life, was supported. Their Rasch-derived scores provided interval-level measurement enabling summation of scores to form a total score on each scale. These scales may assist clinicians, managers and researchers in rehabilitation settings to assess and measure changes in ADL participation restrictions relevant to community living. Data used in this research were

  13. Rasch fit statistics and sample size considerations for polytomous data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Rush, Robert; Fallowfield, Lesley J; Velikova, Galina; Sharpe, Michael

    2008-05-29

    Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although little is known about this relationship for polytomous data. These statistics help inform researchers about how well items fit to a unidimensional latent trait, and are an important adjunct to modern psychometrics. Given the increasing use of Rasch models in health research the purpose of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between fit statistics and sample size for polytomous data. Data were collated from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (n = 4072) who had completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Ten samples were drawn with replacement for each of eight sample sizes (n = 25 to n = 3200). The Rating and Partial Credit Models were applied and the mean square and t-fit statistics (infit/outfit) derived for each model. The results demonstrated that t-statistics were highly sensitive to sample size, whereas mean square statistics remained relatively stable for polytomous data. It was concluded that mean square statistics were relatively independent of sample size for polytomous data and that misfit to the model could be identified using published recommended ranges.

  14. Proximal attrition facets: morphometric, demographic, and aging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shvalb, Nir; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2014-08-01

    Although interproximal attrition is considered to be limited in modern populations, it has important clinical implications. However, in contrast to occlusal attrition, proximal attrition receives limited scientific attention. The main purpose of the current study was to fill this void. Seven-hundred and sixty-five teeth were collected from 255 skulls of subjects 18-75 yr of age. For each individual, three mandibular teeth (the first and second premolars and the first molar) were examined for proximal attrition facets (PAFs). The results provide detailed information on the size, shape, and location of the facets according to age cohort, gender, and ethnicity. The validity of the method used to measure the facets was also examined. The major findings were as follows: PAFs are usually located on the upper half of the crown proximal aspect; in each tooth, the mesial facet is more lingually positioned and the distal facet is more buccally positioned; the majority of the facets are subrectangular in shape; the size of the facets tends to increase in an anteroposterior direction (from premolars to molars); and facet size and location are age- and sex-dependent and ethnicity-independent. It is our recommendation that dentists bear in mind that interproximal attrition is a dynamic, long-term process and needs to be considered in many clinical scenarios. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Understanding the facet formation mechanisms of Si thin-film solidification through three-dimensional phase-field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Y.; Lan, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive phase field modeling is used in order to model the formation mechanism of a silicon faceted interface in three dimensions. We investigate the faceting condition for equilibrium shapes and dynamic situations. In this study, we propose a new anisotropic function of surface energy for the phase-field simulations in three-dimension, and negative stiffness is further considered. The morphological evolutions are presented and compare well with experimental findings. The growth mechanism is further discussed.

  16. Quality of life for post-polio syndrome: a patient derived, Rasch standard scale.

    PubMed

    Young, Carolyn A; Quincey, Anne-Marie C; Wong, Samantha M; Tennant, Alan

    2018-03-01

    To design a disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire for people with post-polio syndrome (PPS). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 people with PPS to identify themes and derive potential items reflecting impact upon QoL. After cognitive debriefing, these were made into a questionnaire pack along with comparative questionnaires and posted to 319 patients. The 271 (85%) returned questionnaires were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch analysis. A 25 item scale, the post-polio quality of life scale (PP-QoL), showed good fit to the Rasch model (conditional chi-square p = 0.156), unidimensionality (% t-tests 2.0: CI 0.7-3.8), and Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. With the latent estimate transformed to a 0-100 scale, the mean score was 56.9 (SD 18.5) with only 3.3% of respondents at the floor or ceiling of the scale. Test-retest reliability showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2.1) of 0.916, and correlation of 0.85. The disease-specific PP-QoL demonstrated excellent reliability, appropriate concurrent validity, and satisfied the standards of the Rasch model. It enables examination of the impact of health status upon perceived QoL, and the impact of rehabilitation interventions. The scale is freely available for academic or not-for-profit users to improve research in this neglected, disabling condition. Implications for Rehabilitation In post-polio syndrome (PPS), existing work examines aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), such as activity limitations. A disease-specific QoL measure would enable researchers to model the impact of health status, such as fatigue or mobility restrictions, upon QoL in PPS. The post-polio quality of life scale (PP-QoL) is based on the patients' lived experience, meets Rasch standards and is free for use for academic and not-for-profit researchers. The raw score is reliable for individual use in clinical settings, and interval scale transformation is available for parametric

  17. Measurement properties of the Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation: Rasch analysis of responses from a traumatic hand injury population.

    PubMed

    Packham, Tara; MacDermid, Joy C

    2013-01-01

    The Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation (PRWHE) is a self-reported assessment of pain and disability to evaluate outcome after hand injuries. Rasch analysis is an alternative strategy for examining the psychometric properties of a measurement scale based in item response theory, rather than classical test theory. This study used Rasch analysis to examine the content, scoring and measurement properties of the PRWHE. PRWHE scores (n = 264) from persons with a traumatic injury or reconstructive surgery to one hand were collected from an outpatient hand rehabilitation facility. Rasch analysis was conducted to assess how the PRWHE fit the Rasch model, confirms the scaling structure of the pain and disability subscales, and identifies any areas of bias from differential item functioning. Rasch analysis of the PRWHE supports internal consistency of the scale (α = 0.96) and reliability (as measured by the person separation index) of 0.95. While gender, age, diagnosis, and duration since injury all systematically influenced how people scored the PRWHE, hand dominance and affected side did not. Rasch analysis supported a 3 subscale structure (pain, specific activities and usual activities) rather than the current divisions of pain and disability. Initial examination of the PRWHE indicates the psychometric properties of consistency, reliability and responsiveness previously tested by classical methods are further supported by Rasch analysis. It also suggests the scale structure may be best considered as 3 subscales rather than simply pain and disability. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results From a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank—a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of communication disorders. Method A set of 141 candidate items was administered to 208 adults with spasmodic dysphonia. Participants rated the extent to which their condition interfered with participation in various speaking communication situations. Questionnaires were administered online or in a paper version per participant preference. Participants also completed the Voice Handicap Index (B. H. Jacobson et al., 1997) and a demographic questionnaire. Rasch analyses were conducted using Winsteps software (J. M. Linacre, 1991). Results The results show that items functioned better when the 5-category response format was recoded to a 4-category format. After removing 8 items that did not fit the Rasch model, the remaining 133 items demonstrated strong evidence of sufficient unidimensionality, with the model accounting for 89.3% of variance. Item location values ranged from −2.73 to 2.20 logits. Conclusions Preliminary Rasch analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank show strong psychometric properties. Further testing in populations with other communication disorders is needed. PMID:19717652

  19. Application of Rasch analysis to the parent adherence report questionnaire in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Toupin April, Karine; Higgins, Johanne; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-07-28

    Adherence to treatment in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is associated with better outcomes. Assessing patient adherence in JIA, as well as attitudes and beliefs about prescribed treatments, is important for the clinician in order to optimize patient management. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parent (proxy-report) Adherence Report Questionnaires (PARQ), which assesses beliefs and behaviors related to adherence to treatments prescribed for JIA. A Rasch analysis was conducted on data collected with parents of children with JIA from two studies in which the PARQ was used as a measure of adherence. The PARQ showed preliminary evidence of multidimensionality with two factors, accounting for 38 % and 27 % of the variance respectively. The PARQ in its original version does not adhere to expectations of the Rasch model. A transformed version of the PARQ obtained by deletion of the general adherence scale and modification of visual analog scales into 5-point likert scales improved fit to the model and showed preliminary evidence of unidimensionality. The PARQ was transformed based on the results of the Rasch analysis. The transformed version of the PARQ shows preliminary evidence of unidimensionality and may allow computation of a total score, although further testing is needed to verify these findings.

  20. Development of Nonword and Irregular Word Lists for Australian Grade 3 Students Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Sarah; Cunningham, Everarda; Theiler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Many tests used in educational settings to identify learning difficulties endeavour to pick up only the lowest performers. Yet these tests are generally developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) paradigm that assumes that data do not have significant skew. Rasch analysis is more tolerant of skew and was used to validate two newly developed…

  1. Caffeine expectancy: instrument development in the Rasch measurement framework.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Kassel, Jon D; Smith, Everett V

    2009-09-01

    Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The construct validity of the Major Depression Inventory: A Rasch analysis of a self-rating scale in primary care.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Per; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties of the ten-item Major Depression Inventory when used on clinical suspicion in general practice by performing a Rasch analysis. General practitioners asked consecutive persons to respond to the web-based Major Depression Inventory on clinical suspicion of depression. We included 22 practices and 245 persons. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM2030 software. The Rasch model fit suggests that all items contribute to a single underlying trait (defined as internal construct validity). Mokken analysis was used to test dimensionality and scalability. Our Rasch analysis showed misfit concerning the sleep and appetite items (items 9 and 10). The response categories were disordered for eight items. After modifying the original six-point to a four-point scoring system for all items, we achieved ordered response categories for all ten items. The person separation reliability was acceptable (0.82) for the initial model. Dimensionality testing did not support combining the ten items to create a total score. The scale appeared to be well targeted to this clinical sample. No significant differential item functioning was observed for gender, age, work status and education. The Rasch and Mokken analyses revealed two dimensions, but the Major Depression Inventory showed fit to one scale if items 9 and 10 were excluded. Our study indicated scalability problems in the current version of the Major Depression Inventory. The conducted analysis revealed better statistical fit when items 9 and 10 were excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring and Predicting Graded Reader Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holster, Trevor A.; Lake, J. W.; Pellowe, William R.

    2017-01-01

    This study used many-faceted Rasch measurement to investigate the difficulty of graded readers using a 3-item survey. Book difficulty was compared with Kyoto Level, Yomiyasusa Level, Lexile Level, book length, mean sentence length, and mean word frequency. Word frequency and Kyoto Level were found to be ineffective in predicting students'…

  4. Item analysis using Rasch models confirms that the Danish versions of the DISABKIDS® chronic-generic and diabetes-specific modules are valid and reliable.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Julie Bøjstrup; Kyvsgaard, Julie Nyholm; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Kreiner, Svend; Svensson, Jannet

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) has a negative impact on psychological and overall well-being. Screening for Health-related Quality of Life (HrQoL) and addressing HrQoL issues in the clinic leads to improved well-being and metabolic outcomes. The aim of this study was to translate the generic and diabetes-specific validated multinational DISABKIDS® questionnaires into Danish, and then determine their validity and reliability. The questionnaires were translated using a validated translation procedure and completed by 99 children and adolescents from our diabetes-department; all diagnosed with T1D and were aged between 8 and 18 years old. The Rasch and the graphical log linear Rasch model (GLLRM) were used to determine validity. Monte Carlo methods and Cronbach's α were used to confirm reliability. The data did not fit a pure Rasch model but did fit a GLLRM when item six in the independence scale is excluded. The six subscales measure different aspects of HrQoL indicating that all the subscales are necessary. The questionnaire shows local dependency between items and differential item functioning (DIF). Therefore age, gender, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels must be taken into account when comparing HrQoL between groups. The Danish versions of the DISABKIDS® chronic-generic and diabetes-specific modules provide valid and objective measurements with adequate reliability. These Danish versions are useful tools for evaluating HrQoL in Danish patients with T1D. However, guidelines on how to manage DIF and local independence will be required, and item six should be rephrased.

  5. Applying Rasch analysis to evaluate measurement equivalence of different administration formats of the Activity Limitation scale of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR).

    PubMed

    Twiss, J; McKenna, S P; Graham, J; Swetz, K; Sloan, J; Gomberg-Maitland, M

    2016-04-09

    Electronic formats of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are now routinely used in clinical research studies. When changing from a validated paper and pen to electronic administration it is necessary to establish their equivalence. This study reports on the value of Rasch analysis in this process. Three groups of US pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients participated. The first completed an electronic version of the CAMPHOR Activity Limitation scale (e-sample) and this was compared with two pen and paper administrated samples (pp1 and pp2). The three databases were combined and analysed for fit to the Rasch model. Equivalence was evaluated by differential item functioning (DIF) analyses. The three datasets were matched randomly in terms of sample size (n = 147). Mean age (years) and percentage of male respondents were as follows: e-sample (51.7, 16.0 %); pp1 (50.0, 14.0 %); pp2 (55.5, 40.4 %). The combined dataset achieved fit to the Rasch model. Two items showed evidence of borderline DIF. Further analyses showed the inclusion of these items had little impact on Rasch estimates indicating the DIF identified was unimportant. Differences between the performance of the electronic and pen and paper administrations of the CAMPHOR Activity Limitation scale were minor. The results were successful in showing how the Rasch model can be used to determine the equivalence of alternative formats of PRO measures.

  6. Rasch fit statistics and sample size considerations for polytomous data

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam B; Rush, Robert; Fallowfield, Lesley J; Velikova, Galina; Sharpe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although little is known about this relationship for polytomous data. These statistics help inform researchers about how well items fit to a unidimensional latent trait, and are an important adjunct to modern psychometrics. Given the increasing use of Rasch models in health research the purpose of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between fit statistics and sample size for polytomous data. Methods Data were collated from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (n = 4072) who had completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Ten samples were drawn with replacement for each of eight sample sizes (n = 25 to n = 3200). The Rating and Partial Credit Models were applied and the mean square and t-fit statistics (infit/outfit) derived for each model. Results The results demonstrated that t-statistics were highly sensitive to sample size, whereas mean square statistics remained relatively stable for polytomous data. Conclusion It was concluded that mean square statistics were relatively independent of sample size for polytomous data and that misfit to the model could be identified using published recommended ranges. PMID:18510722

  7. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Rasch Techniques for Detecting Bias in Performance Assessments: An Example Comparing the Performance of Native and Non-native Speakers on a Test of Academic English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Catherine; McNamara, Tim; Congdon, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Used Rasch analytic procedures to study item bias or differential item functioning in both dichotomous and scalar items on a test of English for academic purposes. Results for 139 college students on a pilot English language test model the approach and illustrate the measurement challenges posed by a diagnostic instrument to measure English…

  8. Effects of demographic and health variables on Rasch scaled cognitive scores.

    PubMed

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Gilewski, Michael J

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether demographic and health variables interact to predict cognitive scores in Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest-Old (AHEAD), a representative survey of older Americans, as a test of the developmental discontinuity hypothesis. Rasch modeling procedures were used to rescale cognitive measures into interval scores, equating scales across measures, making it possible to compare predictor effects directly. Rasch scaling also reduces the likelihood of obtaining spurious interactions. Tasks included combined immediate and delayed recall, the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), Series 7, and an overall cognitive score. Demographic variables most strongly predicted performance on all scores, with health variables having smaller effects. Age interacted with both demographic and health variables, but patterns of effects varied. Demographic variables have strong effects on cognition. The developmental discontinuity hypothesis that health variables have stronger effects than demographic ones on cognition in older adults was not supported.

  9. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Interface Control Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon R.

    2017-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) documents the airspace adaptation and air traffic inputs of NASA's Future ATM Concepts and Evaluation Tool (FACET). Its intended audience is the project manager, project team, development team, and stakeholders interested in interfacing with the system. FACET equips Air Traffic Management (ATM) researchers and service providers with a way to explore, develop and evaluate advanced air transportation concepts before they are field-tested and eventually deployed. FACET is a flexible software tool that is capable of quickly generating and analyzing thousands of aircraft trajectories. It provides researchers with a simulation environment for preliminary testing of advanced ATM concepts. Using aircraft performance profiles, airspace models, weather data, and flight schedules, the tool models trajectories for the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight for each type of aircraft. An advanced graphical interface displays traffic patterns in two and three dimensions, under various current and projected conditions for specific airspace regions or over the entire continental United States. The system is able to simulate a full day's dynamic national airspace system (NAS) operations, model system uncertainty, measure the impact of different decision-makers in the NAS, and provide analysis of the results in graphical form, including sector, airport, fix, and airway usage statistics. NASA researchers test and analyze the system-wide impact of new traffic flow management algorithms under anticipated air traffic growth projections on the nation's air traffic system. In addition to modeling the airspace system for NASA research, FACET has also successfully transitioned into a valuable tool for operational use. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic flow managers and commercial airline dispatchers have used FACET technology for real-time operations planning. FACET integrates live air traffic data from FAA radar systems and weather data

  10. Utilizing Multifaceted Rasch Measurement through Facets to Evaluate Science Education Data Sets Composed of Judges, Respondents, and Rating Scale Items: An Exemplar Utilizing the Elementary Science Teaching Analysis Matrix Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Staver, John R.

    2016-01-01

    When collecting data, science education researchers frequently have multiple respondents evaluate multiple artifacts using multiple criteria. Herein, the authors introduce Multifaceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) analysis and explain why MFRM must be used when "judges'" data are collected. The authors use data from elementary science…

  11. Treating personality-relationship transactions with respect: narrow facets, advanced models, and extended time frames.

    PubMed

    Mund, Marcus; Neyer, Franz J

    2014-08-01

    Contrary to premises of dynamic transactionism, most studies investigating personality-relationship transaction only found personality effects on relationships but failed to find effects of relationship experiences on personality development. The current study reconsiders this issue in 3 ways. First, alongside the broad Big Five characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), specific personality facets were considered to make comparisons with relationships more symmetric. Second, a recent extension of latent change modeling was applied allowing for a theoretically more appropriate model that compensates for the shortcomings of traditionally used cross-lagged panel or growth curve models. Third, personality-relationship transaction was studied from young adulthood to midlife using a 15-year longitudinal study with 654 German adults. Results showed patterns of personality-relationship transaction with the romantic partner, friends, kin, and other interaction partners. Specifically, the development of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and their facets was closely interacting with partner and friend relationships, underlining the importance of these relationships for personality maturation during the adult years. We conclude that relationship effects have often been underestimated in previous studies. They are not bound to specific developmental periods, such as emerging adulthood, but their detection depends on the modeling approach and the analysis level (broad dimensions vs. facets). Relationship effects are most likely to occur in relationships that reflect self-selected life styles and circumstances.

  12. Facet-Selective Epitaxy of Compound Semiconductors on Faceted Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Max N; Day, Robert W; Gao, Ruixuan; No, You-Shin; Kim, Sun-Kyung; McClelland, Arthur A; Bell, David C; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-08

    Integration of compound semiconductors with silicon (Si) has been a long-standing goal for the semiconductor industry, as direct band gap compound semiconductors offer, for example, attractive photonic properties not possible with Si devices. However, mismatches in lattice constant, thermal expansion coefficient, and polarity between Si and compound semiconductors render growth of epitaxial heterostructures challenging. Nanowires (NWs) are a promising platform for the integration of Si and compound semiconductors since their limited surface area can alleviate such material mismatch issues. Here, we demonstrate facet-selective growth of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on Si NWs. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that crystalline CdS is grown epitaxially on the {111} and {110} surface facets of the Si NWs but that the Si{113} facets remain bare. Further analysis of CdS on Si NWs grown at higher deposition rates to yield a conformal shell reveals a thin oxide layer on the Si{113} facet. This observation and control experiments suggest that facet-selective growth is enabled by the formation of an oxide, which prevents subsequent shell growth on the Si{113} NW facets. Further studies of facet-selective epitaxial growth of CdS shells on micro-to-mesoscale wires, which allows tuning of the lateral width of the compound semiconductor layer without lithographic patterning, and InP shell growth on Si NWs demonstrate the generality of our growth technique. In addition, photoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy show that the epitaxial shells display strong and clean band edge emission, confirming their high photonic quality, and thus suggesting that facet-selective epitaxy on NW substrates represents a promising route to integration of compound semiconductors on Si.

  13. Parental Health Attributions of Childhood Health and Illness: Development of the Pediatric Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ).

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Lisa M; McLinden, Daniel J; Shellmer, Diana; Baker, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    The causes attributed to childhood health and illness across cultures (cultural health attributions) are key factors that are now more frequently identified as affecting the health outcomes of children. Research suggests that the causes attributed to an event such as illness are thought to affect subsequent motivation, emotional response, decision making, and behavior. To date, there is no measure of health attributions appropriate for use with parents of pediatric patients. Using the Many-Facets approach to Rasch analysis, this study assesses the psychometrics of a newly developed instrument, the Pediatric Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ), a measure designed to assess the cultural health attributions of parents in diverse communities. Results suggest acceptable Rasch model statistics of fit and reliability for the Pedi-CHAQ. A shortened version of the questionnaire was developed as a result of this study and next steps are discussed.

  14. Rasch analysis of measurement instruments capturing psychological personal factors in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Peter, Claudio; Schulenberg, Stefan E; Buchanan, Erin M; Prodinger, Birgit; Geyh, Szilvia

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the metric properties of distinct measures of psychological personal factors comprising feelings, beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour assessed in the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI), using Rasch methodology. SwiSCI Pathway 2 is a community-based, nationwide, cross-sectional survey for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) (n = 511). The Rasch partial credit model was used for each subscale of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), Appraisal of Life Events Scale (ALE), Purpose in Life test - Short Form (PIL-SF), and the Big Five Inventory-K (BFI-K). The measures were unidimensional, with the exception of the positive affect items of the PANAS, where pairwise t-tests resulted in 10% significant cases, indicating multidimensionality. The BFI-K subscale agreeableness revealed low reliability (0.53). Other reliability estimates ranged between 0.61 and 0.89. Ceiling and floor effects were found for most measures. SCI-related differential item functioning (DIF) was rarely found. Language DIF was identified for several items of the BFI-K, PANAS and the ALE, but not for the PIL-SF. A majority of the measures satisfy the assumptions of the Rasch model, including unidimensionality. Invariance across language versions still represents a major challenge.

  15. Examination of a Social-Networking Site Activities Scale (SNSAS) Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhaythami, Hassan; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul; Bolden, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a social-networking site (SNS) activities scale (SNSAS) using Rasch Analysis. Items were also examined with Rasch Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across groups of university students (i.e., males and females from the United States [US] and Europe; N =…

  16. Broad Bandwidth or High Fidelity? Evidence from the Structure of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Facets of the Five Factor Model

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2017-01-01

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is well-established at the phenotypic level, but much less is known about the coherence of the genetic and environmental influences within each personality domain. Univariate behavioral genetic analyses have consistently found the influence of additive genes and nonshared environment on multiple personality facets, but the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on specific facets reflect more general influences on higher order factors is less clear. We applied a multivariate quantitative-genetic approach to scores on the CPI-Big Five facets for 490 monozygotic and 317 dizygotic twins who took part in the National Merit Twin Study. Our results revealed a complex genetic structure for facets composing all five factors, with both domain-general and facet-specific genetic and environmental influences. Models that required common genetic and environmental influences on each facet to occur by way of effects on a higher order trait did not fit as well as models allowing for common genetic and environmental effects to act directly on the facets for three of the Big Five domains. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that important variation in personality occurs at the facet level which may be overshadowed by aggregating to the trait level. Research at the facet level, rather than the factor level, is likely to have pragmatic advantages in future research on the genetics of personality. PMID:22695681

  17. Using Rasch models to develop and validate an environmental thinking learning progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.

    Environmental understanding is highly relevant in today's global society. Social, economic, and political structures are connected to the state of environmental degradation and exploitation, and disproportionately affect those in poor or urban communities (Brulle & Pellow, 2006; Executive Order No. 12898, 1994). Environmental education must challenge the way we live, and our social and ecological quality of life, with the goal of responsible action. The development of a learning progression in environmental thinking, along with a corresponding assessment, could provide a tool that could be used across environmental education programs to help evaluate and guide programmatic decisions. This study sought to determine if a scale could be constructed that allowed individuals to be ordered along a continuum of environmental thinking. First, I developed the Environmental Thinking Learning Progression, a scale of environmental thinking from novice to advanced, based on the current available research and literature. The scale consisted of four subscales, each measuring a different aspect of environmental thinking: place consciousness, human connection, agency, and science concepts. Second, a measurement instrument was developed, so that the data appropriately fit the model using Rasch analysis. A Rasch analysis of the data placed respondents along a continuum, given the range of item difficulty for each subscale. Across three iterations of instrument revision and data collection, findings indicated that the items were ordered in a hierarchical way that corresponded to the construct of environmental thinking. Comparisons between groups showed that the average score of respondents who had participated in environmental education programs was significantly higher than those who had not. A comparison between males and females showed no significant difference in average measure, however, there were varied significant differences between how racial/ethnic groups performed. Overall

  18. Using Distractor-Driven Standards-Based Multiple-Choice Assessments and Rasch Modeling to Investigate Hierarchies of Chemistry Misconceptions and Detect Structural Problems with Individual Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Distractor-driven multiple-choice assessment items and Rasch modeling were used as diagnostic tools to investigate students' understanding of middle school chemistry ideas. Ninety-one items were developed according to a procedure that ensured content alignment to the targeted standards and construct validity. The items were administered to 13360…

  19. Migration mechanisms of a faceted grain boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadian, R.; Grabowski, B.; Finnis, M. W.; Neugebauer, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations and their analysis for a mixed tilt and twist grain boundary vicinal to the Σ 7 symmetric tilt boundary of the type {1 2 3 } in aluminum. When minimized in energy at 0 K , a grain boundary of this type exhibits nanofacets that contain kinks. We observe that at higher temperatures of migration simulations, given extended annealing times, it is energetically favorable for these nanofacets to coalesce into a large terrace-facet structure. Therefore, we initiate the simulations from such a structure and study as a function of applied driving force and temperature how the boundary migrates. We find the migration of a faceted boundary can be described in terms of the flow of steps. The migration is dominated at lower driving force by the collective motion of the steps incorporated in the facet, and at higher driving forces by the step detachment from the terrace-facet junction and propagation of steps across the terraces. The velocity of steps on terraces is faster than their velocity when incorporated in the facet, and very much faster than the velocity of the facet profile itself, which is almost stationary. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model matches the broad kinematic features revealed by the molecular dynamics. Since the mechanisms seem likely to be very general on kinked grain-boundary planes, the step-flow description is a promising approach to more quantitative modeling of general grain boundaries.

  20. Controlling Guessing Bias in the Dichotomous Rasch Model Applied to a Large-Scale, Vertically Scaled Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The consequence is that the proficiencies of the more proficient students are increased relative to those of the less proficient. Not controlling the guessing bias underestimates the progress of students across 7 years of schooling with important educational implications. PMID:29795871

  1. Measuring pretest-posttest change with a Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Chiu, C W

    1999-01-01

    When measures are taken on the same individual over time, it is difficult to determine whether observed differences are the result of changes in the person or changes in other facets of the measurement situation (e.g., interpretation of items or use of rating scale). This paper describes a method for disentangling changes in persons from changes in the interpretation of Likert-type questionnaire items and the use of rating scales (Wright, 1996a). The procedure relies on anchoring strategies to create a common frame of reference for interpreting measures that are taken at different times and provides a detailed illustration of how to implement these procedures using FACETS.

  2. Improving Consensus Scoring of Crowdsourced Data Using the Rasch Model: Development and Refinement of a Diagnostic Instrument.

    PubMed

    Brady, Christopher John; Mudie, Lucy Iluka; Wang, Xueyang; Guallar, Eliseo; Friedman, David Steven

    2017-06-20

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in working age individuals worldwide. While screening is effective and cost effective, it remains underutilized, and novel methods are needed to increase detection of DR. This clinical validation study compared diagnostic gradings of retinal fundus photographs provided by volunteers on the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing marketplace with expert-provided gold-standard grading and explored whether determination of the consensus of crowdsourced classifications could be improved beyond a simple majority vote (MV) using regression methods. The aim of our study was to determine whether regression methods could be used to improve the consensus grading of data collected by crowdsourcing. A total of 1200 retinal images of individuals with diabetes mellitus from the Messidor public dataset were posted to AMT. Eligible crowdsourcing workers had at least 500 previously approved tasks with an approval rating of 99% across their prior submitted work. A total of 10 workers were recruited to classify each image as normal or abnormal. If half or more workers judged the image to be abnormal, the MV consensus grade was recorded as abnormal. Rasch analysis was then used to calculate worker ability scores in a random 50% training set, which were then used as weights in a regression model in the remaining 50% test set to determine if a more accurate consensus could be devised. Outcomes of interest were the percent correctly classified images, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) for the consensus grade as compared with the expert grading provided with the dataset. Using MV grading, the consensus was correct in 75.5% of images (906/1200), with 75.5% sensitivity, 75.5% specificity, and an AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.78). A logistic regression model using Rasch-weighted individual scores generated an AUROC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93) compared with 0.89 (95% CI 0

  3. Validity of personality measurement in adults with anxiety disorders: psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R using Rasch analyses

    PubMed Central

    Inchausti, Felix; Mole, Joe; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO Five Factor Inventory–Revised (NEO-FFI-R) using Rasch analyses, in order to test its rating scale functioning, the reliability of scores, internal structure, and differential item functioning (DIF) by gender in a psychiatric sample. The NEO-FFI-R responses of 433 Spanish adults (154 males) with an anxiety disorder as primary diagnosis were analysed using the Rasch model for rating scales. Two intermediate categories of response (‘neutral’ and ‘agree’) malfunctioned in the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scales. In addition, model reliabilities were lower than expected in Agreeableness and Neuroticism, and the item fit values indicated each scale had items that did not achieve moderate to high discrimination on its dimension, particularly in the Agreeableness scale. Concerning unidimensionality, the five NEO-FFI-R scales showed large first components of unexplained variance. Finally, DIF by gender was detected in many items. The results suggest that the scores of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R are unreliable in psychiatric samples and cannot be generalized between males and females, especially in the Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness scales. Future directions for testing and refinement should be developed before the NEO-FFI-R can be used reliably in clinical samples. PMID:25954224

  4. Validation of the Dutch version of the Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (DSWAL-QoL) and the adjusted DSWAL-QoL (aDSWAL-QoL) using item analysis with the Rasch model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Simpelaere, Ingeborg S; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; De Bodt, Marc; Vanderwegen, Jan; Hansen, Tina

    2017-04-07

    The Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QoL) is considered the gold standard for assessing health-related QoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia. The Dutch translation (DSWAL-QoL) and its adjusted version (aDSWAL-QoL) have been validated using classical test theory (CTT). However, these scales have not been tested against the Rasch measurement model, which is required to establish the structural validity and objectivity of the total scale and subscale scores. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of these scales using item analysis according to the Rasch model. Item analysis with the Rasch model was performed using RUMM2030 software with previously collected data from a validation study of 108 patients. The assessment included evaluations of overall model fit, reliability, unidimensionality, threshold ordering, individual item and person fits, differential item functioning (DIF), local item dependency (LID) and targeting. The analysis could not establish the psychometric properties of either of the scales or their subscales because they did not fit the Rasch model, and multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, DIF, and/or LID were found. The reliability and power of fit were high for the total scales (PSI = 0.93) but low for most of the subscales (PSI < 0.70). The targeting of persons and items was suboptimal. The main source of misfit was disordered thresholds for both the total scales and subscales. Based on the results of the analysis, adjustments to improve the scales were implemented as follows: disordered thresholds were rescaled, misfit items were removed and items were split for DIF. However, the multidimensionality and LID could not be resolved. The reliability and power of fit remained low for most of the subscales. This study represents the first analyses of the DSWAL-QoL and aDSWAL-QoL with the Rasch model. Relying on the DSWAL-QoL and aDSWAL-QoL total and subscale scores to make conclusions regarding

  5. Facet-Dependent Cr(VI) Adsorption of Hematite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Xiaojing; Song, Fahui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-02-16

    In this study, the adsorption process of Cr(VI) on the hematite facets was systematically investigated with synchrotron-based Cr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, density-functional theory calculation, and surface complexation models. Structural model fitting of EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that the interatomic distances of Cr-Fe were, respectively, 3.61 Å for the chromate coordinated hematite nanoplates with exposed {001} facets, 3.60 and 3.30 Å for the chromate coordinated hematite nanorods with exposed {001} and {110} facets, which were characteristic of inner-sphere complexation. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of two inner-sphere surface complexes with C3ν and C2ν symmetry, while the C3ν and C2ν species were assigned to monodentate and bidentate inner-sphere surface complexes with average Cr-Fe interatomic distances of 3.60 and 3.30 Å, respectively. On the basis of these experimental and theoretical results, we concluded that HCrO4(-) as dominated Cr(VI) species was adsorbed on {001} and {110} facets in inner-sphere monodentate mononuclear and bidentate binuclear configurations, respectively. Moreover, the Cr(VI) adsorption performance of hematite facets was strongly dependent on the chromate complexes formed on the hematite facets.

  6. Rasch Analysis of the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) among Chinese Adult Patients with Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Zhou, Juan; Luo, Xingli; Xu, Yan; She, Xi; Chen, Ling; Yin, Honghua; Wang, Xianyuan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of strabismus on visual function, self-image, self-esteem, and social interactions decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL).The purpose of this study was to evaluate and refine the adult strabismus quality of life questionnaire (AS-20) by using Rasch analysis among Chinese adult patients with strabismus. We evaluated the fitness of the AS-20 with Rasch model in Chinese population by assessing unidimensionality, infit and outfit, person and item separation index and reliability, response ordering, targeting and differential item functioning (DIF). The overall AS-20 did not demonstrate unidimensional; however, it was achieved separately in the two Rasch-revised subscales: the psychosocial subscale (11 items) and the function subscale (9 items). The features of good targeting, optimal item infit and outfit, and no notable local dependence were found for each of the subscales. The rating scale was appropriate for the psychosocial subscale but a reduction to four response categories was required for the function subscale. No significant DIF were revealed for any demographic and clinical factors (e.g., age, gender, and strabismus types). The AS-20 was demonstrated by Rasch analysis to be a rigorous instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in Chinese strabismus patents if some revisions were made regarding the subscale construct and response options.

  7. Fitting a Mixture Rasch Model to English as a Foreign Language Listening Tests: The Role of Cognitive and Background Variables in Explaining Latent Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses a mixture Rasch model to examine latent differential item functioning in English as a foreign language listening tests. Participants (n = 250) took a listening and lexico-grammatical test and completed the metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire comprising problem solving (PS), planning and evaluation (PE), mental…

  8. Development of a short scale for assessing economic environmental aspects in patients with spinal diseases using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Gecht, Judith; Mainz, Verena; Boecker, Maren; Clusmann, Hans; Geiger, Matthias Florian; Tingart, Markus; Quack, Valentin; Gauggel, Siegfried; Heinemann, Allen W; Müller, Christian-Andreas

    2017-10-10

    Economic environmental factors represent important barriers to participation and have deleterious effects on quality of life (QOL) in persons with spinal diseases (SpD). While economic factors are anchored in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, their influence on QOL and participation from patients' perspectives is an infrequent focus of research. The aim of the present research is to calibrate a culturally adapted Rasch-based questionnaire assessing economic QOL in patients with SpD. The 11-items of the German economic-QOL-scale were answered by 325 patients with SpD on a four-point Likert-scale. Fit to the Rasch measurement model was investigated by testing for stochastic ordering of the items, unidimensionality, local independence, and differential item functioning (DIF). After adjusting for local dependency, fit to the Rasch model was achieved with a non-significant item-trait interaction (chi-square df = 20  = 34.8, p = 0.021). The person separation reliability equaled 0.88, the scale was free from age- or gender-related DIF, and unidimensionality could be verified. The Rasch-based German version of the economic-QOL-scale represents a suitable instrument to investigate the influences of economic factors on patients' QOL at a group and individual level. It can be easily applied in research and practice and may be administered quickly in combination with other instruments. The short test duration implies a low test burden for patients and a minimum of time expenditure by clinicians when evaluating the results.

  9. Linguistic validation of stigmatisation degree, self-esteem and knowledge questionnaire among asthma patients using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ismail, Ahmad Izuanuddin; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Akram, Waqas; Mohd Zim, Mohd Arif; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah

    2017-04-01

    The stigmatisation degree, self-esteem and knowledge either directly or indirectly influence the control and self-management of asthma. To date, there is no valid and reliable instrument that can assess these key issues collectively. The main aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the newly devised and translated "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" among adult asthma patients using the Rasch measurement model. This cross-sectional study recruited thirty adult asthma patients from two respiratory specialist clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. The newly devised self-administered questionnaire was adapted from relevant publications and translated into the Malay language using international standard translation guidelines. Content and face validation was done. The data were extracted and analysed for real item reliability and construct validation using the Rasch model. The translated "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" showed high real item reliability values of 0.90, 0.86 and 0.89 for stigmatisation degree, self-esteem, and knowledge of asthma, respectively. Furthermore, all values of point measure correlation (PTMEA Corr) analysis were within the acceptable specified range of the Rasch model. Infit/outfit mean square values and Z standard (ZSTD) values of each item verified the construct validity and suggested retaining all the items in the questionnaire. The reliability analyses and output tables of item measures for construct validation proved the translated Malaysian version of "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" as a valid and highly reliable questionnaire.

  10. Rasch analysis for psychometric improvement of science attitude rating scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-04-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an existing dataset of The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (2011). Data of all the eight-grade participants from Hong Kong and Singapore (N = 9942) were retrieved for analyses. Additional insights from Rasch analysis that are not commonly available from conventional test and item analyses were discussed, such as invariance measurement of SAS, unidimensionality of SAS construct, optimum utilization of SAS rating categories, and item difficulty hierarchy in the SAS scale. Recommendations on how TIMSS items on the measurement of SAS can be better designed were discussed. The study also highlights the importance of using Rasch estimates for statistical parametric tests (e.g. ANOVA, t-test) that are common in science education research for group comparisons.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Chang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-C; Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation, 2000) within the Rasch framework in terms of dimensionality, item difficulty, and category functioning. Two underlying scale dimensions, relatively high item difficulties, and a need for collapsing 2 response…

  12. Reweighting Data in the Spirit of Tukey: Using Bayesian Posterior Probabilities as Rasch Residuals for Studying Misfit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardick, William R.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    A new variant of the iterative "data = fit + residual" data-analytical approach described by Mosteller and Tukey is proposed and implemented in the context of item response theory psychometric models. Posterior probabilities from a Bayesian mixture model of a Rasch item response theory model and an unscalable latent class are expressed…

  13. Educational Leadership Effectiveness: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Ludlow, Larry; Robinson, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are, first, to establish the psychometric properties of the ELP tool, and, second, to test, using a Rasch item response theory analysis, the hypothesized progression of challenge presented by the items included in the tool. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: Data were collected at two time points through a survey of…

  14. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pallant, Julie F; Miller, Renée L; Tennant, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6), was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p < .001). Removal of two items (items 7 and 8) resulted in a non-significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square with a residual mean value for items of -0.467 with a standard deviation of 0.850, showing fit to the model. No DIF existed in the final 8-item scale (EPDS-8) and all items showed fit to model expectations. Principal Components Analysis of the residuals supported the local independence assumption, and unidimensionality of the revised EPDS-8 scale. Revised cut points were identified for EPDS-8 to maintain the case identification of the original scale. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8) would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high

  15. A longitudinal evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Population using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test the internal validity of the total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale using Rasch analysis in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods CES-D was administered to 157 patients with RA over three time points within a 12 month period. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM2020 software to assess the overall fit of the model, the response scale used, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and person separation. Results Pooled data across three time points was shown to fit the Rasch model with removal of seven items from the original 20-item CES-D scale. It was necessary to rescore the response format from four to three categories in order to improve the scale's fit. Two items demonstrated some DIF for age and gender but were retained within the 13-item CES-D scale. A new cut point for depression score of 9 was found to correspond to the original cut point score of 16 in the full CES-D scale. Conclusion This Rasch analysis of the CES-D in a longstanding RA cohort resulted in the construction of a modified 13-item scale with good internal validity. Further validation of the modified scale is recommended particularly in relation to the new cut point for depression. PMID:17629902

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the WHOQOL-BREF, Taiwan version, across five kinds of Taiwanese cancer survivors: Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Wu, Tzu-Yi; Yao, Grace; Wang, Jung-Der

    2018-04-13

    Quality of life (QoL) is important for clinicians to evaluate how cancer survivors judge their sense of well-being, and WHOQOL-BREF may be a good tool for clinical use. However, at least three issues remain unresolved: (1) the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF for cancer patients are insufficient; (2) the scoring method used for WHOQOL-BREF needs to be clarify; (3) whether different types of cancer patients interpret the WHOQOL-BREF similarly. We recruited 1000 outpatients with head/neck cancer, 1000 with colorectal cancer, 965 with liver cancer, 1438 with lung cancer and 1299 with gynecologic cancers in a medical center. Data analyses included Rasch models, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson correlations. The mean WHOQOL-BREF domain scores were between 13.34 and 14.77 among all participants. CFA supported construct validity; Rasch models revealed that almost all items were embedded in their expected domains and were interpreted similarly across five types of cancer patients; all correlation coefficients between Rasch scores and original domain scores were above 0.9. The linear relationship between Rasch scores and domain scores suggested that the current calculations for domain scores were applicable and without serious bias. Clinical practitioners may regularly collect and record the WHOQOL-BREF domain scores into electronic health records. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Validation of the Spanish Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSSRQ) through Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Garzón Umerenkova, Angélica; de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Zapata Sevillano, Lucía; Pichardo, Mari Carmen; García-Berbén, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to psychometrically characterize the Spanish Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSSRQ) through Rasch analysis. Materials and Methods: 831 Spaniard university students (262 men), between 17 and 39 years of age and ranging from the first to the 5th year of studies, completed the SSSRQ questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out in order to establish structural adequacy. Afterward, by means of the Rasch model, a study of each sub scale was conducted to test for dimensionality, fit of the sample questions, functionality of the response categories, reliability and estimation of Differential Item Functioning by gender and course. Results: The four sub-scales comply with the unidimensionality criteria, the questions are in line with the model, the response categories operate properly and the reliability of the sample is acceptable. Nonetheless, the test could benefit from the inclusion of additional items of both high and low difficulty in order to increase construct validity, discrimination and reliability for the respondents. Several items with differences in gender and course were also identified. Discussion: The results evidence the need and adequacy of this complementary psychometric analysis strategy, in relation to the CFA to enhance the instrument.

  18. Facet Annotation by Extending CNN with a Matching Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Wei, Bifan; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zhaotong; Zheng, Yuanhao; Chen, Yihe

    2018-06-01

    Most community question answering (CQA) websites manage plenty of question-answer pairs (QAPs) through topic-based organizations, which may not satisfy users' fine-grained search demands. Facets of topics serve as a powerful tool to navigate, refine, and group the QAPs. In this work, we propose FACM, a model to annotate QAPs with facets by extending convolution neural networks (CNNs) with a matching strategy. First, phrase information is incorporated into text representation by CNNs with different kernel sizes. Then, through a matching strategy among QAPs and facet label texts (FaLTs) acquired from Wikipedia, we generate similarity matrices to deal with the facet heterogeneity. Finally, a three-channel CNN is trained for facet label assignment of QAPs. Experiments on three real-world data sets show that FACM outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Evaluation of the Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Leske, David A; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melia, B Michele

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) is a patient, proxy, and parental report of quality of life specific to children with intermittent exotropia. We refine the IXTQ using Rasch analysis to improve reliability and validity. Rasch analysis was performed on responses of 575 patients with intermittent exotropia enrolled from May 15, 2008, through July 24, 2013, and their parents from each of the 4 IXTQ health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (child 5 through 7 years of age and child 8 through 17 years of age, proxy, and parent questionnaires). Questionnaire performance and structure were confirmed in a separate cohort of 379 patients with intermittent exotropia. One item was removed from the 12-item child and proxy questionnaires, and response options in the 8- to 17-year-old child IXTQ and proxy IXTQ were combined into 3 response options for both questionnaires. Targeting was relatively poor for the child and proxy questionnaires. For the parent questionnaire, 3 subscales (psychosocial, function, and surgery) were evident. One item was removed from the psychosocial subscale. Resulting subscales had appropriate targeting. The Rasch-revised IXTQ may be a useful instrument for determining how intermittent exotropia affects health-related quality of life of children with intermittent exotropia and their parents, particularly for cohort studies.

  20. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Identifying Measurement Disturbance Effects Using Rasch Item Fit Statistics and the Logit Residual Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Robert E.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study was conducted using simulated dichotomous data to determine the effects of guessing on Rasch item fit statistics and the Logit Residual Index. Results indicate that no significant differences were found between the mean Rasch item fit statistics for each distribution type as the probability of guessing the correct answer…

  2. Classical, Generalizability, and Multifaceted Rasch Detection of Interrater Variability in Large, Sparse Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Compared classical test theory (CTT), generalizability theory (GT), and multifaceted Rasch model (MFRM) approaches to detecting and correcting for rater variability using responses of 4,930 high school students graded by 3 raters on 9 scales. The MFRM approach identified far more raters as different than did the CTT analysis. GT and Rasch…

  3. Investigating the application of Rasch theory in measuring change in middle school student performance in physical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Jessica D.

    Newton's Universe (NU), an innovative teacher training program, strives to obtain measures from rural, middle school science teachers and their students to determine the impact of its distance learning course on understanding of temperature. No consensus exists on the most appropriate and useful method of analysis to measure change in psychological constructs over time. Several item response theory (IRT) models have been deemed useful in measuring change, which makes the choice of an IRT model not obvious. The appropriateness and utility of each model, including a comparison to a traditional analysis of variance approach, was investigated using middle school science student performance on an assessment over an instructional period. Predetermined criteria were outlined to guide model selection based on several factors including research questions, data properties, and meaningful interpretations to determine the most appropriate model for this study. All methods employed in this study reiterated one common interpretation of the data -- specifically, that the students of teachers with any NU course experience had significantly greater gains in performance over the instructional period. However, clear distinctions were made between an analysis of variance and the racked and stacked analysis using the Rasch model. Although limited research exists examining the usefulness of the Rasch model in measuring change in understanding over time, this study applied these methods and detailed plausible implications for data-driven decisions based upon results for NU and others. Being mindful of the advantages and usefulness of each method of analysis may help others make informed decisions about choosing an appropriate model to depict changes to evaluate other programs. Results may encourage other researchers to consider the meaningfulness of using IRT for this purpose. Results have implications for data-driven decisions for future professional development courses, in science

  4. The Val30Met familial amyloid polyneuropathy specific Rasch-built overall disability scale (FAP-RODS(©) ).

    PubMed

    Pruppers, Mariëlle H J; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Da Silva, Ana M; Costa, Vanessa; Coelho, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a chronic debilitating multi-organic disorder, mainly assessed using ordinal-based impairment measures. To date, no outcome measure at the activity and participation level has been constructed in FAP. The current study aimed to design an interval activity/participation scale for FAP through Rasch methodology. A preliminary FAP Rasch-built overall disability scale (pre-FAP-RODS) containing 146 activity/participation items was assessed twice (interval: 2-4 week; test-retest reliability) in 248 patients with Val30Met FAP examined in Porto, Portugal, of which 65.7% have received liver transplantation. An ordinal-based 24-item FAP-symptoms inventory questionnaire (FAP-SIQ) was also assessed (validity purposes). The pre-FAP-RODS and FAP-SIQ data were subjected to Rasch analyses. The pre-FAP-RODS did not meet model's expectations. On the basis of requirements such as misfit statistics, differential item functioning, and local dependency, items were systematically removed until a final 34-item FAP-RODS(©) was constructed fulfilling all Rasch requirements. Acceptable reliability/validity scores were demonstrated. In conclusion, the 34-item FAP-RODS(©) is a disease-specific interval measure suitable for detecting activity and participation restrictions in patients with FAP. The use of the FAP-RODS(©) is recommended for future international clinical trials in patients with Val30Met FAP determining its responsiveness and its cross-cultural validation. Its expansion to other forms of FAP should also be focus of future clinical studies. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  5. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; McCall, Iain W

    2006-04-01

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints.

  6. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  7. Psychometric properties of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health set for spinal cord injury nursing based on Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Xie, Sumei; Li, Yun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yingmin; Gao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) set for spinal cord injury nursing (ICF-SCIN) using Rasch analysis. A total of 140 spinal cord injury patients were recruited between December 2013 and March 2014 through convenience sampling. Nurses used the components body functions (BF), body structures (BS), and activities and participation (AP) of the ICF-SCIN to rate the patients' functioning. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM 2030 software. In each component, categories were rescored from 01234 to 01112 because of reversed thresholds. Nine testlets were created to overcome local dependency. Four categories which fit to the Rasch model poorly were deleted. After modification, the components BF, BS, and AP showed good fit to the Rasch model with a Bonferroni-adjusted significant level (χ 2  =   86.29, p = 0.006; χ 2  =   22.44, p = 0.130; χ 2  =   39.92, p = 0.159). The person separation indices (PSIs) for the three components were 0.80, 0.54, and 0.97, respectively. No differential item functioning (DIF) was detected across age, gender, or educational level. The fit properties of the ICF set were satisfactory after modifications. The ICF-SCIN has the potential as a nursing assessment instrument for measuring the functioning of patients with spinal cord injury. Implications for rehabilitation The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) set for spinal cord injury nursing contains a group of categories which can reflect the functioning of spinal cord injury patients from the perspective of nurses. The components body functions (BF), body structures (BS), and activities and participation (AP) of the ICF set for spinal cord injury achieved the fit to the Rasch model through rescoring, generating testlets, and deleting categories with poor fit. The ICF set for spinal cord injury nursing (ICF-SCIN) has the potential to be used as a

  8. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs Scale: An Application of Rasch Measurement Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Enterline, Sarah E.; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate how a Rasch model can guide the development of a new affective measurement instrument--the Learning to Teach for Social Justice--Beliefs scale. The results provide strong evidence of a meaningful continuum of attitudes about teaching for social justice ranging from those easier to endorse to those more difficult to endorse.…

  10. Facet joint laser radiation: tissue effects of a new clinical laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmann, Klaus; Thal, Dietmar R.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic unilateral and bilateral back pain with pseudoradicular symptoms, is a common clinical syndrome, which in many cases can be related to the facet joint syndrome. The pain is caused by mechanical affection of synovial and capsular nerve terminals. Therefore, current therapeutical attempts including physical therapy, intra-articular injection of local anesthetics and steroids and thermocoagulation of the facet joint with a thermocoagulator, are performed. We confirmed laser coagulation of the facet joint. Porcine cadaveric spines were treated immediately after death by intra-articular facet joint laser radiation. With the pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) altogether 600 J were applied in three different places 4 mm apart at the top of the facet joint. The results showed that facet joint laser radiation leads to a small (about 1 - 2 mm diameter) lesion restricted to the facet joint cavity and its synovia. Histologically, we found a central carbonization zone and necrosis, including almost the whole cartilage and approximately 0.2 mm of the adjacent bone. These changes are similar to Nd:Yag-laser applications in other skeletal regions. It is suggested that these changes may lead to facet joint denervation by coagulation of the synovial nerve terminals. Cicatration of the laser lesion might cause ankylosis of this joint. In sum, facet joint laser radiation could be an alternative therapeutical tool for lower back pain of the facet joint syndrome type. Therefore, future clinical application of this technique seems to be very promising.

  11. Facet control of gold nanorods

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Han, Lili; Jing, Hao; ...

    2016-01-21

    While great success has been achieved in fine-tuning the aspect ratios and thereby the plasmon resonances of cylindrical Au nanorods, facet control with atomic level precision on the highly curved nanorod surfaces has long been a significantly more challenging task. The intrinsic structural complexity and lack of precise facet control of the nanorod surfaces remain the major obstacles for the atomic-level elucidation of the structure–property relationships that underpin the intriguing catalytic performance of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that the facets of single-crystalline Au nanorods can be precisely tailored using cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a unique pair ofmore » surface capping competitors to guide the particle geometry evolution during nanorod overgrowth. By deliberately maneuvering the competition between cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we have been able to create, in a highly controllable and selective manner, an entire family of nanorod-derived anisotropic multifaceted geometries whose surfaces are enclosed by specific types of well-defined high-index and low-index facets. This facet-controlled nanorod overgrowth approach also allows us to fine-tune the particle aspect ratios while well-preserving all the characteristic facets and geometric features of the faceted Au nanorods. Furthermore, taking full advantage of the combined structural and plasmonic tunability, we have further studied the facet-dependent heterogeneous catalysis on well-faceted Au nanorods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as an ultrasensitive spectroscopic tool with unique time-resolving and molecular finger-printing capabilities.« less

  12. Examination of an eHealth literacy scale and a health literacy scale in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular risk: Rasch analyses.

    PubMed

    Richtering, Sarah S; Morris, Rebecca; Soh, Sze-Ee; Barker, Anna; Bampi, Fiona; Neubeck, Lis; Coorey, Genevieve; Mulley, John; Chalmers, John; Usherwood, Tim; Peiris, David; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health (eHealth) strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk. The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Overall Rasch model fit as well as five key psychometric properties were analysed: unidimensionality, response thresholds, targeting, differential item functioning and internal consistency. The eHEALS had good overall model fit (χ2 = 54.8, p = 0.06), ordered response thresholds, reasonable targeting and good internal consistency (person separation index (PSI) 0.90). It did, however, appear to measure two constructs of eHealth literacy. The HLQ subscales (except subscale 5) did not fit the Rasch model (χ2: 18.18-60.60, p: 0.00-0.58) and had suboptimal targeting for most subscales. Subscales 6 to 9 displayed disordered thresholds indicating participants had difficulty distinguishing between response options. All subscales did, nonetheless, demonstrate moderate to good internal consistency (PSI: 0.62-0.82). Rasch analyses demonstrated that the eHEALS has good measures of internal construct validity although it appears to capture different aspects of eHealth literacy (e.g. using eHealth and understanding eHealth). Whilst further studies are required to confirm this finding, it may be necessary for these constructs of the eHEALS to be scored separately. The nine HLQ subscales were shown to measure a single construct of health literacy. However, participants' scores may not represent their actual level of ability, as distinction between response categories was unclear for the last

  13. Theoretical and Numerical Modeling of faceted Ionic crystalline vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2007-03-01

    Icosahedral shape is found in several natural structures including large viruses, large fullerenes and cationic-anionic vesicles. Faceting into icosahedral shape can occur in large crystalline membranes via elasticity theory. Icosahedral symmetry is found in small systems of particles with short-range interactions on a sphere. Dr G. Vernizzi and I show a novel electrostatic-driven mechanism of ionic crystalline shells faceting into icosahedral shapes even for systems with a small number of particles. Icosahedral shape is possible in cationic and anionic molecules adsorbed onto spherical interfaces, such as emulsions or other immiscible liquid droplets because the large concentration of charges at the interface can lead to ionic crystals on the curved interface. Such self-organized ionic structures favors the formation of flat surfaces. We find that these ionic crystalline shells can have lower energy when faceted into icosahedra along particular directions. Indeed, the ``ionic'' buckling is driven by preferred bending directions of the planar ionic structure, along which is more likely for the icosahedral shape to develop an edge. Since only certain orientations are allowed, rotational symmetry is broken. One can hope to exploit this mechanism to generate functional materials where, for instance, proteins with specific charge groups can orient at specific directions along an icosahedral cationic-anionic vesicle.

  14. An Application of the Rasch Measurement Theory to an Assessment of Geometric Thinking Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stols, Gerrit; Long, Caroline; Dunne, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the Rasch model to investigate both the Van Hiele theory for geometric development and an associated test. In terms of the test, the objective is to investigate the functioning of a classic 25-item instrument designed to identify levels of geometric proficiency. The dataset of responses by 244 students (106…

  15. Rasch validation of the Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS).

    PubMed

    Ip, Patrick; Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Fu, King Wa; Li, Sophia Ling; Goh, Winnie; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun Bong

    2018-03-15

    Proper parent-child interaction is crucial for child development, but an assessment tool in Chinese is currently lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate a parent-reported parent-child interaction scale for Chinese preschool children. The Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS) was designed by an expert panel based on the literature and clinical observations in the Chinese context. The initial CPCIS had 14 parent-child interactive activity items. Psychometric properties of the CPCIS were examined using the Rasch model and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity was investigated by the associations between CPCIS and family income, maternal education level, and children's school readiness. The study recruited 567 Chinese parent-child pairs from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, who completed the CPCIS. Six out of the 14 items in the initial CPCIS were dropped due to suboptimal fit values. The refined 8-item CPCIS was shown to be valid and reliable by Rasch models and CFA. The person separation reliability and Cronbach's α of the CPCIS were 0.81 and 0.82, respectively. The CPCIS scores were positively associated with family's socioeconomic status (η 2  = 0.05, P < 0.001), maternal education level (η 2  = 0.08, P < 0.001), and children's school readiness (η 2  = 0.01, P < 0.01). CPCIS is an easily administered, valid, and reliable tool for the assessment of parent-child interactions in Chinese families.

  16. Vision and Quality of Life Index: validation of the Indian version using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Bagga, Deepak K

    2013-07-18

    A multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) consists of a descriptive system in which the items and responses seek information about a concept of the universe of health-related quality of life (QoL), and responses to these items then are weighted and combined to produce the index. To our knowledge, the 6-item Vision and Quality of Life Index (VisQoL) is the only available vision-related MAUI, developed and validated in Australia, specifically for visually impaired (VI) populations. To our knowledge, the psychometric properties of the VisQoL have not yet been investigated in an Indian VI sample; this was the aim of our study. The Indian VisQoL was administered to 349 VI adults face-to-face by a trained interviewer at the Vision Rehabilitation Centres of a tertiary eye care facility, South India. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties. Rescoring was necessary for all except one item before ordered thresholds were obtained. All items fit the Rasch model and unidimensionality was confirmed. Person separation was acceptable (2.01), indicating that the instrument can discriminate among three strata of participants" vision-related QoL (VRQoL). The VisQoL items were targeted substantially to the participants" VRQoL (-0.69 logits). One item ("ability to have friendships") demonstrated large differential item functioning by work status; working participants reported the item to be more difficult (-1.13 logits) relative to other items when compared to the nonworking participants. The 6-item Indian VisQoL satisfies unidimensional Rasch model expectations in VI patients. Disordering of response categories was evident; replication is required before a common rescoring option should be considered.

  17. Validation of the Spanish Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSSRQ) through Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garzón Umerenkova, Angélica; de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Zapata Sevillano, Lucía; Pichardo, Mari Carmen; García-Berbén, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to psychometrically characterize the Spanish Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSSRQ) through Rasch analysis. Materials and Methods: 831 Spaniard university students (262 men), between 17 and 39 years of age and ranging from the first to the 5th year of studies, completed the SSSRQ questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out in order to establish structural adequacy. Afterward, by means of the Rasch model, a study of each sub scale was conducted to test for dimensionality, fit of the sample questions, functionality of the response categories, reliability and estimation of Differential Item Functioning by gender and course. Results: The four sub-scales comply with the unidimensionality criteria, the questions are in line with the model, the response categories operate properly and the reliability of the sample is acceptable. Nonetheless, the test could benefit from the inclusion of additional items of both high and low difficulty in order to increase construct validity, discrimination and reliability for the respondents. Several items with differences in gender and course were also identified. Discussion: The results evidence the need and adequacy of this complementary psychometric analysis strategy, in relation to the CFA to enhance the instrument. PMID:28298898

  18. A Rasch scaling validation of a 'core' near-death experience.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rense; Greyson, Bruce; Houran, James

    2004-05-01

    For those with true near-death experiences (NDEs), Greyson's (1983, 1990) NDE Scale satisfactorily fits the Rasch rating scale model, thus yielding a unidimensional measure with interval-level scaling properties. With increasing intensity, NDEs reflect peace, joy and harmony, followed by insight and mystical or religious experiences, while the most intense NDEs involve an awareness of things occurring in a different place or time. The semantics of this variable are invariant across True-NDErs' gender, current age, age at time of NDE, and latency and intensity of the NDE, thus identifying NDEs as 'core' experiences whose meaning is unaffected by external variables, regardless of variations in NDEs' intensity. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between True-NDErs and other respondent groups, mostly revolving around the differential emphasis on paranormal/mystical/religious experiences vs. standard reactions to threat. The findings further suggest that False-Positive respondents reinterpret other profound psychological states as NDEs. Accordingly, the Rasch validation of the typology proposed by Greyson (1983) also provides new insights into previous research, including the possibility of embellishment over time (as indicated by the finding of positive, as well as negative, latency effects) and the potential roles of religious affiliation and religiosity (as indicated by the qualitative differences surrounding paranormal/mystical/religious issues).

  19. Lumbar Facet Joint Compressive Injury Induces Lasting Changes in Local Structure, Nociceptive Scores, and Inflammatory Mediators in a Novel Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James L.; Yashpal, Kiran; Vernon, Howard; Kim, Jaesung; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop a novel animal model of persisting lumbar facet joint pain. Methods. Sprague Dawley rats were anaesthetized and the right lumbar (L5/L6) facet joint was exposed and compressed to ~1 mm with modified clamps applied for three minutes; sham-operated and naïve animals were used as control groups. After five days, animals were tested for hind-paw sensitivity using von Frey filaments and axial deep tissue sensitivity by algometer on assigned days up to 28 days. Animals were sacrificed at selected times for histological and biochemical analysis. Results. Histological sections revealed site-specific loss of cartilage in model animals only. Tactile hypersensitivity was observed for the ipsi- and contralateral paws lasting 28 days. The threshold at which deep tissue pressure just elicited vocalization was obtained at three lumbar levels; sensitivity at L1 > L3/4 > L6. Biochemical analyses revealed increases in proinflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β. Conclusions. These data suggest that compression of a facet joint induces a novel model of local cartilage loss accompanied by increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and by increases in inflammatory mediators. This new model may be useful for studies on mechanisms and treatment of lumbar facet joint pain and osteoarthritis. PMID:22966427

  20. Factor and Rasch analysis of the Fonseca anamnestic index for the diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine; de Castro, Ester M; Pires, Paulo F

    Rasch analysis has been used in recent studies to test the psychometric properties of a questionnaire. The conditions for use of the Rasch model are one-dimensionality (assessed via prior factor analysis) and local independence (the probability of getting a particular item right or wrong should not be conditioned upon success or failure in another). To evaluate the dimensionality and the psychometric properties of the Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI), such as the fit of the data to the model, the degree of difficulty of the items, and the ability to respond in patients with myogenous temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The sample consisted of 94 women with myogenous TMD, diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), who answered the FAI. For the factor analysis, we applied the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, Bartlett's sphericity, Spearman's correlation, and the determinant of the correlation matrix. For extraction of the factors/dimensions, an eigenvalue >1.0 was used, followed by oblique oblimin rotation. The Rasch analysis was conducted on the dimension that showed the highest proportion of variance explained. Adequate sample "n" and FAI multidimensionality were observed. Dimension 1 (primary) consisted of items 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. All items of dimension 1 showed adequate fit to the model, being observed according to the degree of difficulty (from most difficult to easiest), respectively, items 2, 1, 3, 6, and 7. The FAI presented multidimensionality with its main dimension consisting of five reliable items with adequate fit to the composition of its structure. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Rasch Analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Second Edition in Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446…

  2. Local facet approximation for image stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Lai, Shiming; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhengming; Zhang, Maojun

    2018-01-01

    Image stitching aims at eliminating multiview parallax and generating a seamless panorama given a set of input images. This paper proposes a local adaptive stitching method, which could achieve both accurate and robust image alignments across the whole panorama. A transformation estimation model is introduced by approximating the scene as a combination of neighboring facets. Then, the local adaptive stitching field is constructed using a series of linear systems of the facet parameters, which enables the parallax handling in three-dimensional space. We also provide a concise but effective global projectivity preserving technique that smoothly varies the transformations from local adaptive to global planar. The proposed model is capable of stitching both normal images and fisheye images. The efficiency of our method is quantitatively demonstrated in the comparative experiments on several challenging cases.

  3. Validation of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Kitty C; Phillipson, Sivanes; O'Connor, Justen; Johns, Murray W

    2017-05-01

    A validated measure of daytime sleepiness for adolescents is needed to better explore emerging relationships between sleepiness and the mental and physical health of adolescents. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a widely used scale for daytime sleepiness in adults but contains references to alcohol and driving. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD) has been proposed as the official modified version of the ESS for children and adolescents. This study describes the psychometric analysis of the ESS-CHAD as a measure of daytime sleepiness for adolescents. The ESS-CHAD was completed by 297 adolescents, 12-18 years old, from two independent schools in Victoria, Australia. Exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis indicated that ESS-CHAD has internal validity and a unidimensional structure with good model fit. Rasch analysis of four subgroups based on gender and year-level were consistent with the overall results. The results were consistent with published ESS results, which strongly indicates that the changes to the scale do not affect the scale's capacity to measure daytime sleepiness. It is concluded that the ESS-CHAD is a reliable and internally valid measure of daytime sleepiness in adolescents 12-18 years old. Further studies are needed to establish the internal validity of the ESS-CHAD for children under 12 years, and to establish external validity and accurate cut-off points for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  5. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour.

  6. Percutaneous radiofrequency facet capsule denervation as an alternative target in lumbar facet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Khedr, Wael

    2016-11-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the medial dorsal branch is often used in chronic low back pain of intervertebral facet etiology, which is sometimes difficult to perform and recurrence of pain often ensues. We theorized that shifting the target of RF coagulation to the facet joint capsule would provide an easier target and a longer-lived pain relieving response. A prospective randomized controlled trial where 120 patients diagnosed with CLBP of a confirmed facet origin were randomly divided into three equal groups, the first was submitted to percutaneous radiofrequency coagulation of the facet joint capsule, the second underwent percuataneous denervation of the medial dorsal branch and the third did not receive radiofrequency lesioning. All the three groups received local injection of a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid. Cases were followed for up to 3 years. 87(72.5%) patients were females. By 3 months' post procedure, improvement in VAS was significantly better than pretreatment levels in all groups (p<0.05). The control group lost improvement by 1-year follow-up (p=0.017). At 2 years' follow-up, the joint capsule denervation group maintained significant improvement (p=0.033) whereas the medial branch denervation group lost its significant effect (p=0.479). By the end of follow-up period, only joint capsule denervation group kept significant improvement (p=0.026). In CLBP of facet origin, shifting the target of percutaneous radiofrequency to the facet joint capsule provides an easier technique with an extended period of pain relief compared to the medial dorsal branch of the facet joint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-national health comparisons using the Rasch model: findings from the 2012 US Health and Retirement Study and the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ickpyo; Reistetter, Timothy A; Díaz-Venegas, Carlos; Michaels-Obregon, Alejandra; Wong, Rebeca

    2018-05-10

    Cross-national comparisons of patterns of population aging have emerged as comparable national micro-data have become available. This study creates a metric using Rasch analysis and determines the health of American and Mexican older adult populations. Secondary data analysis using representative samples aged 50 and older from 2012 U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 20,554); 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 14,448). We developed a function measurement scale using Rasch analysis of 22 daily tasks and physical function questions. We tested psychometrics of the scale including factor analysis, fit statistics, internal consistency, and item difficulty. We investigated differences in function using multiple linear regression controlling for demographics. Lastly, we conducted subgroup analyses for chronic conditions. The created common metric demonstrated a unidimensional structure with good item fit, an acceptable precision (person reliability = 0.78), and an item difficulty hierarchy. The American adults appeared less functional than adults in Mexico (β = - 0.26, p < 0.0001) and across two chronic conditions (arthritis, β = - 0.36; lung problems, β = - 0.62; all p < 0.05). However, American adults with stroke were more functional than Mexican adults (β = 0.46, p = 0.047). The Rasch model indicates that Mexican adults were more functional than Americans at the population level and across two chronic conditions (arthritis and lung problems). Future studies would need to elucidate other factors affecting the function differences between the two countries.

  8. Development of Rasch-based item banks for the assessment of work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Evelyn A; Bengel, Juergen; Wirtz, Markus A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-description assessment instrument to measure work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. In terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), work performance is defined as the degree of meeting the work demands (activities) at the actual workplace (environment). To account for the fact that work performance depends on the work demands of the job, we strived to develop item banks that allow a flexible use of item subgroups depending on the specific work demands of the patients' jobs. Item development included the collection of work tasks from literature and content validation through expert surveys and patient interviews. The resulting 122 items were answered by 621 patients with musculoskeletal diseases. Exploratory factor analysis to ascertain dimensionality and Rasch analysis (partial credit model) for each of the resulting dimensions were performed. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four dimensions, and subsequent Rasch analysis led to the following item banks: 'impaired productivity' (15 items), 'impaired cognitive performance' (18), 'impaired coping with stress' (13) and 'impaired physical performance' (low physical workload 20 items, high physical workload 10 items). The item banks exhibited person separation indices (reliability) between 0.89 and 0.96. The assessment of work performance adds the activities component to the more commonly employed participation component of the ICF-model. The four item banks can be adapted to specific jobs where necessary without losing comparability of person measures, as the item banks are based on Rasch analysis.

  9. Using Rasch Measurement Theory to Examine Two Instructional Approaches for Teaching and Learning of French Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Severine P.; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a quantitative approach based on Rasch measurement theory for evaluating classroom assessments within the context of foreign language classes. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of two instructional approaches to teach grammar, a guided inductive and a deductive approach, through the lens of Rasch measurement…

  10. Using Rasch Analysis to Inform Rating Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zile-Tamsen, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The use of surveys, questionnaires, and rating scales to measure important outcomes in higher education is pervasive, but reliability and validity information is often based on problematic Classical Test Theory approaches. Rasch Analysis, based on Item Response Theory, provides a better alternative for examining the psychometric quality of rating…

  11. Tailoring molecular specificity toward a crystal facet: a lesson from biorecognition toward Pt{111}.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lingyan; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Zhu, Enbo; Li, Yujing; Heinz, Hendrik; Huang, Yu

    2013-02-13

    Surfactants with preferential adsorption to certain crystal facets have been widely employed to manipulate morphologies of colloidal nanocrystals, while mechanisms regarding the origin of facet selectivity remain an enigma. Similar questions exist in biomimetic syntheses concerning biomolecular recognition to materials and crystal surfaces. Here we present mechanistic studies on the molecular origin of the recognition toward platinum {111} facet. By manipulating the conformations and chemical compositions of a platinum {111} facet specific peptide, phenylalanine is identified as the dominant motif to differentiate {111} from other facets. The discovered recognition motif is extended to convert nonspecific peptides into {111} specific peptides. Further extension of this mechanism allows the rational design of small organic molecules that demonstrate preferential adsorption to the {111} facets of both platinum and rhodium nanocrystals. This work represents an advance in understanding the organic-inorganic interfacial interactions in colloidal systems and paves the way to rational and predictable nanostructure modulations for many applications.

  12. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S E; Ahmad, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N; Ismail, Nahlah E

    2015-10-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.

  13. Machine-Learning Methods Enable Exhaustive Searches for Active Bimetallic Facets and Reveal Active Site Motifs for CO 2 Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Tang, Michael T.; Xiao, Jianping; ...

    2017-07-27

    Bimetallic catalysts are promising for the most difficult thermal and electrochemical reactions, but modeling the many diverse active sites on polycrystalline samples is an open challenge. Here, we present a general framework for addressing this complexity in a systematic and predictive fashion. Active sites for every stable low-index facet of a bimetallic crystal are enumerated and cataloged, yielding hundreds of possible active sites. The activity of these sites is explored in parallel using a neural-network-based surrogate model to share information between the many density functional theory (DFT) relaxations, resulting in activity estimates with an order of magnitude fewer explicit DFTmore » calculations. Sites with interesting activity were found and provide targets for follow-up calculations. This process was applied to the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 on nickel gallium bimetallics and indicated that most facets had similar activity to Ni surfaces, but a few exposed Ni sites with a very favorable on-top CO configuration. This motif emerged naturally from the predictive modeling and represents a class of intermetallic CO 2 reduction catalysts. These sites rationalize recent experimental reports of nickel gallium activity and why previous materials screens missed this exciting material. Most importantly these methods suggest that bimetallic catalysts will be discovered by studying facet reactivity and diversity of active sites more systematically.« less

  14. Machine-Learning Methods Enable Exhaustive Searches for Active Bimetallic Facets and Reveal Active Site Motifs for CO 2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Tang, Michael T.; Xiao, Jianping

    Bimetallic catalysts are promising for the most difficult thermal and electrochemical reactions, but modeling the many diverse active sites on polycrystalline samples is an open challenge. Here, we present a general framework for addressing this complexity in a systematic and predictive fashion. Active sites for every stable low-index facet of a bimetallic crystal are enumerated and cataloged, yielding hundreds of possible active sites. The activity of these sites is explored in parallel using a neural-network-based surrogate model to share information between the many density functional theory (DFT) relaxations, resulting in activity estimates with an order of magnitude fewer explicit DFTmore » calculations. Sites with interesting activity were found and provide targets for follow-up calculations. This process was applied to the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 on nickel gallium bimetallics and indicated that most facets had similar activity to Ni surfaces, but a few exposed Ni sites with a very favorable on-top CO configuration. This motif emerged naturally from the predictive modeling and represents a class of intermetallic CO 2 reduction catalysts. These sites rationalize recent experimental reports of nickel gallium activity and why previous materials screens missed this exciting material. Most importantly these methods suggest that bimetallic catalysts will be discovered by studying facet reactivity and diversity of active sites more systematically.« less

  15. Augmented Reality-Guided Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

    PubMed

    Agten, Christoph A; Dennler, Cyrill; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Jaberg, Laurenz; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers. The radiologists targeted the virtual facet joint and tried to place the needle tip in the holographic joint space. Computed tomography was performed after each needle placement to document final needle tip position. Time needed from grabbing the needle to final needle placement was measured for each simulated injection. An independent radiologist rated images of all needle placements in a randomized order blinded to modality (augmented reality vs CT) and performer as perfect, acceptable, incorrect, or unsafe. Accuracy and time to place needles were compared between augmented reality-guided and CT-guided facet joint injections. In total, 39/40 (97.5%) of augmented reality-guided needle placements were either perfect or acceptable compared with 40/40 (100%) CT-guided needle placements (P = 0.5). One augmented reality-guided injection missed the facet joint space by 2 mm. No unsafe needle placements occurred. Time to final needle placement was substantially faster with augmented reality guidance (mean 14 ± 6 seconds vs 39 ± 15 seconds, P < 0.001 for both readers). Augmented reality-guided facet joint injections are feasible and accurate without potentially harmful needle placement in an experimental setting.

  16. Bipolar Radiofrequency Facet Ablation of the Lumbar Facet Capsule: An Adjunct to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert E; Palea, Ovidiu; Granville, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency facet ablation (RFA) has been performed using the same technique for over 50 years. Except for variations in electrode size, tip shape, and change in radiofrequency (RF) stimulation parameters, using standard, pulsed, and cooled RF wavelengths, the target points have remained absolutely unchanged from the original work describing RFA for lumbar pain control. Degenerative changes in the facet joint and capsule are the primary location for the majority of lumbar segmental pathology and pain. Multiple studies show that the degenerated facet joint is richly innervated as a result of the inflammatory overgrowth of the synovium. The primary provocative clinical test to justify an RFA is to perform an injection with local anesthetic into the facet joint and the posterior capsule and confirm pain relief. However, after a positive response, the radiofrequency lesion is made not to the facet joint but to the more proximal fine nerve branches that innervate the joint. The accepted target points for the recurrent sensory branch ignore the characteristic rich innervation of the pathologic lumbar facet capsule and assume that lesioning of these recurrent branches is sufficient to denervate the painful pathologic facet joint. This report describes the additional targets and technical steps for further coagulation points along the posterior capsule of the lumbar facet joint and the physiologic studies of the advantage of the bipolar radiofrequency current in this location. Bipolar RF to the facet capsule is a simple, extra step that easily creates a large thermo-coagulated lesion in this capsule region of the pathologic facet joint. Early studies demonstrate bipolar RF to the facet capsule can provide long-term pain relief when used alone for specific localized facet joint pain, to coagulate lumbar facet cysts to prevent recurrence, and to get more extensive pain control by combining it with traditional lumbar RFA, especially when RFA is repeated.

  17. Stem cell-derived organoids to model gastrointestinal facets of cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hohwieler, Meike; Perkhofer, Lukas; Liebau, Stefan; Seufferlein, Thomas; Müller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequently occurring inherited human diseases caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which lead to ample defects in anion transport and epithelial fluid secretion. Existing models lack both access to early stages of CF development and a coeval focus on the gastrointestinal CF phenotypes, which become increasingly important due increased life span of the affected individuals. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of gastrointestinal facets of CF and the opportunity to model these in various systems in an attempt to understand and treat CF. A particular focus is given on forward-leading organoid cultures, which may circumvent current limitations of existing models and thereby provide a platform for drug testing and understanding of disease pathophysiology in gastrointestinal organs. PMID:28815024

  18. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1995-02-01

    Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits combining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at both levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Facet analysis-the interpretation of a scale in terms of the specific facets with which it correlates-is illustrated using alternative measures of the five-factor model and occupational scales. Finally, the hierarchical interpretation of personality profiles is discussed. Interpretation on the domain level yields a rapid understanding of the individual interpretation of specific facet scales gives a more detailed assessment.

  19. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  20. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  1. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  2. Bipolar Radiofrequency Facet Ablation of the Lumbar Facet Capsule: An Adjunct to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Palea, Ovidiu; Granville, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency facet ablation (RFA) has been performed using the same technique for over 50 years. Except for variations in electrode size, tip shape, and change in radiofrequency (RF) stimulation parameters, using standard, pulsed, and cooled RF wavelengths, the target points have remained absolutely unchanged from the original work describing RFA for lumbar pain control. Degenerative changes in the facet joint and capsule are the primary location for the majority of lumbar segmental pathology and pain. Multiple studies show that the degenerated facet joint is richly innervated as a result of the inflammatory overgrowth of the synovium. The primary provocative clinical test to justify an RFA is to perform an injection with local anesthetic into the facet joint and the posterior capsule and confirm pain relief. However, after a positive response, the radiofrequency lesion is made not to the facet joint but to the more proximal fine nerve branches that innervate the joint. The accepted target points for the recurrent sensory branch ignore the characteristic rich innervation of the pathologic lumbar facet capsule and assume that lesioning of these recurrent branches is sufficient to denervate the painful pathologic facet joint. This report describes the additional targets and technical steps for further coagulation points along the posterior capsule of the lumbar facet joint and the physiologic studies of the advantage of the bipolar radiofrequency current in this location. Bipolar RF to the facet capsule is a simple, extra step that easily creates a large thermo-coagulated lesion in this capsule region of the pathologic facet joint. Early studies demonstrate bipolar RF to the facet capsule can provide long-term pain relief when used alone for specific localized facet joint pain, to coagulate lumbar facet cysts to prevent recurrence, and to get more extensive pain control by combining it with traditional lumbar RFA, especially when RFA is repeated. PMID

  3. In vivo facet joint loading of the canine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Buttermann, G R; Schendel, M J; Kahmann, R D; Lewis, J L; Bradford, D S

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a technique to measure in vivo loads and the resultant load-contact locations in the facet joint of the canine lumbar spine. The technique is a modification of a previously described in vitro method that used calibrated surface strains of the lateral aspect of the right L3 cranial articular process. In the present study, strains were measured during various in vivo static and dynamic activities 3 days after strain gage implantation. The in vivo recording technique and its errors, which depend on the location of the applied facet loads, is described. The results of applying the technique to five dogs gave the following results. Relative resultant contact load locations on the facet tended to be in the central and caudal portion of the facet in extension activities, central and cranial in standing, and cranial and ventral in flexion or right-turning activities. Right-turning contact locations were ventral and cranial to left-turning locations. Resultant load locations at peak loading during walking were in the central region of the facet, whereas resultant load locations at minimum loading during walking were relatively craniad. This resultant load-contact location during a walk gait cycle typically migrated in an arc with a displacement of 4 mm from minimum to maximum loading. Static tests resulted in a range of facet loads of 0 N in flexion and lying to 185 N for two-legged standing erect, and stand resulted in facet loads of 26 +/- 15 N (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]). Dynamic tests resulted in peak facet loads ranging from 55 N while walking erect to 170 N for climbing up stairs. Maximum walk facet loads were 107 +/- 27 N. The technique is applicable to in vivo studies of a canine facet joint osteoarthritis model and may be useful for establishing an understanding of the biomechanics of low-back pain.

  4. Validation of the Korean version of the pediatric quality of life inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) generic core scales in school children and adolescents using the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Kook, Seung Hee; Varni, James W

    2008-06-02

    The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a child self-report and parent proxy-report instrument designed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in healthy and ill children and adolescents. It has been translated into over 70 international languages and proposed as a valid and reliable pediatric HRQOL measure. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Korean translation of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Following the guidelines for linguistic validation, the original US English scales were translated into Korean and cognitive interviews were administered. The field testing responses of 1425 school children and adolescents and 1431 parents to the Korean version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were analyzed utilizing confirmatory factor analysis and the Rasch model. Consistent with studies using the US English instrument and other translation studies, score distributions were skewed toward higher HRQOL in a predominantly healthy population. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor and a second order-factor model. The analysis using the Rasch model showed that person reliabilities are low, item reliabilities are high, and the majority of items fit the model's expectation. The Rasch rating scale diagnostics showed that PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in general have the optimal number of response categories, but category 4 (almost always a problem) is somewhat problematic for the healthy school sample. The agreements between child self-report and parent proxy-report were moderate. The results demonstrate the feasibility, validity, item reliability, item fit, and agreement between child self-report and parent proxy-report of the Korean version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for school population health research in Korea. However, the utilization of the Korean version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for healthy school populations needs to consider low person reliability, ceiling effects and cultural

  5. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An approach to studying scale for students in higher education: a Rasch measurement model analysis.

    PubMed

    Waugh, R F; Hii, T K; Islam, A

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising 80 self-report items was designed to measure student Approaches to Studying in a higher education context. The items were conceptualized and designed from five learning orientations: a Deep Approach, a Surface Approach, a Strategic Approach, Clarity of Direction and Academic Self-Confidence, to include 40 attitude items and 40 corresponding behavior items. The study aimed to create a scale and investigate its psychometric properties using a Rasch measurement model. The convenience sample consisted of 350 students at an Australian university in 1998. The analysis supported the conceptual structure of the Scale as involving studying attitudes and behaviors towards five orientations to learning. Attitudes are mostly easier than behaviors, in line with the theory. Sixty-eight items fit the model and have good psychometric properties. The proportion of observed variance considered true is 92% and the Scale is well-targeted against the students. Some harder items are needed to improve the targeting and some further testing work needs to be done on the Surface Approach. In the Surface Approach and Clarity of Direction in Studying, attitudes make a lesser contribution than behaviors to the variable, Approaches to Studying.

  7. A Rasch Analysis of Assessments of Morning and Evening Fatigue in Oncology Patients Using the Lee Fatigue Scale.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Kottorp, Anders; Gay, Caryl; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-06-01

    To accurately investigate diurnal variations in fatigue, a measure needs to be psychometrically sound and demonstrate stable item function in relationship to time of day. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric approach that can be used to evaluate these characteristics. To evaluate, using Rasch analysis, the psychometric properties of the Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) in a sample of oncology patients. The sample comprised 587 patients (mean age 57.3 ± 11.9 years, 80% women) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer. Patients completed the 13-item LFS within 30 minutes of awakening (i.e., morning fatigue) and before going to bed (i.e., evening fatigue). Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability. In initial analyses of differential item function, eight of the 13 items functioned differently depending on whether the LFS was completed in the morning or in the evening. Subsequent analyses were conducted separately for the morning and evening fatigue assessments. Nine of the morning fatigue items and 10 of the evening fatigue items demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. Principal components analyses indicated that both morning and evening assessments demonstrated unidimensionality. Person-separation indices indicated that both morning and evening fatigue scales were able to distinguish four distinct strata of fatigue severity. Excluding four items from the morning fatigue scale and three items from the evening fatigue scale improved the psychometric properties of the LFS for assessing diurnal variations in fatigue severity in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rasch Based Analysis of Oral Proficiency Test Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rating scale data of oral proficiency tests analyzed by a Rasch Analysis focusing on an item map and factor analysis. In discussing the item map, the difficulty order of six items and students' answering patterns are analyzed using descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency of test scores. The data ranks the…

  9. Role of facet curvature for accurate vertebral facet load analysis.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Stadler, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The curvature of vertebral facet joints may play an important role in the study of load-bearing characteristics and clinical interventions such as graded facetectomy. In previously-published finite element simulations of this procedure, the curvature was either neglected or approximated with a varying degree of accuracy. Here we study the effect of the curvature in three different load situations by using a numerical model which is able to represent the actual curvature without any loss of accuracy. The results show that previously-used approximations of the curvature lead to good results in the analysis of sagittal moment/rotation. However, for sagittal shear-force/displacement and for the contact stress distribution, previous results deviate significantly from our results. These findings are supported through related convergence studies. Hence we can conclude that in order to obtain reliable results for the analysis of sagittal shear-force/displacement and the contact stress distribution in the facet joint, the curvature must not be neglected. This is of particular importance for the numerical simulation of the spine, which may lead to improved diagnostics, effective surgical planning and intervention. The proposed method may represent a more reliable basis for optimizing the biomedical engineering design for tissue engineering or, for example, for spinal implants.

  10. Assessing Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Energy Literacy: An Application of Rasch measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusup, M.; Setiawan, A.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to present a summary of pre-service physics teachers’ responses on energy literacy assessment. A total of 123 pre-service physics teacher in first through third year of education participated. Data were analyzed using Rasch modeling. Research findings indicate that pre-service physics teachers show their low self-system toward energy conservation. They were also still lack of metacognitive and cognitive competencies. These finding provide information for the future development of curriculum, teaching and learning that can improve pre-service physics teachers’ energy literacy.

  11. A Rasch analysis of the Brief Pain Inventory Interference subscale reveals three dimensions and an age bias.

    PubMed

    Walton, David M; Beattie, Tyler; Putos, Joseph; MacDermid, Joy C

    2016-06-01

    The Brief Pain Inventory is composed of two quantifiable scales: pain severity and pain interference. The reported factor structure of the interference subscale is not consistent in the extant literature, with no clear choice between a single- or two-factor structure. Here, we report on the results of Rasch-based analysis of the interference subscale using a large population-based ambulatory patient database (the Quebec Pain Registry). Observational cohort. A total of 1,000 responses were randomly drawn from a total database of 5,654 for this analysis. Both the original 7-item and an expanded 10-item version (Tyler 2002) of the interference subscale were evaluated. Rasch analysis revealed significant misfit of both versions of the scale, with the original 7-item version outperforming the expanded 10-item version. Analysis of dimensionality revealed that both versions showed improved model fit when considered two subscales (affective and physical interference) with the item on sleep interference removed or considered separately. Additionally, significant uniform differential item functioning was identified for 6 of the 7 original items when the sample was stratified by age above or below 55 years. The interference subscale achieved adequate model fit when considered as two separate subscales with age as a mediator of response, while interpreting the sleep interference item separately. A transformation matrix revealed that in all cases, ordinal-level change at the extreme ends of the scale appears to be more meaningful than does a similar change at the midpoints. The Interference subscale of the BPI should be interpreted as two separate subscales (Affective Interference, Physical Interference) with the sleep item removed or interpreted separately for optimal fit to the Rasch model. Implications for research and clinical use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring coping style following acquired brain injury: a modification of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations Using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Simblett, Sara K; Gracey, Fergus; Ring, Howard; Bateman, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The importance of coping style factors in the process of emotional adjustment following acquired brain injury (ABI) has been gaining increased attention. To assess ways of coping with distress accurately, clear conceptual definitions and measurement precision is vital. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a well-known measure of coping, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), for people who have experienced an ABI; and to modify the CISS, where necessary, to create a more reliable and valid measurement tool for this clinical group. Psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis of responses from a sample of adults with ABI (n = 207). The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale were examined. All originally proposed subscales were not valid or reliable and, as such, were incapable of interval-level measurement within this sample - Task: χ(2) (32, N = 207) = 105.1, p < .001; Emotion: χ(2) (32, N = 204) = 121.9, p < .001; Avoidance: χ(2) (32, N = 207) = 66.7, p < .001. Three valid and reliable subscales were derived measuring emotion-, task-, and avoidance-oriented coping styles by removing items that provided the most unreliable information and exploring fit to the Rasch model. The original version of the CISS may not be a valid and reliable measure of coping style following ABI. Modified subscales of the three distinct coping domains have been proposed that would help to improve measurement of coping style following ABI in future research and clinical practice. How people cope with difficulties following an ABI has been shown to impact upon emotional outcomes and functional recovery. The original version of the CISS was found to be an imprecise measure of coping following ABI. A modified version of the CISS was found to be a valid and reliable measure of three styles of coping (task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance-focused) that conforms to the properties of

  13. Design of a lattice-based faceted classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David A.; Atkins, John

    1992-01-01

    We describe a software reuse architecture supporting component retrieval by facet classes. The facets are organized into a lattice of facet sets and facet n-tuples. The query mechanism supports precise retrieval and flexible browsing.

  14. Rasch analysis of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale: insights on dimensionality and suggestions for an improved 15-item version.

    PubMed

    Bravini, Elisabetta; Giordano, Andrea; Sartorio, Francesco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    To investigate dimensionality and the measurement properties of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis methods, and to provide insights for an improved version of the questionnaire. Rasch analysis of individual patient data. Rehabilitation centre. A total of 135 patients with musculoskeletal diseases of the lower limb. Patients were assessed with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale before and after the rehabilitation. Rasch analysis showed some problems related to rating scale category functioning, items fit, and items redundancy. After an iterative process, which resulted in the reduction of rating scale categories from 5 to 4, and in the deletion of 5 items, the psychometric properties of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale improved. The retained 15 items with a 4-level response format fitted the Rasch model (internal construct validity), and demonstrated unidimensionality and good reliability indices (person-separation reliability 0.92; Cronbach's alpha 0.94). Then, the analysis showed differential item functioning for six of the retained items. The sensitivity to change of the Italian 15-item Lower Extremity Functional Scale was nearly equal to the one of the original version (effect size: 0.93 and 0.98; standardized response mean: 1.20 and 1.28, respectively for the 15-item and 20-item versions). The Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale had unsatisfactory measurement properties. However, removing five items and simplifying the scoring from 5 to 4 levels resulted in a more valid measure with good reliability and sensitivity to change.

  15. Problem of time: facets and Machian strategy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-10-01

    The problem of time is that "time" in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of quantum gravity. The problem of time has eight facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows. The frozen formalism problem becomes temporal relationalism, the thin sandwich problem becomes configurational relationalism, via the notion of best matching. The problem of observables becomes the problem of beables, and the functional evolution problem becomes the constraint closure problem. I also outline how each of the global and multiple-choice problems of time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the problem of time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical, and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the problem of time in the cases of full general relativity and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  17. Historical Perspectives on Invariant Measurement: Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken approached issues related to invariant measurement. These measurement theorists were chosen to illustrate the evolution of our conceptualizations of invariant measurement during the 20th century within the research tradition of item response theory. Item response theory can be…

  18. One Lesson, Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Conrado L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the methodology for teaching English language learners (ELLs) is unique. One approach most commonly used to teach this group in the United States is referred to as sheltered instruction. With Sheltered English Immersion (SEI), middle school teachers simultaneously teach content and language skills. The author will…

  19. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  20. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Adli, E.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Corde, S.; Gessner, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; O'shea, B.; Xu, Xinlu; White, G.; Yakimenko, V.

    2018-03-01

    During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the ‘blow-out regime’ have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currently under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. We then briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.

  1. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, C.; Adli, E.; An, W.

    During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the 'blow-out regime' have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currentlymore » under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. Here, we briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.« less

  2. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II

    DOE PAGES

    Joshi, C.; Adli, E.; An, W.; ...

    2018-01-12

    During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the 'blow-out regime' have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currentlymore » under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. Here, we briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.« less

  3. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral facets and evaluation of feasibility of lumbar spinal nerve root and spinal canal decompression using the Goel intraarticular facetal spacer distraction technique: A lumbar/cervical facet comparison

    PubMed Central

    Satoskar, Savni R.; Goel, Aimee A.; Mehta, Pooja H.; Goel, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate the anatomic subtleties of lumbar facets and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of ‘Goel facet spacer’ in the treatment of degenerative spinal canal stenosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five lumbar vertebral cadaveric dried bones were used for the purpose. A number of morphometric parameters were evaluated both before and after the introduction of Goel facet spacers within the confines of the facet joint. Results: The spacers achieved distraction of facets that was more pronounced in the vertical perspective. Introduction of spacers on both sides resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal height and a circumferential increase in the spinal canal dimensions. Additionally, there was an increase in the disc space or intervertebral body height. The lumbar facets are more vertically and anteroposteriorly oriented when compared to cervical facets that are obliquely and transversely oriented. Conclusions: Understanding the anatomical peculiarities of the lumbar and cervical facets can lead to an optimum utilization of the potential of Goel facet distraction arthrodesis technique in the treatment of spinal degenerative canal stenosis. PMID:25558146

  4. The many faces and facets of water in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The many forms of water (i.e., water vapor, fog, rain, snow, hail and ice) are essential, but can be detrimental, for maintaining an adequate food supply and a productive and healthy environment for all forms of life. Greater limitations on water availability and quality call for research on water c...

  5. Low back pain in 17 countries, a Rasch analysis of the ICF core set for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Røe, Cecilie; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Cieza, Alarcos

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that a worldwide measurement tool may be developed based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of constructing a cross-cultural measurement of functioning for patients with low back pain (LBP) on the basis of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP and to evaluate the properties of the ICF Core Set. The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP was scored by health professionals for 972 patients with LBP from 17 countries. Qualifier levels of the categories, invariance across age, sex and countries, construct validity and the ordering of the categories in the components of body function, body structure, activities and participation were explored by Rasch analysis. The item-trait χ2-statistics showed that the 53 categories in the ICF Core Set for LBP did not fit the Rasch model (P<0.001). The main challenge was the invariance in the responses according to country. Analysis of the four countries with the largest sample sizes indicated that the data from Germany fit the Rasch model, and the data from Norway, Serbia and Kuwait in terms of the components of body functions and activities and participation also fit the model. The component of body functions and activity and participation had a negative mean location, -2.19 (SD 1.19) and -2.98 (SD 1.07), respectively. The negative location indicates that the ICF Core Set reflects patients with a lower level of function than the present patient sample. The present results indicate that it may be possible to construct a clinical measure of function on the basis of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP by calculating country-specific scores before pooling the data.

  6. Long-Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower-Order Big Five Personality Facets.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Amaranta; De Pauw, Sarah; van den Akker, Alithe; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6-17 years; N = 579, 50% girls) were used. All children had the Belgian nationality. Developmental changes were examined using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling on the 18 facets of the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. In early childhood, changes were mostly similar across child gender. Between 2 and 4.5 years, several facets showed mean-level stability; others changed in the direction of less Extraversion and Emotional Stability, and more Benevolence and Imagination. The lower-order facets of Conscientiousness showed opposite changes. Gender differences became more apparent from middle childhood onward for facets of all dimensions except Imagination, for which no gender differences were found. Between 6 and 17 years, same-dimension facets showed different shapes of growth. Facets that changed linearly changed mostly in the direction of less Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Imagination. Changes in facets for which nonlinear growth was found generally moved in direction or magnitude during developmental transitions. This study provides comprehensive, fine-grained knowledge about personality development during the first two decades of life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. With hiccups and bumps: the development of a Rasch-based instrument to measure elementary students' understanding of the nature of science.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Shields, Katherine A; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This research describes the development process, psychometric analyses and part validation study of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). Evidence is provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. A future article will examine the structural and external validity aspects. Rasch modeling proved especially productive in scale improvement efforts. The instrument, designed for large-scale assessment use, is conceptualized using five construct domains. Data from 741 elementary students were used to pilot the Rasch scale, with continuous improvements made over three successive administrations. The psychometric properties of the NOSI-E instrument are consistent with the basic assumptions of Rasch measurement, namely that the items are well-fitting and invariant. Items from each of the five domains (Empirical, Theory-Laden, Certainty, Inventive, and Socially and Culturally Embedded) are spread along the scale's continuum and appear to overlap well. Most importantly, the scale seems appropriately calibrated and responsive for elementary school-aged children, the target age group. As a result, the NOSI-E should prove beneficial for science education research. As the United States' science education reform efforts move toward students' learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices (NRC, 2011), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective. The NOSI-E can be used as one measure of whether this reform effort has an impact.

  8. Is the Parkinson Anxiety Scale comparable across raters?

    PubMed

    Forjaz, Maria João; Ayala, Alba; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Dujardin, Kathy; Pontone, Gregory M; Starkstein, Sergio E; Weintraub, Daniel; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2015-04-01

    The Parkinson Anxiety Scale is a new scale developed to measure anxiety severity in Parkinson's disease specifically. It consists of three dimensions: persistent anxiety, episodic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of the scale while controlling for the rater (self- vs. clinician-rated) effect. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale was administered to a cross-sectional multicenter international sample of 362 Parkinson's disease patients. Both patients and clinicians rated the patient's anxiety independently. A many-facet Rasch model design was applied to estimate and remove the rater effect. The following measurement properties were assessed: fit to the Rasch model, unidimensionality, reliability, differential item functioning, item local independency, interrater reliability (self or clinician), and scale targeting. In addition, test-retest stability, construct validity, precision, and diagnostic properties of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale were also analyzed. A good fit to the Rasch model was obtained for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B, after the removal of one item and rescoring of the response scale for certain items, whereas dimension C showed marginal fit. Self versus clinician rating differences were of small magnitude, with patients reporting higher anxiety levels than clinicians. The linear measure for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B showed good convergent construct with other anxiety measures and good diagnostic properties. Parkinson Anxiety Scale modified dimensions A and B provide valid and reliable measures of anxiety in Parkinson's disease that are comparable across raters. Further studies are needed with dimension C. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Construct validity of the Heart Failure Screening Tool (Heart-FaST) to identify heart failure patients at risk of poor self-care: Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Nicholas A; Ski, Chantal F; McEvedy, Samantha M; Thompson, David R; Cameron, Jan

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Heart Failure Screening Tool (Heart-FaST) via: (1) examination of internal construct validity; (2) testing of scale function in accordance with design; and (3) recommendation for change/s, if items are not well adjusted, to improve psychometric credential. Self-care is vital to the management of heart failure. The Heart-FaST may provide a prospective assessment of risk, regarding the likelihood that patients with heart failure will engage in self-care. Psychometric validation of the Heart-FaST using Rasch analysis. The Heart-FaST was administered to 135 patients (median age = 68, IQR = 59-78 years; 105 males) enrolled in a multidisciplinary heart failure management program. The Heart-FaST is a nurse-administered tool for screening patients with HF at risk of poor self-care. A Rasch analysis of responses was conducted which tested data against Rasch model expectations, including whether items serve as unbiased, non-redundant indicators of risk and measure a single construct and that rating scales operate as intended. The results showed that data met Rasch model expectations after rescoring or deleting items due to poor discrimination, disordered thresholds, differential item functioning, or response dependence. There was no evidence of multidimensionality which supports the use of total scores from Heart-FaST as indicators of risk. Aggregate scores from this modified screening tool rank heart failure patients according to their "risk of poor self-care" demonstrating that the Heart-FaST items constitute a meaningful scale to identify heart failure patients at risk of poor engagement in heart failure self-care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Catquest-9SF questionnaire: validation of Malay and Chinese-language versions using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Mohamed Apandi, Mokhlisoh; Kamaruddin, Haireen; Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Law, Kian Boon; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Goh, Pik Pin

    2018-01-05

    Catquest questionnaire was originally developed in Swedish to measure patients' self-assessed visual function to evaluate the benefit of cataract surgery. The result of the Rasch analysis leading to the creation of the nine-item short form of Catquest, (Catquest-9SF), and it had been translated and validated in English. The aim is therefore to evaluate the translated Catquest-9SF questionnaire in Malay and Chinese (Mandarin) language version for measuring patient-reported visual function among cataract population in Malaysia. The English version of Catquest-9SF questionnaire was translated and back translated into Malay and Chinese languages. The Malay and Chinese translated versions were self-administered by 236 and 202 pre-operative patients drawn from a cataract surgery waiting list, respectively. The translated Catquest-9SF data and its four response options were assessed for fit to the Rasch model. The Catquest-9SF performed well in the Malay and Chinese translated versions fulfilling all criteria for valid measurement, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. Both versions of questionnaire had ordered response thresholds, with a good person separation (Malay 2.84; and Chinese 2.59) and patient separation reliability (Malay 0.89; Chinese 0.87). Targeting was 0.30 and -0.11 logits in Malay and Chinese versions respectively, indicating that the item difficulty was well suited to the visual abilities of the patients. All items fit a single overall construct (Malay infit range 0.85-1.26, outfit range 0.73-1.13; Chinese infit range 0.80-1.51, outfit range 0.71-1.36), unidimensional by principal components analysis, and was free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF). These results support the good overall functioning of the Catquest-9SF in patients with cataract. The translated questionnaire to Malay and Chinese-language versions are reliable and valid in measuring visual disability outcomes in the Malaysian cataract population.

  11. Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

  12. Diagnosis of students' ability in a statistical course based on Rasch probabilistic outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Ramli, Wan Syahira Wan; Sapri, Shamsiah; Ahmad, Sanizah

    2017-06-01

    Measuring students' ability and performance are important in assessing how well students have learned and mastered the statistical courses. Any improvement in learning will depend on the student's approaches to learning, which are relevant to some factors of learning, namely assessment methods carrying out tasks consisting of quizzes, tests, assignment and final examination. This study has attempted an alternative approach to measure students' ability in an undergraduate statistical course based on the Rasch probabilistic model. Firstly, this study aims to explore the learning outcome patterns of students in a statistics course (Applied Probability and Statistics) based on an Entrance-Exit survey. This is followed by investigating students' perceived learning ability based on four Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and students' actual learning ability based on their final examination scores. Rasch analysis revealed that students perceived themselves as lacking the ability to understand about 95% of the statistics concepts at the beginning of the class but eventually they had a good understanding at the end of the 14 weeks class. In terms of students' performance in their final examination, their ability in understanding the topics varies at different probability values given the ability of the students and difficulty of the questions. Majority found the probability and counting rules topic to be the most difficult to learn.

  13. Rasch analysis suggested three unidimensional domains for Affiliate Stigma Scale: additional psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Tsai, Ching-Shu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2015-06-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale using rigorous psychometric analysis: classical test theory (CTT) (traditional) and Rasch analysis (modern). Differential item functioning (DIF) items were also tested using Rasch analysis. Caregivers of relatives with mental illness (n = 453; mean age: 53.29 ± 13.50 years) were recruited from southern Taiwan. Each participant filled out four questionnaires: Affiliate Stigma Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and one background information sheet. CTT analyses showed that the Affiliate Stigma Scale had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.85-0.94) and concurrent validity (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: r = -0.52 to -0.46; Beck Anxiety Inventory: r = 0.27-0.34). Rasch analyses supported the unidimensionality of three domains in the Affiliate Stigma Scale and indicated four DIF items (affect domain: 1; cognitive domain: 3) across gender. Our findings, based on rigorous statistical analysis, verified the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale and reported its DIF items. We conclude that the three domains of the Affiliate Stigma Scale can be separately used and are suitable for measuring the affiliate stigma of caregivers of relatives with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring relations among mindfulness facets and various meditation practices: Do they work in different ways?

    PubMed

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Campos, Daniel; Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Tomás, Jose Manuel; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Soler, Joaquim; García-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa María

    2017-03-01

    Several meditation practices are associated with mindfulness-based interventions but little is known about their specific effects on the development of different mindfulness facets. This study aimed to assess the relations among different practice variables, types of meditation, and mindfulness facets. The final sample was composed of 185 participants who completed an on-line survey, including information on the frequency and duration of each meditation practice, lifetime practice, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural model was specified, estimated, and tested. Results showed that the Model's overall fit was adequate: χ 2 (1045)=1542.800 (p<0.001), CFI=0.902, RMSEA=0.042. Results revealed that mindfulness facets were uniquely related to the different variables and types of meditation. Our findings showed the importance of specific practices in promoting mindfulness, compared to compassion and informal practices, and they pointed out which one fits each mindfulness facet better. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  16. Validation of Malaysian Versions of Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy Scale (MUSE) and 8-Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) Using Partial Credit Rasch Model.

    PubMed

    Al Abboud, Safaa Ahmed; Ahmad, Sohail; Bidin, Mohamed Badrulnizam Long; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah

    2016-11-01

    The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a common silent epidemic disease with frequent morbidity and mortality. The psychological and psychosocial health factors are negatively influencing the glycaemic control in diabetic patients. Therefore, various questionnaires were developed to address the psychological and psychosocial well-being of the diabetic patients. Most of these questionnaires were first developed in English and then translated into different languages to make them useful for the local communities. The main aim of this study was to translate and validate the Malaysian versions of Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy Scale (MUSE), and to revalidate 8-Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) by Partial Credit Rasch Model (Modern Test Theory). Permission was obtained from respective authors to translate the English versions of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 into Malay language according to established standard international translation guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, 62 adult DM patients were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur by purposive sampling method. The data were extracted from the self-administered questionnaires and entered manually in the Ministeps (Winsteps) software for Partial Credit Rasch Model. The item and person reliability, infit/outfit Z-Standard (ZSTD), infit/outfit Mean Square (MNSQ) and point measure correlation (PTMEA Corr) values were analysed for the reliability analyses and construct validation. The Malay version of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 found to be valid and reliable instrument for the Malaysian diabetic adults. The instrument showed good overall reliability value of 0.76 and 0.93 for item and person reliability, respectively. The values of infit/outfit ZSTD, infit/outfit MNSQ, and PTMEA Corr were also within the stipulated range of the Rasch Model proving the valid item constructs of the questionnaire. The translated Malay version of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 was found to

  17. Percutaneous Facet Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Symptomatic Recurrent Lumbar Facet Joint Cyst: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Gallo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gallo83@gmail.com; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: asbertrand3@hotmail.com

    We present a case of percutaneous treatment of symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst resistant to all medical treatments including facet joint steroid injection. Percutaneous transfacet fixation was then performed at L4–L5 level with a cannulated screw using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9.5, preoperatively, to 0 after the procedure. At 6-month follow-up, an asymptomatic cystic recurrence was observed, which further reduced at the 1-year follow-up. Pain remained stable (VAS at 0) during all follow-ups. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous cyst rupture associated with facet screw fixation couldmore » be an alternative to surgery in patients suffering from a symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst.« less

  18. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Using the Rasch Model to Measure the Extent to which Students Work Conceptually with Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Eivind

    2015-01-01

    Differences between working conceptually and procedurally with mathematics are well documented. In short, working procedurally can be characterized as learning and applying rules without reason. Working conceptually, in contrast, means creating and applying a web of knowledge. To continue this line of research, an instrument that is able to measure the level of conceptual work, and that is based on the basic requirements of measurement, is desireable. As such, this paper presents a Rasch calibrated instrument that measures the extent to which students work conceptually with mathematics. From a sample of 133 student teachers and 185 Civil Engineering students, 20 items are concluded as being productive for measurement.

  20. Rasch Analysis: A Primer for School Psychology Researchers and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Noltemeyer, Amity

    2017-01-01

    In order to progress as a field, school psychology research must be informed by effective measurement techniques. One approach to address the need for careful measurement is Rasch analysis. This technique can (a) facilitate the development of instruments that provide useful data, (b) provide data that can be used confidently for both descriptive…

  1. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Using Rasch-models to compare the 30-, 20-, and 12-items version of the general health questionnaire taking four recoding schemes into account.

    PubMed

    Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Friedrich, Fabian; Jahn, Rebecca; Soulier, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares the 30-, 20-, and 12-items versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in the original coding and four different recoding schemes (Bimodal, Chronic, Modified Likert and a newly proposed Modified Chronic) with respect to their psychometric qualities. The dichotomized versions (i.e. Bimodal, Chronic and Modified Chronic) were evaluated with the Rasch-Model and the polytomous original version and the Modified Likert version were evaluated with the Partial Credit Model. In general, the versions under consideration showed agreement with the model assumption. However, the recoded versions exhibited some deficits with respect to the Outfit index. Because of the item deficits and for theoretical reasons we argue in favor of using the any of the three length versions with the original four-categorical coding scheme. Nevertheless, any of the versions appears apt for clinical use from a psychometric perspective.

  3. Rasch scaling paranormal belief and experience: structure and semantics of Thalbourne's Australian Sheep-Goat Scale.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rense; Thalbourne, Michael A

    2002-12-01

    Research on the relation between demographic variables and paranormal belief remains controversial given the possible semantic distortions introduced by item and test level biases. We illustrate how Rasch scaling can be used to detect such biases and to quantify their effects, using the Australian Sheep-Goal Scale as a substantive example. Based on data from 1.822 respondents, this test was Rasch scalable, reliable, and unbiased at the test level. Consistent with other research in which unbiased measures of paranormal belief were used, extremely weak age and sex effects were found (partial eta2 = .005 and .012, respectively).

  4. Assessment of the dimensionality of the Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaire using factor analysis and Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Pallant, J F; Haines, H M; Green, P; Toohill, J; Gamble, J; Creedy, D K; Fenwick, J

    2016-11-21

    Fear of childbirth has negative consequences for a woman's physical and emotional wellbeing. The most commonly used measurement tool for childbirth fear is the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (WDEQ-A). Although originally conceptualized as unidimensional, subsequent investigations have suggested it is multidimensional. This study aimed to undertake a detailed psychometric assessment of the WDEQ-A; exploring the dimensionality and identifying possible subscales that may have clinical and research utility. WDEQ-A was administered to a sample of 1410 Australian women in mid-pregnancy. The dimensionality of WDEQ-A was explored using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Rasch analysis. EFA identified a four factor solution. CFA failed to support the unidimensional structure of the original WDEQ-A, but confirmed the four factor solution identified by EFA. Rasch analysis was used to refine the four subscales (Negative emotions: five items; Lack of positive emotions: five items; Social isolation: four items; Moment of birth: three items). Each WDEQ-A Revised subscale showed good fit to the Rasch model and adequate internal consistency reliability. The correlation between Negative emotions and Lack of positive emotions was strong, however Moment of birth and Social isolation showed much lower intercorrelations, suggesting they should not be added to create a total score. This study supports the findings of other investigations that suggest the WDEQ-A is multidimensional and should not be used in its original form. The WDEQ-A Revised may provide researchers with a more refined, psychometrically sound tool to explore the differential impact of aspects of childbirth fear.

  5. Differential Relations of Depression and Social Anxiety Symptoms to the Facets of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David; Markon, Kristian E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that depression and social anxiety—two “facets” of internalizing psychopathology— both are characterized by low levels of extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE). However, little is known about the relations of the facets of E/PE with symptoms of depression and social anxiety. This study utilized multiple measures of each facet of E/PE, as well as depression and social anxiety symptoms. Self-report data were collected from large samples of college students and psychiatric outpatients. Separate factor analyses in each sample revealed a four-factor structure of E/PE, consisting of Sociability, Positive Emotionality, Ascendance, and Fun-Seeking. Structural equation modeling revealed that, after controlling for the higher-order internalizing factor and the overlap among the E/PE facets, social anxiety was broadly related to all four facets of E/PE, whereas depression was strongly related only to low positive emotionality. Implications for hierarchical models of personality and psychopathology, assessment and treatment, and etiological models are discussed. PMID:19413405

  6. SLAC All Access: FACET

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Mark

    2018-02-13

    SLAC's Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, or FACET, is a test-bed where researchers are developing the technologies required for particle accelerators of the future. Scientists from all over the world come to explore ways of improving the power and efficiency of the particle accelerators used in basic research, medicine, industry and other areas important to society. In this video, Mark Hogan, head of SLAC's Advanced Accelerator Research Department, offers a glimpse into FACET, which uses part of SLAC's historic two-mile-long linear accelerator.

  7. Examining the psychometric properties of a sport-related concussion survey: a Rasch measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Hecimovich, Mark; Marais, Ida

    2017-06-26

    Awareness of sport-related concussion (SRC) is an essential step in increasing the number of athletes or parents who report on SRC. This awareness is important, as there is no established data on medical care at youth-level sports and may be limited to individuals with only first aid training. In this circumstance, aside from the coach, it is the players and their parents who need to be aware of possible signs and symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a parent and player concussion survey intended for use before and after an education campaign regarding SRC. 1441 questionnaires were received from parents and 284 questionnaires from players. The responses to the sixteen-item section of the questionnaire's 'recognition of signs and symptoms' were submitted to psychometric analysis using the dichotomous and polytomous Rasch model via the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model software RUMM2030. The Rasch model of Modern Test Theory can be considered a refinement of, or advance on, traditional analyses of an instrument's psychometric properties. The main finding is that these sixteen items measure two factors: items that are symptoms of concussion and items that are not symptoms of concussion. Parents and athletes were able to identify most or all of the symptoms, but were not as good at distinguishing symptoms that are not symptoms of concussion. Analyzing these responses revealed differential item functioning for parents and athletes on non-symptom items. When the DIF was resolved a significant difference was found between parents and athletes. The main finding is that the items measure two 'dimensions' in concussion symptom recognition. The first dimension consists of those items that are symptoms of concussion and the second dimension of those items that are not symptoms of concussion. Parents and players were able to identify most or all of the symptoms of concussion, so one would not expect to pick up any positive change on

  8. Improving Measurement of Trait Competitiveness: A Rasch Analysis of the Revised Competitiveness Index With Samples From New Zealand and US University Students.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Medvedev, Oleg N; Hill, Erin M; Webster, Craig S; Booth, Roger J; Henning, Marcus A

    2018-01-01

    Measuring competitiveness is necessary to fully understand variables affecting student learning. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index has become a widely used measure to assess trait competitiveness. The current study reports on a Rasch analysis to investigate the psychometric properties of the Revised Competitiveness Index and to improve its precision for international comparisons. Students were recruited from medical studies at a university in New Zealand, undergraduate health sciences courses at another New Zealand university, and a psychology undergraduate class at a university in the United States. Rasch model estimate parameters were affected by local dependency and item misfit. Best fit to the Rasch model (χ 2 (20) = 15.86, p = .73, person separation index = .95) was obtained for the Enjoyment of Competition subscale after combining locally dependent items into a subtest and discarding the highly misfitting Item 9. The only modifications required to obtain a suitable fit (χ 2 (25) = 25.81, p = .42, person separation index = .77) for the Contentiousness subscale were a subtest to combine two locally dependent items and splitting this subtest by country to deal with differential item functioning. The results support reliability and internal construct validity of the modified Revised Competitiveness Index. Precision of the measure may be enhanced using the ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms presented here, allowing the use of parametric statistics without breaking fundamental statistical assumptions.

  9. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    SciTech Connect

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoreticalmore » image.« less

  10. Using Rasch Analysis to Explore What Students Learn about Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Porter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is…

  11. ABILOCO-Kids: a Rasch-built 10-item questionnaire for assessing locomotion ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Caty, Gilles D; Gilles, Caty D; Arnould, Carlyne; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Thierry M

    2008-11-01

    To develop a questionnaire (ABILOCO-Kids) based on the Rasch measurement model that assesses locomotion ability in children with cerebral palsy. Prospective study and questionnaire development. A total of 113 children with cerebral palsy (10 (standard deviation 2.5) years old). A 41-item questionnaire was developed based on existing scales and on the clinical experience of professionals in the field of rehabilitation. This questionnaire was tested separately on the 113 children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Their responses were analysed using the Rasch model (RUMM-2020) to select items that had an ordered rating scale and that fit a unidimensional model. The final ABILOCO-Kids scale consisted of 10 locomotion activities, of which difficulty was rated by the parents. The parents gave a more precise assessment of their children's ability than the children themselves, leading to a wider range of measurement that was well-targeted on the sample population and that had good reliability (r=0.97) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.96). Item calibration did not vary with age, sex or clinical presentation (hemiplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia). The concurrent validity of the ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire was also shown by its correlation with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire has good psychometric qualities for measuring a wide range of locomotion abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

  12. Cervical facet force analysis after disc replacement versus fusion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikas V; Wuthrich, Zachary R; McGilvray, Kirk C; Lafleur, Matthew C; Lindley, Emily M; Sun, Derrick; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2017-05-01

    Cervical total disc replacement was developed to preserve motion and reduce adjacent-level degeneration relative to fusion, yet concerns remain that total disc replacement will lead to altered facet joint loading and long-term facet joint arthrosis. This study is intended to evaluate changes in facet contact force, pressure and surface area at the treated and superior adjacent levels before and after discectomy, disc replacement, and fusion. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines were potted from C2 to C7 with pressure sensors placed into the facet joints of C3-C4 and C4-C5 via slits in the facet capsules. Moments were applied to the specimens to produce axial rotation, lateral bending and extension. Facet contact force and pressure were measured at both levels for intact, discectomy at C4-C5, disc replacement with ProDisc-C (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA) at C4-C5, and anterior discectomy and fusion with Cervical Spine Locking Plate (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA) at C4-C5. Facet contact area was calculated from the force and pressure measurements. An analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences with P-values <0.05 indicating significance. Facet contact force was elevated at the treated level under extension following both discectomy and disc replacement, while facet contact pressure and area were relatively unchanged. Facet contact force and area were decreased at the treated level following fusion for all three loading conditions. Total disc replacement preserved facet contact force for all scenarios except extension at the treated level, highlighting the importance of the anterior disco-ligamentous complex. This could promote treated-level facet joint disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zeroing In on Mindfulness Facets: Similarities, Validity, and Dimensionality across Three Independent Measures.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    The field of mindfulness has seen a proliferation of psychometric measures, characterised by differences in operationalisation and conceptualisation. To illuminate the scope of, and offer insights into, the diversity apparent in the burgeoning literature, two distinct samples were used to examine the similarities, validity, and dimensionality of mindfulness facets and subscales across three independent measures: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS), and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Results revealed problematic associations of FFMQ Observe with the other FFMQ facets and supported a four-factor structure (omitting this facet), while disputing the originally envisaged five-factor model; thus, solidifying a pattern in the literature. Results also confirmed the bidimensional nature of the PHLMS and TMS subscales, respectively. A joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that PHLMS Acceptance could be assimilated within the FFMQ's four-factor model (as a distinct factor). The study offers a way of understanding interrelationships between the available mindfulness scales, so as to help practitioners and researchers make a more informed choice when conceptualising and operationalising mindfulness.

  14. Zeroing In on Mindfulness Facets: Similarities, Validity, and Dimensionality across Three Independent Measures

    PubMed Central

    Siegling, Alex B.; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The field of mindfulness has seen a proliferation of psychometric measures, characterised by differences in operationalisation and conceptualisation. To illuminate the scope of, and offer insights into, the diversity apparent in the burgeoning literature, two distinct samples were used to examine the similarities, validity, and dimensionality of mindfulness facets and subscales across three independent measures: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS), and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Results revealed problematic associations of FFMQ Observe with the other FFMQ facets and supported a four-factor structure (omitting this facet), while disputing the originally envisaged five-factor model; thus, solidifying a pattern in the literature. Results also confirmed the bidimensional nature of the PHLMS and TMS subscales, respectively. A joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that PHLMS Acceptance could be assimilated within the FFMQ’s four-factor model (as a distinct factor). The study offers a way of understanding interrelationships between the available mindfulness scales, so as to help practitioners and researchers make a more informed choice when conceptualising and operationalising mindfulness. PMID:27055017

  15. MFV-class: a multi-faceted visualization tool of object classes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-meng; Pan, Yun-he; Zhuang, Yue-ting

    2004-11-01

    Classes are key software components in an object-oriented software system. In many industrial OO software systems, there are some classes that have complicated structure and relationships. So in the processes of software maintenance, testing, software reengineering, software reuse and software restructure, it is a challenge for software engineers to understand these classes thoroughly. This paper proposes a class comprehension model based on constructivist learning theory, and implements a software visualization tool (MFV-Class) to help in the comprehension of a class. The tool provides multiple views of class to uncover manifold facets of class contents. It enables visualizing three object-oriented metrics of classes to help users focus on the understanding process. A case study was conducted to evaluate our approach and the toolkit.

  16. Rasch Analysis for Psychometric Improvement of Science Attitude Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-01-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…

  17. Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.

    Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

  18. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  19. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHY FACETS AND EXTERNALIZING IN A CRIMINAL OFFENDER SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Christopher J.; Hicks, Brian M.; Krueger, Robert F.; Lang, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The construct of psychopathy is viewed as comprising distinctive but correlated affective-interpersonal and social deviance facets. Here, we examined these facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in terms of their associations with the externalizing dimension of adult psychopathology, defined as the common factor underlying symptoms of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol use/abuse, and drug abuse, along with disinhibitory personality traits. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relationship between this externalizing dimension and the social deviance facet of psychopathy (r = .84), and a lesser relationship with the emotional-interpersonal component (r = .44). Structural models controlling for the moderate overlap between the PCL-R factors revealed that externalizing was substantially related to the unique variance in the social deviance features of psychopathy, but unrelated to the unique variance of the emotional and interpersonal features whether modeled together or as separate factors. These results indicate that the social deviance factor of the PCL-R reflects the externalizing dimension of psychopathology, whereas the emotional-interpersonal component taps something distinct aside from externalizing. In addition, based on our finding of an association between PCL-R social deviance and externalizing, we were able to predict new relations between this facet of psychopathy and criterion variables, including nicotine use and gambling, that have previously been linked to externalizing. Implications for future research on the causes and correlates of psychopathy are discussed. PMID:16178678

  1. A Rasch Analysis of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara M.; Laux, John M.; Stone, Gregory; Dupuy, Paula; Scott, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Rasch analysis of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; F. G. Miller & Lazowski, 1999) indicated that the SASSI-3 meets fundamental measurement properties; however, the authors of the current study recommend the elimination of nonfunctioning items and the improvement of response options for the face valid scales to…

  2. Intraarticular Pulsed Radiofrequency to Treat Refractory Lumbar Facet Joint Pain in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun-Woo; Ahn, Da Hyun; Do, Kyung Hee

    2018-04-01

    Many treatment techniques have been used for refractory lumbar facet joint pain; however, their efficacy has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory lumbar facet joint pain in patients with low back pain. Twenty patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain were recruited, and each patient was treated via intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency. The treatment effects were measured with a numerical rating scale, and the technical accuracy of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment was evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. Any adverse events or complications also were checked. We performed intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment at 48 levels of the lumbar facet joints in 20 patients (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 64.50 ± 10.65 years) with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Pain scores were significantly reduced at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment (P < 0.05). The face validity revealed good intraarticular pulsed radiofrequency results in all 20 patients, without any serious adverse effects. Treatment using intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an alternative to other techniques in patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  4. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals: part 2: facet-by-facet melting at Ia3d/vapor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Leroy, S; Grenier, J; Rohe, D; Even, C; Pieranski, P

    2006-05-01

    From experiments with metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. Recently, we have shown that anisotropic surface melting occurs also in lyotropic systems. In our previous paper (Eur. Phys. J. E 19, 223 (2006)), we have focused on the case of poor faceting at the Pn3m/L1 interface in C12EO2/water binary mixtures. There anisotropic melting occurs in the vicinity of a Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. In the present paper, we focus on the opposite case of a rich devil's-staircase-type faceting at Ia3d/vapor interfaces in monoolein/water and phytantriol/water mixtures. We show that anisotropic surface melting takes place in these systems in a narrow humidity range close to the Ia3d-L2 transition. As whole (hkl) sets of facets disappear one after another when the transition is approached, surface melting occurs in a facet-by-facet type.

  5. Facet orientation and tropism: Associations with asymmetric lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle parameters in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Xu, W B; Chen, S; Fan, S W; Zhao, F D; Yu, X J; Hu, Z J

    2016-08-10

    Many studies have explored the relationship between facet tropism and facet joint osteoarthritis, disc degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and paraspinal muscles have not been studied. To analyze the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and parameters of paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain. Ninety-five patients with chronic low back pain were consecutively enrolled. Their facet joint angles were measured on computed tomography (CT) while gross cross-sectional area (GCSA), functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and T2 signal intensity of lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The GCSA and FCSA were significantly smaller for multifidus muscle (P< 0.001), but significantly larger for erector spinae and psoas muscles (P< 0.001), in coronally-orientated group than those in sagittally-orientated group. The differences of bilateral GCSA and FCSA of multifidus muscle were significantly larger in facet tropism group than those in no facet tropism group (P= 0.009 and P= 0.019). Muscular asymmetries may develop in the lumbar region of the spine, which are associated with facet asymmetry in patients with chronic low back pain. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the causal relationship between facet orientation and tropism and muscular asymmetry in future.

  6. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Information Skills Test for Malaysian Youth Students Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Aidah Abdul; Shah, Parilah M.; Din, Rosseni; Ahmad, Mazalah; Lubis, Maimun Aqhsa

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the psychometric properties of a locally developed information skills test for youth students in Malaysia using Rasch analysis. The test was a combination of 24 structured and multiple choice items with a 4-point grading scale. The test was administered to 72 technical college students and 139 secondary school students. The…

  8. A Rasch Analysis of the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory with Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Hoi Kwan

    2018-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the 2 versions of the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory were examined with Singapore student samples. Other than 2 misfitting items and an underutilized response scale, Rasch analysis demonstrated that the instruments have good measurement precision, and no differential item functioning was detected across…

  9. Direct Posterior Bipolar Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Rhizotomy: A Simpler and Safer Approach to Denervate the Facet Capsule.

    PubMed

    Palea, Ovidiu; Andar, Haroon M; Lugo, Ramon; Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2018-03-14

    Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root. Bilateral lesions require the repositioning of the patient's neck. Poorly positioned electrodes can also pass anteriorly and contact the nerve root or vertebral artery. The direct posterior approach presented allows electrode positioning over a broader expanse of the facet joint without risk to the nerve root or vertebral artery. Over a four-year period, direct posterior radiofrequency ablation was performed under fluoroscopic guidance at multiple levels without neuro-stimulation testing with zero procedural neurologic events even as high as the C2 spinal segment. The direct posterior approach allows either unipolar or bipolar lesioning at multiple levels. Making a radiofrequency lesion along the larger posterior area of the facet capsule is as effective as the traditional target point closer to the nerve root but technically easier, allowing bilateral access and safety. The article will review the anatomy and innervation of the cervical facet joint and capsule, showing the diffuse nerve supply extending into the capsule of the facet joint that is more extensive than the recurrent medial sensory branches that have been the focus of radiofrequency lesioning.

  10. Direct Posterior Bipolar Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Rhizotomy: A Simpler and Safer Approach to Denervate the Facet Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Palea, Ovidiu; Andar, Haroon M; Lugo, Ramon; Jacobson, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root. Bilateral lesions require the repositioning of the patient's neck. Poorly positioned electrodes can also pass anteriorly and contact the nerve root or vertebral artery. The direct posterior approach presented allows electrode positioning over a broader expanse of the facet joint without risk to the nerve root or vertebral artery. Over a four-year period, direct posterior radiofrequency ablation was performed under fluoroscopic guidance at multiple levels without neuro-stimulation testing with zero procedural neurologic events even as high as the C2 spinal segment. The direct posterior approach allows either unipolar or bipolar lesioning at multiple levels. Making a radiofrequency lesion along the larger posterior area of the facet capsule is as effective as the traditional target point closer to the nerve root but technically easier, allowing bilateral access and safety. The article will review the anatomy and innervation of the cervical facet joint and capsule, showing the diffuse nerve supply extending into the capsule of the facet joint that is more extensive than the recurrent medial sensory branches that have been the focus of radiofrequency lesioning. PMID:29765790

  11. CT of facet distraction in flexion injuries of the thoracolumbar spine: the "naked" facet.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, J P; Ullrich, C G; Yuan, H A; Kieffer, S A

    1980-03-01

    Vertical distraction of the articular processes is an important sign of ligamentous disruption due to flexion injuries of the thoracolumbar spine. In addition to illustrating this finding in cross section (the "naked" facet), computed tomography in the transaxial plane allows assessment of the presence and position of fracture fragments that may encroach on the spinal canal. Image reconstruction in sagittal and coronal planes provides a clear demonstration of the degree of bony compression, facet distraction, and kyphosis associated with flexion injuries without additional patient manipulation or radiation exposure.

  12. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  13. Facet joint hypertrophy is a misnomer: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    An, Sang Joon; Seo, Mi Sook; Choi, Soo Il; Lim, Tae-Ha; Shin, So Jin; Kang, Keum Nae; Kim, Young Uk

    2018-06-01

    One of the major causes of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) has been considered facet joint hypertrophy (FJH). However, a previous study asserted that "FJH" is a misnomer because common facet joints are no smaller than degenerative facet joints; however, this hypothesis has not been effectively demonstrated. Therefore, in order to verify that FJH is a misnomer in patients with LSCS, we devised new morphological parameters that we called facet joint thickness (FJT) and facet joint cross-sectional area (FJA).We collected FJT and FJA data from 114 patients with LSCS. A total of 86 control subjects underwent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of routine medical examinations, and axial T2-weighted MRI images were obtained from all participants. We measured FJT by drawing a line along the facet area and then measuring the narrowest point at L4-L5. We measured FJA as the whole cross-sectional area of the facet joint at the stenotic L4-L5 level.The average FJT was 1.60 ± 0.36 mm in the control group and 1.11 ± 0.32 mm in the LSCS group. The average FJA was 14.46 ± 5.17 mm in the control group and 9.31 ± 3.47 mm in the LSCS group. Patients with LSCS had significantly lower FJTs (P < .001) and FJAs (P < .001).FJH, a misnomer, should be renamed facet joint area narrowing. Using this terminology would eliminate confusion in descriptions of the facet joint.

  14. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness-Communion with Warmth and Morality.

    PubMed

    Abele, Andrea E; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  15. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness—Communion with Warmth and Morality

    PubMed Central

    Abele, Andrea E.; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  16. Analysis of High School English Curriculum Materials through Rasch Measurement Model and Maxqda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze high school English curriculum materials (ECM) through FACETS analysis and MAXQDA-11 programs. The mixed methods approach, both quantitative and qualitative methods, were used in three samples including English teachers in Elazig during the 2014-2015 academic year. While the quantitative phase of the study…

  17. Emotional vitality in caregivers: application of Rasch Measurement Theory with secondary data to development and test a new measure.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Skye P; Bartlett, Susan J; Mayo, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    To describe the practical steps in identifying items and evaluating scoring strategies for a new measure of emotional vitality in informal caregivers of individuals who have experienced a significant health event. The psychometric properties of responses to selected items from validated health-related quality of life and other psychosocial questionnaires administered four times over a one-year period were evaluated using Rasch Measurement Theory. Community. A total of 409 individuals providing informal care at home to older adults who had experienced a recent stroke. Rasch Measurement Theory was used to test the ordering of response option thresholds, fit, spread of the item locations, residual correlations, person separation index, and stability across time. Based on a theoretical framework developed in earlier work, we identified 22 candidate items from a pool of relevant psychosocial measures available. Of these, additional evaluation resulted in 19 items that could be used to assess the five core domains. The overall model fit was reasonable (χ(2) = 202.26, DF = 117, p = 0.06), stable across time, with borderline evidence of multidimensionality (10%). Items and people covered a continuum ranging from -3.7 to +2.7 logits, reflecting coverage of the measurement continuum, with a person separation index of 0.85. Mean fit of caregivers was lower than expected (-1.31 ±1.10 logits). Established methods from the Rasch Measurement Theory were applied to develop a prototype measure of emotional vitality that is acceptable, reliable, and can be used to obtain an interval level score for use in future research and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A Rasch Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument: Identifying Race and Gender Differential Item Functioning among Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; MacIntosh, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The juvenile justice system needs a tool that can identify and assess mental health problems among youths quickly with validity and reliability. The goal of this article is to evaluate the racial/ethnic and gender differential item functioning (DIF) of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) using the Rasch Model.…

  19. Morphological changes in the cervical intervertebral foramen dimensions with unilateral facet joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Ebraheim, Nabil A; Liu, Jiayong; Ramineni, Satheesh K; Liu, Xiaochen; Xie, Joe; Hartman, Ryan G; Goel, Vijay K

    2009-11-01

    Many investigators have conducted studies to determine the biomechanics, causes, complications and treatment of unilateral facet joint dislocation in the cervical spine. However, there is no quantitative data available on morphological changes in the intervertebral foramen of the cervical spine following unilateral facet joint dislocation. These data are important to understand the cause of neurological compromise following unilateral facet joint dislocation. Eight embalmed human cadaver cervical spine specimens ranging from level C1-T1 were used. The nerve roots of these specimens at C5-C6 level were marked by wrapping a 0.12mm diameter wire around them. Unilateral facet dislocation at C5-C6 level was simulated by serially sectioning the corresponding ligamentous structures. A CT scan of the specimens was obtained before and after the dislocation was simulated. A sagittal plane through the centre of the pedicle and facet joint was constructed and used for measurement. The height and area of the intervertebral foramen, the facet joint space, nerve root diameter and area, and vertebral alignment both before and after dislocation were evaluated. The intervertebral foramen area changed from 50.72+/-0.88mm(2) to 67.82+/-4.77mm(2) on the non-dislocated side and from 41.39+/-1.11mm(2) to 113.77+/-5.65mm(2) on the dislocated side. The foraminal heights changed from 9.02+/-0.30mm to 10.52+/-0.50mm on the non-dislocated side and 10.43+/-0.50mm to 17.04+/-0.96mm on the dislocated side. The facet space area in the sagittal plane changed from 6.80+/-0.80mm(2) to 40.02+/-1.40mm(2) on the non-dislocated side. The C-5 anterior displacement showed a great change from 0mm to 5.40+/-0.24mm on the non-dislocated side and from 0mm to 3.42+/-0.20mm on the dislocated side. Neither of the nerve roots on either side showed a significant change in size. The lack of change in nerve root area indicates that the associated nerve injury with unilateral facet joint dislocation is probably due

  20. Superior Recess Access of the Lumbar Facet Joint.

    PubMed

    Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Singh, Sukhminder; Hanelin, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Descriptive approach to accessing the lumbar facet joint by superior recess. This study is aimed to describe an approach to accessing the lumbar facet joint through targeting the superior recess during lumbar facet joint injections. Lumbar facet joint injections are routinely performed for both the diagnosis and treatment of chronic low back pain. Previous studies either did not specify which part of the joint to target, or recommended targeting the inferior aspect of the joint to access the inferior recess. One study did mention the superior recess as an alternative to injecting the inferior recess, but none has focused on description of the technique. This is the first time this technique has been described. The records and fluoroscopic images were reviewed for all patients over a period of 9 months (January-September 2012) using the proposed technique. This resulted in a total of 48 patients; 15 men, 29 women, and a total of 117 facet joint intra-articular injections. Among these 48 patients, injections were repeated in total of 4 cases. The average time of injections among 4 repeat cases was 121 days. The success of the procedure was confirmed with an arthrogram demonstrating contrast flowing from the superior recess inferiorly through the joint space. Successful access of the lumbar facet joint through puncture of the superior recess was seen in 114 cases, with 3 unsuccessful attempts to enter facet joints due to osteophytes at involved levels. There were no complications observed during the procedure. We find this approach to be highly successful, safe, and well tolerated by the patient and recommend it as a technique for access of the lumbar facet joint in those patients in whom direct puncture of the inferior recess is difficult.

  1. A new look at the WHOQOL as health-related quality of life instrument among visually impaired people using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Srinivas, Marmamula; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-05-01

    To examine the psychometric characteristics of the World Health Organization quality of life instrument-modified Indian version (modified WHOQOL) and its subscales in adults with visual impairment (VI) using Rasch analysis. Cross-sectional data were of people aged ≥40 years with VI (n = 1,333) who responded to the modified WHOQOL in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, India. Rasch analysis was used to explore the instrument and its subscales for key indices such as measurement precision by person separation reliability, PSR (i.e., discrimination between strata of participants' health-related QOL [HRQOL], recommended minimum value 0.8), unidimensionality (i.e., measurement of a single construct), and targeting (i.e., matching of item difficulty to participants' HRQOL). Rasch-guided iterative approach including category re-organization to enable threshold ordering and item deletion to overcome multidimensionality resulted in a unidimensional 9-item WHOQOL and a 6-item level of independence (LOI) subscale with adequate PSR (0.81 and 0.82, respectively). Targeting was sub-optimal for both (-1.58 logits for WHOQOL and -2.55 logits for the subscale). Remaining subscales were dysfunctional. The WHOQOL and LOI subscale can be improved and shortened, and the Rasch-revised versions are likely to assess the HROQL of VI patients best because of their brevity, reliability, and unidimensionality.

  2. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Morphology of {101} and {001} Faceted Anatase TiO 2 Nanocrystals and Its Implication on Photocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jue; Olds, Daniel; Peng, Rui

    The atomistic structure and morphology (shape and size) of nanomaterials have strong influences on their physical and chemical properties. However, many characterization techniques focus exclusively on one length-scale regime or another when developing quantitative morphology/structural models. In this article, we demonstrate that powder X-ray diffraction and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) can be used to obtain accurate average morphology and atomistic structure of {001} and {101} faceted anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals based on differential evolution refinements using Debye scattering equation calculations. It is also demonstrated that the morphology polydispersity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be effectively obtained from the diffractionmore » data via a numerical refinement routine. The morphology refinement results are in good agreement with those from transmission electron microscopy and the modeling of small angle neutron scattering data. This method is successfully used to quantify the facet-specified photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals with different {001} to {101} ratios. It is found that the sample with an intermediate amount of both {001} and {101} facets shows the best photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. It is expected that the simultaneous structure and morphology refinement technique can be generally used to study the relationship between morphology and functionality of nanomaterials.« less

  4. {1 1 1} facet growth laws and grain competition during silicon crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamelou, V.; Tsoutsouva, M. G.; Riberi-Béridot, T.; Reinhart, G.; Regula, G.; Baruchel, J.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.

    2017-12-01

    Directional solidification from mono-crystalline Si seeds having different orientations along the growth direction is studied. Due to the frequent twinning phenomenon, new grains soon nucleate during growth. The grain competition is then characterized in situ by imaging the dynamic evolution of the grain boundaries and of the corresponding grain boundary grooves that are formed at the solid-liquid interface. To perform this study, an experimental investigation based on Bridgman solidification technique coupled with in situ X-ray imaging is conducted in an original device: GaTSBI (Growth at high Temperature observed by X-ray Synchrotron Beam Imaging). Imaging characterisation techniques using X-ray synchrotron radiation at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France) are applied during the solidification to study the growth dynamics. Facetted/facetted grain boundary grooves only are studied due to their importance in the grain competition because of their implication in the twinning mechanism. The maximum undercooling inside the groove is calculated from the groove depth knowing the local temperature gradient. Additionally, thanks to dynamic X-ray images, the global solid-liquid interface growth rate and the normal growth rate of the {1 1 1} facets existing at the grooves and at the edges are measured. From these measurements, experimental growth laws that correlate the normal velocity of the {1 1 1} facets with the maximum undercooling of the groove are extracted and compared to existing theoretical models. Finally, the experimental laws found for the contribution to the undercooling of the {1 1 1} facets are in good agreement with the theoretical model implying nucleation and growth eased by the presence of dislocations. Moreover, it is shown that, for the same growth parameters, the undercooling at the level of the facets (always lower than 1 K) is higher at the edges so that there is a higher probability of twin nucleation at the edges which

  5. Surgical Tips to Preserve the Facet Joint during Microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man-Kyu; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar microdiscectomy (MD) is the gold standard for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Generally, the surgeon attempts to protect the facet joint in hopes of avoiding postoperative pain/instability and secondary degenerative arthropathy. We believe that preserving the facet joint is especially important in young patients, owing to their life expectancy and activity. However, preserving the facet joint is not easy during lumbar MD. We propose several technical tips (superolateral extension of conventional laminotomy, oblique drilling for laminotomy, and additional foraminotomy) for facet joint preservation during lumbar MD. PMID:24294466

  6. A developmental screening tool for toddlers with multiple domains based on Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Liao, Hua-Fang; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Using multidomain developmental screening tools is a feasible method for pediatric health care professionals to identify children at risk of developmental problems in multiple domains simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch-based tool for Multidimensional Screening in Child Development (MuSiC) for children aged 0-3 years. The MuSic was developed by constructing items bank based on three commonly used screening tools, validating with developmental status (at risk for delay or not) on five developmental domains. Parents of a convenient sample of 632 children (aged 3-35.5 months) with and without developmental delays responded to items from the three screening tools funded by health authorities in Taiwan. Item bank was determined by item fit of Rasch analysis for each of the five developmental domains (cognitive skills, language skills, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, and socioadaptive skills). Children's performance scores in logits derived in Rasch analysis were validated with developmental status for each domain using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. MuSiC, a 75-item developmental screening tool for five domains, was derived. The diagnostic validity of all five domains was acceptable for all stages of development, except for the infant stage (≤11 months and 15 days). MuSiC can be applied simultaneously to well-child care visits as a universal screening tool for children aged 1-3 years on multiple domains. Items with sound validity for infants need to be further developed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Lumbar facet anatomy changes in spondylolysis: a comparative skeletal study.

    PubMed

    Masharawi, Youssef; Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Alperovitch-Najenson, Dvora; Salame, Khalil; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2007-07-01

    Opinions differ as to the exact mechanism responsible for spondylolysis (SP) and whether individuals with specific morphological characteristics of the lumbar vertebral neural arch are predisposed to SP. The aim of our study was to reveal the association between SP and the architecture of lumbar articular facets and the inter-facet region. Using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA, USA), length, width and depth of all articular facets and all inter-facet distances in the lumbar spine (L1-L5) were measured. From the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, OH, USA) 120 normal male skeletons with lumbar spines in the control group and 115 with bilateral SP at L5 were selected. Analysis of variance was employed to examine the differences between spondylolytic and normal spines. Three profound differences between SP and the norm appeared: (1) in individuals with SP, the size and shape of L4's neural arch had significantly greater inter-facet widths, significantly shorter inter-facet heights and significantly shorter and narrower articular facets; (2) only in the L4 vertebra in individuals with SP was the inferior inter-facet width greater in size than the superior inter-facet width of the vertebra below (L5) (38.7 mm versus 40 mm); (3) in all lumbar vertebrae, the right inferior articular facets in individuals with SP were flatter compared to the control group. Individuals with L4 "SP" characteristics are at a greater risk of developing fatigue fractures in the form of spondylolysis at L5.

  8. Evolution of triangular topographic facets along active normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, A.; Dawers, N. H.; Gasparini, N. M.; Giachetta, E.

    2011-12-01

    Triangular shaped facets, which are generally formed by the erosion of fault - bounded mountain ranges, are arguably one of the most prominent geomorphic features on active normal fault scarps. Some previous studies of triangular facet development have suggested that facet size and slope exhibit a strong linear dependency on fault slip rate, thus linking their growth directly to the kinematics of fault initiation and linkage. Other studies, however, generally conclude that there is no variation in triangular facet geometry (height and slope) with fault slip rate. The landscape of the northeastern Basin and Range Province of the western United States provides an opportunity for addressing this problem. This is due to the presence of well developed triangular facets along active normal faults, as well as spatial variations in fault scale and slip rate. In addition, the Holocene climatic record for this region suggests a dominant tectonic regime, as the faulted landscape shows little evidence of precipitation gradients associated with tectonic uplift. Using GIS-based analyses of USGS 30 m digital elevation data (DEMs) for east - central Idaho and southwestern Montana, we analyze triangular facet geometries along fault systems of varying number of constituent segments. This approach allows us to link these geometries with established patterns of along - strike slip rate variation. For this study, we consider major watersheds to include only catchments with upstream and downstream boundaries extending from the drainage divide to the mapped fault trace, respectively. In order to maintain consistency in the selection criteria for the analyzed triangular facets, only facets bounded on opposite sides by major watersheds were considered. Our preliminary observations reflect a general along - strike increase in the surface area, average slope, and relief of triangular facets from the tips of the fault towards the center. We attribute anomalies in the along - strike geometric

  9. Logit Models for the Analysis of Two-Way Categorical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draxler, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the application of logit models for the analyses of 2-way categorical observations. The models described are generalized linear models using the logit link function. One of the models is the Rasch model (Rasch, 1960). The objective is to test hypotheses of marginal and conditional independence between explanatory quantities…

  10. A multi-factor Rasch scale for artistic judgment.

    PubMed

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    2002-01-01

    Measurement properties are reported for a combined scale of abstract and figurative artistic judgment aptitude items. Abstract items are synthetic, rule-based images from Visual Designs Test which implements a statistical algorithm to control design complexity and redundancy, and figurative items are canvas paintings in five styles, Fauvism, Post-Impressionism, Surrealism, Renaissance, and Baroque especially created for this research. The paintings integrate syntactic structure from VDT Abstract designs with thematic content for each style at four levels of complexity while controlling redundancy. Trained test administrators collected preference for synthetic abstract designs and authentic figurative art from 462 examinees in Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation testing offices in Boston, New York, Chicago, and Dallas. The Rasch model replicated measurement properties for VDT Abstract items and identified an item hierarchy that was statistically invariant between genders and generally stable across age for new, authentic figurative items. Further examination of the figurative item hierarchy revealed that complexity interacts with style and meaning. Sound measurement properties for a combined VDT Abstract and Figurative scale shows promise for a comprehensive artistic judgment construct.

  11. Three-Dimensional Hetero-Integration of Faceted GaN on Si Pillars for Efficient Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Chi Hwan; Cho, In Sun; Jang, Hanmin; Jeon, Min Soo; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2017-07-25

    An important pathway for cost-effective light energy conversion devices, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes, is to integrate III-V (e.g., GaN) materials on Si substrates. Such integration first necessitates growth of high crystalline III-V materials on Si, which has been the focus of many studies. However, the integration also requires that the final III-V/Si structure has a high light energy conversion efficiency. To accomplish these twin goals, we use single-crystalline microsized Si pillars as a seed layer to first grow faceted Si structures, which are then used for the heteroepitaxial growth of faceted GaN films. These faceted GaN films on Si have high crystallinity, and their threading dislocation density is similar to that of GaN grown on sapphire. In addition, the final faceted GaN/Si structure has great light absorption and extraction characteristics, leading to improved performance for GaN-on-Si light energy conversion devices.

  12. Rhodococcus equi: the many facets of a pathogenic actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Giguère, Steeve; Hapeshi, Alexia; MacArthur, Iain; Anastasi, Elisa; Valero-Rello, Ana

    2013-11-29

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil-dwelling pathogenic actinomycete that causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary pyogranulomatous infections in a variety of animal species and people. Young foals are particularly susceptible and develop a life-threatening pneumonic disease that is endemic at many horse-breeding farms worldwide. R. equi is a facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages that replicates within a modified phagocytic vacuole. Its pathogenicity depends on a virulence plasmid that promotes intracellular survival by preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion. Species-specific tropism of R. equi for horses, pigs and cattle appears to be determined by host-adapted virulence plasmid types. Molecular epidemiological studies of these plasmids suggest that human R. equi infection is zoonotic. Analysis of the recently determined R. equi genome sequence has identified additional virulence determinants on the bacterial chromosome. This review summarizes our current understanding of the clinical aspects, biology, pathogenesis and immunity of this fascinating microbe with plasmid-governed infectivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rasch Analysis of the 9-Item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Te; Huang, Yi-Jing; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-04-19

    Shared decision making (SDM) is a best practice to help patients make optimal decisions by a process of healthcare, especially for women diagnosed with breast cancer and having heavy burden in long-term treatments. To promote successful SDM, it is crucial to assess the level of perceived involvement in SDM in women with breast cancer. The aims of this study were to apply Rasch analysis to examine the construct validity and person reliability of the 9-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) in women with breast cancer. The construct validity of SDM-Q-9 was confirmed when the items fit the Rasch model's assumptions of unidimensionality: (1) infit and outfit mean square ranged from 0.6 to 1.4; (2) the unexplained variance of the first dimension of the principal component analysis was less than 20%. Person reliability was calculated. A total of 212 participants were recruited in this study. Item 1 did not fit the model's assumptions and was deleted. The unidimensionality of the remaining 8 items (SDM-Q-8) was supported with good item fit (infit and outfit mean square ranging from 0.6 to 1.3) and very low unexplained variance of the first dimension (5.3%) of the principal component analysis. The person reliability of the SDM-Q-8 was 0.90. The SDM-Q-8 was unidimensional and had good person reliability in women with breast cancer. The SDM-Q-8 has shown its potential for assessing the level of perceived involvement in SDM in women with breast cancer for both research and clinical purposes.

  14. Eight Key Facets of Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies eight key facets of small business management and suggests activities that may be used to assist in their development. The key facets are (1) product or service, (2) competition, (3) marketing strategies, (4) personnel needs, (5) equipment and facility needs, (6) finances, (7) planning, and (8) entrepreneurship. (JOW)

  15. Some Empirical Evidence for Latent Trait Model Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutten, Leah R.

    The results of this study suggest that for purposes of estimating ability by latent trait methods, the Rasch model compares favorably with the three-parameter logistic model. Using estimated parameters to make predictions about 25 actual number-correct score distributions with samples of 1,000 cases each, those predicted by the Rasch model fit the…

  16. Three-dimensional evaluation of the facet joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folio, Les R.

    1990-04-01

    Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging nave revolurionalized analysis of vertebral anatomy and pathology. Further advances with 3-dimensional imaging have recently become an important adjunct for diagnosis and treatment in structural abnormalities. Facets are intimately related to their surrounding musculature and malalignment may cause pain directly or indirectly. High resolution 3-dimensional reformations of CT Scans give us new insight on structure and function of facet joints, since their motion and architecture are ever complex. It is well documented in the literature that facet joint biomecnanics is a partial contributor to the myriad at causes of low back The term "facet Joint syndrome" was coined in 1933 by GhorMley.3 The osteopathic lesion complex is well defined by LeRoy and McCole and comparison of roentgenographic findings before and after manipulation has teen described by Long and Lioyd.4,5 since alterations in facet biamechanics are an important aspect of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OT), 3-dimensional hign resolution imaging will prove to be a great asset in osteopathic research. Rotating the spine allows for different viewing perspectives to provide optimal and consistent measurements of the facet joint. Rotations are performed on the X, Y and 7, axis and measurements pre and post-manipulation are performed and compared on matching axis and perspectives. Rotation about the X, Y and Z axis help appreciate the 3-dimensionality of the vertebral column to project to the viewer a feeling that the spine is floating in space before them. This does give the viewer a 3-D understanding of the object however, only at a perspective at a Lime.

  17. Accounting for standard errors of vision-specific latent trait in regression models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wan Ling; Li, Xiang; Li, Jialiang; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2014-07-11

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) approach in a modeling framework for association effects that accounts for SEs of vision-specific latent traits assessed using Rasch analysis. A systematic literature review was conducted in four major ophthalmic journals to evaluate Rasch analysis performed on vision-specific instruments. The HB approach was used to synthesize the Rasch model and multiple linear regression model for the assessment of the association effects related to vision-specific latent traits. The effectiveness of this novel HB one-stage "joint-analysis" approach allows all model parameters to be estimated simultaneously and was compared with the frequently used two-stage "separate-analysis" approach in our simulation study (Rasch analysis followed by traditional statistical analyses without adjustment for SE of latent trait). Sixty-six reviewed articles performed evaluation and validation of vision-specific instruments using Rasch analysis, and 86.4% (n = 57) performed further statistical analyses on the Rasch-scaled data using traditional statistical methods; none took into consideration SEs of the estimated Rasch-scaled scores. The two models on real data differed for effect size estimations and the identification of "independent risk factors." Simulation results showed that our proposed HB one-stage "joint-analysis" approach produces greater accuracy (average of 5-fold decrease in bias) with comparable power and precision in estimation of associations when compared with the frequently used two-stage "separate-analysis" procedure despite accounting for greater uncertainty due to the latent trait. Patient-reported data, using Rasch analysis techniques, do not take into account the SE of latent trait in association analyses. The HB one-stage "joint-analysis" is a better approach, producing accurate effect size estimations and information about the independent association of exposure variables with vision-specific latent traits

  18. Lumbar facet anatomy changes in spondylolysis: a comparative skeletal study

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Alperovitch-Najenson, Dvora; Salame, Khalil; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Opinions differ as to the exact mechanism responsible for spondylolysis (SP) and whether individuals with specific morphological characteristics of the lumbar vertebral neural arch are predisposed to SP. The aim of our study was to reveal the association between SP and the architecture of lumbar articular facets and the inter-facet region. Methods: Using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA, USA), length, width and depth of all articular facets and all inter-facet distances in the lumbar spine (L1–L5) were measured. From the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, OH, USA) 120 normal male skeletons with lumbar spines in the control group and 115 with bilateral SP at L5 were selected. Analysis of variance was employed to examine the differences between spondylolytic and normal spines. Results: Three profound differences between SP and the norm appeared: (1) in individuals with SP, the size and shape of L4’s neural arch had significantly greater inter-facet widths, significantly shorter inter-facet heights and significantly shorter and narrower articular facets; (2) only in the L4 vertebra in individuals with SP was the inferior inter-facet width greater in size than the superior inter-facet width of the vertebra below (L5) (38.7 mm versus 40 mm); (3) in all lumbar vertebrae, the right inferior articular facets in individuals with SP were flatter compared to the control group. Conclusions: Individuals with L4 “SP” characteristics are at a greater risk of developing fatigue fractures in the form of spondylolysis at L5. PMID:17440753

  19. Patterns of astragalar fibular facet orientation in extant and fossil primates and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Seiffert, Erik R

    2013-07-01

    A laterally sloping fibular facet of the astragalus (=talus) has been proposed as one of few osteological synapomorphies of strepsirrhine primates, but the feature has never been comprehensively quantified. We describe a method for calculating fibular facet orientation on digital models of astragali as the angle between the planes of the fibular facet and the lateral tibial facet. We calculated this value in a sample that includes all major extant primate clades, a diversity of Paleogene primates, and nonprimate euarchontans (n = 304). Results show that previous characterization of a divide between extant haplorhines and strepsirrhines is accurate, with little overlap even when individual data points are considered. Fibular facet orientation is conserved in extant strepsirrhines despite major differences in locomotion and body size, while extant anthropoids are more variable (e.g., low values for catarrhines relative to non-callitrichine platyrrhines). Euprimate outgroups exhibit a mosaic of character states with Cynocephalus having a more obtuse strepsirrhine-like facet and sampled treeshrews and plesiadapiforms having more acute haplorhine-like facets. Surprisingly, the earliest species of the adapiform Cantius have steep haplorhine-like facets as well. We used a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the evolution of fibular facet orientation as a continuous character across a supertree of living and extinct primates. Mean estimates for crown Primatomorpha (97.9°), Primates (99.5°), Haplorhini (98.7°), and Strepsirrhini (108.2°) support the hypothesis that the strepsirrhine condition is derived, while lower values for crown Anthropoidea (92.8°) and Catarrhini (88.9°) are derived in the opposite direction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Rasch Model Analysis of Evidence-Based Treatment Practices Used in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the extent to which criminal justice facilities and community-based agencies are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs), which EBPs are most commonly used, and how EBPs cluster together. The study used data collected from wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey (NCJTP; Taxman et al., 2007a), and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results of Rasch modeling demonstrated that a reliable measure can be formed to gauge the extent to which juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and community treatment agencies serving offenders, have adopted various treatment practices supported by research. We also demonstrated the concurrent validity of the measure by showing that features of the facilities’ organizational contexts were associated with the extent to which facilities were using EBPs, and which EBPs they were using. Researchers, clinicians, and program administrators may find these results interesting not only because they show the program factors most strongly related to EBP use, but the results also suggest that certain treatment practices are generally clustered together, which may help stakeholders plan and prioritize the adoption of new EBPs in their facilities. The study has implications for future research focused on understanding the adoption and implementation of EBPs in correctional environments. PMID:18029116

  1. Management of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Falco, Frank JE; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic validity and therapeutic value of lumbar facet joint interventions in managing chronic low back pain. METHODS: The review process applied systematic evidence-based assessment methodology of controlled trials of diagnostic validity and randomized controlled trials of therapeutic efficacy. Inclusion criteria encompassed all facet joint interventions performed in a controlled fashion. The pain relief of greater than 50% was the outcome measure for diagnostic accuracy assessment of the controlled studies with ability to perform previously painful movements, whereas, for randomized controlled therapeutic efficacy studies, the primary outcome was significant pain relief and the secondary outcome was a positive change in functional status. For the inclusion of the diagnostic controlled studies, all studies must have utilized either placebo controlled facet joint blocks or comparative local anesthetic blocks. In assessing therapeutic interventions, short-term and long-term reliefs were defined as either up to 6 mo or greater than 6 mo of relief. The literature search was extensive utilizing various types of electronic search media including PubMed from 1966 onwards, Cochrane library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, clinicaltrials.gov, along with other sources including previous systematic reviews, non-indexed journals, and abstracts until March 2015. Each manuscript included in the assessment was assessed for methodologic quality or risk of bias assessment utilizing the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist for diagnostic interventions, and Cochrane review criteria and the Interventional Pain Management Techniques - Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment tool for therapeutic interventions. Evidence based on the review of the systematic assessment of controlled studies was graded utilizing a modified schema of qualitative evidence with best evidence synthesis, variable from level I to level V

  2. Measuring heterosexual LGBT ally development: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.

  3. Faceted Visualization of Three Dimensional Neuroanatomy By Combining Ontology with Faceted Search

    PubMed Central

    Veeraraghavan, Harini; Miller, James V.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a faceted-search based approach for visualization of anatomy by combining a three dimensional digital atlas with an anatomy ontology. Specifically, our approach provides a drill-down search interface that exposes the relevant pieces of information (obtained by searching the ontology) for a user query. Hence, the user can produce visualizations starting with minimally specified queries. Furthermore, by automatically translating the user queries into the controlled terminology our approach eliminates the need for the user to use controlled terminology. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach using an abdominal atlas and the same ontology. We implemented our visualization tool on the opensource 3D Slicer software. We present results of our visualization approach by combining a modified Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology with the Surgical Planning Laboratory (SPL) Brain 3D digital atlas, and geometric models specific to patients computed using the SPL brain tumor dataset. PMID:24006207

  4. Faceted visualization of three dimensional neuroanatomy by combining ontology with faceted search.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Harini; Miller, James V

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we present a faceted-search based approach for visualization of anatomy by combining a three dimensional digital atlas with an anatomy ontology. Specifically, our approach provides a drill-down search interface that exposes the relevant pieces of information (obtained by searching the ontology) for a user query. Hence, the user can produce visualizations starting with minimally specified queries. Furthermore, by automatically translating the user queries into the controlled terminology our approach eliminates the need for the user to use controlled terminology. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach using an abdominal atlas and the same ontology. We implemented our visualization tool on the opensource 3D Slicer software. We present results of our visualization approach by combining a modified Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology with the Surgical Planning Laboratory (SPL) Brain 3D digital atlas, and geometric models specific to patients computed using the SPL brain tumor dataset.

  5. Facet joint disturbance induced by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Li, Huibo; Wang, Beiyu; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan; Song, Yueming; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective cohort study. Plated cervical laminoplasty is an increasingly common technique. A unique facet joint disturbance induced by lateral mass miniscrews penetrating articular surface was noticed. Facet joints are important to maintain cervical spine stability and kinetic balance. Whether this facet joint disturbance could affect clinical and radiologic results is still unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of patients with facet joints disturbance induced by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty. A total of 105 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty with miniplate fixation between May 2010 and February 2014 were comprised. Postoperative CT images were used to identify whether facet joints destroyed by miniscrews. According to facet joints destroyed number, all the patients were divided into: group A (none facet joint destroyed), group B (1–2 facet joints destroyed), and group C (≥3 facet joints destroyed). Clinical data (JOA, VAS, and NDI scores), radiologic data (anteroposterior diameter and Palov ratio), and complications (axial symptoms and C5 palsy) were evaluated and compared among the groups. There were 38, 40, and 27 patients in group A, B, and C, respectively. The overall facet joints destroyed rate was 30.7%. All groups gained significant JOA and NDI scores improvement postoperatively. The preoperative JOA, VAS, NDI scores, and postoperative JOA scores did not differ significantly among the groups. The group C recorded significant higher postoperative VAS scores than group A (P = 0.002) and B (P = 0.014) and had significant higher postoperative NDI scores than group A (P = 0.002). The pre- and postoperative radiologic data were not significant different among the groups. The group C had a significant higher axial symptoms incidence than group A (12/27 vs 8/38, P = 0.041). Facet joints disturbance caused by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty may not influence

  6. Identification of Genes That Interact With Drosophila liquid facets

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Suk Ho; Lea, Kristi; Overstreet, Erin; Stevens, Samuel; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Fischer, Janice A.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed mutagenesis screens of the Drosophila X chromosome and the autosomes for dominant enhancers of the rough eye resulting from overexpression of liquid facets. The liquid facets gene encodes the homolog of vertebrate endocytic Epsin, an endocytic adapter protein. In Drosophila, Liquid facets is a core component of the Notch signaling pathway required in the signaling cells for ligand endocytosis and signaling. Why ligand internalization by the signaling cells is essential for signaling is a mystery. The requirement for Liquid facets is a hint at the answer, and the genes identified in this screen provide further clues. Mutant alleles of clathrin heavy chain, Rala, split ends, and auxilin were identified as enhancers. We describe the mutant alleles and mutant phenotypes of Rala and aux. We discuss the relevance of all of these genetic interactions to the function of Liquid facets in Notch signaling. PMID:17179082

  7. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Akif; Ozkul, Baris; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Atici, Yunus; Gultekin, Muhammet Zeki; Albayrak, Merih Dilan

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men). For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years) and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years). Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005) compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective.

  8. The many facets of the (non-relativistic) Nuclear Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, G.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.

    2014-05-01

    A nucleus is a quantum many body system made of strongly interacting Fermions, protons and neutrons (nucleons). This produces a rich Nuclear Equation of State whose knowledge is crucial to our understanding of the composition and evolution of celestial objects. The nuclear equation of state displays many different features; first neutrons and protons might be treated as identical particles or nucleons, but when the differences between protons and neutrons are spelled out, we can have completely different scenarios, just by changing slightly their interactions. At zero temperature and for neutron rich matter, a quantum liquid-gas phase transition at low densities or a quark-gluon plasma at high densities might occur. Furthermore, the large binding energy of the α particle, a Boson, might also open the possibility of studying a system made of a mixture of Bosons and Fermions, which adds to the open problems of the nuclear equation of state.

  9. Developing the Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT) in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis: a cross-cultural validation study using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowski, Stanisław; Sierakowska, Justyna; Horton, Mike; Ndosi, Mwidimi

    2015-03-01

    To undertake cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the educational needs assessment tool (ENAT) for use with people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Poland. The study involved two main phases: (1) cross-cultural adaptation of the ENAT from English into Polish and (2) Cross-cultural validation of Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT). The first phase followed an established process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The second phase involved completion of the Pol-ENAT by patients and subjecting the data to Rasch analysis to assess the construct validity, unidimensionality, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance. An adequate conceptual equivalence was achieved following the adaptation process. The dataset for validation comprised a total of 278 patients, 237 (85.3 %) of which were female. In each disease group (145, RA and 133, SSc), the 7 domains of the Pol-ENAT were found to fit the Rasch model, X (2)(df) = 16.953(14), p = 0.259 and 8.132(14), p = 0.882 for RA and SSc, respectively. Internal consistency of the Pol-ENAT was high (patient separation index = 0.85 and 0.89 for SSc and RA, respectively), and unidimensionality was confirmed. Cross-cultural differential item functioning (DIF) was detected in some subscales, and DIF-adjusted conversion tables were calibrated to enable cross-cultural comparison of data between Poland and the UK. Using a standard process in cross-cultural adaptation, conceptual equivalence was achieved between the original (UK) ENAT and the adapted Pol-ENAT. Fit to the Rasch model, confirmed that the construct validity, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the ENAT have been preserved.

  10. Facets of career satisfaction for women physicians in the United States: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Rabab; Raymer, Lindsay; Kunik, Mark; Fisher, Joslyn

    2012-01-01

    Women make up a growing proportion of the physician workforce, and their career satisfaction may affect their health. The authors hypothesized that many facets adversely affecting career satisfaction in women physicians were extrinsic, therefore, preventable or modifiable. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in English published through February 2010 to examine facets of career satisfaction of U.S. women physicians. The authors used the women physician AND job satisfaction OR career satisfaction Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, and reviewed bibliographies of key articles to ensure inclusion of relevant studies. The authors used the "Strengthening the Reporting of Observation Studies in Epidemiology" quality tool. Of an initial 1,000 studies, only 30 met the inclusion criteria. Facets reported most frequently to influence career satisfaction for women physicians were income/prestige, practice characteristics, and personal/family characteristics. Overall, career satisfaction for women and men physicians was 73.4% (range = 56.4% to 90%) and 73.2% (range = 59% to 90%), respectively. When compared with men, women physicians were more concerned with perceived lack of time for relationships with patients, colleagues, and family; less satisfied with mentoring relationships and support from all sources; and less satisfied with career-advancement opportunities, recognition, and salary. Career satisfaction can affect health, as well as health and safety of patients. Many factors adversely affecting career satisfaction for women physicians are extrinsic and, therefore, modifiable.

  11. Using Rasch Analysis to Examine the Dimensionality Structure and Differential Item Functioning of the Arabic Version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Sinani, Yousra; El Shourbagi, Sahar; Fakhroo, Hessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the Rasch model technique to examine the dimensionality structure and differential item functioning of the Arabic version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children (PPASC). A sample of 220 Omani fourth graders (120 males and 100 females) responded to an Arabic translated version of the PPASC. Data on students'…

  12. Modeling the Adsorbate Coverage Distribution Over a Multi-Faceted Catalytic Grain in the Presence of an Electric Field: O/Fe from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, Jacob; Hensley, Alyssa J. R.; Collinge, Greg

    The impact of an external electric field on the concerted behavior of oxygen over a multi-faceted catalytic Fe grain is determined via the interpolation of ab initio models of oxygen adsorption on Fe(100), Fe(110), and Fe(111) in the presence of an external electric field. The application of both negative and positive electric fields weaken the adsorption strength for oxygen on all three surface facets, with Fe(110) experiencing the greatest effect. Kinetic models of a multi-faceted catalytic Fe grain show that the average oxygen coverage over the grain surface is reduced under the influence of both a negative and positive electricmore » field, which are consistent with phase diagram results at comparable pressures. Furthermore, we show that there is a weak synergistic effect between a Pd promoter and a positive electric field on the oxygen adsorption energy, i.e. the Pd promoter and electric field combination weaken the oxygen adsorption energy to a greater degree than the simple addition of both components separately. In conclusion, the work shows that the application of an applied external electric field may be a useful tool in fine-tuning chemical properties of Fe-based catalysts in hydrodeoxygenation applications.« less

  13. Modeling the Adsorbate Coverage Distribution Over a Multi-Faceted Catalytic Grain in the Presence of an Electric Field: O/Fe from First Principles

    DOE PAGES

    Bray, Jacob; Hensley, Alyssa J. R.; Collinge, Greg; ...

    2018-04-15

    The impact of an external electric field on the concerted behavior of oxygen over a multi-faceted catalytic Fe grain is determined via the interpolation of ab initio models of oxygen adsorption on Fe(100), Fe(110), and Fe(111) in the presence of an external electric field. The application of both negative and positive electric fields weaken the adsorption strength for oxygen on all three surface facets, with Fe(110) experiencing the greatest effect. Kinetic models of a multi-faceted catalytic Fe grain show that the average oxygen coverage over the grain surface is reduced under the influence of both a negative and positive electricmore » field, which are consistent with phase diagram results at comparable pressures. Furthermore, we show that there is a weak synergistic effect between a Pd promoter and a positive electric field on the oxygen adsorption energy, i.e. the Pd promoter and electric field combination weaken the oxygen adsorption energy to a greater degree than the simple addition of both components separately. In conclusion, the work shows that the application of an applied external electric field may be a useful tool in fine-tuning chemical properties of Fe-based catalysts in hydrodeoxygenation applications.« less

  14. The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem

    SciTech Connect

    Herzinger, C.M.; Lu, C.C.; DeTemple, T.A.

    1993-08-01

    The problem of the facet reflectivity of a semiconductor slab waveguide is reexamined as an extension of Ikegami's original approach but which includes radiation-like modes. The latter are included, using a guide-within-a-guide geometry, as modes bound to a thick air-cladding guide which contains the core profile of interest. In this model with a relatively simple analysis, the coupling from the fundamental mode to radiation modes can be analyzed. The cross-coupling to the radiation modes is considered in detail for the simple double heterostructure waveguide and is shown to be important only for large core-cladding index differences and for strong modalmore » confinement wherein it results in a true facet loss. The conditions for this are the same as for low threshold lasers so that the loss sets a maximum limit on the equivalent internal quantum efficiency. A separate one-dimensional finite element, numerical mode matching program, which treats evanescent and propagating radiation modes, is used as a comparison. The two methods of accounting for radiation modes are shown to be in good agreement: both predict reduced extremes in reflectivity when compared with the original Ikegami model. Modern graded core cases are treated as general examples along with the specific quantum well laser structures taken from the literature. These include II-VI and III-V structures spanning wavelengths from 0.5 [mu]m to 10.0 [mu]m.« less

  15. Optical characterization of synthetic faceted gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Taijin; Shigley, James E.

    1998-10-01

    Various non-destructive optical characterization techniques have been used to characterize and identify synthetic gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions, to include ruby, sapphire, emerald, amethyst and ametrine (amethyst-citrine), from their natural counterparts. The ability to observe internal features, such as inclusions, dislocations, twins, color bands, and growth zoning in gem materials is strongly dependent on the observation techniques and conditions, since faceted gemstones have many polished surfaces which can reflect and scatter light in various directions which can make observation difficult. However, diagnostic gemological properties of these faceted synthetic gem materials can be obtained by choosing effective optical characterization methods, and by modifying optical instruments. Examples of some of the distinctive features of synthetic amethyst, ametrine, pink quartz, ruby and emerald are presented to illustrate means of optical characterization of gemstones. The ability to observe defects by light scattering techniques is discussed.

  16. Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Xie, Jing; Rees, Gwyn; Finger, Robert P.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. Research Design & Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome) was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. Results 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation = 66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62%) male) were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (β = 1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p = 0.013); had seen an ophthalmologist (β = 1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p = 0.002), and spoke English at home (β = 1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p = 0.005) had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. Conclusions Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention development. PMID:24312484

  17. A Psychometric Investigation of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Using Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seol, Hyunsoo

    2007-01-01

    The author used Rasch measurement to examine the reliability and validity of 382 Korean university students' scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS; D. P. Crowne and D. Marlowe, 1960). Results revealed that item-fit statistics and principal component analysis with standardized residuals provide evidence of MCSDS'…

  18. Using Rasch Analysis to Evaluate the Reliability and Validity of the Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Item Response Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Schindler, Antonio; Michou, Emilia; Heijnen, Bas Joris; Baijens, Laura; Karaduman, Ayşe; Swan, Katina; Clavé, Pere; Joosten, Annette Veronica

    2018-02-01

    The Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is widely used clinically and in research to evaluate quality of life related to swallowing difficulties. It has been described as a valid and reliable tool, but was developed and tested using classic test theory. This study describes the reliability and validity of the SWAL-QOL using item response theory (IRT; Rasch analysis). SWAL-QOL data were gathered from 507 participants at risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) across four European countries. OD was confirmed in 75.7% of participants via videofluoroscopy and/or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation, or a clinical diagnosis based on meeting selected criteria. Patients with esophageal dysphagia were excluded. Data were analysed using Rasch analysis. Item and person reliability was good for all the items combined. However, person reliability was poor for 8 subscales and item reliability was poor for one subscale. Eight subscales exhibited poor person separation and two exhibited poor item separation. Overall item and person fit statistics were acceptable. However, at an individual item fit level results indicated unpredictable item responses for 28 items, and item redundancy for 10 items. The item-person dimensionality map confirmed these findings. Results from the overall Rasch model fit and Principal Component Analysis were suggestive of a second dimension. For all the items combined, none of the item categories were 'category', 'threshold' or 'step' disordered; however, all subscales demonstrated category disordered functioning. Findings suggest an urgent need to further investigate the underlying structure of the SWAL-QOL and its psychometric characteristics using IRT.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of the Morphology of {101} and {001} Faceted Anatase TiO 2 Nanocrystals and Its Implication on Photocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jue; Olds, Daniel; Peng, Rui

    The atomistic structure and morphology (shape and size) of nanomaterials have strong influences on their physical and chemical properties. However, many characterization techniques focus exclusively on one length-scale regime or another when developing quantitative morphology/structural models. In this article, we demonstrate that powder X-ray diffraction and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) can be used to obtain accurate average morphology and atomistic structure of {001} and {101} faceted anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals based on differential evolution refinements using Debye scattering equation calculations. It is also demonstrated that the morphology polydispersity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be effectively obtained from the diffractionmore » data via a numerical refinement routine. The morphology refinement results are in good agreement with those from transmission electron microscopy and the modeling of small angle neutron scattering data. This method is successfully used to quantify the facet-specified photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals with different {001} to {101} ratios. It is found that the sample with an intermediate amount of both {001} and {101} facets shows the best photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. As a result, it is expected that the simultaneous structure and morphology refinement technique can be generally used to study the relationship between morphology and functionality of nanomaterials.« less

  20. Quantitative Analysis of the Morphology of {101} and {001} Faceted Anatase TiO 2 Nanocrystals and Its Implication on Photocatalytic Activity

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jue; Olds, Daniel; Peng, Rui; ...

    2017-06-14

    The atomistic structure and morphology (shape and size) of nanomaterials have strong influences on their physical and chemical properties. However, many characterization techniques focus exclusively on one length-scale regime or another when developing quantitative morphology/structural models. In this article, we demonstrate that powder X-ray diffraction and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) can be used to obtain accurate average morphology and atomistic structure of {001} and {101} faceted anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals based on differential evolution refinements using Debye scattering equation calculations. It is also demonstrated that the morphology polydispersity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be effectively obtained from the diffractionmore » data via a numerical refinement routine. The morphology refinement results are in good agreement with those from transmission electron microscopy and the modeling of small angle neutron scattering data. This method is successfully used to quantify the facet-specified photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals with different {001} to {101} ratios. It is found that the sample with an intermediate amount of both {001} and {101} facets shows the best photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. As a result, it is expected that the simultaneous structure and morphology refinement technique can be generally used to study the relationship between morphology and functionality of nanomaterials.« less

  1. Facet orientation in the thoracolumbar spine: three-dimensional anatomic and biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Masharawi, Youssef; Rothschild, Bruce; Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Robinson, Dror; Been, Ella; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2004-08-15

    Thoracolumbar facet orientations were measured and analyzed. To establish a comprehensive database for facet orientation in the thoracolumbar vertebrae and to determine the normal human condition. Most studies on facet orientation have based their conclusions on two-dimensional measurements, in small samples or isolated vertebrae. The amount of normal asymmetry in facet orientation is poorly addressed. Transverse and longitudinal facet angles were measured directly from 240 human vertebral columns (males/females, blacks/whites). The specimens' osteologic material is part of the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection housed at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Cleveland, OH). A total of 4,080 vertebrae (T1-L5) from the vertebral columns of individuals 20 to 80 years of age were measured, using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA). Data were recorded directly on computer software. Statistical analysis included paired t tests and analysis of variance. RESULTS.: Facet orientation is independent of gender, age, and ethnic group. Asymmetry in facet orientation is found in the thorax. All thoracolumbar facets are positioned in an oblique plane. In the transverse plane, all facets from T1 to T11 are positioned with an anterior inclination of approximately 25 degrees to 30 degrees from the frontal plane. The facets of T12-L2 are oriented closer to the midsagittal plane of the vertebral body (mean range, 25.89 degrees-33.87 degrees), while the facets of L3-L5 are oriented away from that plane (mean range, 40.40 degrees-56.30 degrees). Facet transverse orientation at the thoracolumbar junction is highly variable (approximately 80% with approximately 101 degrees and approximately 20% with 35 degrees). All facets are oriented more vertically from T1 (approximately 150 degrees) to L5 (approximately 170 degrees). The facet sagittal orientations of the lumbar zygoapophyseal joints are not equivalent. CONCLUSIONS.: Asymmetry in facet

  2. Can extra-articular strains be used to measure facet contact forces in the lumbar spine? An in-vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q A; Park, Y B; Sjovold, S G; Niosi, C A; Wilson, D C; Cripton, P A; Oxland, T R

    2008-02-01

    Experimental measurement of the load-bearing patterns of the facet joints in the lumbar spine remains a challenge, thereby limiting the assessment of facet joint function under various surgical conditions and the validation of computational models. The extra-articular strain (EAS) technique, a non-invasive measurement of the contact load, has been used for unilateral facet joints but does not incorporate strain coupling, i.e. ipsilateral EASs due to forces on the contralateral facet joint. The objectives of the present study were to establish a bilateral model for facet contact force measurement using the EAS technique and to determine its effectiveness in measuring these facet joint contact forces during three-dimensional flexibility tests in the lumbar spine. Specific goals were to assess the accuracy and repeatability of the technique and to assess the effect of soft-tissue artefacts. In the accuracy and repeatability tests, ten uniaxial strain gauges were bonded to the external surface of the inferior facets of L3 of ten fresh lumbar spine specimens. Two pressure-sensitive sensors (Tekscan) were inserted into the joints after the capsules were cut. Facet contact forces were measured with the EAS and Tekscan techniques for each specimen in flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending under a +/- 7.5 N m pure moment. Four of the ten specimens were tested five times in axial rotation and extension for repeatability. These same specimens were disarticulated and known forces were applied across the facet joint using a manual probe (direct accuracy) and a materials-testing system (disarticulated accuracy). In soft-tissue artefact tests, a separate set of six lumbar spine specimens was used to document the virtual facet joint contact forces during a flexibility test following removal of the superior facet processes. Linear strain coupling was observed in all specimens. The average peak facet joint contact forces during flexibility testing was greatest in

  3. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Yampolskiy, Vladislav; Alekseev, Valerie; Son, Valentin

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  4. First experience with multiple mini interview for medical school admission in Brazil: Does it work in a different cultural scenario?

    PubMed

    Daniel-Filho, Durval Anibal; Pires, Elda Maria Stafuzza Gonçalves; Paes, Angela Tavares; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Silva, Simone Cristina Azevedo B S; Granato, Mariana Fachini; Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Barreto, Joyce Kelly Silva; Campos, Alexandre Holthausen; Monte, Julio C Martins; Schvartsman, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of non-cognitive skills never has been used in Brazil. This study aims to evaluate Multiple Mini Interviews (MMI) in the admission process of a School of Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil. The population of the study comprised 240 applicants summoned for the interviews, and 96 raters. MMI contributed to 25% of the applicants' final grade. Eight scenarios were created with the aim of evaluating different non-cognitive skills, each one had two raters. At the end of the interviews, the applicants and raters described their impressions about MMI. The reliability of the MMI was analyzed using the Theory of Generalization and Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM). The G-study showed that the general reliability of the process was satisfactory (coefficient G = 0.743). The MMI grades were not affected by the raters' profile, time of interview (p = 0.715), and randomization group (p = 0.353). The Rasch analysis showed that there was no misfitting effects or inconsistent stations or raters. A significant majority of the applicants (98%) and all the raters believed MMIs were important in selecting students with a more adequate profile to study medicine. The general reliability of the selection process was excellent, and it was fully accepted by the applicants and raters.

  5. LOFAR facet callibration

    DOE PAGES

    Weeren, R. J. van; Williams, W. L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; ...

    2016-03-07

    LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array, is a powerful new radio telescope operating between 10 and 240 MHz. LOFAR allows detailed sensitive high-resolution studies of the low-frequency radio sky. At the same time LOFAR also provides excellent short baseline coverage to map di use extended emission. However, producing high-quality deep images is challenging due to the presence of direction dependent calibration errors, caused by imperfect knowledge of the station beam shapes and the ionosphere. Furthermore, the large data volume and presence of station clock errors present additional di culties. In this paper we present a new calibration scheme, which we name facetmore » calibration, to obtain deep high-resolution LOFAR High Band Antenna images using the Dutch part of the array. This scheme solves and corrects the direction dependent errors in a number of facets that cover the observed eld of view. Facet calibration provides close to thermal noise limited images for a typical 8 hr observing run at ~5'' resolution, meeting the speci cations of the LOFAR Tier-1 northern survey.« less

  6. Localized cervical facet joint kinematics under physiological and whiplash loading.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Pintar, Frank A

    2005-12-01

    Although facet joints have been implicated in the whiplash injury mechanism, no investigators have determined the degree to which joint motions in whiplash are nonphysiological. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the correlation between facet joint and segmental motions under physiological and whiplash loading. Human cadaveric cervical spine specimens were exercise tested under physiological extension loading, and intact human head-neck complexes were exercise tested under whiplash loading to correlate the localized component motions of the C4-5 facet joint with segmental extension. Facet joint shear and distraction kinematics demonstrated a linear correlation with segmental extension under both loading modes. Facet joints responded differently to whiplash and physiological loading, with significantly increased kinematics for the same-segmental angulation. The limitations of this study include removal of superficial musculature and the limited sample size for physiological testing. The presence of increased facet joint motions indicated that synovial joint soft-tissue components (that is, synovial membrane and capsular ligament) sustain increased distortion that may subject these tissues to a greater likelihood of injury. This finding is supported by clinical investigations in which lower cervical facet joint injury resulted in similar pain patterns due to the most commonly reported whiplash symptoms.

  7. Biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of equine cervical facet joint cartilage.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S A; White, J L; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2018-04-15

    The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of this tissue. Descriptive cadaver studies. A total of 132 facet joint surfaces were harvested from the cervical spines of six skeletally mature horses (11 surfaces per animal) for compiling biomechanical and biochemical properties of hyaline cartilage of the equine cervical facet joints. Gross morphometric measurements and histological staining were performed on facet joint cartilage. Creep indentation and uniaxial strain-to-failure testing were used to determine the biomechanical compressive and tensile properties. Biochemical assays included quantification of total collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA content. The facet joint surfaces were ovoid in shape with a flat articular surface. Histological analyses highlighted structures akin to articular cartilage of other synovial joints. In general, biomechanical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between the inferior and superior joint surfaces as well as among spinal levels. Interestingly, compressive and tensile properties of cervical facet articular cartilage were lower than those of articular cartilage from other previously characterised equine joints. Removal of the superficial zone reduced the tissue's tensile strength, suggesting that this zone is important for the tensile integrity of the tissue. Facet surfaces were sampled at a single, central location and do not capture the potential topographic variation in cartilage properties. This

  8. The Cool and Belkin Faceted Classification of Information Interactions Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The complexity of human information activity is a challenge for both practice and research in information sciences and information management. Literature presents a wealth of approaches to analytically structure and make sense of human information activity including a faceted classification model of information interactions published…

  9. Kinematic and fatigue biomechanics of an interpositional facet arthroplasty device.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Michael C; Freeman, Andrew L

    2016-04-01

    Although approximately 30% of chronic lumbar pain can be attributed to the facets, limited surgical options exist for patients. Interpositional facet arthroplasty (IFA) is a novel treatment for lumbar facetogenic pain designed to provide patients who gain insufficient relief from medical interventional treatment options with long-term relief, filling a void in the facet pain treatment continuum. This study aimed to quantify the effect of IFA on segmental range of motion (ROM) compared with the intact state, and to observe device position and condition after 10,000 cycles of worst-case loading. In situ biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine following implantation of a novel IFA device was carried out. Twelve cadaveric functional spinal units (L2-L3 and L5-S1) were tested in 7.5 Nm flexion-extension, lateral bending, and torsion while intact and following device implantation. Additionally, specimens underwent 10,000 cycles of worst-case complex loading and were testing in ROM again. Load-displacement and fluoroscopic data were analyzed to determine ROM and to evaluate device position during cyclic testing. Devices and facets were evaluated post testing. Institutional support for implant evaluation was received by Zyga Technology. Range of motion post implantation decreased versus intact, and then was restored post cyclic-testing. Of the tested devices, 6.5% displayed slight movement (0.5-2 mm), all from tight L2-L3 facet joints with misplaced devices or insufficient cartilage. No damage was observed on the devices, and wear patterns were primarily linear. The results from this in situ cadaveric biomechanics and cyclic fatigue study demonstrate that a low-profile, conformable IFA device can maintain position and facet functionality post implantation and through 10,000 complex loading cycles. In vivo conditions were not accounted for in this model, which may affect implant behavior not predictable via a biomechanical study. However, these data along with

  10. An Examination of Pay Facets and Referent Groups for Assessing Pay Satisfaction of Male Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…

  11. Construct Validity of the Spanish Versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form and Condensed Form: Rasch Analysis of Responses in Oncology Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Ramos, Inés; Llamas-Ramos, Rocío; Buz, José; Cortés-Rodríguez, María; Martín-Nogueras, Ana María

    2018-06-01

    The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) is a self-rating instrument for the assessment of symptom distress in cancer patients. The Spanish version of the MSAS has recently been validated. However, we lack evidence of the internal construct validity of the shorter versions (short form [MSAS-SF] and condensed form [CMSAS]). In addition, rigorous testing of these scales with modern psychometric methods is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal construct validity and reliability of the Spanish versions of the MSAS-SF and CMSAS in oncology outpatients using Rasch analysis. Data from a convenience sample of oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy (n = 306; mean age 60 years; 63% women) at a university hospital were analyzed. The Rasch unidimensional measurement model was used to examine response category functioning, item hierarchy, targeting, unidimensionality, reliability, and differential item functioning by age, gender, and marital status. The response category structure of the symptom distress items was improved by collapsing two categories. The scales were adequately targeted to the study patients, showed overall Rasch model fit (mean Infit MnSq ranged from 0.98 to 1.05), met criteria for unidimensionality, and the reliability of scores was good (person reliability > 0.80), except for the CMSAS prevalence scale. Only four items showed differential item functioning. The present study demonstrated that the Spanish versions of the MSAS-SF and CMSAS have adequate psychometric properties to evaluate symptom distress in oncology outpatients. Additional studies of the CMSAS are recommended. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Successful Transition for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubberly, Russell G.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the multi-faceted, dynamic instructional model implemented to increase positive transition outcomes for high school students with intellectual disabilities. This report is based on the programmatic methods implemented within a secondary-level school in an urban setting. This pedagogical model facilitates the use of…

  13. Historical Views of Invariance: Evidence from the Measurement Theories of Thorndike, Thurstone, and Rasch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective is provided of the concept of invariance in measurement theory, describing sample-invariant item calibration and item-invariant measurement of individuals. Invariance as a key measurement concept is illustrated through the measurement theories of E. L. Thorndike, L. L. Thurstone, and G. Rasch. (SLD)

  14. Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

    PubMed

    Oldring, P K T; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J; Vints, M; Mehegan, J; Dequatre, C; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys.

  15. Cervical facet oedema: prevalence, correlation to symptoms, and follow-up imaging.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, M T; Foran, P J; Roedl, J B; Zoga, A C; Morrison, W B

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of cervical facet oedema in patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neck pain and/or radiculopathy, and to investigate whether there is a correlation between the presence of oedema and patients' symptoms. A retrospective report review of 1885 patients undergoing cervical spine MRI between July 2008 and June 2015 was performed. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, surgery, neoplastic disease, or infection in the cervical spine. One hundred and seventy-three MRI studies with cervical facet oedema were evaluated by each of the two radiologists. In these patients, the grade of bone marrow oedema (BMO) and corresponding neuroforaminal narrowing at the cervical facets was assessed. Correlation with symptoms was performed based on pre-MRI questionnaire. The prevalence of cervical facet oedema was 9%; the most commonly affected levels were C3-4, C4-5, and C2-3. A total of 202 cervical facets were evaluated: mild BMO was seen in 35%, moderate in 41%, and severe in 24% of cases. Surrounding soft-tissue oedema was observed in 36%, 69%, and 92% of the BMO grades, respectively. The correlations between unilateral radiculopathy and ipsilateral facet BMO grades were 79%, 83%, and 73% (chi-square, p<0.001), respectively. Furthermore, neuroforaminal narrowing on the corresponding level was found in 35%, 38%, and 11% of cases, respectively. At follow-up imaging, facet oedema was most likely to remain unchanged or to decrease. The prevalence of cervical facet oedema is 9%. Cervical facet oedema is associated with ipsilateral radiculopathy. Neuroforaminal narrowing, however, is not associated with facet oedema. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical-geometric optics method for large size faceted particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingqiang; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-10-02

    A new physical-geometric optics method is developed to compute the single-scattering properties of faceted particles. It incorporates a general absorption vector to accurately account for inhomogeneous wave effects, and subsequently yields the relevant analytical formulas effective and computationally efficient for absorptive scattering particles. A bundle of rays incident on a certain facet can be traced as a single beam. For a beam incident on multiple facets, a systematic beam-splitting technique based on computer graphics is used to split the original beam into several sub-beams so that each sub-beam is incident only on an individual facet. The new beam-splitting technique significantly reduces the computational burden. The present physical-geometric optics method can be generalized to arbitrary faceted particles with either convex or concave shapes and with a homogeneous or an inhomogeneous (e.g., a particle with a core) composition. The single-scattering properties of irregular convex homogeneous and inhomogeneous hexahedra are simulated and compared to their counterparts from two other methods including a numerically rigorous method.

  17. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  18. Rasch analysis of three dry eye questionnaires and correlates with objective clinical tests.

    PubMed

    McAlinden, Colm; Gao, Rongrong; Wang, Qinmei; Zhu, Senmiao; Yang, Jing; Yu, Ayong; Bron, Anthony J; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-04-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of Chinese versions of the Ocular Comfort Index (OCI), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies questionnaires. Further, to assess the correlation between questionnaire scores and objective dry eye disease (DED) clinical tests. Translated versions of the OCI, OSDI and McMonnies questionnaires were completed in a random order by 238 participants with DED. Objective clinical tests included visual acuity (VA), fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I testing and meibomian gland grading. Rasch analysis was used to assess questionnaire psychometrics and spearman rank for correlations. For the OCI, the person separation was 2.31, item infit and outfit statistics ranged from 0.74-1.14 and 0.75-1.32, respectively, and targeting 1.54 logits. For the OSDI, person separation was 0.94. None of the three subscales provided valid measurements based on Rasch analysis. For the McMonnies questionnaire, person separation was 1.17, item infit and outfit statistics ranged from 0.7 to 1.21 and 0.51-3.49, respectively. There were weak correlations between questionnaire scores and clinical tests. There were weak correlations between OSDI scores and VA, fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing and corneal fluorescein staining. There were weak correlations between McMonnies scores and VA, fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing, and corneal fluorescein staining and meibomian gland grading. The OCI questionnaire was the only questionnaire that provided valid measurement on the basis of Rasch analysis, although slight multidimensionality was found. There were weak correlations between OCI scores and fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing, and corneal fluorescein staining. Due to this paradoxical disconnect between symptoms and signs and the repeatability of tests, the use of both subjective and objective markers in the clinical management of patients or as endpoints in clinical trials would appear prudent

  19. Thorndike, Thurstone and Rasch: A Comparison of Their Approaches to Item-Invariant Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehard, George, Jr.

    The methods used by E. L. Thorndike, L. L. Thurstone, and G. Rasch to address issues related to item-invariant measurement and the scoring of individual performance are compared. The analyses highlight the close connection among the three methods, and suggest that progress in measurement theory reflects the movement from essentially ad hoc methods…

  20. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationships Between the Five-Factor Model and DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders: A Facet Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research have suggested that the personality disorders contained within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) can be understood as maladaptive variants of the personality traits included within the five-factor model (FFM). The current meta-analysis of FFM personality disorder research both replicated and extended the 2004 work of Saulsman and Page (The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1055-1085) through a facet-level analysis that provides a more specific and nuanced description of each DSM-IV-TR personality disorder. The empirical FFM profiles generated for each personality disorder were generally congruent at the facet level with hypothesized FFM translations of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders. However, notable exceptions to the hypotheses did occur and even some findings that were consistent with FFM theory could be said to be instrument specific. PMID:18708274