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Sample records for mapping alteration caused

  1. Interferon-Gamma Increases Endothelial Permeability by Causing Activation of p38 MAP Kinase and Actin Cytoskeleton Alteration.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Theng; Fong, Lai Yen; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Yong, Yoke Keong; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2015-07-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is known to potentiate the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis. IFN-γ has been found to disrupt the barrier integrity of epithelial and endothelial cell both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms of IFN-γ underlying increased endothelial cell permeability have not been extensively elucidated. We reported that IFN-γ exhibits a biphasic nature in increasing endothelial permeability. The changes observed in the first phase (4-8 h) involve cell retraction and rounding in addition to condensed peripheral F-actin without a significant change in the F-/G-actin ratio. However, cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and an increased F-/G-actin ratio were noticed in the second phase (16-24 h). Consistent with our finding from the permeability assay, IFN-γ induced the formation of intercellular gaps in both phases. A delayed phase of increased permeability was observed at 12 h, which paralleled the onset of cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and increased F-/G-actin ratio. In addition, IFN-γ stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation over a 24 h period. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 prevented increases in paracellular permeability, actin rearrangement, and increases in the F-/G-actin ratio caused by IFN-γ. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase is activated in response to IFN-γ and causes actin rearrangement and altered cell morphology, which in turn mediates endothelial cell hyperpermeability. The F-/G-actin ratio might be involved in the regulation of actin distribution and cell morphology rather than the increased permeability induced by IFN-γ.

  2. Mutations in MAP3K7 that Alter the Activity of the TAK1 Signaling Complex Cause Frontometaphyseal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Wade, Emma M; Daniel, Philip B; Jenkins, Zandra A; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Leo, Paul; Morgan, Tim; Addor, Marie Claude; Adès, Lesley C; Bertola, Debora; Bohring, Axel; Carter, Erin; Cho, Tae-Joon; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Fletcher, Elaine; Kim, Chong A; Krakow, Deborah; Morava, Eva; Neuhann, Teresa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Veenstra-Knol, Irma; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wilson, Louise C; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Strom, Tim M; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Brown, Matthew A; Duncan, Emma L; Markie, David M; Robertson, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia affecting the long bones and skull. The cause of FMD in some individuals is gain-of-function mutations in FLNA, although how these mutations result in a hyperostotic phenotype remains unknown. Approximately one half of individuals with FMD have no identified mutation in FLNA and are phenotypically very similar to individuals with FLNA mutations, except for an increased tendency to form keloid scars. Using whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing in 19 FMD-affected individuals with no identifiable FLNA mutation, we identified mutations in two genes-MAP3K7, encoding transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase (TAK1), and TAB2, encoding TAK1-associated binding protein 2 (TAB2). Four mutations were found in MAP3K7, including one highly recurrent (n = 15) de novo mutation (c.1454C>T [ p.Pro485Leu]) proximal to the coiled-coil domain of TAK1 and three missense mutations affecting the kinase domain (c.208G>C [p.Glu70Gln], c.299T>A [p.Val100Glu], and c.502G>C [p.Gly168Arg]). Notably, the subjects with the latter three mutations had a milder FMD phenotype. An additional de novo mutation was found in TAB2 (c.1705G>A, p.Glu569Lys). The recurrent mutation does not destabilize TAK1, or impair its ability to homodimerize or bind TAB2, but it does increase TAK1 autophosphorylation and alter the activity of more than one signaling pathway regulated by the TAK1 kinase complex. These findings show that dysregulation of the TAK1 complex produces a close phenocopy of FMD caused by FLNA mutations. Furthermore, they suggest that the pathogenesis of some of the filaminopathies caused by FLNA mutations might be mediated by misregulation of signaling coordinated through the TAK1 signaling complex. PMID:27426733

  3. Mapping Alteration Caused by Hydrocarbon Microseepages in Patrick Draw area Southwest Wyoming Using Image Spectroscopy and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Shuhab D. Khan

    2008-06-21

    Detection of underlying reservoir accumulations using remote sensing techniques had its inception with the identification of macroseeps. However, today we find ourselves relying on the detection of more subtle characteristics associated with petroleum reservoirs, such as microseeps. Microseepages are the result of vertical movement of light hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the surface through networks of fractures, faults, and bedding planes that provide permeable routes within the overlying rock. Microseepages express themselves at the surface in an array of alterations and anomalies, such as chemical or mineralogical changes in overlying soils and sediments. Using NASA's Hyperion hyperspectral imaging sensors, this project has developed spectral and geochemical ground truthing techniques to identify and map alterations caused by hydrocarbon microseepages and to determine their relationships to the underlying geology in the Patrick Draw area of Southwest Wyoming. Training the classification of satellite imagery with spectral inputs of samples collected over previously defined areas of hydrocarbon microseepage resulted in the successful identification of an anomalous zone. Geochemical characteristics of samples that defined this anomalous zone were then compared to the remaining non-anomalous samples using XRD, ICP, spectroscopy and carbon isotope techniques.

  4. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemia causing relapsing altered mental status

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwada, Binod; Holbrook, Christopher; Ekeh, Ifeoma Sylvia; Uzoka, Chukwuemeka; Ikwu, Isaac; Upadhyay, Bishwas

    2015-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a recognized cause of encephalopathy. However, it is commonly seen in patients with liver disease. The clinical entity of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia is now being increasingly recognized. We report a man who presented to our hospital with relapsing altered mental status later diagnosed as noncirrhotic hyperammonemia. PMID:26424945

  5. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  6. Predicting Behavior from Cognitive Cause Maps of a Work Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komocar, John

    Cognitive cause maps permit a topological investigation of the complexity of organizational events and behaviors. Because cognitive cause maps are believed to be ordered according to a givens-means-ends schema, they contain information about an individual's motivation structure. In a work setting an individual engages in several different acts.…

  7. Alteration mapping at Goldfield, Nevada, by cluster and discriminant analysis of Landsat digital data. [mapping of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballew, G.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of Landsat multispectral digital data to differentiate among 62 combinations of rock and alteration types at the Goldfield mining district of Western Nevada was investigated by using statistical techniques of cluster and discriminant analysis. Multivariate discriminant analysis was not effective in classifying each of the 62 groups, with classification results essentially the same whether data of four channels alone or combined with six ratios of channels were used. Bivariate plots of group means revealed a cluster of three groups including mill tailings, basalt and all other rock and alteration types. Automatic hierarchical clustering based on the fourth dimensional Mahalanobis distance between group means of 30 groups having five or more samples was performed using Johnson's HICLUS program. The results of the cluster analysis revealed hierarchies of mill tailings vs. natural materials, basalt vs. non-basalt, highly reflectant rocks vs. other rocks and exclusively unaltered rocks vs. predominantly altered rocks. The hierarchies were used to determine the order in which sets of multiple discriminant analyses were to be performed and the resulting discriminant functions were used to produce a map of geology and alteration which has an overall accuracy of 70 percent for discriminating exclusively altered rocks from predominantly altered rocks.

  8. Altering spatial priority maps via reward-based learning.

    PubMed

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Eštočinová, Jana; Calletti, Riccardo; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Sani, Ilaria; Della Libera, Chiara; Santandrea, Elisa

    2014-06-18

    Spatial priority maps are real-time representations of the behavioral salience of locations in the visual field, resulting from the combined influence of stimulus driven activity and top-down signals related to the current goals of the individual. They arbitrate which of a number of (potential) targets in the visual scene will win the competition for attentional resources. As a result, deployment of visual attention to a specific spatial location is determined by the current peak of activation (corresponding to the highest behavioral salience) across the map. Here we report a behavioral study performed on healthy human volunteers, where we demonstrate that spatial priority maps can be shaped via reward-based learning, reflecting long-lasting alterations (biases) in the behavioral salience of specific spatial locations. These biases exert an especially strong influence on performance under conditions where multiple potential targets compete for selection, conferring competitive advantage to targets presented in spatial locations associated with greater reward during learning relative to targets presented in locations associated with lesser reward. Such acquired biases of spatial attention are persistent, are nonstrategic in nature, and generalize across stimuli and task contexts. These results suggest that reward-based attentional learning can induce plastic changes in spatial priority maps, endowing these representations with the "intelligent" capacity to learn from experience.

  9. Alteration of Conserved Alternative Splicing in AMELX Causes Enamel Defects

    PubMed Central

    Cho, E.S.; Kim, K.-J.; Lee, K.-E.; Lee, E.-J.; Yun, C.Y.; Lee, M.-J.; Shin, T.J.; Hyun, H.-K.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Jung, H.-S.; Lee, Z.H.; Kim, J.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Enamel crystal formation and elongation should be well controlled to achieve an exceptional hardness and a compact microstructure. Enamel matrix calcification occurs with several matrix proteins, such as amelogenin, enamelin, and ameloblastin. Among them, amelogenin is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, and multiple isoforms resulting from extensive but well-conserved alternative splicing and postsecretional processing have been identified. In this report, we recruited a family with a unique enamel defect and identified a silent mutation in exon 4 of the AMELX gene. We show that the mutation caused the inclusion of exon 4, which is almost always skipped, in the mRNA transcript. We further show, by generating and characterizing a transgenic animal model, that the alteration of the ratio and quantity of the developmentally conserved alternative splicing repertoire of AMELX caused defects in enamel matrix mineralization. PMID:25117480

  10. Ultrastructural alterations during embryonic rats' lung development caused by ozone.

    PubMed

    López, Irma; Sánchez, Ivonne; Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Ustarroz, Martha; Fortoul, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing agent that acts on phospholipids, proteins and sugars of cellular membranes producing free radicals, which cause oxidative damages. The O3 exposure has been used as a model to study oxidative stress, in which the respiratory airways represent the entrance to the organism. In this study, ultrastructural alterations were identified at the bronchiolar level during the intra-uterine lung development, using an O3 exposure model in pregnant rats during 18, 20 and 21 days of gestation. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats, six controls and six exposed to 1 ppm O3 inhalation during 12 h per day, were used. The rats were sacrificed at gestational days 18, 20 and 21; the fetuses were obtained and their lungs dissected. The ultrastructural analysis evidenced swollen mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial cells and structural disorder caused by the oxidative stress. At gestation day 20, flake-off epithelial cells and laminar bodies in the bronchiolar lumen were observed. In the 21-gestation-day group, the mitochondria were edematous and their cristae were disrupted by the damage caused in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:18083976

  11. Altered PLP1 splicing causes hypomyelination of early myelinating structures

    PubMed Central

    Kevelam, Sietske H; Taube, Jennifer R; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Bertini, Enrico; Sperle, Karen; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tonduti, Davide; Valente, Enza Maria; Travaglini, Lorena; Sistermans, Erik A; Bernard, Geneviève; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Østergaard, John R; Friederich, Richard L; Fawzi Elsaid, Mahmoud; Schieving, Jolanda H; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Orcesi, Simona; Steenweg, Marjan E; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Abbink, Truus E M; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Hobson, Grace M; Wolf, Nicole I

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic etiology of the X-linked disorder “Hypomyelination of Early Myelinating Structures” (HEMS). Methods We included 16 patients from 10 families diagnosed with HEMS by brain MRI criteria. Exome sequencing was used to search for causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients’ fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs. Results All patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in regulating PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing. Splicing studies in fibroblasts and transfected cells confirmed a decreased PLP1/DM20 ratio. Interpretation Brain structures that normally myelinate early are poorly myelinated in HEMS, while they are the best myelinated structures in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, also caused by PLP1 alterations. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum of PLP1-related disorders indicating that normal PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing is essential for early myelination and support the need to include intron 3 in diagnostic sequencing. PMID:26125040

  12. Altered cupular mechanics: a cause of peripheral vestibular disorders?

    PubMed

    Helling, Kai; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Jijiwa, Hiroyasu; Mizuno, Yoshio; Watanabe, Satoru; Scherer, Hans

    2002-06-01

    It has taken many decades to arrive at today's concept of cupula mechanics in the stimulation of endolymphatic flows on the hair cells in the ampullae of the semicircular canal. While Steinhausen assumed free swing-door movement of the cupula in the 1930s, Hillman was the first to demonstrate firm cupula attachment to the ampulla wall as a physiological necessity in the 1970s. In contrast to the present clinical concepts of acute peripheral vestibular functional disorders (circulatory disturbances, viral or bacterial infection, altered electrolytes in the endolymph), this study examines the extent to which an impaired attachment mechanism can trigger peripheral vestibular disorders. For this purpose, we used a pigeon model (n = 8), in which mechanical detachment of the cupula from the ampulla wall was achieved by means of a targeted pressure increase in the ampulla of the lateral semicircular canal. In two additional animals the labyrinth was completely destroyed on one side in order to directly compare partial and complete vestibular disorders. In this way partial damage to the lateral semicircular canal ampulla presents a clinical picture whose symptoms are very similar to those of an idiopathic vestibular disorder in humans. Their intensity and course of compensation differ markedly from the symptoms of complete vestibular destruction. Subsequent histological examination revealed that the hair cells remained intact during the experimental detachment of the cupula. Our results thus show that only altered cupula mechanics seem to trigger the clinical picture of a peripheral vestibular disorder. This may result in completely new approaches to differential diagnosis and the therapy of vestibular neuronitis.

  13. Misexpression screen for genes altering the olfactory map in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Weiguang; Yin, Chong; Chen, Weitao; Ozawa, Rie; Ang, Lay-Hong; Anandan, Lavanya; Aigaki, Toshiro; Hing, Huey

    2006-04-01

    Despite the identification of a number of guidance molecules, a comprehensive picture has yet to emerge to explain the precise anatomy of the olfactory map. From a misexpression screen of 1,515 P{GS} lines, we identified 23 genes that, when forcibly expressed in the olfactory receptor neurons, disrupted the stereotyped anatomy of the Drosophila antennal lobes. These genes, which have not been shown previously to control olfactory map development, encode novel proteins as well as proteins with known roles in axonal outgrowth and cytoskeletal remodeling. We analyzed Akap200, which encodes a Protein Kinase A-binding protein. Overexpression of Akap200 resulted in fusion of the glomeruli, while its loss resulted in misshapen and ectopic glomeruli. The requirement of Akap200 validates our screen as an effective approach for recovering genes controlling glomerular map patterning. Our finding of diverse classes of genes reveals the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie olfactory map development.

  14. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  15. [The application of spectral geological profile in the alteration mapping].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Ting; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Lin-Lin

    2012-07-01

    Geological section can help validating and understanding of the alteration information which is extracted from remote sensing images. In the paper, the concept of spectral geological profile was introduced based on the principle of geological section and the method of spectral information extraction. The spectral profile can realize the storage and vision of spectra along the geological profile, but the spectral geological spectral profile includes more information besides the information of spectral profile. The main object of spectral geological spectral profile is to obtain the distribution of alteration types and content of minerals along the profile which can be extracted from spectra measured by field spectrometer, especially for the spatial distribution and mode of alteration association. Technical method and work flow of alteration information extraction was studied for the spectral geological profile. The spectral geological profile was set up using the ground reflectance spectra and the alteration information was extracted from the remote sensing image with the help of typical spectra geological profile. At last the meaning and effect of the spectral geological profile was discussed.

  16. [Alteration of biological rhythms causes metabolic diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Saderi, Nadia; Escobar, Carolina; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto

    2013-07-16

    The incidence of obesity worldwide has become a serious, constantly growing public health issue that reaches alarming proportions in some countries. To date none of the strategies developed to combat obesity have proved to be decisive, and hence there is an urgent need to address the problem with new approaches. Today, studies in the field of chronobiology have shown that our physiology continually adapts itself to the cyclical changes in the environment, regard-less of whether they are daily or seasonal. This is possible thanks to the existence of a biological clock in our hypothalamus which regulates the expression and/or activity of enzymes and hormones involved in regulating our metabolism, as well as all the homeostatic functions. It has been observed that this clock can be upset as a result of today's modern lifestyle, which involves a drop in physical activity during the day and the abundant ingestion of food during the night, among other factors, which together promote metabolic syndrome and obesity. Hence, the aim of this review is to summarise the recent findings that show the effect that altering the circadian rhythms has on the metabolism and how this can play a part in the development of metabolic diseases.

  17. Mapping Acid Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Andesite with Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Calvin, W. M.; Hook, S. J.; Taranik, J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne thermal infrared multi- and hyperspectral data sets are used to map sulfate alteration of basaltic andesites near Reno, NV. Alteration includes quartz-alunite, jarosite and a number of clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Ceacam1 deletion causes vascular alterations in large vessels.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Sonia M; Ledford, Kelly J; Abdallah, Simon L; Paus, Alexander; Russo, Lucia; Kaw, Meenakshi K; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Muturi, Harrison T; Raphael, Christian K; Lester, Sumona Ghosh; Heinrich, Garrett; Pierre, Sandrine V; Benndorf, Ralf; Kleff, Veronika; Jaffa, Ayad A; Lévy, Emile; Vazquez, Guillermo; Goldberg, Ira J; Beauchemin, Nicole; Scalia, Rosario; Ergün, Süleyman

    2013-08-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance and endothelial survival. However, its role in the morphology of macrovessels remains unknown. Mice lacking Ceacam1 (Cc1-/-) exhibit hyperinsulinemia, which causes insulin resistance and fatty liver. With increasing evidence of an association among hyperinsulinemia, fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis, we investigated whether Cc1-/- exhibited vascular lesions in atherogenic-prone aortae. Histological analysis revealed impaired endothelial integrity with restricted fat deposition and aortic plaque-like lesions in Cc1-/- aortae, likely owing to their limited lipidemia. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated macrophage deposition, and in vitro studies showed increased leukocyte adhesion to aortic wall, mediated in part by elevation in vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels. Basal aortic eNOS protein and NO content were reduced, in parallel with reduced Akt/eNOS and Akt/Foxo1 phosphorylation. Ligand-induced vasorelaxation was compromised in aortic rings. Increased NADPH oxidase activity and plasma 8-isoprostane levels revealed oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in Cc1-/- aortae. siRNA-mediated CEACAM1 knockdown in bovine aortic endothelial cells adversely affected insulin's stimulation of IRS-1/PI 3-kinase/Akt/eNOS activation by increasing IRS-1 binding to SHP2 phosphatase. This demonstrates that CEACAM1 regulates both endothelial cell autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms involved in vascular morphology and NO production in aortae. Systemic factors such as hyperinsulinemia could contribute to the pathogenesis of these vascular abnormalities. Cc1-/- mice provide a first in vivo demonstration of distinct CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance linking hepatic to macrovascular abnormalities.

  19. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy L.; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal–fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  20. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    PubMed

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-12-29

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  1. On alterations in the refractive index and scattering properties of biological tissue caused by histological processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, Htet; DeAngelo, Bianca; Soldano, John; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Xu, M.

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tissue processing such as formalin fixing, paraffin-embedding and histological staining alters significantly the optical properties of the tissue. We document the alterations in the optical properties of prostate cancer tissue specimens in the 500nm to 700nm spectral range caused by histological processing with quantitative differential interference contrast (qDIC) microscopy. A simple model to explain these alterations is presented at the end.

  2. Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping Using Hyperspectral Imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy-Bowdoin, T; Martini, B A; Silver, E A; Pickles, W L

    2004-04-02

    Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location of outcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals (including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 km swath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range in Dixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that several outcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and that one outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundant high temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the altered region using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that this outcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of cross-cutting faults. This fault set lies within the Dixie Valley Fault system (Caskey et al. 1996). Both the intense alteration in this area and the presence of cross-cutting faults indicate a high probability of recent hot fluid escape.

  3. 3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Ritman, Erik L.; Robb, Richard A.

    2001-05-01

    Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of the ischemic region. 3D reconstructions were obtained in an anesthetized pig from 8 adjacent, shortaxis, slices of the left ventricle imaged with an Electron Beam Computer Tomograph at 11 time points through one complete cardiac cycle. The 3D reconstructions were obtained before and after injection of 100 micrometer microspheres into the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery. This injection causes microembolization of LAD artery branches within the heart wall. The image processing involved radially dividing the tomographic images of the myocardium into small subdivisions with color encoding of the local magnitude of regional thickness or regional velocities of LV wall thickening throughout the cardiac cycle. We compared the effectiveness of animation of wall thickness encoded in color versus a static image of computed rate of wall thickness change in color. The location, extent and severity of regional wall akinesis or dyskinesis, as determined from these displays, can then be compared to the region of embolization as indicated by the distribution of altered LV wall perfusion.

  4. Preliminary map of limonitic hydrothermal alteration for portions of the Needles 1° x 2° quadrangle, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    The map shows areas of limonitic hydrothermal alteration but does not show hydrothermally altered areas lacking limonitic materials. Table 1 lists, for each hydrothermally altered area detected, the type of alteration and the anomalous trace-element geochemical suite found in that area.

  5. Auditory map plasticity: Diversity in causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Christoph E.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortical maps have been a long-standing focus of studies that assess the expression, mechanisms, and consequences of sensory plasticity. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding how auditory experience transforms spatially organized sound representations at higher levels of the central auditory pathways. New insights into the mechanisms underlying map changes have been achieved and more refined interpretations of various map plasticity effects and their consequences in terms of behavioral corollaries and learning as well as other cognitive aspects have been offered. The systematic organizational principles of cortical sound processing remains a key-aspect in studying and interpreting the role of plasticity in hearing. PMID:24492090

  6. Altered splicing of ATP6AP2 causes X-linked parkinsonism with spasticity (XPDS)

    PubMed Central

    Korvatska, Olena; Strand, Nicholas S.; Berndt, Jason D.; Strovas, Tim; Chen, Dong-Hui; Leverenz, James B.; Kiianitsa, Konstantin; Mata, Ignacio F.; Karakoc, Emre; Greenup, J. Lynne; Bonkowski, Emily; Chuang, Joseph; Moon, Randall T.; Eichler, Evan E.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Kraemer, Brian C.; Bird, Thomas D.; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel gene for a parkinsonian disorder. X-linked parkinsonism with spasticity (XPDS) presents either as typical adult onset Parkinson's disease or earlier onset spasticity followed by parkinsonism. We previously mapped the XPDS gene to a 28 Mb region on Xp11.2–X13.3. Exome sequencing of one affected individual identified five rare variants in this region, of which none was missense, nonsense or frame shift. Using patient-derived cells, we tested the effect of these variants on expression/splicing of the relevant genes. A synonymous variant in ATP6AP2, c.345C>T (p.S115S), markedly increased exon 4 skipping, resulting in the overexpression of a minor splice isoform that produces a protein with internal deletion of 32 amino acids in up to 50% of the total pool, with concomitant reduction of isoforms containing exon 4. ATP6AP2 is an essential accessory component of the vacuolar ATPase required for lysosomal degradative functions and autophagy, a pathway frequently affected in Parkinson's disease. Reduction of the full-size ATP6AP2 transcript in XPDS cells and decreased level of ATP6AP2 protein in XPDS brain may compromise V-ATPase function, as seen with siRNA knockdown in HEK293 cells, and may ultimately be responsible for the pathology. Another synonymous mutation in the same exon, c.321C>T (p.D107D), has a similar molecular defect of exon inclusion and causes X-linked mental retardation Hedera type (MRXSH). Mutations in XPDS and MRXSH alter binding sites for different splicing factors, which may explain the marked differences in age of onset and manifestations. PMID:23595882

  7. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  8. Evaluation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images for mapping altered rocks in the east Tintic Mountains, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Abrams, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Positive findings of earlier evaluations of the color-ratio compositing technique for mapping limonitic altered rocks in south-central Nevada are confirmed, but important limitations in the approach used are pointed out. These limitations arise from environmental, geologic, and image processing factors. The greater vegetation density in the East Tintic Mountains required several modifications in procedures to improve the overall mapping accuracy of the CRC approach. Large format ratio images provide better internal registration of the diazo films and avoids the problems associated with magnifications required in the original procedure. Use of the Linoscan 204 color recognition scanner permits accurate consistent extraction of the green pixels representing limonitic bedrock maps that can be used for mapping at large scales as well as for small scale reconnaissance.

  9. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  10. Satellite detection of vegetative damage and alteration caused by pollutants emitted by a zinc smelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Fritz, E. L.; Pennypacker, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field observations and data collected by low flying aircraft were used to verify the accuracy of maps produced from the satellite data. Although areas of vegetation as small as six acres can accurately be detected, a white pine stand that was severely damaged by sulfur dioxide could not be differentiated from a healthy white pine stand because spectral differences were not large enough. When winter data were used to eliminate interference from herbaceous and deciduous vegetation, the damage was still undetectable. The analysis was able to produce a character map that accurately delineated areas of vegetative alteration due to high zinc levels accumulating in the soil. The map depicted a distinct gradient of less damage and alteration as the distance from the smelter increased. Although the satellite data will probably not be useful for detecting small acreages of damaged vegetation, it is concluded that the data may be very useful as an inventory tool to detect and delineate large vegetative areas possessing differing spectral signatures.

  11. Genetic defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease maps on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    St. George-Hyslop, P.H.; Tanzi, R.E.; Polinsky, R.J.; Haines, J.L.; Nee, L.; Watkins, P.C.; Myers, R.H.; Feldman, R.G.; Pollen, D.; Drachman, D.; Growdon, J.

    1987-02-20

    Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Several families have been described in which Alzheimer's disease is caused by an autosomal dominant gene defect. The chromosomal location of this defective gene has been discovered by using genetic linkage to DNA markers on chromosome 21. The localization on chromosome 21 provides an explanation for the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in Down syndrome. Isolation and characterization of the gene at this locus may yield new insights into the nature of the defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease and possibly, into the etiology of all forms of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Alteration mapping at Goldfield, Nevada, by cluster and discriminant analysis of LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballew, G.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of Landsat multispectral digital data to differentiate among 62 combinations of rock and alteration types at the Goldfield mining district of Western Nevada was investigated by using statistical techniques of cluster and discriminant analysis. Multivariate discriminant analysis was not effective in classifying each of the 62 groups, with classification results essentially the same whether data of four channels alone or combined with six ratios of channels were used. Bivariate plots of group means revealed a cluster of three groups including mill tailings, basalt and all other rock and alteration types. Automatic hierarchical clustering based on the fourth dimensional Mahalanobis distance between group means of 30 groups having five or more samples was performed. The results of the cluster analysis revealed hierarchies of mill tailings vs. natural materials, basalt vs. non-basalt, highly reflectant rocks vs. other rocks and exclusively unaltered rocks vs. predominantly altered rocks. The hierarchies were used to determine the order in which sets of multiple discriminant analyses were to be performed and the resulting discriminant functions were used to produce a map of geology and alteration which has an overall accuracy of 70 percent for discriminating exclusively altered rocks from predominantly altered rocks.

  13. DNA demethylation caused by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine induces mitotic alterations and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Laura; Cilluffo, Danilo; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy, the unbalanced number of chromosomes in a cell, is considered a prevalent form of genetic instability and is largely acknowledged as a condition implicated in tumorigenesis. Epigenetic alterations like DNA hypomethylation have been correlated with cancer initiation/progression. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of epigenome-wide disruption as a cause of global DNA hypomethylation in aneuploidy generation. Here, we report that the DNA hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC), affects the correct ploidy of nearly diploid HCT-116 human cells by altering the methylation pattern of the chromosomes. Specifically, we show that a DAC-induced reduction of 5-Methyl Cytosine at the pericentromeric region of chromosomes correlates with aneuploidy and mitotic defects. Our results suggest that DNA hypomethylation leads to aneuploidy by altering the DNA methylation landscape at the centromere that is necessary to ensure proper chromosomes segregation by recruiting the proteins necessary to build up a functional kinetochore. PMID:26771138

  14. An assessment of AVIRIS data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired over the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada, in September 1987. Goldfield is one of the group of large epithermal precious metal deposits in Tertiary volcanic rocks, associated with silicic volcanism and caldera formation. Hydrothermal alteration consists of silicification along fractures, advanced agrillic and argillic zones further away from veins and more widespread propylitic zones. An evaluation of AVIRIS data quality was performed. Faults in the data, related to engineering problems and a different behavior of the instrument while on-board the U2, were encountered. Consequently, a decision was made to use raw data and correct them only for dark current variations and detector read-out-delays. New software was written to that effect. Atmospheric correction was performed using the flat field correction technique. Analysis of the data was then performed to extract spectral information, mainly concentrating on the 2 to 2.45 micron window, as the alteration minerals of interest have their distinctive spectral reflectance features in this region. Principally kaolinite and alunite spectra were clearly obtained. Mapping of the different minerals and alteration zones was attempted using ratios and clustering techniques. Poor signal-to-noise performance of the instrument and the lack of appropriate software prevented the production of an alteration map of the area. Spectra extracted locally from the AVIRIS data were checked in the field by collecting representative samples of the outcrops.

  15. Use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks in the northern grapevine mountains, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Three flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, acquired over the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, and California, were used to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were processed to remove vertical striping, normalized using an equal area normalization, and reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum derived from the data. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate the absorption band parameters band position, band depth, and band width for the strongest absorption feature in each pixel. These parameters were mapped into an intensity, hue, saturation (IHS) color system to produce a single color image that summarized the absorption band information, This image was used to map areas of potential alteration based upon the predicted relationships between the color image and mineral absorption band. Individual AIS spectra for these areas were then examined to identify specific minerals. Two types of alteration were mapped with the AIS data. Areas of quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration were identified based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 ??m, a weak shoulder near 2.25 ??m, and a weak absorption band near 2.35 ??m caused by sericite (fine-grained muscovite). Areas of argillic alteration were defined based on the presence of montmorillonite, identified by a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.21 ??m and the absence of the 2.35 ??m band. Montmorillonite could not be identified in mineral mixtures. Calcite and dolomite were identified based on sharp absorption features near 2.34 and 2.32 ??m, respectively. Areas of alteration identified using the AIS data corresponded well with areas mapped using field mapping, field reflectance spectra, and laboratory spectral measurements. ?? 1988.

  16. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken during 2012–2013 in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since completion of this study, a new lahar modeling program (LAHAR_pz) has been released, which may produce slightly different modeling results from the LAHARZ model used in this study. The maps and data from this study should not be used in place of existing volcano hazard maps published by local authorities. For volcanoes without hazard maps and (or) published lahar-related hazard studies, this work will provide a starting point from which more accurate hazard maps can be produced. This is the first dataset to provide digital maps of altered volcanoes and adjacent watersheds that can be used for assessing volcanic hazards, hydrothermal alteration, and other volcanic processes in future studies.

  17. Inter-Species Grafting Caused Extensive and Heritable Alterations of DNA Methylation in Solanaceae Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Yiqiao; Liu, Gang; Yu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Silin; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Grafting has been extensively used to enhance the performance of horticultural crops. Since Charles Darwin coined the term “graft hybrid” meaning that asexual combination of different plant species may generate products that are genetically distinct, highly discrepant opinions exist supporting or against the concept. Recent studies have documented that grafting enables exchanges of both RNA and DNA molecules between the grafting partners, thus providing a molecular basis for grafting-induced genetic variation. DNA methylation is known as prone to alterations as a result of perturbation of internal and external conditions. Given characteristics of grafting, it is interesting to test whether the process may cause an alteration of this epigenetic marker in the grafted organismal products. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed relative global DNA methylation levels and locus-specific methylation patterns by the MSAP marker and locus-specific bisulfite-sequencing in the seed plants (wild-type controls), self- and hetero-grafted scions/rootstocks, selfed progenies of scions and their seed-plant controls, involving three Solanaceae species. We quantified expression of putative genes involved in establishing and/or maintaining DNA methylation by q-(RT)-PCR. We found that (1) hetero-grafting caused extensive alteration of DNA methylation patterns in a locus-specific manner, especially in scions, although relative methylation levels remain largely unaltered; (2) the altered methylation patterns in the hetero-grafting-derived scions could be inherited to sexual progenies with some sites showing further alterations or revisions; (3) hetero-grafting caused dynamic changes in steady-state transcript abundance of genes encoding for a set of enzymes functionally relevant to DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that inter-species grafting in plants could produce extensive and heritable alterations in DNA methylation. We suggest that

  18. Mapping out a search for environmental causes of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J G; Rudel, R; Maxwell, N I; Swedis, S R

    1996-01-01

    Geographic patterns and time trends for breast cancer suggest there are preventable causes that may include environmental factors. This article describes the development of new methods used in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study to investigate whether synthetic chemicals in the environment contribute to breast cancer risk. Images p[495]-a p499-a PMID:8955694

  19. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks on Mount Rainier, Washington, with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Mount Rainier has produced numerous Holocene debris flows, the largest of which contain clays and other minerals derived from hydrothermally altered rocks on the volcano's edifice. Imagery from an advanced airborne sensor was used to map altered rocks at Mount Rainier and demonstrates their distinctly nonuniform distribution. The mapping of altered rocks helps to identify edifice failure surfaces and to recognize the source areas for the largest debris flow events. Remote sensing methods like those used at Mount Rainier can enhance ground-based mapping efforts and should prove useful for rapidly identifying hazardous sectors at other volcanoes.

  20. Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas

  1. Iron Overload Causes Alterations of E-Cadherin in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Y; Krijt, J; Povýšil, C; Mělková, Z; Přikryl, P; Vokurka, M; Nečas, E

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload causes tissue damage in the liver, but its initial effects at the molecular and cellular level are not well understood. Epithelial cadherin (E-cad) is a major adhesion protein in adherens junctions and is associated with several signal transduction pathways. Dysfunction of E-cad causes instability of adherens junctions, which leads to cell invasion, cell migration, and carcinogenesis. We found in liver samples from iron-overloaded mice that the apparent molecular mass of E-cad was reduced from 125 to 115 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions and immunoblotting, and that the cellular expression of E-cad was decreased in immunohistochemistry. The mRNA level of E-cad, however, did not change significantly, suggesting that the alterations are posttranslational. Interestingly, incubation of control liver extracts with Fe2+ alone also produced the same mobility shift. Neither an oxidant nor an antioxidant influenced this shift in vitro, suggesting that reactive oxygen species, which are generated by iron and known to cause damage to macromolecules, are not involved. Treatment of the 115 kDa E-cad with deferoxamine, an iron chelator, thus removing Fe2+, shifted the molecular mass back to 125 kDa, demonstrating that the shift is reversible. The observation also implies that the alteration that causes the mobility shift is not due to transcriptional control, deglycosylation, and proteolysis. This reversible mobility shift of E-cad has not been previously known. The alteration of E-cad that causes the mobility shift might be an initial step to liver diseases by iron overload. PMID:27516188

  2. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  3. Mapping of mutation causing Friedreich's ataxia to human chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, S; Shaw, J; Rowland, A; Wallis, J; South, S; Nakamura, Y; von Gabain, A; Farrall, M; Williamson, R

    1988-07-21

    Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive disease with progressive degeneration of the central and peripheral nervous system. The biochemical abnormality underlying the disorder has not been identified. Prompted by the success in localizing the mutations causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease and cystic fibrosis, we have undertaken molecular genetic linkage studies to determine the chromosomal site of the Friedreich's ataxia mutation as an initial step towards the isolation and characterization of the defective gene. We report the assignment of the gene mutation for this disorder to chromosome 9p22-CEN by genetic linkage to an anonymous DNA marker MCT112 and the interferon-beta gene probe. In contrast to the clinical variation seen for the disorder, no evidence of genetic heterogeneity is observed.

  4. Mapping Phyllic and Argillic-Altered Rocks in Southeastern Afghanistan using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: ASTER data and logical operators were successfully used to map phyllic and argillic-altered rocks in the southeastern part of Afghanistan. Hyperion data were used to correct ASTER band 5 and ASTER data were georegistered to orthorectified Landsat TM data. Logical operator algorithms produced argillic and phyllic byte ASTER images that were converted to vector data and overlain on ASTER and Landsat TM images. Alteration and fault patterns indicated that two areas, the Argandab igneous complex, and the Katawaz basin may contain potential polymetallic vein and porphyry copper deposits. ASTER alteration mapping in the Chagai Hills indicates less extensive phyllic and argillic-altered rocks than mapped in the Argandab igneous complex and the Katawaz basin and patterns of alteration are inconclusive to predict potential deposit types.

  5. Lithologic discrimination and alteration mapping from AVIRIS Data, Socorro, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, K. K.; Delillo, N.; Jacobson, A.; Blom, R.; Chapin, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Geologic maps are, by their very nature, interpretive documents. In contrasts, images prepared from AVIRIS data can be used as uninterpreted, and thus unbiased, geologic maps. We are having significant success applying AVIRIS data in this non-quantitative manner to geologic problems. Much of our success has come from the power of the Linked Windows Interactive Data System. LinkWinds is a visual data analysis and exploration system under development at JPL which is designed to rapidly and interactively investigate large multivariate data sets. In this paper, we present information on the analysis technique, and preliminary results from research on potassium metasomatism, a distinctive and structurally significant type of alteration associated with crustal extension.

  6. Hydrothermal alteration mapping of Siberian gold-ore fields based on satellite spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyev, Yu S.; Maskov, A. A.; Abramova, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    The mapping of the hydrothermal alterations in Urjahskoe and Fedorov-Kedrov gold-ore fields was conducted by applying channel relationship method (band ratio) based on ASTER spectral-zonal satellite image data. It was determined that the calculated mineral indices in ore-bearing structures are zonal. Outer ore-bearing structures revealed increased ferric mineral index values, while inner - high epidote- chlorite- calcite and muscovite- siderite mineral index values. Detected regularities could be used in identifying potential gold-ore bearing areas within identical fields based on remote sensing survey data.

  7. Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imaging spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Fred A.; L. Bedell, Richard; Taranik, James V.; Peppin, William A.; Weatherbee, Oliver; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer data (also known as ‘hyperspectral imagery’ or HSI) are well established for detailed mineral mapping from airborne and satellite systems. Overhead data, however, have substantial additional potential when used together with ground-based measurements. An imaging spectrometer system was used to acquire airborne measurements and to image in-place outcrops (mine walls) and boxed drill core and rock chips using modified sensor-mounting configurations. Data were acquired at 5 nm nominal spectral resolution in 360 channels from 0.4 to 2.45 μm. Analysis results using standardized hyperspectral methodologies demonstrate rapid extraction of representative mineral spectra and mapping of mineral distributions and abundances in map-plan, with core depth, and on the mine walls. The examples shown highlight the capabilities of these data for mineral mapping. Integration of these approaches promotes improved understanding of relations between geology, alteration and spectral signatures in three dimensions and should lead to improved efficiency of mine development, operations and ultimately effective mine closure. PMID:25937681

  8. Mapping Hydrothermal Alterations in the Muteh Gold Mining Area in Iran by using ASTER satellite Imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi Haroni, Hooshang; Hassan Tabatabaei, Seyed

    2016-04-01

    Muteh gold mining area is located in 160 km NW of Isfahan town. Gold mineralization is meso-thermal type and associated with silisic, seresitic and carbonate alterations as well as with hematite and goethite. Image processing and interpretation were applied on the ASTER satellite imagery data of about 400 km2 at the Muteh gold mining area to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides associated with gold mineralization. After applying preprocessing methods such as radiometric and geometric corrections, image processing methods of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (Ls-Fit) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) were applied on the ASTER data to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides. In this research reference spectra of minerals such as chlorite, hematite, clay minerals and phengite identified from laboratory spectral analysis of collected samples were used to map the hydrothermal alterations. Finally, identified hydrothermal alteration and iron oxides were validated by visiting and sampling some of the mapped hydrothermal alterations.

  9. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongde; Wang, Pingyan; Liu, Lingjie; Min, Zhu; Luo, Kun; Wan, Yakun

    2015-10-26

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that different types of histone mutation resulted in different phenotypes and a distinct reorganization of nucleosomes. Nucleosome occupancy was altered at telomeres, but not at centromeres. The first nucleosomes upstream (-1) and downstream (+1) of the transcription start site (TSS) were more dynamic than other nucleosomes. Mutations in histones affected the nucleosome array downstream of the TSS. Highly expressed genes, such as ribosome genes and genes involved in glycolysis, showed increased nucleosome occupancy in many types of histone mutant. In particular, the H3K56A mutant exhibited a high percentage of dynamic genomic regions, decreased nucleosome occupancy at telomeres, increased occupancy at the +1 and -1 nucleosomes, and a slow growth phenotype under stress conditions. Our findings provide insight into the influence of histone mutations on nucleosome dynamics.

  10. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongde; Wang, Pingyan; Liu, Lingjie; Min, Zhu; Luo, Kun; Wan, Yakun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that different types of histone mutation resulted in different phenotypes and a distinct reorganization of nucleosomes. Nucleosome occupancy was altered at telomeres, but not at centromeres. The first nucleosomes upstream (−1) and downstream (+1) of the transcription start site (TSS) were more dynamic than other nucleosomes. Mutations in histones affected the nucleosome array downstream of the TSS. Highly expressed genes, such as ribosome genes and genes involved in glycolysis, showed increased nucleosome occupancy in many types of histone mutant. In particular, the H3K56A mutant exhibited a high percentage of dynamic genomic regions, decreased nucleosome occupancy at telomeres, increased occupancy at the +1 and −1 nucleosomes, and a slow growth phenotype under stress conditions. Our findings provide insight into the influence of histone mutations on nucleosome dynamics. PMID:26498326

  11. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Causes Persistent Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations and Mitigates the Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hadlock, Greg C.; Allen, Scott C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Andrenyak, David M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a “binge” treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of METH self-administration on dopaminergic neuronal function. Results revealed that self-administration of METH, given according to a regimen that produces brain METH levels comparable with those reported postmortem in human METH abusers (0.06 mg/infusion; 8-h sessions for 7 days), decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake and/or immunoreactivity as assessed 8 or 30 days after the last self-administration session. Increasing the METH dose per infusion did not exacerbate these deficits. These deficits were similar in magnitude to decreases in DAT densities reported in imaging studies of abstinent METH abusers. It is noteworthy that METH self-administration mitigated the persistent deficits in dopaminergic neuronal function, as well as the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, caused by a subsequent binge METH exposure. This protection was independent of alterations in METH pharmacokinetics, but may have been attributable (at least in part) to a pretreatment-induced attenuation of binge-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, these results may provide insight into the neurochemical deficits reported in human METH abusers. PMID:22034657

  12. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl)-Phthalate (DEHP) Causes Impaired Adipocyte Function and Alters Serum Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Klöting, Nora; Hesselbarth, Nico; Gericke, Martin; Kunath, Anne; Biemann, Ronald; Chakaroun, Rima; Kosacka, Joanna; Kovacs, Peter; Kern, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fischer, Bernd; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Feltens, Ralph; Otto, Wolfgang; Wissenbach, Dirk K.; von Bergen, Martin; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been shown to cause adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that chronic DEHP exposure causes impaired insulin sensitivity, affects body weight, adipose tissue (AT) function and circulating metabolic parameters of obesity resistant 129S6 mice in vivo. An obesity-resistant mouse model was chosen to reduce a potential obesity bias of DEHP effects on metabolic parameters and AT function. The metabolic effects of 10-weeks exposure to DEHP were tested by insulin tolerance tests and quantitative assessment of 183 metabolites in mice. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with DEHP for two days, differentiated into mature adipocytes in which the effects on insulin stimulated glucose and palmitate uptake, lipid content as well as on mRNA/protein expression of key adipocyte genes were investigated. We observed in female mice that DEHP treatment causes enhanced weight gain, fat mass, impaired insulin tolerance, changes in circulating adiponectin and adipose tissue Pparg, adiponectin and estrogen expression. Serum metabolomics indicated a general increase in phospholipid and carnitine concentrations. In vitro, DEHP treatment increases the proliferation rate and alters glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, DEHP has significant effects on adipose tissue (AT) function and alters specific serum metabolites. Although, DEHP treatment led to significantly impaired insulin tolerance, it did not affect glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, insulin or triglyceride serum concentrations. This may suggest that DEHP treatment does not cause impaired glucose metabolism at the whole body level. PMID:26630026

  13. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor causes epigenetic alterations in adult ovarian genes.

    PubMed

    Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during development could alter the epigenetic programming of the genome and result in adult-onset disease. Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites possess estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities. Previous studies showed that fetal/neonatal exposure to MXC caused adult ovarian dysfunction due to altered expression of key ovarian genes including estrogen receptor (ER)-beta, which was down-regulated, whereas ERalpha was unaffected. The objective of the current study was to evaluate changes in global and gene-specific methylation patterns in adult ovaries associated with the observed defects. Rats were exposed to MXC (20 microg/kgxd or 100 mg/kg.d) between embryonic d 19 and postnatal d 7. We performed DNA methylation analysis of the known promoters of ERalpha and ERbeta genes in postnatal d 50-60 ovaries using bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCRs. Developmental exposure to MXC led to significant hypermethylation in the ERbeta promoter regions (P < 0.05), whereas the ERalpha promoter was unaffected. We assessed global DNA methylation changes using methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR and identified 10 genes that were hypermethylated in ovaries from exposed rats. To determine whether the MXC-induced methylation changes were associated with increased DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) levels, we measured the expression levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt3l using semiquantitative RT-PCR. Whereas Dnmt3a and Dnmt3l were unchanged, Dnmt3b expression was stimulated in ovaries of the 100 mg/kg MXC group (P < 0.05), suggesting that increased DNMT3B may cause DNA hypermethylation in the ovary. Overall, these data suggest that transient exposure to MXC during fetal and neonatal development affects adult ovarian function via altered methylation patterns.

  14. Histological alterations in gills of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; dos Santos, Jorge Abdala Dergam

    2012-11-01

    Increasing contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals has caused various morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and the gills of fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. In this context, the present work proposed to study the effects of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the histology of gills of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus) after acute exposure. Seventy-two adult males of A. aff. bimaculatus were used, the treatments were six concentrations of Zn: 0; 3; 5; 10; 15; and 20 mg/L of water, by 96 h, and gills, muscle and bone fragments were removed. Fragments of gills were fixed and included, sectioned in a rotary microtome and stained with toluidin blue. Fragments of bone, muscle and gills were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption of Zn. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) 96 h after Zn acute exposure was 10 mg/L of water. Noteworthy, Zn was highly toxic in acute exposure trials starting at the concentration 5 mg/L. The exposure of fish to the metal caused branchial histopathological changes correlated with increasing concentration, caused the death of fish at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/L. The histological alterations observed in the gills were hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, aneurysm, destruction of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of membrane, deletion of secondary lamellar high, which presented more severity in treatments exposed to the highest concentrations. In conclusion, gills of A. aff. bimaculatus presented profound histological alterations as a result of Zn exposure, and hence, proved to be excellent indicators of environmental contamination.

  15. Late morfofunctional alterations of the Sertoli cell caused by doxorubicin administered to prepubertal rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug used against a variety of cancers. It acts through interaction with polymerases and topoisomerase II and free radical production. Doxorubicin activity is not specific to cancer cells and can also damage healthy cells, especially those undergoing rapid proliferation, such as spermatogonia. In previous studies our group showed that etoposide, another topoisomarese II poison, causes irreversible damage to Sertoli cells. Thus, the aim of this study was to address the effects of doxorubicin on Sertoli cell morphology and function and on the seminiferous epithelium cycle when administered to prepubertal rats. Methods Prepubertal rats received the dose of 5 mg/Kg of doxorubicin, which was fractioned in two doses: 3 mg/Kg at 15dpp and 2 mg/Kg at 22dpp. The testes were collected at 40, 64 and 127dpp, fixed in Bouin’s liquid and submitted to transferrin immunolabeling for Sertoli cell function analysis. Sertoli cell morphology and the frequency of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were analyzed in PAS + H-stained sections. Results The rats treated with doxorubicin showed reduction of transferrin labeling in the seminiferous epithelium at 40 and 64dpp, suggesting that Sertoli cell function is altered in these rats. All doxorubicin-treated rats showed sloughing and morphological alterations of Sertoli cells. The frequency of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle was also affected in all doxorubicin-treated rats. Conclusions and discussion These data show that doxorubicin administration during prepuberty causes functional and morphological late damage to Sertoli cells; such damage is secondary to the germ cell primary injury and contributed to enhance the spermatogenic harm caused by this drug. However, additional studies are required to clarify if there is also a direct effect of doxorubicin on Sertoli cells producing a primary damage on these cells. PMID:22967030

  16. Altered map of visual space in the superior colliculus of mice lacking early retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Hofer, Sonja B; Creutzfeldt, Claire; Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Hübener, Mark

    2005-07-20

    During the development of the mammalian retinocollicular projection, a coarse retinotopic map is set up by the graded distribution of axon guidance molecules. Subsequent refinement of the initially diffuse projection has been shown to depend on the spatially correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells. In this scheme, the abolition of patterned retinal activity is not expected to influence overall retinotopic organization, but this has not been investigated. We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to visualize the complete retinotopic map in the superior colliculus (SC) of mice lacking early retinal waves, caused by the deletion of the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. As expected from previous anatomical studies in the SC of beta2(-/-) mice, regions activated by individual visual stimuli were much larger and had less sharp borders than those in wild-type mice. Importantly, however, we also found systematic distortions of the entire retinotopic map: the map of visual space was expanded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly. Thus, patterned neuronal activity in the early retina has a substantial influence on the coarse retinotopic organization of the SC. PMID:16033902

  17. Prenatal exposure of rats to nicotine causes persistent alterations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Allison B.; Keller, Ashleigh B.; Perry, David C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined for immediate and persistent changes in nAChRs in cerebral cortex, thalamus and striatum of male rats caused by prenatal exposure to nicotine from gestational day 3 to postnatal day 10 (PN10), and how such exposure affected the responses of adolescents to subsequent nicotine challenge. Receptor numbers were assessed by [3H]epibatidine binding and receptor function was measured by acetylcholine-stimulated 86Rb efflux (cerebral cortex and thalamus) and nicotine-stimulated dopamine release (striatum). Immediate effects of prenatal nicotine, assessed in PN10 animals, were not detected for any parameter. A subsequent 14 day nicotine exposure in adolescence revealed persistent changes caused by prenatal nicotine exposure. Nicotine exposure in adolescents caused up-regulation of binding in all three regions; however, this up-regulation was lost in thalamus from animals prenatally exposed to nicotine. Nicotine exposure in adolescents caused decreased nicotine-stimulated dopamine release in striatum; this effect was also lost in animals prenatally exposed to nicotine. Comparison of parameters in PN10 and PN42 rats revealed developmental changes in the CNS cholinergic system. In thalamus, binding increased with age, as did the proportion of 86Rb efflux with high sensitivity to acetylcholine. In cortex, binding also increased with age, but there was no change in total 86Rb efflux, and the proportion of high to low sensitivity efflux declined with age. Nicotine-stimulated striatal dopamine release (both total and α-conotoxin MII-resistant release) increased with age in naïve animals, but not in those prenatally exposed to nicotine. These findings demonstrate that prenatal exposure to nicotine causes alterations in the regulation of nAChRs by nicotine that persist into adolescence. These changes may play a role in the increased risk for nicotine addiction observed in adolescent offspring of smoking mothers. PMID:19028470

  18. Structural and functional alterations of catalase induced by acriflavine, a compound causing apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Attar, Farnoosh; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Keyhani, Ezzatollah

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic agent causing both apoptosis and necrosis in yeast. In this work, its effect on the structure and function of catalase, a vital enzyme actively involved in protection against oxidative stress, was investigated. In vitro kinetic studies showed that acriflavine inhibited the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. The residual activity detectable after preincubation of catalase (1.5 nmol/L) with various concentrations of acriflavine went from 50% to 20% of the control value as the acriflavine concentration increased from 30 to 90 micromol/L. Correlatively with the decrease in activity, alterations in the enzyme's conformation were observed as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence obtained upon excitation at either 297 nm (tryptophan residues) or 280 nm (tyrosine and tryptophan residues) decreased as a function of acriflavine concentration. Circular dichroism studies showed alterations of the protein structure by acriflavine with up to 13% decrease in alpha helix, 16% increase in beta-sheet content, 17% increase in random coil, and 4% increase in beta turns. Spectrophotometric studies showed a blueshift and modifications in the chromicity of catalase at 405 nm, corresponding to an absorbance band due to the enzyme's prosthetic group. Thus, acriflavine induced in vitro a profound change in the structure of catalase so that the enzyme could no longer function. Our results showed that acriflavine, a compound producing apoptosis and necrosis, can have a direct effect on vital functions in cells by disabling key enzymes.

  19. Proteome Alterations of Hippocampal Cells Caused by Clostridium botulinum C3 Exoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Anke; Rohrbeck, Astrid; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    C3bot from Clostridium botulinum is a bacterial mono-ADP-ribosylating enzyme, which transfers an ADP-ribose moiety onto the small GTPases Rho A/B/C. C3bot and the catalytic inactive mutant (C3E174Q) cause axonal and dendritic growth as well as branching in primary hippocampal neurons. In cultured murine hippocampal HT22 cells, protein abundances were analyzed in response to C3bot or C3E174Q treatment using a shotgun proteomics approach. Proteome analyses were performed at four time points over 6 days. More than 4000 protein groups were identified at each time point and quantified in triplicate analyses. On day one, 46 proteins showed an altered abundance, and after 6 days, more than 700 proteins responded to C3bot with an up- or down-regulation. In contrast, C3E174Q had no provable impact on protein abundance. Protein quantification was verified for several proteins by multiple reaction monitoring. Data analysis of altered proteins revealed different cellular processes that were affected by C3bot. They are particularly involved in mitochondrial and lysosomal processes, adhesion, carbohydrate and glucose metabolism, signal transduction, and nuclear proteins of translation and ribosome biogenesis. The results of this study gain novel insights into the function of C3bot in hippocampal cells. PMID:26393427

  20. Prevention of metabolic alterations caused by suspension hypokinesia in leg muscles of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Fagan, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were subjected to tail-cast suspension hypokinesia for 6 days with one leg immobilized in dorsal flexion by casting. Control animals were also tail-casted. The soleus, gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles of uncasted hypokinetic legs were smaller than control muscles. Dorsal flexion prevented atrophy of these muscles and caused the soleus to hypertrophy. The anterior muscles were unaffected by hypokinesia. The smaller size of the soleus of the uncasted leg relative to the dorsal flexed and weight bearing limbs correlated with slower protein synthesis and faster proteolysis. The capacity of this muscle to synthesize glutamine (gln), which carries nitrogenous waste from muscle was also measured. Although tissue homogenates showed higher activities of gln synthetase, the rate of de novo synthesis was not altered in intact muscle but the tissue ratio of gln/glutamate was decreased. Glutamate and ATP were not limiting for gln synthesis, but availability of ammonia may be a limiting factor for this process in hypokinesia.

  1. Isolation and mapping of a mutation in Escherichia coli with altered levels of ribonuclease H.

    PubMed Central

    Carl, P L; Bloom, L; Crouch, R J

    1980-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli with altered levels of ribonuclease (RNase) H was isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate. A procedure for assaying RNase H in partially purified extracts was used to screen approximately 1,500 colonies for variations in RNase H activity. Confirmation of a lower level of RNase H in the mutant was accomplished by analysis of RNase H in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. By Hfr, F', and P1 transduction mapping, the genetic locus responsible for the lower levels of RNase H was located at 5.1 min on the E. coli chromosome. This mutation (rnh) represents a new locus on the E. coli chromosome. The only phenotypic characteristic of this mutation which has been observed to date is the lower level of RNase H (30% of parental values). Images PMID:6998952

  2. Removing noises caused by motion artefacts in microcirculation maps of human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Shi, W; Gao, W

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a zero-padding and cross-correlation technique-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (ZPCC-cmOCT) to reconstruct microcirculation maps of human skin in vivo, which can remove the background decorrelation noise caused by motion artefacts. In conventional correlation mapping optical coherence tomography method, the correlation degree of static tissue may be lowered by the motion artefacts due to cardiac and respiratory motion, resulting in background decorrelation noise in microcirculation maps. In zero-padding and cross-correlation technique-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography method, structural images are first obtained by performing Fourier transform on zero-padded interference fringes, and then cross-correlation-based image registration is utilized to align local areas in two adjacent structural images. Finally, correlation mapping optical coherence tomography method is performed to generate microcirculation maps. Both phantom experiments and in vivo experiments were implemented and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of providing microcirculation maps with the background decorrelation noise removed.

  3. In Vivo Tumour Mapping Using Electrocorticography Alterations During Awake Brain Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Boussen, Salah; Velly, Lionel; Benar, Christian; Metellus, Philippe; Bruder, Nicolas; Trébuchon, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    During awake brain surgery for tumour resection, in situ EEG recording (ECoG) is used to identify eloquent areas surrounding the tumour. We used the ECoG setup to record the electrical activity of cortical and subcortical tumours and then performed frequency and connectivity analyses in order to identify ECoG impairments and map tumours. We selected 16 patients with cortical (8) and subcortical (8) tumours undergoing awake brain surgery. For each patient, we computed the spectral content of tumoural and healthy areas in each frequency band. We computed connectivity of each electrode using connectivity markers (linear and non-linear correlations, phase-locking and coherence). We performed comparisons between healthy and tumour electrodes. The ECoG alterations were used to implement automated classification of the electrodes using clustering or neural network algorithms. ECoG alterations were used to image cortical tumours.Cortical tumours were found to profoundly alter all frequency contents (normalized and absolute power), with an increase in the δ activity and a decreases for the other bands (P < 0.05). Cortical tumour electrodes showed high level of connectivity compared to surrounding electrodes (all markers, P < 0.05). For subcortical tumours, a relative decrease in the γ1 band and in the alpha band in absolute amplitude (P < 0.05) were the only abnormalities. The neural network algorithm classification had a good performance: 93.6 % of the electrodes were classified adequately on a test subject. We found significant spectral and connectivity ECoG changes for cortical tumours, which allowed tumour recognition. Artificial neural algorithm pattern recognition seems promising for electrode classification in awake tumour surgery. PMID:27324381

  4. In Vivo Tumour Mapping Using Electrocorticography Alterations During Awake Brain Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Boussen, Salah; Velly, Lionel; Benar, Christian; Metellus, Philippe; Bruder, Nicolas; Trébuchon, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    During awake brain surgery for tumour resection, in situ EEG recording (ECoG) is used to identify eloquent areas surrounding the tumour. We used the ECoG setup to record the electrical activity of cortical and subcortical tumours and then performed frequency and connectivity analyses in order to identify ECoG impairments and map tumours. We selected 16 patients with cortical (8) and subcortical (8) tumours undergoing awake brain surgery. For each patient, we computed the spectral content of tumoural and healthy areas in each frequency band. We computed connectivity of each electrode using connectivity markers (linear and non-linear correlations, phase-locking and coherence). We performed comparisons between healthy and tumour electrodes. The ECoG alterations were used to implement automated classification of the electrodes using clustering or neural network algorithms. ECoG alterations were used to image cortical tumours.Cortical tumours were found to profoundly alter all frequency contents (normalized and absolute power), with an increase in the δ activity and a decreases for the other bands (P < 0.05). Cortical tumour electrodes showed high level of connectivity compared to surrounding electrodes (all markers, P < 0.05). For subcortical tumours, a relative decrease in the γ1 band and in the alpha band in absolute amplitude (P < 0.05) were the only abnormalities. The neural network algorithm classification had a good performance: 93.6 % of the electrodes were classified adequately on a test subject. We found significant spectral and connectivity ECoG changes for cortical tumours, which allowed tumour recognition. Artificial neural algorithm pattern recognition seems promising for electrode classification in awake tumour surgery.

  5. Altered expression of neuropeptide Y receptors caused by focal cortical dysplasia in human intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guan, Yuguang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xueling; Li, Tianfu; Xu, Zhiqing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of pharmacologically-intractable epilepsy, however, the precise mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remains to be determined. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Increased expression of NPY and its receptors has been identified in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, presumed to act as an endogenous anticonvulsant mechanism. Therefore, we investigated whether expression changes in NPY receptors occurs in patients with FCD. We specifically investigated the expression of seizure-related NPY receptor subtypes Y1, Y2, and Y5 in patients with FCD versus autopsy controls. We found that Y1R and Y2R were up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in the temporal and frontal lobes in FCD lesions. By contrast, there was no significant change in either receptor detected in parietal lesions. Notably, overexpression of Y5R was consistently observed in all FCD lesions. Our results demonstrate the altered expression of Y1R, Y2R and Y5R occurs in FCD lesions within the temporal, frontal and parietal lobe. Abnormal NPY receptor subtype expression may be associated with the onset and progression of epileptic activity and may act as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of refractory epilepsy caused by FCD. PMID:26943580

  6. Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  7. Resolution of genetic map expansion caused by excess heterozygosity in plant recombinant inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E

    2014-10-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  8. Correction of Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Temperature Maps for Magnetic Field Disturbances Caused by Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatukha, Andriy V.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Respiratory Induced Resonance Offset (RIRO) is a periodic disturbance of the magnetic field due to breathing. Such disturbances handicap the accuracy of the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method of MRI temperature mapping in anatomies situated nearby the lungs and chest wall. In this work, we propose a method capable of minimizing errors caused by RIRO in PRFS temperature maps. In this method, a set of baseline images characterizing RIRO at a variety of respiratory cycle instants is acquired before the thermal treatment starts. During the treatment, the temperature evolution is found from two successive images. Then, the calculated temperature changes are corrected for the additional contribution caused by RIRO using the pre-treatment baseline images acquired at the identical instances of the respiratory cycle. Our method is shown to improve the accuracy and stability of PRFS temperature maps in the presence of RIRO and motion in phantom and volunteer experiments.

  9. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  10. Rapid electrical stimulation causes alterations in cardiac intercellular junction proteins of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tadamitsu; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Okamoto, Yoko; Yoshida, Masaaki; Lee, Jong-Kook; Mizukami, Yoichi; Yano, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    The intercellular junctions contain two complexes, adhesion junctions (AJ) and connexin (Cx) gap junctions (GJs). GJs provide the pathway for intercellular current flow. AJs mediate normal mechanical coupling and play an important role in the stability of GJs. We investigated the effects of rapid electrical stimulation (RES) on cardiac intercellular junctions, especially β-catenin and Cx43 alterations. We also studied the effects of ANG II receptor blockade on intercellular junction remodeling. Neonatal rats were euthanized by decapitation, and cardiomyocytes were prepared, cultured, and subjected to RES. We used real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical methods. Conduction properties were examined by an extracellular potential mapping system. Cx43 protein expression in cardiomyocytes was significantly increased after 60 min. β-Catenin expression in the total cell fraction was significantly increased after 30 min. The expression level of β-catenin in the nucleus, which functions as a T cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor transcriptional activator of Cx43 with its degradation regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β, was dramatically increased after 10 min. Conduction velocity was increased significantly by RES for 60 min. Olmesartan prevented most these effects of RES. We showed an increase of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β, which is phosphorylated by activated MAPKs and inhibits β-catenin degradation, was attenuated by olmesartan. The changes in β-catenin precede Cx43 GJ remodeling and might play an important role in the formation and stability of GJs. Olmesartan might be a new upstream arrhythmia therapy by modulating intercellular junction remodeling through the β-catenin signaling pathway.

  11. EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Power, Marty S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O.D.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

  12. Mutations in LMNA Modulate the Lamin A - Nesprin-2 Interaction and Cause LINC Complex Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Munck, Martina; Swaminathan, Karthic; Kapinos, Larisa E.; Noegel, Angelika A.; Neumann, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Background In eukaryotes the genetic material is enclosed by a continuous membrane system, the nuclear envelope (NE). Along the NE specific proteins assemble to form meshworks and mutations in these proteins have been described in a group of human diseases called laminopathies. Laminopathies include lipodystrophies, muscle and cardiac diseases as well as metabolic or progeroid syndromes. Most laminopathies are caused by mutations in the LMNAgene encoding lamins A/C. Together with Nesprins (Nuclear Envelope Spectrin Repeat Proteins) they are core components of the LINC complex (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton). The LINC complex connects the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton and plays a role in the transfer of mechanically induced signals along the NE into the nucleus, and its components have been attributed functions in maintaining nuclear and cellular organization as well as signal transduction. Results Here we narrowed down the interaction sites between lamin A and Nesprin-2 to aa 403–425 in lamin A and aa 6146–6347 in Nesprin-2. Laminopathic mutations in and around the involved region of lamin A (R401C, G411D, G413C, V415I, R419C, L421P, R427G, Q432X) modulate the interaction with Nesprin-2 and this may contribute to the disease phenotype. The most notable mutation is the lamin A mutation Q432X that alters LINC complex protein assemblies and causes chromosomal and transcription factor rearrangements. Conclusion Mutations in Nesprin-2 and lamin A are characterised by complex genotype phenotype relations. Our data show that each mutation in LMNAanalysed here has a distinct impact on the interaction among both proteins that substantially explains how distinct mutations in widely expressed genes lead to the formation of phenotypically different diseases. PMID:23977161

  13. Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2011-11-01

    Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart.

  14. Mapping Transient Hyperventilation Induced Alterations with Estimates of the Multi-Scale Dynamics of BOLD Signal

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Silven, Olli; Tervonen, Osmo

    2009-01-01

    Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD) trends of the form 1/fα. Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant α, fractal dimension Df, and, Hurst exponent H) characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The α was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. Df was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow. PMID:19636388

  15. Triplication of DYRK1A causes retinal structural and functional alterations in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Ariadna; Barallobre, María-José; Marchena, Miguel-Ángel; Mateus, Catarina; Ramírez, Erika; Martínez-Cue, Carmen; Delabar, Jean M; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; de la Villa, Pedro; Arbonés, Maria L

    2013-07-15

    Down syndrome (DS) results from the triplication of approximately 300 human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) genes and affects almost all body organs. Children with DS have defects in visual processing that may have a negative impact on their daily life and cognitive development. However, there is little known about the genes and pathogenesis underlying these defects. Here, we show morphometric in vivo data indicating that the neural retina is thicker in DS individuals than in the normal population. A similar thickening specifically affecting the inner part of the retina was also observed in a trisomic model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. Increased retinal size and cellularity in this model correlated with abnormal retinal function and resulted from an impaired caspase-9-mediated apoptosis during development. Moreover, we show that mice bearing only one additional copy of Dyrk1a have the same retinal phenotype as Ts65Dn mice and normalization of Dyrk1a gene copy number in Ts65Dn mice completely rescues both, morphological and functional phenotypes. Thus, triplication of Dyrk1a is necessary and sufficient to cause the retinal phenotype described in the trisomic model. Our data demonstrate for the first time the implication of DYRK1A overexpression in a developmental alteration of the central nervous system associated with DS, thereby providing insights into the aetiology of neurosensorial dysfunction in a complex disease. PMID:23512985

  16. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of rock alteration and water content at Mount Adams, Washington: Implications for lahar hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Anderson, E.D.; John, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Evaluating the hazards associated with such alteration is difficult because alteration has been mapped on few active volcanoes and the distribution and intensity of subsurface alteration are largely unknown on any active volcano. At Mount Adams, some Holocene debris flows contain abundant hydrothermal minerals derived from collapse of the altered, edifice. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock, and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Electromagnetic and magnetic data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. We identify steep cliffs at the western edge of this zone as the likely source for future large debris flows. In addition, the electromagnetic data identified water in the brecciated core of the upper 100-200 m of the volcano. Water helps alter the rocks, reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Our results demonstrate that high-resolution geophysical and geological observations can yield unprecedented views of the three-dimensional distribution of altered rock and shallow pore water aiding evaluation of the debris avalanche hazard.

  17. Xerocytosis is caused by mutations that alter the kinetics of the mechanosensitive channel PIEZO1.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chilman; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Nicolai, Chris; Sachs, Frederick; Gottlieb, Philip A

    2013-03-19

    Familial xerocytosis (HX) in humans is an autosomal disease that causes dehydration of red blood cells resulting in hemolytic anemia which has been traced to two individual mutations in the mechanosensitive ion channel, PIEZO1. Each mutation alters channel kinetics in ways that can explain the clinical presentation. Both mutations slowed inactivation and introduced a pronounced latency for activation. A conservative substitution of lysine for arginine (R2456K) eliminated inactivation and also slowed deactivation, indicating that this mutant's loss of charge is not responsible for HX. Fitting the current vs. pressure data to Boltzmann distributions showed that the half-activation pressure, P1/2, for M2225R was similar to that of WT, whereas mutations at position 2456 were left shifted. The absolute stress sensitivity was calibrated by cotransfection and comparison with MscL, a well-characterized mechanosensitive channel from bacteria that is driven by bilayer tension. The slope sensitivity of WT and mutant human PIEZO1 (hPIEZO1) was similar to that of MscL implying that the in-plane area increased markedly, by ∼6-20 nm(2) during opening. In addition to the behavior of individual channels, groups of hPIEZO1 channels could undergo simultaneous changes in kinetics including a loss of inactivation and a long (∼200 ms), silent latency for activation. These observations suggest that hPIEZO1 exists in spatial domains whose global properties can modify channel gating. The mutations that create HX affect cation fluxes in two ways: slow inactivation increases the cation flux, and the latency decreases it. These data provide a direct link between pathology and mechanosensitive channel dysfunction in nonsensory cells. PMID:23487776

  18. Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cézilly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

  19. Fuzzy cognitive map in differential diagnosis of alterations in urinary elimination: A nursing approach

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Massad, Eduardo; Higa, Rosângela; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a decision support system to discriminate the diagnoses of alterations in urinary elimination, according to the nursing terminology of NANDA International (NANDA-I). Methods A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was structured considering six possible diagnoses: stress urinary incontinence, reflex urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, functional urinary incontinence, total urinary incontinence and urinary retention; and 39 signals associated with them. The model was implemented in Microsoft Visual C++® Edition 2005 and applied in 195 real cases. Its performance was evaluated through the agreement test, comparing its results with the diagnoses determined by three experts (nurses). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were calculated considering the expert’s opinion as a gold standard. In order to compute the Kappa’s values we considered two situations, since more than one diagnosis was possible: the overestimation of the accordance in which the case was considered as concordant when at least one diagnoses was equal; and the underestimation of the accordance, in which the case was considered as discordant when at least one diagnosis was different. Results The overestimation of the accordance showed an excellent agreement (kappa = 0.92, p < 0.0001); and the underestimation provided a moderate agreement (kappa = 0.42, p < 0.0001). In general the FCM model showed high sensitivity and specificity, of 0.95 and 0.92, respectively, but provided a low specificity value in determining the diagnosis of urge urinary incontinence (0.43) and a low sensitivity value to total urinary incontinence (0.42). Conclusions The decision support system developed presented a good performance compared to other types of expert systems for differential diagnosis of alterations in urinary elimination. Since there are few similar studies in the literature, we are convinced of the importance of investing in this kind of modeling, both from the theoretical and from

  20. Toxoplasma gondii causes death and plastic alteration in the jejunal myenteric plexus

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Eduardo José de Almeida; Zaniolo, Larissa Marchi; Vicentino, Suellen Laís; Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Sant’Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) strain infection on the myenteric plexus and external muscle of the jejunum in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into two groups: the control group (CG) (n = 15) received 1 mL of saline solution orally, and the infected group (IG) (n = 15) inoculated with 1 mL of saline solution containing 500 oocysts of M-49 T. gondii strain orally. After 36 d of infection, the rats were euthanized. Infection with T. gondii was confirmed by blood samples collected from all rats at the beginning and end of the experiment. The jejunum of five animals was removed and submitted to routine histological processing (paraffin) for analysis of external muscle thickness. The remaining jejunum from the others animals was used to analyze the general population and the NADH-diaphorase, VIPergic and nitrergic subpopulations of myenteric neurons; and the enteric glial cells (S100-IR). RESULTS: Serological analysis showed that animals from the IG were infected with the parasite. Hypertrophy affecting jejunal muscle thickness was observed in the IG rats (77.02 ± 42.71) in relation to the CG (51.40 ± 12.34), P < 0.05. In addition, 31.2% of the total number of myenteric neurons died (CG: 39839.3 ± 5362.3; IG: 26766.6 ± 2177.6; P < 0.05); hyperplasia of nitrergic myenteric neurons was observed (CG: 7959.0 ± 1290.4; IG: 10893.0 ± 1156.3; P < 0.05); general hypertrophy of the cell body in the remaining myenteric neurons was noted [CG: 232.5 (187.2-286.0); IG: 248.2 (204.4-293.0); P < 0.05]; hypertrophy of the smallest varicosities containing VIP neurotransmitter was seen (CG: 0.46 ± 0.10; IG: 0.80 ± 0.16; P < 0.05) and a reduction of 25.3% in enteric glia cells (CG: 12.64 ± 1.27; IG: 10.09 ± 2.10; P < 0.05) was observed in the infected rats. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that infection with oocysts of ME-49 T. gondii strain caused quantitative and plastic alterations in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum in rats. PMID

  1. Microemboli alter the acute stress response and cause prolonged expression of MCP-1 in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-04-01

    Microvascular ischemia is linked to cardiovascular disease pathology, as well as alterations in mood and cognition. Ischemia activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and through chronic activation, alters HPA axis function. Dysregulation of the HPA axis can lead to the chronic release of glucocorticoids, a hyper-inflammatory cerebral response, cell damage, and changes in behavior. Although the interactions between injury and HPA axis activity have been established in global ischemia, HPA-related repercussions of diffuse ischemic damage and subsequent inflammation have not been assessed. The current study used a rat model of microsphere embolism (ME) ischemia to test the hypothesis that microvascular ischemia would lead to long term alterations in HPA axis function and inflammatory activity. Furthermore, given the pro-inflammatory nature of chronic stress, we assessed the implications of chronic stress for gene expression of inflammatory factors and key components of the glucocorticoid receptor response, following microvascular ischemia. Results indicated that ME altered the response to an acute stress fourteen days following ME injury and increased hippocampal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1) as long as 4 weeks following ME injury, without concomitant effects on gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor or its co-chaperones. Furthermore, no exacerbative effects of chronic stress exposure were observed following ME injury beyond the effects of ME injury alone. Together, these results indicate that ME injury is sufficient to alter both HPA axis activity and cerebral inflammation for a prolonged period of time following injury.

  2. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks in the Northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada and California with the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1987-01-01

    Seven flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were analyzed for an area of hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum, and an automated procedure was used to produce a color coded image displaying absorption band information. Individual spectra were extracted from the AIS images to determine the detailed mineralogy. Two alteration types were mapped based upon mineralogy identified using the AIS data. The primary alteration type is quartz sericite pyrite alteration which occurs in northwest-trending zones in quartz monzonite porphyry. The AIS data allow identification of sericite (muscovite) based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 micron and weaker absorption features near 2.35 and 2.45 micron. The second alteration type occurs as a zone of argillic alteration associated with a granitic intrusion. Montmorillonite was identified based on a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.2 micron and the absence of the two absorption features at longer wavelengths characteristic of sericite. Montmorillonite could be identified only where concentrations of sericite did not mask the montmorillonite spectrum.

  3. Interneuron Transcriptional Dysregulation Causes Frequency-Dependent Alterations in the Balance of Inhibition and Excitation in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Aundrea F.; Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Brady, Lillian J.; Li, Qin; Hablitz, John J.; Cowell, Rita M.

    2015-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction in complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia and autism is caused by imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission (I/E). Short-term plasticity differentially alters responses from excitatory and inhibitory synapses, causing the I/E ratio to change as a function of frequency. However, little is known about I/E ratio dynamics in complex brain disorders. Transcriptional dysregulation in interneurons, particularly parvalbumin interneurons, is a consistent pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that in hippocampus is highly concentrated in inhibitory interneurons and regulates parvalbumin transcription. Here, we used PGC-1α−/− mice to investigate effects of interneuron transcriptional dysregulation on the dynamics of the I/E ratio at the synaptic and circuit level in hippocampus. We find that loss of PGC-1α increases the I/E ratio onto CA1 pyramidal cells in response to Schaffer collateral stimulation in slices from young adult mice. The underlying mechanism is enhanced basal inhibition, including increased inhibition from parvalbumin interneurons. This decreases the spread of activation in CA1 and dramatically limits pyramidal cell spiking, reducing hippocampal output. The I/E ratio and CA1 output are partially restored by paired-pulse stimulation at short intervals, indicating frequency-dependent effects. However, circuit dysfunction persists, indicated by alterations in kainate-induced gamma oscillations and impaired nest building. Together, these results show that transcriptional dysregulation in hippocampal interneurons causes frequency-dependent alterations in I/E ratio and circuit function, suggesting that PGC-1α deficiency in psychiatric and neurological disorders contributes to disease by causing functionally relevant alterations in I/E balance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alteration in the inhibitory and

  4. Ultrastructural Study on Tissue Alterations Caused by Trypanosomatids in Experimental Murine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Finol, Héctor J.; Roschman-González, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The ultrastructural study in different tissues of mice experimentally infected with isolates of Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania mexicana reveals changes in cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle fibers, and hepatic, adrenal, kidney, and spleen cells. Some of these changes were cytoarchitectural and others consisted of necrosis. Alterations in the microvasculature were also found. The mononuclear cell infiltrate included neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. This work shows that diverse mice tissues are important target for trypanosomatids. PMID:25072046

  5. Mutations in XPR1 cause primary familial brain calcification associated with altered phosphate export

    PubMed Central

    Legati, Andrea; Giovannini, Donatella; Nicolas, Gaël; López-Sánchez, Uriel; Quintáns, Beatriz; Oliveira, João; Sears, Renee L.; Marisa Ramos, Eliana; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Carracedo, Ángel; Castro-Fernández, Cristina; Cubizolle, Stéphanie; Fogel, Brent L.; Goizet, Cyril; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Lang, Anthony E.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Pariente, Jérémie; Richard, Anne-Claire; Salins, Naomi S.; Simpson, Sheila A.; Striano, Pasquale; Svenningsson, Per; Tison, François; Unni, Vivek K.; Vanakker, Olivier; Wessels, Marja W.; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Yang, Michele; Boller, Francois; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Sitbon, Marc; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Battini, Jean-Luc; Coppola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurological disease characterized by calcium phosphate deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, thus far associated with SLC20A2, PDGFB, or PDGFRB mutations. We identified in multiple PFBC families mutations in XPR1, a gene encoding a retroviral receptor with phosphate export function. These mutations alter phosphate export, providing a direct evidence of an impact of XPR1 and phosphate homeostasis in PFBC. PMID:25938945

  6. Bifenthrin causes trophic cascades and alters insect emergence in mesocosms: implication for small streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Holly; Schmidt, Travis S.; Dabney, Brittanie L.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Mahler, Barbara J.; VanMetre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Direct and indirect ecological effects of the widely used insecticide bifenthrin on stream ecosystems are largely unknown. To investigate such effects, a manipulative experiment was conducted in stream mesocosms that were colonized by aquatic insect communities and exposed to bifenthrin-contaminated sediment; implications for natural streams were interpreted through comparison of mesocosm results to a survey of 100 Midwestern streams, USA. In the mesocosm experiment, direct effects of bifenthrin exposure included reduced larval macroinvertebrate abundance, richness, and biomass at concentrations (EC50s ranged 197.6 – 233.5 ng bifenthrin/ g organic carbon) previously thought safe for aquatic life. Indirect effects included a trophic cascade in which periphyton abundance increased after macroinvertebrate scrapers decreased. Adult emergence dynamics and corresponding terrestrial subsidies were altered at all bifenthrin concentrations tested. Extrapolating these results to the Midwestern stream assessment suggests pervasive ecological effects, with altered emergence dynamics likely in 40% of streams and a trophic cascade in 7% of streams. This study provides new evidence that a common pyrethroid might alter aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function at the regional scale.

  7. Epigenetic alterations caused by nutritional stress during fetal programming of the endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin C; Cerbón, Marco A; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2015-02-01

    Nutrition during critical periods of development is one of the pivotal factors in establishing a lifelong healthy metabolism. Different nutritional deficiencies such as a low availability of proteins in the maternal diet produce alterations in offspring that include changes in insulin and glucose metabolism, a decrease in the size and number of cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and premature ageing of the secretory function of pancreatic β cells. Moreover, it has been reported that chronic nutritional stress is associated with epigenetic alterations in mechanisms of gene regulation during pancreatic development and function. These alterations can lead to dysfunctional states in pancreatic β cells, which in the long run are responsible for the onset of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes. The present review summarizes the most important evidence in relation to the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression during the intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas in animal models. Such mechanisms include DNA methylation as well as modifications of histones and microRNAs (miRNAs).

  8. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  9. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  10. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  11. CauseMap: fast inference of causality from complex time series.

    PubMed

    Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Establishing health-related causal relationships is a central pursuit in biomedical research. Yet, the interdependent non-linearity of biological systems renders causal dynamics laborious and at times impractical to disentangle. This pursuit is further impeded by the dearth of time series that are sufficiently long to observe and understand recurrent patterns of flux. However, as data generation costs plummet and technologies like wearable devices democratize data collection, we anticipate a coming surge in the availability of biomedically-relevant time series data. Given the life-saving potential of these burgeoning resources, it is critical to invest in the development of open source software tools that are capable of drawing meaningful insight from vast amounts of time series data. Results. Here we present CauseMap, the first open source implementation of convergent cross mapping (CCM), a method for establishing causality from long time series data (≳25 observations). Compared to existing time series methods, CCM has the advantage of being model-free and robust to unmeasured confounding that could otherwise induce spurious associations. CCM builds on Takens' Theorem, a well-established result from dynamical systems theory that requires only mild assumptions. This theorem allows us to reconstruct high dimensional system dynamics using a time series of only a single variable. These reconstructions can be thought of as shadows of the true causal system. If reconstructed shadows can predict points from opposing time series, we can infer that the corresponding variables are providing views of the same causal system, and so are causally related. Unlike traditional metrics, this test can establish the directionality of causation, even in the presence of feedback loops. Furthermore, since CCM can extract causal relationships from times series of, e.g., a single individual, it may be a valuable tool to personalized medicine. We implement CCM in Julia, a

  12. CauseMap: fast inference of causality from complex time series.

    PubMed

    Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Establishing health-related causal relationships is a central pursuit in biomedical research. Yet, the interdependent non-linearity of biological systems renders causal dynamics laborious and at times impractical to disentangle. This pursuit is further impeded by the dearth of time series that are sufficiently long to observe and understand recurrent patterns of flux. However, as data generation costs plummet and technologies like wearable devices democratize data collection, we anticipate a coming surge in the availability of biomedically-relevant time series data. Given the life-saving potential of these burgeoning resources, it is critical to invest in the development of open source software tools that are capable of drawing meaningful insight from vast amounts of time series data. Results. Here we present CauseMap, the first open source implementation of convergent cross mapping (CCM), a method for establishing causality from long time series data (≳25 observations). Compared to existing time series methods, CCM has the advantage of being model-free and robust to unmeasured confounding that could otherwise induce spurious associations. CCM builds on Takens' Theorem, a well-established result from dynamical systems theory that requires only mild assumptions. This theorem allows us to reconstruct high dimensional system dynamics using a time series of only a single variable. These reconstructions can be thought of as shadows of the true causal system. If reconstructed shadows can predict points from opposing time series, we can infer that the corresponding variables are providing views of the same causal system, and so are causally related. Unlike traditional metrics, this test can establish the directionality of causation, even in the presence of feedback loops. Furthermore, since CCM can extract causal relationships from times series of, e.g., a single individual, it may be a valuable tool to personalized medicine. We implement CCM in Julia, a

  13. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  14. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  15. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  16. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  17. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  18. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  19. Lasting Effects of Instruction Guided by the Conflict Map: Experimental Study of Learning about the Causes of the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    This study was based on the framework of the "conflict map" to facilitate student conceptual learning about causes of the seasons. Instruction guided by the conflict map emphasizes not only the use of discrepant events, but also the resolution of conflict between students' alternative conceptions and scientific conceptions, using critical events…

  20. Alteration of Bile Canalicular Enzymes in Cholestasis. A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF BILE SECRETORY FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Francis R.; Arias, Irwin M.

    1973-01-01

    Bile secretory failure (cholestasis) may result from several possible mechanisms involved in bile secretion. We have examined the possibility that abnormalities in enzyme content, composition, and turnover of liver plasma membrane constituents are altered in cholestasis. Severe and mild cholestasis were produced by 5 days of bile duct ligation and ethinyl estradiol administration, respectively. Bile duct ligation but not ethinyl estradiol treatments was associated with elevations of the serum bilirubin level and 5′-nucleotidase activity. However, basal bile flow and bilirubin transport maximum (Tm) were significantly reduced after ethinyl estradiol treatment. Liver plasma membrane fractions rich in canalicular membranes were prepared from groups of rats in each of three categories; normal, after bile duct ligation, or ethinyl estradiol administration, and their respective controls. Electron microscopy and enzyme marker studies demonstrated plasma membrane fractions free of significant contamination. Plasma membrane fractions prepared from mild as well as severe cholestasis had increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduced 5′-nucleotidase and Mg2+-ATPase activities. Co2+-CMPase activity was unchanged. Kinetic analysis of 5′-nucleotidase and Mg2+-ATPase activities in plasma membrane fractions demonstrated reduced Vmaz (but unaltered Km). Reducted Vmaz was unrelated to addition in vitro of di-or trihydroxy bile salts or ethinyl estradiol and, therefore, suggests that reduced activities in cholestasis are due to decreased enzyme content. Cholestasis was not associated with changes in the synthesis or degradation rate of pulse-labeled plasma membrane proteins or alterations in the major protein bands separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Plasma membrane cholesterol, phospholipid, and neutral sugar content was unaltered, but sialic acid content was significantly increased in both forms of cholestasis. Alterations in

  1. Cause of exercise associated muscle cramps (EAMC)--altered neuromuscular control, dehydration or electrolyte depletion?

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, M P

    2009-06-01

    Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that require medical attention during or immediately after sports events. Despite the high prevalence of this condition the aetiology of EAMC in athletes is still not well understood. The purpose of this review is to examine current scientific evidence in support of (1) the "electrolyte depletion" and "dehydration" hypotheses and (2) the "altered neuromuscular control" hypothesis in the aetiology of EAMC. In this review, scientific evidence will, as far as possible, be presented using evidence-based medicine criteria. This is particularly relevant in this field, as the quality of experimental methodology varies considerably among studies that are commonly cited in support of hypotheses to explain the aetiology of EAMC. Scientific evidence in support of the "electrolyte depletion" and "dehydration" hypotheses for the aetiology of EAMC comes mainly from anecdotal clinical observations, case series totalling 18 cases, and one small (n = 10) case-control study. Results from four prospective cohort studies do not support these hypotheses. In addition, the "electrolyte depletion" and "dehydration" hypotheses do not offer plausible pathophysiological mechanisms with supporting scientific evidence that could adequately explain the clinical presentation and management of EAMC. Scientific evidence for the "altered neuromuscular control" hypothesis is based on evidence from research studies in human models of muscle cramping, epidemiological studies in cramping athletes, and animal experimental data. Whilst it is clear that further evidence to support the "altered neuromuscular control" hypothesis is also required, research data are accumulating that support this as the principal pathophysiological mechanism for the aetiology of EAMC.

  2. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  3. Structural and functional alterations in major peanut allergens caused by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K

    2004-01-01

    The majority of foods that we eat are subjected to some type of processing either at home or by the manufacturer. The biochemical reactions that occur in foods as a result of thermal processing can be both beneficial and harmful. Here, we briefly review the effects of thermal processing and some of the effects of the Maillard reaction on the allergenicity of food proteins. Specifically, we focus on the known effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins and the contribution of Maillard reaction products or advanced glycation end products to these observed effects. The most thorough understanding of the effects of thermal processing on allergenicity involves the peanut proteins. Thermal processing alters specific biophysical and immunological properties of peanut proteins, such as structure, function, solubility, digestibility, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding, and T-cell responses. A better understanding of the effects of thermal processing-induced biochemical and immunological alterations is of utmost importance for proper risk assessment of existing and newly introduced proteins in the food source, as well as development of effective diagnostic tools and therapeutic treatments for food allergy.

  4. Altered glycosylation in donor mice causes rejection of strain-matched skin and heart grafts.

    PubMed

    Gock, H; Murray-Segal, L J; Winterhalter, A C; Aminian, A; Moore, G T C; Brown, S J; d'Apice, A J F; Cowan, P J

    2014-04-01

    Differential protein glycosylation in the donor and recipient can have profound consequences for transplanted organs, as evident in ABO-incompatible transplantation and xenotransplantation. In this study, we investigated the impact of altered fucosylation on graft acceptance by using donor mice overexpressing human α1,2-fucosyltransferase (HTF). Skin and heart grafts from HTF transgenic mice were rapidly rejected by otherwise completely matched recipients (median survival times 16 and 14 days, respectively). HTF skin transplanted onto mice lacking T and B cells induced an natural killer cell-mediated innate rejection crisis that affected 50-95% of the graft at 10-20 days. However, in the absence of adaptive immunity, the residual graft recovered and survived long-term (>100 days). Experiments using "parked" grafts or MHC class II-deficient recipients suggested that indirect rather than direct antigen presentation plays a role in HTF skin graft rejection, although the putative antigen(s) was not identified. We conclude that altered glycosylation patterns on donor tissue can trigger a powerful rejection response comprising both innate and adaptive components. This has potential implications for allotransplantation, in light of increasing recognition of the variability of the human glycome, and for xenotransplantation, where carbohydrate remodeling has been a lynchpin of donor genetic modification.

  5. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  6. Mutations in the Microtubule-Associated Protein 1A (Map1a) Gene Cause Purkinje Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ye; Lee, Jeong Woong

    2015-01-01

    The structural microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are critical for the organization of neuronal microtubules (MTs). Microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) is one of the most abundantly expressed MAPs in the mammalian brain. However, its in vivo function remains largely unknown. Here we describe a spontaneous mouse mutation, nm2719, which causes tremors, ataxia, and loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons in aged homozygous mice. The nm2719 mutation disrupts the Map1a gene. We show that targeted deletion of mouse Map1a gene leads to similar neurodegenerative defects. Before neuron death, Map1a mutant Purkinje cells exhibited abnormal focal swellings of dendritic shafts and disruptions in axon initial segment (AIS) morphology. Furthermore, the MT network was reduced in the somatodendritic and AIS compartments, and both the heavy and light chains of MAP1B, another brain-enriched MAP, was aberrantly distributed in the soma and dendrites of mutant Purkinje cells. MAP1A has been reported to bind to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) scaffolding proteins, as well as to MTs. Indeed, PSD-93, the MAGUK specifically enriched in Purkinje cells, was reduced in Map1a−/− Purkinje cells. These results demonstrate that MAP1A functions to maintain both the neuronal MT network and the level of PSD-93 in neurons of the mammalian brain. PMID:25788676

  7. Spatial memory alterations in children with epilepsy of genetic origin or unknown cause.

    PubMed

    Cimadevilla, José Manuel; Lizana, Julio Ramos; Roldán, Maria Dolores; Cánovas, Rosa; Rodríguez, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause can remit before adolescence. In many children, the disease does not interfere with their academic achievement. Although there are neuropsychological studies characterising the cognitive profile, there are no studies in this population focused on spatial orientation abilities. In this study, we compared children with genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause with a control group using a virtual spatial learning task. Children with epilepsy showed worse performance on the spatial orientation task, although their visuo-spatial memory, attention, and working memory were normal. These results confirm that genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause is associated with more cognitive deficits. Virtual reality technologies can complement clinical assessment.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  9. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  10. Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlan; Wang, Yongming; Shen, Ye; Guo, Wanli; Hao, Shui; Liu, Bao

    2004-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genome can profoundly alter the patterns of DNA methylation and transcription of the host genome. Introgression of alien DNA into plant genomes through sexual crossing and genetic engineering are commonly used in breeding, but it is not known if plant genomes have similar responses to alien DNA introgression as those of animals. Two stable rice lines with introgression from wild rice, Zizania latifolia, were analyzed for patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and transcription of a set of selected sequences, including cellular genes and transposable element (TE)-related DNA segments. In 21 of the 30 studied sequences, marked changes in DNA methylation and/or transcription were observed compared with those of the rice parent. In all analyzed sequences, the absence of Zizania homologues in the introgression lines was confirmed. No change in DNA methylation and expression patterns was detected in randomly selected individuals of the rice parent nor in two sibling lines without introgressed Zizania DNA. The changed methylation patterns in both introgression lines were stably maintained in all five randomly sampled individuals of a given line, as well as in selfed progenies of the lines. Changed patterns in methylation and expression were also found in an independently produced asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia that involves a different rice genotype but also contains a small amount of Z. latifolia DNA integrated into the rice genome. Thus, we have demonstrated that alien DNA introgression into a plant genome can induce extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription of both cellular genes and TE-related DNA segments in a genotype-independent manner. PMID:15316290

  11. Brain studies may alter long-held concepts about likely causes of some voice disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    Two voice disorders long considered to be psychological problems, stuttering and spasmodic dysphonia, have been shown in many persons to have a neurophysiological basis. Investigators at the 155th national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in San Francisco, described their findings, which are based on new analytic techniques. The research is being done at the Dallas Center for Vocal Motor Control, Callier Center for Communication Disorders, University of Texas at Dallas Health Science Center. The technology employed to learn what's wrong with the brains, rather than the psyches, of persons with certain speech disorders includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM), and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). The results of applying these techniques are combined with quantitative behavioral measures of vocal and nonvocal motor control, language performance, and cognition to arrive at a better understanding of the problem.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium mapping places the gene causing familial Mediterranean fever close to D16S246

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E. N.; Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents refined genetic mapping data for the gene causing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a recessively inherited disorder of inflammation. We sampled 65 Jewish, Armenian, and Arab families and typed them for eight markers from chromosome 16p. Using a new algorithm that permits multipoint calculations for a dense map of markers in consanguineous families, we obtained a maximal LOD score of 49.2 at a location 1.6 cM centromeric to D16S246. A specific haplotype at D16S283-D16S94-D16S246 was found in 76% of Moroccan and 32% of non-Moroccan Jewish carrier chromosomes, but this haplotype was not overrepresented in Armenian or Arab FMF carriers. Moreover, the 2.5-kb allele at D16S246 was significantly associated with FMF in Moroccan and non-Moroccan Jews but not in Armenians or Arabs. Since the Moroccan Jewish community represents a relatively recently established and genetically isolated founder population, we analyzed the Moroccan linkage-disequilibrium data by using Luria-Delbruck formulas and simulations based on a Poisson branching process. These methods place the FMF susceptibility gene within 0.305 cM of D16S246 (2-LOD-unit range 0.02-0.64 cM). 41 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Mapping of resistance to spot blotch disease caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Uttam; Joshi, Arun K; Kumar, Sundeep; Chand, Ramesh; Röder, Marion S

    2009-02-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. The development of disease resistant cultivars is considered as the most effective control strategy for spot blotch. An intervarietal mapping population in the form of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross 'Yangmai 6' (a Chinese source of resistance) x 'Sonalika' (a spot blotch susceptible cultivar). The 139 single seed descent (SSD) derived F(6), F(7), F(8) lines of 'Yangmai 6' x 'Sonalika' were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. Joint and/or single year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odd ratio (LOD) >2.2, identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the chromosomes 2AL, 2BS, 5BL and 6DL. These QTLs were designated as QSb.bhu-2A, QSb.bhu-2B, QSb.bhu-5B and QSb.bhu-6D, respectively. A total of 63.10% of phenotypic variation was explained by these QTLs based on the mean over years. Two QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 5B with major effects were consistent over 3 years. All QTL alleles for resistance were derived from the resistant parent 'Yangmai 6'.

  14. Slow to fast alterations in skeletal muscle fibers caused by clenbuterol, a beta(2)-receptor agonist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Easton, Thomas G.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2)-receptor agonist, clenbuterol, and a beta(2) antagonist, butoxamine, on the skeletal muscle fibers of rats were investigated. It was found that chronic treatment of rats with clenbuterol caused hypertrophy of histochemically identified fast-twitch, but not slow-twitch, fibers within the soleus, while in the extensor digitorum longus the mean areas of both fiber types were increased; in both muscles, the ratio of the number of fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was increased. In contrast, a treatment with butoxamine caused a reduction of the fast-twitch fiber size in both muscles, and the ratio of the fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was decreased.

  15. Progressive alterations of central nervous system structure and function are caused by charged particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, G. A.; Cns Nscor Team

    A new NASA-sponsored program project (NSCOR) has been organized to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the response of a mammalian brain structure (mouse hippocampus) to charged-particle radiation. The NSCOR collaboration has three main goals. The first goal is to quantify the time- and dose-dependent changes in cellular composition and architecture. By using stereology on preserved brains, subsets of cells (neurons, glia, endothelia and stem cells) will be quantified out to 2 years after irradiation with accelerated protons and iron ions. To further characterize changes in vasculature architecture a polymer infusion technique will be used to produce a three-dimensional vasculature cast that then will be mapped by x-ray tomography to determine topological changes, and microscopic infarcts associated with amyloid protein deposits. The 2nd goal is to quantify hippocampal function(s). The primary measurement of function will be extracellular electrical recordings from hippocampal ``brain slices'' that reflect underlying functions such as connectivity, action potential generation & conduction, and neurotransmitter formation, secretion, and uptake. Individual nerve membrane properties will be assessed by ``patch clamp'' recordings. Two non-invasive methods will evaluate brain function and the evolution of changes with time. Electroencephalograms will map macroscopic spontaneous electrical activity while two state-of-the-art MRI magnetization sequences will visualize and quantify local oxygen utilization and white matter fiber tracts structural integrity. To quantify the brains' overall performance under stress, animals will receive a systemic shock mediated by the immune system in the form of a reaction to lipopolysaccharide. A second strategy will employ the APP23 transgenic mouse that develops the pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Measurements of irradiated mice will determine whether radiation exposure affects the latency and

  16. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    PubMed

    Davis, David A; Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C; Sander, Thomas K; Iwata, Nahoko; Pakbin, Payam; Shih, Jean C; Berhane, Kiros; McConnell, Rob; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E; Morgan, Todd E

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM). In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3)) or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week), encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml) to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  17. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, H; Bowker, B C; Eastridge, J S; Solomon, M B

    2013-11-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). Control and HDP samples were obtained immediately post-treatment and after 14days of aging for SEM and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis. Immediately post-treatment, HDP treated samples exhibited lower (P<0.01) WBSF than did controls. After aging, HDP-PC samples had lower (P<0.01) WBSF than that of aged controls. SEM analysis indicated that HDP-PC treatment disrupted the integrity of the collagen fibril network of the endomysium in both the non-aged and aged samples. Aging effects on the intramuscular connective tissue were observed in the HDP-PC and control samples. Both WBSF and connective tissue changes were greater in the HDP-PC than in the HDP-CU treated samples. Data suggest that shockwave alterations to connective tissue contribute to the meat tenderization of HDP.

  18. TFIIH subunit alterations causing xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy specifically disturb several steps during transcription.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amita; Compe, Emanuel; Le May, Nicolas; Egly, Jean-Marc

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC2 (XPD), and GTF2H5 (p8 or TTD-A) subunits of the transcription and DNA-repair factor TFIIH lead to three autosomal-recessive disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), XP associated with Cockayne syndrome (XP/CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Although these diseases were originally associated with defects in DNA repair, transcription deficiencies might be also implicated. By using retinoic acid receptor beta isoform 2 (RARB2) as a model in several cells bearing mutations in genes encoding TFIIH subunits, we observed that (1) the recruitment of the TFIIH complex was altered at the activated RARB2 promoter, (2) TFIIH participated in the recruitment of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors during transcription in a manner different from that observed during NER, and (3) the different TFIIH variants disturbed transcription by having distinct consequences on post-translational modifications of histones, DNA-break induction, DNA demethylation, and gene-loop formation. The transition from heterochromatin to euchromatin was disrupted depending on the variant, illustrating the fact that TFIIH, by contributing to NER factor recruitment, orchestrates chromatin remodeling. The subtle transcriptional differences found between various TFIIH variants thus participate in the phenotypic variability observed among XP, XP/CS, and TTD individuals.

  19. Loss of p53 causes mitochondrial DNA depletion and altered mitochondrial reactive oxygen species homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Maria A.; Eaton, Jana S.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its central role in cellular stress signaling, the tumor suppressor p53 modulates mitochondrial respiration through its nuclear transcription factor activity and localizes to mitochondria where it enhances apoptosis and suppresses mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis. Here we demonstrate a new conserved role for p53 in mtDNA copy number maintenance and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. In mammals, mtDNA is present in thousands of copies per cell and is essential for normal development and cell function. We show that p53 null mouse and p53 knock-down human primary fibroblasts exhibit mtDNA depletion and decreased mitochondrial mass under normal culture growth conditions. This is accompanied by a reduction of the p53R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase mRNA and protein and of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) at the protein level only. Finally, p53-depleted cells exhibit significant disruption of cellular ROS homeostasis, characterized by reduced mitochondrial and cellular superoxide levels and increased cellular hydrogen peroxide. Altogether, these results elucidate additional mitochondria-related functions for p53 and implicate mtDNA depletion and ROS alterations as potentially relevant to cellular transformation, cancer cell phenotypes, and the Warburg Effect. PMID:19413947

  20. Neonatal pneumococcal colonisation caused by Influenza A infection alters lung function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    FitzPatrick, Meaghan; Royce, Simon G.; Langenbach, Shenna; McQualter, Jonathan; Reading, Patrick C.; Wijburg, Odilia; Anderson, Gary P.; Stewart, Alastair; Bourke, Jane; Bozinovski, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging epidemiological data to suggest that upper respiratory tract bacterial colonisation in infancy may increase the risk of developing respiratory dysfunction later in life, and respiratory viruses are known to precipitate persistent colonisation. This study utilized a neonatal mouse model of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP) and influenza A virus (IAV) co-infection, where bronchoalveolar leukocyte infiltration had resolved by adulthood. Only co-infection resulted in persistent nasopharyngeal colonisation over 40 days and a significant increase in airway resistance in response to in vivo methacholine challenge. A significant increase in hysteresivity was also observed in IAV and co-infected mice, consistent with ventilatory heterogeneity and structural changes in the adult lung. Airway hyper-responsiveness was not associated with a detectable increase in goblet cell transdifferentiation, peribronchial smooth muscle bulk or collagen deposition in regions surrounding the airways. Increased reactivity was not observed in precision cut lung slices challenged with methacholine in vitro. Histologically, the airway epithelium appeared normal and expression of epithelial integrity markers (ZO-1, occludin-1 and E-cadherin) were not altered. In summary, neonatal co-infection led to persistent nasopharyngeal colonisation and increased airway responsiveness that was not associated with detectable smooth muscle or mucosal epithelial abnormalities, however increased hysteresivity may reflect ventilation heterogeneity. PMID:26940954

  1. Blood monocyte alteration caused by a hematozoan infection in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Reptilia: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Edilene O; Diniz, José P; Alberio, Sanny; Lainson, Ralph; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2004-08-01

    Although hematozoa have been described from many different host species, little is known about the infection and its relationship to the physiology of the host. We studied a hematozoan, regarded as a species of Lainsonia Landau, 1973 (Lankestereliidae), which infects the monocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva. The infected animals show a huge monocytosis and morphological changes in the monocytes. Ultrastructurally, the parasite has an apical complex, dense bodies, electron lucent structures, plasma membrane projections and folding which may be involved with nutrition. The parasite occupies a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) exhibiting high electron density at its membrane. Mitochondria and the Golgi complex of the monocytes were concentrated around the PV, and the cytoplasm was totally occupied by a vimentin type of intermediate filament radiating from (or to) the cytosolic surface of the PV. Vimentin was identified by diameter measurement, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. These observations indicate that this infection alters the physiological state of the host and suggest that this parasite has the ability to modify monocyte vimentin assembly. PMID:15243797

  2. Hematological alterations in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidade) caused by Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae).

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Lincoln L; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-06-15

    This study describes the hematological alterations in Astyanax altiparanae associated with infestation with Lernaea cyprinacea. The study was carried out in a lagoon of the Mogi-Guaçu River, in the municipality of Pirassununga, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of 46 fish examined, 45.6% had their integument infested by L. cyprinacea, with a mean intensity of 4.9 parasites per fish and a mean abundance of 2.2, giving a total of 139 recovered crustaceans. The abundance of L. cyprinacea correlated positively with the length and weight of the hosts, and the intensity of infestation was higher in female hosts. Macroscopic observation of lesions associated with the parasite showed a severe inflammatory reaction around the site of attachment of L. cyprinacea, associated with a lower relative condition factor and blood parameters. The hematocrit, number of red blood cells and thrombocytes were higher in non-parasitized than in parasitized fish. However, the hemoglobin concentration, hematimetric indices and the number of white blood cells were not influenced by infestation. PMID:27304872

  3. Mapping QTL conferring resistance in maize to gray leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora zeina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray leaf spot (GLS) is a globally important foliar disease of maize. Cercospora zeina, one of the two fungal species that cause the disease, is prevalent in southern Africa, China, Brazil and the eastern corn belt of the USA. Identification of QTL for GLS resistance in subtropical germplasm is important to support breeding programmes in developing countries where C. zeina limits production of this staple food crop. Results A maize RIL population (F7:S6) from a cross between CML444 and SC Malawi was field-tested under GLS disease pressure at five field sites over three seasons in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thirty QTL identified from eleven field trials (environments) were consolidated to seven QTL for GLS resistance based on their expression in at least two environments and location in the same core maize bins. Four GLS resistance alleles were derived from the more resistant parent CML444 (bin 1.10, 4.08, 9.04/9.05, 10.06/10.07), whereas the remainder were from SC Malawi (bin 6.06/6.07, 7.02/7.03, 9.06). QTLs in bin 4.08 and bin 6.06/6.07 were also detected as joint QTLs, each explained more than 11% of the phenotypic variation, and were identified in four and seven environments, respectively. Common markers were used to allocate GLS QTL from eleven previous studies to bins on the IBM2005 map, and GLS QTL “hotspots” were noted. Bin 4.08 and 7.02/7.03 GLS QTL from this study overlapped with hotspots, whereas the bin 6.06/6.07 and bin 9.06 QTLs appeared to be unique. QTL for flowering time (bin 1.07, 4.09) in this population did not correspond to QTL for GLS resistance. Conclusions QTL mapping of a RIL population from the subtropical maize parents CML444 and SC Malawi identified seven QTL for resistance to gray leaf spot disease caused by C. zeina. These QTL together with QTL from eleven studies were allocated to bins on the IBM2005 map to provide a basis for comparison. Hotspots of GLS QTL were identified on chromosomes one, two, four, five and

  4. Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

  5. Hematological and biochemical alterations in the fish Prochilodus lineatus caused by the herbicide clomazone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lindalva; Fernandes, Marisa N; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2013-07-01

    The indiscriminate use of herbicides has led to the contamination of water bodies, possibly affecting the health of aquatic biota. Therefore, to evaluate the possible effects of the clomazone-based herbicide (Gamit(®) 500) on the fish Prochilodus lineatus, juveniles were exposed for 96h to three concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgL(-1)) of clomazone, and an analysis was made of their hematological parameters: hemoglobin (Hb); hematocrit (Hct); red blood cell (RBC) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and biochemical parameters: glutathione S-transferase (GST); catalase (CAT); glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Hct presented a significant decrease at the concentration of 10mgL(-1), while the parameters Hb, HCM and MCHC presented a significant decrease at the two higher concentrations, indicating an anemic condition. The RBC increased significantly at the lowest concentration, possibly due to the release of new red blood cells into the bloodstream in response to splenic contraction, which may occur as an adaptive response to the stressor agent. P. lineatus presented activation of the biotransformation pathway, indicated by augmented hepatic activity of the enzyme GST and hepatic activation of the antioxidant enzyme CAT at the higher concentrations. Liver GPx was significantly inhibited at the higher concentrations, which may indicate the efficient action of CAT in the elimination of H2O2 or its competition with GST for the same substrate (GSH). AChE activity in brain and muscle was inhibited at the higher concentrations, indicating the neurotoxic effects of the herbicide in the fish. The hematological and biochemical alterations led to the conclusion that the herbicide clomazone has toxic effects on the species P. lineatus, and that its presence in the environment may jeopardize the health of these animals.

  6. Hypertension Does Not Alter the Increase in Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity Caused by Moderate Cold Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hintsala, Heidi E.; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Tulppo, Mikko P.; Helakari, Heta; Rintamäki, Hannu; Mäntysaari, Matti; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold increases blood pressure and may contribute to higher wintertime cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive people, but the mechanisms are not well-established. While hypertension does not alter responses of vagally-mediated heart rate variability to cold, it is not known how hypertension modifies baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and blood pressure variability during cold exposure. Our study assessed this among untreated hypertensive men during short-term exposure comparable to habitual winter time circumstances in subarctic areas. We conducted a population-based recruitment of 24 untreated hypertensive and 17 men without hypertension (age 55–65 years) who underwent a whole-body cold exposure (−10°C, wind 3 m/s, winter clothes, 15 min, standing). Electrocardiogram and continuous blood pressure were measured to compute spectral powers of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability at low (0.04–0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15–0.4 Hz) and spontaneous BRS at low frequency (LF). Comparable increases in BRS were detected in hypertensive men, from 2.6 (2.0, 4.2) to 3.8 (2.5, 5.1) ms/mmHg [median (interquartile range)], and in control group, from 4.3 (2.7, 5.0) to 4.4 (3.1, 7.1) ms/mmHg. Instead, larger increase (p < 0.05) in LF blood pressure variability was observed in control group; response as median (interquartile range): 8 (2, 14) mmHg2, compared with hypertensive group [0 (−13, 20) mmHg2]. Untreated hypertension does not disturb cardiovascular protective mechanisms during moderate cold exposure commonly occurring in everyday life. Blunted response of the estimate of peripheral sympathetic modulation may indicate higher tonic sympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic responsiveness to cold in hypertension. PMID:27313543

  7. Hypertension Does Not Alter the Increase in Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity Caused by Moderate Cold Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hintsala, Heidi E; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Tulppo, Mikko P; Helakari, Heta; Rintamäki, Hannu; Mäntysaari, Matti; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ikäheimo, Tiina M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold increases blood pressure and may contribute to higher wintertime cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive people, but the mechanisms are not well-established. While hypertension does not alter responses of vagally-mediated heart rate variability to cold, it is not known how hypertension modifies baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and blood pressure variability during cold exposure. Our study assessed this among untreated hypertensive men during short-term exposure comparable to habitual winter time circumstances in subarctic areas. We conducted a population-based recruitment of 24 untreated hypertensive and 17 men without hypertension (age 55-65 years) who underwent a whole-body cold exposure (-10°C, wind 3 m/s, winter clothes, 15 min, standing). Electrocardiogram and continuous blood pressure were measured to compute spectral powers of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability at low (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) and spontaneous BRS at low frequency (LF). Comparable increases in BRS were detected in hypertensive men, from 2.6 (2.0, 4.2) to 3.8 (2.5, 5.1) ms/mmHg [median (interquartile range)], and in control group, from 4.3 (2.7, 5.0) to 4.4 (3.1, 7.1) ms/mmHg. Instead, larger increase (p < 0.05) in LF blood pressure variability was observed in control group; response as median (interquartile range): 8 (2, 14) mmHg(2), compared with hypertensive group [0 (-13, 20) mmHg(2)]. Untreated hypertension does not disturb cardiovascular protective mechanisms during moderate cold exposure commonly occurring in everyday life. Blunted response of the estimate of peripheral sympathetic modulation may indicate higher tonic sympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic responsiveness to cold in hypertension. PMID:27313543

  8. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takashige; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight.

  9. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition. PMID:26033310

  10. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  11. Household Air Pollution Causes Dose-Dependent Inflammation and Altered Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Duncan G.; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N.; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K. A.; Wootton, Daniel G.; Glennie, Sarah J.; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke–exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions. PMID:25254931

  12. Household air pollution causes dose-dependent inflammation and altered phagocytosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rylance, Jamie; Fullerton, Duncan G; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K A; Wootton, Daniel G; Glennie, Sarah J; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke-exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions.

  13. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence?

    PubMed Central

    Lean, M E J; Malkova, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the research into the main peripheral appetite signals altered in human obesity, together with their modifications after body weight loss with diet and exercise and after bariatric surgery, which may be relevant to strategies for obesity treatment. Body weight homeostasis involves the gut–brain axis, a complex and highly coordinated system of peripheral appetite hormones and centrally mediated neuronal regulation. The list of peripheral anorexigenic and orexigenic physiological factors in both animals and humans is intimidating and expanding, but anorexigenic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexigenic ghrelin from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) from the pancreas and anorexigenic leptin from adiposites remain the most widely studied hormones. Homeostatic control of food intake occurs in humans, although its relative importance for eating behaviour is uncertain, compared with social and environmental influences. There are perturbations in the gut–brain axis in obese compared with lean individuals, as well as in weight-reduced obese individuals. Fasting and postprandial levels of gut hormones change when obese individuals lose weight, either with surgical or with dietary and/or exercise interventions. Diet-induced weight loss results in long-term changes in appetite gut hormones, postulated to favour increased appetite and weight regain while exercise programmes modify responses in a direction expected to enhance satiety and permit weight loss and/or maintenance. Sustained weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery may in part be mediated via favourable changes to gut hormones. Future work will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of each element of the axis, and whether modifying these signals can reduce the risk of obesity. PMID:26499438

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters pharmacological selectivity for epilepsy-causing KCNQ potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingzheng; Yu, Haibo; Gu, Min; Nan, Fa-jun; Gao, Zhaobing; Li, Min

    2013-05-21

    Pharmacological augmentation of neuronal KCNQ muscarinic (M) currents by drugs such as retigabine (RTG) represents a first-in-class therapeutic to treat certain hyperexcitatory diseases by dampening neuronal firing. Whereas all five potassium channel subtypes (KCNQ1-KCNQ5) are found in the nervous system, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are the primary players that mediate M currents. We investigated the plasticity of subtype selectivity by two M current effective drugs, retigabine and zinc pyrithione (ZnPy). Retigabine is more effective on KCNQ3 than KCNQ2, whereas ZnPy is more effective on KCNQ2 with no detectable effect on KCNQ3. In neurons, activation of muscarinic receptor signaling desensitizes effects by retigabine but not ZnPy. Importantly, reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) causes KCNQ3 to become sensitive to ZnPy but lose sensitivity to retigabine. The dynamic shift of pharmacological selectivity caused by PIP2 may be induced orthogonally by voltage-sensitive phosphatase, or conversely, abolished by mutating a PIP2 site within the S4-S5 linker of KCNQ3. Therefore, whereas drug-channel binding is a prerequisite, the drug selectivity on M current is dynamic and may be regulated by receptor signaling pathways via PIP2. PMID:23650395

  15. Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke.

  16. Application of geoelectric methods for man-caused gas deposit mapping and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Syniuk, B. B.

    2009-04-01

    The rather new application of original geoelectric methods of forming of short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF) and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS) (FSPEF-VERS technology) (Levashov et al., 2003; 2004) is discussed. In 2008 the FSPEF-VERS methods were used for ascertaining the reasons of serious man-caused accident on gas field. The emission of water with gas has occurred near an operational well on one gas field. The assumption was discussed, that some part of gas from producing horizons has got into the upper horizons, in aquiferous stratum layers. It promoted creation of superfluous pressure in aquiferous stratums which has led to accident on the field. Operative geophysical investigations within an accident site were carried out by FSPEF and VERS geoelectric methods on 07.10.08 and 13.10.08 on the first stage. The primary goal of executed works was detection and mapping of gas penetration zones in aquiferous stratums of cross-section upper part, and also the determination of bedding depths and a total area of distribution of gas in upper aquiferous stratums. The anomalous zone were revealed and mapped by FSPEF survey. It is caused by raised migration of water in upper horizons of a cross-section. The depths of anomalous polarized layers (APL) of "gas" and „aquiferous stratum" type were defined by VERS method. The VERS data are presented by sounding diagram's and columns, by vertical cross-sections lengthways and transversely of gas penetration zones, by map of thicknesses of man-caused gas "deposit". The perforation on depths of 450 and 310 m was spent in a producing borehole on the first day investigation data. Gas discharges were received from 450 and 310 m depths. Three degassing boreholes have been drilled on 08.11.08 working day. Depths of wells are about 340 m. Gas inflows were received from 330 m depth. Drilling of fourth well was conducted. The anomalous zone area has decreased twice in comparison with two previous surveys. So, the

  17. Altered feeding response as a cause for the altered heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of Schistosoma mansoni-infected biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Gilbertson, D E

    1983-08-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 33 days fed more often than uninfected snails. Whereas uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in feeding, snails with a 33-day-old infection of S. mansoni fed as often during the day as in the night. Using direct observation and film analysis, we found that feeding increased the heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of B. glabrata. When snails were allowed to feed ad lib., infected snails had higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails both during the day (P less than 0.01) and the night (P less than 0.001). However, when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr, infected snails had slightly higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails only during the day (P less than 0.05). There was no difference between the heartbeat rates of feeding, infected snails and the heartbeat rates of uninfected snails that were starved for 8 hr, and then allowed to feed. Uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in heartbeat rate regardless of feeding schedule, but infected snails had greater nighttime heartbeat rate than daytime heartbeat rate only when they were not allowed to feed. Infected snails had less nocturnal locomotor activity than uninfected snails when feeding, but there was no difference between the locomotor activity of infected and uninfected snails when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr. Absence of food also resulted in an increased nighttime to daytime ratio of locomotor activity of infected snails. These results suggest that the increased heartbeat rate and altered rhythms of heartbeat rate and locomotor activity in B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni for 33 days were caused by the altered feeding response of these snails.

  18. Alterations to the remote control of Shh gene expression cause congenital abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert E.; Lettice, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-species conserved non-coding elements occur in the vertebrate genome and are clustered in the vicinity of developmentally regulated genes. Many are known to act as cis-regulators of transcription and may reside at long distances from the genes they regulate. However, the relationship of conserved sequence to encoded regulatory information and indeed, the mechanism by which these contribute to long-range transcriptional regulation is not well understood. The ZRS, a highly conserved cis-regulator, is a paradigm for such long-range gene regulation. The ZRS acts over approximately 1 Mb to control spatio-temporal expression of Shh in the limb bud and mutations within it result in a number of limb abnormalities, including polydactyly, tibial hypoplasia and syndactyly. We describe the activity of this developmental regulator and discuss a number of mechanisms by which regulatory mutations in this enhancer function to cause congenital abnormalities. PMID:23650631

  19. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  20. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  1. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  2. Altered transport of lindane caused by the retention of natural particles in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Ngueleu, Stéphane K; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2014-07-01

    Attachment and straining of colloidal particles in porous media result in their reversible and irreversible retention. The retained particles may either increase the retention of hydrophobic pollutants by sorption onto the particles, or enhance pollutant transport when particles, loaded with the pollutants, are remobilized. The present study examines the effects of retained particles on the transport of the hydrophobic pesticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in saturated porous media. The lignite particles used have median diameters of about 3 μm, 1 μm, 0.8 μm, and 0.2 μm, respectively. Laboratory column experiments were analyzed by numerical modeling in order to identify and understand the processes involved in the transport of the particles and of lindane. Four scenarios were considered in which the solution containing lindane is injected either during or after the elution of the particles. The results show that lignite particles retained in a sandy porous medium alter the transport of the invading lindane. Particle retention was high in all scenarios and increased with increasing particle size. Remobilization of particles occurred due to a change in solution chemistry, and continuous particle detachment was observed over time. Numerical modeling of particle transport suggests that both reversible attachment and irreversible straining affected the transport of the particles. Lindane was retarded in all scenarios due to the strong particle retention in conjunction with the sorption of lindane onto the sand and onto retained particles, and the limited number of mobile particles carrying lindane. Moreover, it was found that intra-particle diffusion limited adsorption/desorption of lindane onto/from both limestone fragments of the sand and lignite particles. We assume that retention of lindane is reversible even though lindane recovery was incomplete over the duration of the experiments. The analysis of the effluent concentration suggests that retained

  3. Permeability Evolution of Fractured Anhydrite Caused by Chemical and Mechanical Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.; Ameli, P.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration requires competent structural seals (caprock) to prevent leakage over decadal time scales. Injection of large volumes of CO2 perturbs the target formation from chemical and mechanical equilibrium leading to the possible creation or enhancement of leakage pathways. We investigate the potential for leakage pathways (fractures) to grow over time under reservoir conditions in a series of anhydrite (Ca2SO4) cores. To simulate a potential leakage event in the laboratory, we fractured and jacketed the cores, and placed them in a flow-through reactor vessel. A high-pressure syringe pump applied confining stresses ranging from 7 to 17 MPa and another syringe pump pushed water through the sample at a constant flow rate with pressure control at the outlet. Effluent was sampled periodically and analyzed for Ca2+ and SO42- using an ion chromatograph. Before and after each experiment, we characterized the surfaces of the fractures using a high-resolution optical profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. Careful alignment of the surfaces during optical profiling allowed reproduction of the fracture aperture before and after each experiment. We present results from several experiments each carried out under different conditions in similar fractured anhydrite cores. One involved a well-mated pre-existing fracture and results showed that the permeability of the fractured core was similar to the intact rock matrix (O(10-18 m2); chemical alteration of the core was largely limited to the inflow face of the core and the fracture surfaces remained largely unaltered. To enhance permeability during subsequent experiments, we imposed a small (380 μm) shear displacement between the fracture surfaces resulting in a four-order-of-magnitude increase in initial permeability. The first of these was run at a constant flow rate of 0.6 ml/min for a period of 7 days. The measured pressure gradient within the core increased slowly for a period of 4 days followed

  4. Evaluation of 0.46- to 2.36-micrometre multispectral scanner images of the East Tintic mining district, Utah, for mapping hydrothermally altered rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Kahle, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner images recorded in the 0.46 to 2.36 micrometre region for the E Tintic mining district, Utah, were evaluated to determine their usefulness for distinguishing six types of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of sedimentary and igneous rock types. The laboratory and field evaluation of a color ratio composite image, supported by in situ spectral reflectance measurements and an alteration map compiled from a published map, shows that silicified, argillized, and pyritized rocks can be mapped in detail utilizing an intense OH absorption band centered near 2.2 micrometre. This absorption band is absent or weak in most of the unaltered rocks. -from Authors

  5. Quantitative Chemical-Genetic Interaction Map Connects Gene Alterations to Drug Responses | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In a recent Cancer Discovery report, CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a new quantitative chemical-genetic interaction mapping approach to evaluate drug sensitivity or resistance in isogenic cell lines. Performing a high-throughput screen with isogenic cell lines allowed the researchers to explore the impact of a panel of emerging and established drugs on cells overexpressing a single cancer-associated gene in isolation.

  6. Mineral identification and mapping of hydrothermal alteration zones using high-spectral resolution images (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Meer, Freek D.

    1994-01-01

    High-spectral resolution images (AVIRIS) of the cuprite mining area were used to evaluate atmospheric calibration algorithms and test several mineral mapping techniques. Four scene normalization techniques were used: (1) the flat-field method, (2) the internal average reflectance method, (3) the empirical line method, and (4) the atmospheric absorption removal method (ATREM). The algorithms were evaluated in terms of their spectral interpret- ability and their ability to remove both solar irradiance and atmospheric absorption features, noise, and artifacts. Noise was quantified by calculating the coefficient of variation of the spectra, and spectral interpretability was quantified by calcu- lating a difference spectrum (eg, laboratory spectrum minus pixel spectrum) for areas with known occurrences of clay minerals. These difference spectra were useful in evaluating the degree of removal of atmospheric features. The empirical line method produced the best calibration results. Mineral mapping as done using (1) color-composites of bands on the shoulders and centers of expected absorption features, (2) color-coded spectra, and (3) spectral angle mapping.

  7. Applied DC magnetic fields cause alterations in the time of cell divisions and developmental abnormalities in early sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.; Ernst, S.G.

    1997-05-01

    Most work on magnetic field effects focuses on AC fields. The present study demonstrates that exposure to medium-strength (10 mT--0.1 T) static magnetic fields can alter the early embryonic development of two species of sea urchin embryos. Batches of fertilized eggs from two species of urchin were exposed to fields produced by permanent magnets. Samples of the continuous cultures were scored for the timing of the first two cell divisions, time of hatching, and incidence of exogastrulation. It was found that static fields delay the onset of mitosis in both species by an amount dependent on the exposure timing relative to fertilization. The exposure time that caused the maximum effect differed between the two species. Thirty millitesla fields, but not 15 mT fields, caused an eightfold increase in the incidence of exogastrulation in Lytechinus pictus, whereas neither of these fields produced exogastrulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

  8. Altered Phase Behavior in Membranes of Aging Dry Pollen May Cause Imbibitional Leakage.

    PubMed Central

    Van Bilsen, DGJL.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Crowe, L. M.; Crowe, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Aging of dry pollen has been shown to coincide with increases of free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. These compounds reduce the integrity of hydrated liposomes made from isolated pollen phospholipids but do not lead to their total destruction. However, a massive, instantaneous leakage occurs upon imbibition of dry cattail pollen (Typha latifolia) that has aged to the point of complete loss of viability. To resolve the apparent discrepancy in stability between hydrated and dry membranes, the lyotropic phase behavior of two liposome systems containing lysophospholipid (12 mol%) was studied with differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In both systems dehydration caused phase separation of the lipids. Fourier transform infrared data concerning phase behavior of isolated membranes from aging pollen and of membranes in situ did not show phase separations, probably because the assay technique was not sufficiently sensitive to detect them. However, aging of the pollen resulted in a permanent increase in the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm) of isolated membranes and in a broadening of the transition in situ. We conclude that the increase in Tm of hydrated membranes may be more closely related to the leakage. PMID:12232157

  9. Central nervous system alterations caused by infection with the human respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2014-11-01

    Worldwide, the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization because of acute respiratory tract infections, including severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Despite intense research, to date there is neither vaccine nor treatment available to control hRSV disease burden globally. After infection, an incubation period of 3-5 days is usually followed by symptoms, such as cough and low-grade fever. However, hRSV infection can also produce a larger variety of symptoms, some of which relate to the individual's age at infection. Indeed, infants can display severe symptoms, such as dyspnea and chest wall retractions. Upon examination, crackles and wheezes are also common features that suggest infection by hRSV. Additionally, infection in infants younger than 1 year is associated with several non-specific symptoms, such as failure to thrive, periodic breathing or apnea, and feeding difficulties that usually require hospitalization. Recently, neurological symptoms have also been associated with hRSV respiratory infection and include seizures, central apnea, lethargy, feeding or swallowing difficulties, abnormalities in muscle tone, strabismus, abnormalities in the CSF, and encephalopathy. Here, we discuss recent findings linking the neurological, extrapulmonary effects of hRSV with infection and functional impairment of the CNS.

  10. The Baroque monuments of Modica (Eastern Sicily): assessment of causes of chromatic alteration of stone building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pezzino, Antonino; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    The Baroque monuments of several cities in eastern Sicily, built of local calcarenitic stone, are often subjected to conservation treatments, since they undergo many forms of alteration and degradation which can cause significant damage. However, a recent study of these building materials (Barone et al. in Environ. Geol. 54:1501, 2008) has demonstrated that some protective products, once applied, cause irreversible chromatic alterations. The façades of the monuments of the historic city centre of Modica are typically creamy yellow in colour, sometimes varying slightly due to the use of various pigments, such as clayey and gypseous earths (La Russa et al. in Appl. Phys. A 92:185, 2008). However, in some cases, these nuances are lost due to the application of protective products. This work provides a petrographic and colorimetric characterisation of the calcarenitic stone used to create the façades of the churches of S. Pietro, S. Maria del Soccorso and S. Maria dell’Annunziata in Modica, also by comparisons with locally quarried samples. In addition, it aims to identify protective substances which may have been used during previous restoration work. Analytical techniques included polarising optical microscopy, spectrophotometric colorimetric tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  11. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  12. Histopathological alterations in the striatum caused by Karwinskia humboldtiana (Buckthorn) fruit in an experimental model of peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Rosa Nelly; Castillo-González, Juan Antonio; Carcaño-Díaz, Katya; García-Juárez, Jaime; Salazar-Leal, Martha E; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo E; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Soto-Domínguez, Adolfo

    2016-04-01

    The accidental ingestion of Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) fruit in humans and animals causes chronic or acute intoxication. Acute poisoning induces respiratory failure that progresses rapidly to death. Studies in animals intoxicated with Kh describe lesions in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Kh intoxication in Wistar rats models the sub-lethal clinical phase observed in humans. Considering these reports, the present study analyzed the histopathological alterations within the striatum following experimental Kh intoxication. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n =5) and were intoxicated with Kh fruit. A control group (n =5) was included. Animals were euthanized at several time points (48, 58 and 170 days post-intoxication). The brain was collected, divided and processed for conventional histology or electron microscopy. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet, Klüver-Barrera, and toluidine blue. Immunolabeling was performed for glial cells in the striatum, and the samples were analyzed with light microscopy. Morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. In control group, neurons, axon bundles and neuropil had a normal appearance. At 48 days, hyperchromic neurons with apparent decreased size were observed interspersed among the normal neurons. At 58 days, we observed an increased number of hyperchromic neurons and disorganization of the myelin sheath and neuropil. At 170 days, these alterations persisted in the paralysis group. In treated groups, we observed signs of gliosis and increased axonal diameters. This study is the first report that describes the histopathological alterations within the striatum caused by chronic intoxication with Kh fruit in the Wistar rat. PMID:26544757

  13. Interpretation of aircraft multispectral scanner images for mapping of alteration with uranium mineralization, Copper Mountain, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    NS-001 multispectral scanner data (0.45-2.35 micron) combined as principal components were utilized to map distributions of surface oxidation/weathering in Precambrian granitic rocks at Copper Mountain, Wyoming. Intense oxidation is found over granitic outcrops in partly exhumed pediments along the southern margin of the Owl Creek uplift, and along paleodrainages higher in the range. Supergene(?) uranium mineralization in the granites is localized beneath remnant Tertiary sediments covering portions of the pediments. The patterns of mineralization and oxidation are in agreement, but the genetic connections between the two remain in doubt.

  14. Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B)-deficient neurons show structural presynaptic deficiencies in vitro and altered presynaptic physiology.

    PubMed

    Bodaleo, Felipe J; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Henríquez, Daniel R; Court, Felipe A; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) is expressed predominantly during the early stages of development of the nervous system, where it regulates processes such as axonal guidance and elongation. Nevertheless, MAP1B expression in the brain persists in adult stages, where it participates in the regulation of the structure and physiology of dendritic spines in glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, MAP1B expression is also found in presynaptic synaptosomal preparations. In this work, we describe a presynaptic phenotype in mature neurons derived from MAP1B knockout (MAP1B KO) mice. Mature neurons express MAP1B, and its deficiency does not alter the expression levels of a subgroup of other synaptic proteins. MAP1B KO neurons display a decrease in the density of presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals, which involves a reduction in the density of synaptic contacts, and an increased proportion of orphan presynaptic terminals. Accordingly, MAP1B KO neurons present altered synaptic vesicle fusion events, as shown by FM4-64 release assay, and a decrease in the density of both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles at presynaptic terminals. Finally, an increased proportion of excitatory immature symmetrical synaptic contacts in MAP1B KO neurons was detected. Altogether these results suggest a novel role for MAP1B in presynaptic structure and physiology regulation in vitro. PMID:27425640

  15. Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B)-deficient neurons show structural presynaptic deficiencies in vitro and altered presynaptic physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodaleo, Felipe J.; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Henríquez, Daniel R.; Court, Felipe A.; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) is expressed predominantly during the early stages of development of the nervous system, where it regulates processes such as axonal guidance and elongation. Nevertheless, MAP1B expression in the brain persists in adult stages, where it participates in the regulation of the structure and physiology of dendritic spines in glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, MAP1B expression is also found in presynaptic synaptosomal preparations. In this work, we describe a presynaptic phenotype in mature neurons derived from MAP1B knockout (MAP1B KO) mice. Mature neurons express MAP1B, and its deficiency does not alter the expression levels of a subgroup of other synaptic proteins. MAP1B KO neurons display a decrease in the density of presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals, which involves a reduction in the density of synaptic contacts, and an increased proportion of orphan presynaptic terminals. Accordingly, MAP1B KO neurons present altered synaptic vesicle fusion events, as shown by FM4-64 release assay, and a decrease in the density of both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles at presynaptic terminals. Finally, an increased proportion of excitatory immature symmetrical synaptic contacts in MAP1B KO neurons was detected. Altogether these results suggest a novel role for MAP1B in presynaptic structure and physiology regulation in vitro. PMID:27425640

  16. Darkfield reflection visible microspectroscopy equipped with a color mapping system of a brown altered granite.

    PubMed

    Onga, Chie; Nakashima, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Visible darkfield reflectance spectroscopy equipped with a color mapping system has been developed and applied to a brown-colored Rokko granite sample. Sample reflectance spectra converted to Kubelka-Munk (KM) spectra show similar features to goethite and lepidocrocite. Raman microspectroscopy on the granite sample surface confirms the presence of these minerals. Here, L*a*b* color values (second Commission Internationale d'Eclairage [CIELab] 1976 color space) were determined from the sample reflection spectra. Grey, yellow, and brown zones of the granite show different L*, a*, and b* values. In the a*-b* diagram, a* and b* values in the grey and brown zones are on the lepidocrocite/ferrihydrite trends, but their values in the brown zone are larger than those in the grey zone. The yellow zone shows data points close to the goethite trend. Iron (hydr)oxide-rich areas can be visualized by means of large a* and b* values in the L*, a*, and b* maps. Although the present method has some problems and limitations, the visible darkfield reflectance spectroscopy can be a useful method for colored-material characterization. PMID:25014840

  17. Darkfield reflection visible microspectroscopy equipped with a color mapping system of a brown altered granite.

    PubMed

    Onga, Chie; Nakashima, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Visible darkfield reflectance spectroscopy equipped with a color mapping system has been developed and applied to a brown-colored Rokko granite sample. Sample reflectance spectra converted to Kubelka-Munk (KM) spectra show similar features to goethite and lepidocrocite. Raman microspectroscopy on the granite sample surface confirms the presence of these minerals. Here, L*a*b* color values (second Commission Internationale d'Eclairage [CIELab] 1976 color space) were determined from the sample reflection spectra. Grey, yellow, and brown zones of the granite show different L*, a*, and b* values. In the a*-b* diagram, a* and b* values in the grey and brown zones are on the lepidocrocite/ferrihydrite trends, but their values in the brown zone are larger than those in the grey zone. The yellow zone shows data points close to the goethite trend. Iron (hydr)oxide-rich areas can be visualized by means of large a* and b* values in the L*, a*, and b* maps. Although the present method has some problems and limitations, the visible darkfield reflectance spectroscopy can be a useful method for colored-material characterization.

  18. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command. PMID:27558395

  19. Refined mapping of the gene causing Familial Mediterranean fever, by linkage and homozygosity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Gruberg, L.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Pras, M.; Kastner, D.L. ); Shen, Y.; Holman, K.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. ); Ramsburg, M.; Dean, M. ); Amos, C.I. )

    1993-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by attacks of fever and serosal inflammation; the biochemical basis is unknown. The authors recently reported linkage of the gene causing FMF (designated [open quotes]MEF[close quotes]) to two markers on chromosome 16p. To map MEF more precisely, they have now tested nine 16p markers. Two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, as well as a study of recombinant haplotypes, placed MEF between D16S94 and D16S80, a genetic interval of about 9 cM. They also examined rates of homozygosity for markers in this region, among offspring of consanguineous marriages. For eight of nine markers, the rate of homozygosity among 26 affected inbred individuals was higher than that among their 20 unaffected sibs. Localizing MEF more precisely on the basis of homozygosity rates alone would be difficult, for two reasons: First, the FMF carrier frequency increases the chance that inbred offspring could have the disease without being homozygous by descent at MEF. Second, several of the markers in this region are relatively nonpolymorphic, with a high rate of homozygosity, regardless of their chromosomal location. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  1. The Rose-comb Mutation in Chickens Constitutes a Structural Rearrangement Causing Both Altered Comb Morphology and Defective Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Boije, Henrik; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Fillon, Valérie; Dorshorst, Ben; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Liu, Ranran; Gao, Yu; Gu, Xiaorong; Wang, Yanqiang; Gourichon, David; Zody, Michael C.; Zecchin, William; Vieaud, Agathe; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Hallböök, Finn; Li, Ning; Andersson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Rose-comb, a classical monogenic trait of chickens, is characterized by a drastically altered comb morphology compared to the single-combed wild-type. Here we show that Rose-comb is caused by a 7.4 Mb inversion on chromosome 7 and that a second Rose-comb allele arose by unequal crossing over between a Rose-comb and wild-type chromosome. The comb phenotype is caused by the relocalization of the MNR2 homeodomain protein gene leading to transient ectopic expression of MNR2 during comb development. We also provide a molecular explanation for the first example of epistatic interaction reported by Bateson and Punnett 104 years ago, namely that walnut-comb is caused by the combined effects of the Rose-comb and Pea-comb alleles. Transient ectopic expression of MNR2 and SOX5 (causing the Pea-comb phenotype) occurs in the same population of mesenchymal cells and with at least partially overlapping expression in individual cells in the comb primordium. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects, as homozygosity in males has been associated with poor sperm motility. We postulate that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is a poorly characterized protein, but it contains a MSP (major sperm protein) domain and is expressed in testis. The study illustrates several characteristic features of the genetic diversity present in domestic animals, including the evolution of alleles by two or more consecutive mutations and the fact that structural changes have contributed to fast phenotypic evolution. PMID:22761584

  2. The Rose-comb mutation in chickens constitutes a structural rearrangement causing both altered comb morphology and defective sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Imsland, Freyja; Feng, Chungang; Boije, Henrik; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Fillon, Valérie; Dorshorst, Ben; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Liu, Ranran; Gao, Yu; Gu, Xiaorong; Wang, Yanqiang; Gourichon, David; Zody, Michael C; Zecchin, William; Vieaud, Agathe; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Hallböök, Finn; Li, Ning; Andersson, Leif

    2012-06-01

    Rose-comb, a classical monogenic trait of chickens, is characterized by a drastically altered comb morphology compared to the single-combed wild-type. Here we show that Rose-comb is caused by a 7.4 Mb inversion on chromosome 7 and that a second Rose-comb allele arose by unequal crossing over between a Rose-comb and wild-type chromosome. The comb phenotype is caused by the relocalization of the MNR2 homeodomain protein gene leading to transient ectopic expression of MNR2 during comb development. We also provide a molecular explanation for the first example of epistatic interaction reported by Bateson and Punnett 104 years ago, namely that walnut-comb is caused by the combined effects of the Rose-comb and Pea-comb alleles. Transient ectopic expression of MNR2 and SOX5 (causing the Pea-comb phenotype) occurs in the same population of mesenchymal cells and with at least partially overlapping expression in individual cells in the comb primordium. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects, as homozygosity in males has been associated with poor sperm motility. We postulate that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is a poorly characterized protein, but it contains a MSP (major sperm protein) domain and is expressed in testis. The study illustrates several characteristic features of the genetic diversity present in domestic animals, including the evolution of alleles by two or more consecutive mutations and the fact that structural changes have contributed to fast phenotypic evolution.

  3. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally. PMID:26438160

  4. Exposure of mice to cigarette smoke and/or light causes DNA alterations in heart and aorta.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Degan, Paolo; Pennisi, Tanya M; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2008-09-26

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other chronic degenerative diseases. UV-containing light is the most ubiquitous DNA-damaging agent existing in nature, but its possible role in cardiovascular diseases had never been suspected before, although it is known that mortality for cardiovascular diseases is increased during periods with high temperature and solar irradiation. We evaluated whether exposure of Swiss CD-1 mice to environmental CS (ECS) and UV-C-covered halogen quartz lamps, either individually or in combination, can cause DNA damage in heart and aorta cells. Nucleotide alterations were evaluated by (32)P postlabeling methods and by HPLC-electrochemical detection. The whole-body exposure of mice to ECS considerably increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and of bulky DNA adducts in both heart and aorta. Surprisingly, even exposure to a light that simulated solar irradiation induced oxidatively generated damage in both tissues. The genotoxic effects of UV light in internal organs is tentatively amenable to formation of unidentified long-lived mutagenic products in the skin of irradiated mice. Nucleotide alterations were even more pronounced when the mice were exposed to smoke and/or light during the first 5 weeks of life rather than during adulthood for an equivalent period of time. Although the pathogenetic meaning is uncertain, DNA damage in heart and aorta may tentatively be related to cardiomyopathies and to the atherogenesis process, respectively.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally.

  6. Alteration of cytoskeletal molecules in a human T cell line caused by continuous exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Megumi; Chen, Ying; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Hiratsuka, Jun-Ichi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Otsuki, Takemi

    2013-09-01

    Among the various biological effects of asbestos such as fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis, we have been focusing on the immunological effects becausesilica (SiO(2)) and asbestos chemically is a mineral silicate of silica. Observations of the effects of asbestos on CD4+ T cells showed reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor and reduced capacity of interferon γ production. In particular, use of theHTLV-1 immortalized human T cell line, MT-2, and cDNA array analysis have helped to identify the modification of CXCR3. We investigated alteration of protein expression among MT-2 original cells that had no contact with asbestos, and six chrysotile-continuously exposed independent sublines using ProteinChip and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) assays. Further confirmation of the changes in protein expression due to asbestos exposure was obtained after the 2DGE method indicated protein modification of β-actin. β-actin was upregulated in mRNA, as were the levels of protein expression and phosphorylation. Moreover, a binding assay between cells and chrysotile showed that various molecules related to the cytoskeleton such as vimentin, myosin-9 and tubulin-β2, as well as β-actin, exhibited enhanced bindings in asbestos-exposed cells. The overall findings indicate that the cell surface cytoskeleton may play an important role in inducing the cellular changes caused by asbestos in immune cells, since fibers are not incorporated to the cells and how the alterations of cytoskeleton determined cell destiny to cause the reduction of tumor immunity is important to consider the biological effects of asbestos. Further studies to target several cytoskeleton-related molecules associated with the effects of asbestos will result in a better understanding of the immunological effects of asbestos and support the development of chemo-prevention to recover anti-tumor immunity in asbestos-exposed patients.

  7. Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Synergize to Cause Incipient Renal Tubular Alterations Resulting in Increased NGAL Urinary Excretion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Quiros, Yaremi; Montero, María J.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; López-Novoa, José M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner. Methods Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR) or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls). Results Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently) causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion. PMID:25148248

  8. Rapid dissection of a complex phenotype through genomic-scale mapping of fitness altering genes.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, T E; Lynch, M D; Karimpour-Fard, A; Lipscomb, M L; Handke, P; Mills, T; Ramey, C J; Hoang, T; Gill, R T

    2010-05-01

    The understanding and engineering of complex phenotypes is a critical issue in biotechnology. Conventional approaches for engineering such phenotypes are often resource intensive, marginally effective, and unable to generate the level of biological understanding desired. Here, we report a new approach for rapidly dissecting a complex phenotype that is based upon the combination of genome-scale growth phenotype data, precisely targeted growth selections, and informatic strategies for abstracting and summarizing data onto coherent biological processes. We measured at high resolution (125 NT) and for the entire genome the effect of increased gene copy number on overall biological fitness corresponding to the expression of a complex phenotype (tolerance to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in Escherichia coli). Genetic level fitness data were then mapped according to various definitions of gene-gene interaction in order to generate network-level fitness data. When metabolic pathways were used to define interactions, we observed that genes within the chorismate and threonine super-pathways were disproportionately enriched throughout selections for 3-HP tolerance. Biochemical and genetic studies demonstrated that alleviation of inhibition of either of these super-pathways was sufficient to mitigate 3-HP toxicity. These data enabled the design of combinatorial modifications that almost completely offset 3-HP toxicity in minimal medium resulting in a 20 g/L and 25-fold increase in tolerance and specific growth, respectively.

  9. Mapping surface alteration effects associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs at Gypsum Plain, Texas, and Cement, Oklahoma, using multispectral information

    SciTech Connect

    Carrerre, V.; Lang, H.R. ); Crawford, M.F. )

    1991-08-01

    Two test sites, Gypsum Plain, Texas, and Cement, Oklahoma, were selected to evaluate combined use of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) for detection of alteration effects associated with hydrocarbon microseepage. Bleaching of redbuds, variations in carbonate cement, replacement of gypsum, exidation of iron, and changes in clay mineralogy may correlate spatially with oil and gas production and subsurface structures. Spectral features due to iron oxides, calcite, gypsum, smectite, and kaolinite can be mapped using AVIRIS image data, using various techniques such as ratios, scene-dependent log residuals, and scene-independent radioactive transfer approach using LOWTRAN7, and with TIMSA data using DSTRETCH. Poor signal-to-noise in the 2.0-2.4 {mu}m region limited the ability to map clay, gypsum, and carbonates both at Cement and Gypsum Plain, carbonate and quartz-rich sediments at Gypsum Plain, and differentiated soils developed on the Rush Spring Sandstone from soil derived from the Cloud Chief Formation at Cement. Combined spectral and photogeologic interpretation of coregistered AVIRIS, TIMS, and Landsat TM, and digital elevation data demonstrate the practical approaches for surface oil and gas exploration using presently operational commercial aircraft and future satellite systems.

  10. A Novel FC116/BC10 Mutation Distinctively Causes Alteration in the Expression of the Genes for Cell Wall Polymer Synthesis in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wei, Feng; Guo, Kai; Hu, Zhen; Li, Yuyang; Xie, Guosheng; Wang, Yanting; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai; Wang, Lingqiang

    2016-01-01

    We report isolation and characterization of a fragile culm mutant fc116 that displays reduced mechanical strength caused by decreased cellulose content and altered cell wall structure in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that fc116 was a base substitution mutant (G to A) in a putative beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) gene (LOC_Os05g07790, allelic to BC10). This mutation resulted in one amino acid missing within a newly-identified protein motif “R, RXG, RA.” The FC116/BC10 gene was lowly but ubiquitously expressed in the all tissues examined across the whole life cycle of rice, and slightly down-regulated during secondary growth. This mutant also exhibited a significant increase in the content of hemicelluloses and lignins, as well as the content of pentoses (xylose and arabinose). But the content of hexoses (glucose, mannose, and galactose) was decreased in both cellulosic and non-cellulosic (pectins and hemicelluloses) fractions of the mutant. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that the typical genes in the fc116 mutant were up-regulated corresponding to xylan biosynthesis, as well as lignin biosynthesis including p-hydroxyphenyl (H), syringyl (S), and guaiacyl (G). Our results indicate that FC116 has universal function in regulation of the cell wall polymers in rice. PMID:27708650

  11. New insight into the Delia platura Meigen caused alteration in nutrient content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill).

    PubMed

    Bosnyákné, Helga Egri; Kerepesi, Ildikó; Keszthelyi, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    Climate change has brought about an increasing level of seedcorn maggot (Delia platura Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) damage in Hungary. In order to have a more accurate understanding of the effects of these plant injuries induced by the larvae of D. platura, the nutrient content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill.) was studied. Our results show that the moisture, raw fat, raw fibre, and raw ash content of the batches damaged by D. platura were significantly less in comparison with that of the control samples. In response to the deleterious effect of the insect, the infected soybean plants showed forced ripening (P = 0.004) (P > 0.05). The difference of moisture content between damaged and control samples was 2.30% on average. The fact of nutritional value loss was also reflected by the alteration of sugar mobilisation. As the result of this experiment the sucrose breakdown to glucose and fructose during the germination was significantly slower in the damaged seeds than that of the control ones. Overall, this late and surprising damage caused by D. platura led to the forced ripening of the affected soybean plants and a significant change in their nutritional values. Based on the herein reported results, it is presumable that in cases when the current climatic extremities, which are envisaged to occur more frequently in the future, and effects of agricultural practices will be coincided in the future a qualitative change of the produced soybean batches can be expected through the damage caused by this fly species.

  12. New insight into the Delia platura Meigen caused alteration in nutrient content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill).

    PubMed

    Bosnyákné, Helga Egri; Kerepesi, Ildikó; Keszthelyi, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    Climate change has brought about an increasing level of seedcorn maggot (Delia platura Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) damage in Hungary. In order to have a more accurate understanding of the effects of these plant injuries induced by the larvae of D. platura, the nutrient content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill.) was studied. Our results show that the moisture, raw fat, raw fibre, and raw ash content of the batches damaged by D. platura were significantly less in comparison with that of the control samples. In response to the deleterious effect of the insect, the infected soybean plants showed forced ripening (P = 0.004) (P > 0.05). The difference of moisture content between damaged and control samples was 2.30% on average. The fact of nutritional value loss was also reflected by the alteration of sugar mobilisation. As the result of this experiment the sucrose breakdown to glucose and fructose during the germination was significantly slower in the damaged seeds than that of the control ones. Overall, this late and surprising damage caused by D. platura led to the forced ripening of the affected soybean plants and a significant change in their nutritional values. Based on the herein reported results, it is presumable that in cases when the current climatic extremities, which are envisaged to occur more frequently in the future, and effects of agricultural practices will be coincided in the future a qualitative change of the produced soybean batches can be expected through the damage caused by this fly species. PMID:27630049

  13. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  14. Microcystic cyanobacteria causes mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and reactive oxygen species formation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, W X; Shen, H M; Shen, Y; Zhu, H G; Ong, C N

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria contamination of water has become a growing public health problem worldwide. Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common toxic cyanobacteria. It is capable of producing microcystins, a group of cyclic heptapeptide compounds with potent hepatotoxicity and tumor promotion activity. The present study investigated the effect of microcystic cyanobacteria on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by examining mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cells treated with lyophilized freshwater microcystic cyanobacteria extract (MCE). Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) was used as a fluorescent probe for changes in mitochondrial fluorescence intensity. The mitochondrial Rh-123 fluorescence intensity in MCE-treated hepatocytes, examined using a laser confocal microscope, responded in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results thus indicate that the alteration of MMP might be an important event in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. Moreover, the parallel increase of ROS formation detected using another fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate also suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. The fact that MMP changes precede other cytotoxic parameters such as nuclear staining by propidium iodide and cell morphological changes suggests that mitochondrial damage is closely associated with MCE-induced cell injury in cultured rat hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9637798

  15. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  16. Absence of BRINP1 in mice causes increase of hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral alterations relevant to human psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously identified BRINP (BMP/RA-inducible neural-specific protein-1, 2, 3) family genes that possess the ability to suppress cell cycle progression in neural stem cells. Of the three family members, BRINP1 is the most highly expressed in various brain regions, including the hippocampus, in adult mice and its expression in dentate gyrus (DG) is markedly induced by neural activity. In the present study, we generated BRINP1-deficient (KO) mice to clarify the physiological functions of BRINP1 in the nervous system. Results Neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus was increased in BRINP1-KO mice creating a more immature neuronal population in granule cell layer. The number of parvalbumin expressing interneuron in hippocampal CA1 subregion was also increased in BRINP1-KO mice. Furthermore, BRINP1-KO mice showed abnormal behaviors with increase in locomotor activity, reduced anxiety-like behavior, poor social interaction, and slight impairment of working memory, all of which resemble symptoms of human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Conclusions Absence of BRINP1 causes deregulation of neurogenesis and impairments of neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal circuitry. Abnormal behaviors comparable to those of human psychiatric disorders such as hyperactivity and poor social behavior were observed in BRINP1-KO mice. These abnormal behaviors could be caused by alteration of hippocampal circuitry as a consequence of the lack of BRINP1. PMID:24528488

  17. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.

  18. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  19. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is an important virulence factor of this microorganism. The terminal organelle is supported by a cytoskeleton complex of about 300 nm in length that includes three substructures: the terminal button, the rod and the wheel complex. The crystal structure of the MG491 protein, a proposed component of the wheel complex, has been determined at ~3 Å resolution. MG491 subunits are composed of a 60-residue N-terminus, a central three-helix-bundle spanning about 150 residues and a C-terminal region that appears to be quite flexible and contains the region that interacts with MG200, another key protein of the terminal organelle. The MG491 molecule is a tetramer presenting a unique organization as a dimer of asymmetric pairs of subunits. The asymmetric arrangement results in two very different intersubunit interfaces between the central three-helix-bundle domains, which correlates with the formation of only ~50% of the intersubunit disulfide bridges of the single cysteine residue found in MG491 (Cys87). Moreover, M. genitalium cells with a point mutation in the MG491 gene causing the change of Cys87 to Ser present a drastic reduction in motility (as determined by microcinematography) and important alterations in morphology (as determined by electron microscopy), while preserving normal levels of the terminal organelle proteins. Other variants of MG491, designed also according to the structural information, altered significantly the motility and/or the cell morphology. Together, these results indicate that MG491 plays a key role in the functioning, organization and stabilization of the terminal organelle. PMID:27082435

  20. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luca; García-Morales, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M

    2016-04-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is an important virulence factor of this microorganism. The terminal organelle is supported by a cytoskeleton complex of about 300 nm in length that includes three substructures: the terminal button, the rod and the wheel complex. The crystal structure of the MG491 protein, a proposed component of the wheel complex, has been determined at ~3 Å resolution. MG491 subunits are composed of a 60-residue N-terminus, a central three-helix-bundle spanning about 150 residues and a C-terminal region that appears to be quite flexible and contains the region that interacts with MG200, another key protein of the terminal organelle. The MG491 molecule is a tetramer presenting a unique organization as a dimer of asymmetric pairs of subunits. The asymmetric arrangement results in two very different intersubunit interfaces between the central three-helix-bundle domains, which correlates with the formation of only ~50% of the intersubunit disulfide bridges of the single cysteine residue found in MG491 (Cys87). Moreover, M. genitalium cells with a point mutation in the MG491 gene causing the change of Cys87 to Ser present a drastic reduction in motility (as determined by microcinematography) and important alterations in morphology (as determined by electron microscopy), while preserving normal levels of the terminal organelle proteins. Other variants of MG491, designed also according to the structural information, altered significantly the motility and/or the cell morphology. Together, these results indicate that MG491 plays a key role in the functioning, organization and stabilization of the terminal organelle. PMID:27082435

  1. Na+ Influx Induced by New Antimalarials Causes Rapid Alterations in the Cholesterol Content and Morphology of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Bhatanagar, Suyash; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Daly, Thomas M.; Burns, James M.; Coppens, Isabelle; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2016-01-01

    Among the several new antimalarials discovered over the past decade are at least three clinical candidate drugs, each with a distinct chemical structure, that disrupt Na+ homeostasis resulting in a rapid increase in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) within the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. At present, events triggered by Na+ influx that result in parasite demise are not well-understood. Here we report effects of two such drugs, a pyrazoleamide and a spiroindolone, on intraerythrocytic P. falciparum. Within minutes following the exposure to these drugs, the trophozoite stage parasite, which normally contains little cholesterol, was made permeant by cholesterol-dependent detergents, suggesting it acquired a substantial amount of the lipid. Consistently, the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2), glycosylphosphotidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins normally uniformly distributed in the parasite plasma membrane, coalesced into clusters. These alterations were not observed following drug treatment of P. falciparum parasites adapted to grow in a low [Na+] growth medium. Both cholesterol acquisition and MSP1 coalescence were reversible upon the removal of the drugs, implicating an active process of cholesterol exclusion from trophozoites that we hypothesize is inhibited by high [Na+]i. Electron microscopy of drug-treated trophozoites revealed substantial morphological changes normally seen at the later schizont stage including the appearance of partial inner membrane complexes, dense organelles that resemble “rhoptries” and apparent nuclear division. Together these results suggest that [Na+]i disruptor drugs by altering levels of cholesterol in the parasite, dysregulate trophozoite to schizont development and cause parasite demise. PMID:27227970

  2. [Incidence and causes of early end in awake surgery for language mapping not directly related to eloquence].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Gloria; Pacreu, Susana; Fernández-Candil, Juan Luis; León, Alba; Serrano, Laura; Conesa, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and causes that may lead to an early end (unfinished cortical/subcortical mapping) of awake surgery for language mapping are little known. A study was conducted on 41 patients with brain glioma located in the language area that had awake surgery under conscious sedation. Surgery was ended early in 6 patients. The causes were: tonic-clonic seizure (1), lack of cooperation due to fatigue/sleep (4), whether or not word articulation was involved, a decreased level of consciousness for ammonia encephalopathy that required endotracheal intubation (1). There are causes that could be expected and in some cases avoided. Tumour size, preoperative aphasia, valproate treatment, and type of anaesthesia used are variables to consider to avoid failure in awake surgery for language mapping. With these results, the following measures are proposed: l) If the tumour is large, perform surgery in two times to avoid fatigue, 2) if patient has a preoperative aphasia, do not use sedation during surgery to ensure that sleepiness does not cause worse word articulation, 3) if the patient is on valproate treatment, it is necessary to rule out the pre-operative symptoms that are not due to ammonia encephalopathy.

  3. [Incidence and causes of early end in awake surgery for language mapping not directly related to eloquence].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Gloria; Pacreu, Susana; Fernández-Candil, Juan Luis; León, Alba; Serrano, Laura; Conesa, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and causes that may lead to an early end (unfinished cortical/subcortical mapping) of awake surgery for language mapping are little known. A study was conducted on 41 patients with brain glioma located in the language area that had awake surgery under conscious sedation. Surgery was ended early in 6 patients. The causes were: tonic-clonic seizure (1), lack of cooperation due to fatigue/sleep (4), whether or not word articulation was involved, a decreased level of consciousness for ammonia encephalopathy that required endotracheal intubation (1). There are causes that could be expected and in some cases avoided. Tumour size, preoperative aphasia, valproate treatment, and type of anaesthesia used are variables to consider to avoid failure in awake surgery for language mapping. With these results, the following measures are proposed: l) If the tumour is large, perform surgery in two times to avoid fatigue, 2) if patient has a preoperative aphasia, do not use sedation during surgery to ensure that sleepiness does not cause worse word articulation, 3) if the patient is on valproate treatment, it is necessary to rule out the pre-operative symptoms that are not due to ammonia encephalopathy. PMID:26260205

  4. Interstitial chromatin alteration causes persistent p53 activation involved in the radiation-induced senescence-like growth arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami . E-mail: nabe@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Various stresses including ionizing radiation give normal human fibroblasts a phenotype of senescence-like growth arrest (SLGA), manifested by p53-dependent irreversible G1 arrest. To determine the mechanism of persistent activation of p53, we examined phosphorylated Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and phosphorylated histone H2AX foci formation after X-irradiation. Although the multiple tiny foci, detected soon after (<30 min) irradiation, gradually disappeared, some of these foci changed to large foci and persisted for 5 days. Large foci containing phosphorylated ATM and {gamma}-H2AX co-localized and foci with p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 also showed the same distribution. Interestingly, the signals obtained by telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay did not co-localize with 90% of the large foci. Our results indicate that chromatin alteration in interstitial chromosomal regions is the most likely cause of continuous activation of p53, which results in the induction of SLGA by ionizing radiation.

  5. Mapping of the Land Cover Spatiotemporal Characteristics in Northern Russia Caused by Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panidi, E.; Tsepelev, V.; Torlopova, N.; Bobkov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover) dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass). We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  6. Analysis of protein gene products in cells with altered chromosome sets for the purpose of genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkin, S.S.; Zakharov, S.F.; Gromov, P.S.; Shcheglova, M.V.; Kukharenko, V.I.; Shilov, A.G.; Matveeva, N.M.; Zhdanova, N.S.; Efimochkin, A.S.; Krokhina, T.B. |

    1994-12-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used for analyzing proteins in hybrid cells that contained single human chromosomes (chromosome 5, chromosome 21, or chromosomes 5 and 21) against the background of the mouse genome. By comparing the protein patterns of hybrid and parent cells (about 1000 protein fractions for each kind of cell), five fractions among proteins of hybrid cells were supposedly identified as human proteins. The genes of two of them are probably located on chromosome 5, and those of the other three on chromosome 21. Moreover, analysis of proteins in fibroblasts of patients with the cri-du-chat syndrome (5p-) revealed a decrease in the content of two proteins as compared with those in preparations of diploid fibroblasts. This fact was regarded as evidence that two corresponding genes are located on the short arm of chromosome 5. Methodological problems associated with the use of protein pattern analysis in cells with altered chromosome sets for the purposes of genetic mapping are discussed.

  7. Heterozygous Mutations in MAP3K7, Encoding TGF-β-Activated Kinase 1, Cause Cardiospondylocarpofacial Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Rogers, Curtis; Le Goff, Wilfried; Pinto, Graziella; Bonnet, Damien; Chrabieh, Maya; Alibeu, Olivier; Nistchke, Patrick; Munnich, Arnold; Picard, Capucine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    Cardiospondylocarpofacial (CSCF) syndrome is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion and extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations. Whole-exome sequencing identified heterozygous MAP3K7 mutations in six distinct CSCF-affected individuals from four families and ranging in age from 5 to 37 years. MAP3K7 encodes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 signaling pathway. MAPK-p38 signaling was markedly altered when expression of non-canonical TGF-β-driven target genes was impaired. These findings support the loss of transcriptional control of the TGF-β-MAPK-p38 pathway in fibroblasts obtained from affected individuals. Surprisingly, although TAK1 is located at the crossroad of inflammation, immunity, and cancer, this study reports MAP3K7 mutations in a developmental disorder affecting mainly cartilage, bone, and heart. PMID:27426734

  8. Streptococcus iniae cpsG alters capsular carbohydrate composition and is a cause of serotype switching in vaccinated fish.

    PubMed

    Heath, Candice; Gillen, Christine M; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Walker, Mark J; Barnes, Andrew C

    2016-09-25

    Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein. To elucidate the role of cpsG in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis and capsular composition, we first prepared isogenic knockout and complemented mutants of cpsG by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Deletion of cpsG resulted in changes to colony morphology and cell buoyant density, and also significantly decreased galactose content relative to glucose in the capsular polysaccharide as determined by GC-MS, consistent with epimerase activity of CpsG. There was also a metabolic penalty of cpsG knockout revealed by slower growth in complex media, and reduced proliferation in whole fish blood. Moreover, whilst antibodies raised in fish against the wild type cross-reacted in whole cell and cps ELISA, they did not cross-opsonise the mutant in a peripheral blood neutrophil opsonisation assay, consistent with reported vaccine escape. We have shown here that mutation in cpsG results in altered CPS composition and this in turn results in poor cross-opsonisation that explains some of the historic vaccination failure on fish farms in Australia. PMID:27599938

  9. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  10. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI) Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF) was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  11. Use of imaging in the 0.46-2.36 [micrometers] spectral region for alteration mapping in the Cuprite mining district, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, Michael J.; Ashley, R.P.; Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Kahle, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Color composites of Landsat MSS ratio images that display variations in the intensity of ferric-iron absorption bands are highly effective for mapping limonitic altered rocks, but ineffective for mapping nonlimonitic altered rocks. Analysis of 0.45-2.5 ?m field and laboratory spectra shows that iron-deficient opalites in the Cuprite mining district, Nevada, have an intense OH-absorption band near 2.2 ?m owing to their clay mineral and alunite contents and that this spectral feature is absent or weak in adjacent unaltered tuff and basalt. To evaluate the usefulness of this spectral feature for discriminating between altered and unaltered rocks, we generated color-ratio composite images from multispectral (0.46-2.36 ?m) aircraft data. The altered rocks in the district can be discriminated from unaltered rocks with few ambiguities; in addition, some effects of mineralogical zoning can be discriminated within the altered area. Only variations in amounts of limonite can be discerned in shorter wavelength aircraft data, Landsat MSS bands, and color aerial photographs.

  12. Molecular mapping of qualitative and quantitative loci for resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans causing blackleg disease in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Rosy; Taylor, Belinda; Marcroft, Steve; Stiller, Jiri; Eckermann, Paul; Coombes, Neil; Rehman, Ata; Lindbeck, Kurt; Luckett, David; Wratten, Neil; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Wang, Xiaowu; Raman, Harsh

    2012-07-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is one of the most important diseases of oilseed and vegetable crucifiers worldwide. The present study describes (1) the construction of a genetic linkage map, comprising 255 markers, based upon simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequence-related amplified polymorphism, sequence tagged sites, and EST-SSRs and (2) the localization of qualitative (race-specific) and quantitative (race non-specific) trait loci controlling blackleg resistance in a doubled-haploid population derived from the Australian canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars Skipton and Ag-Spectrum using the whole-genome average interval mapping approach. Marker regression analyses revealed that at least 14 genomic regions with LOD ≥ 2.0 were associated with qualitative and quantitative blackleg resistance, explaining 4.6-88.9 % of genotypic variation. A major qualitative locus, designated RlmSkipton (Rlm4), was mapped on chromosome A7, within 0.8 cM of the SSR marker Xbrms075. Alignment of the molecular markers underlying this QTL region with the genome sequence data of B. rapa L. suggests that RlmSkipton is located approximately 80 kb from the Xbrms075 locus. Molecular marker-RlmSkipton linkage was further validated in an F(2) population from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. Our results show that SSR markers linked to consistent genomic regions are suitable for enrichment of favourable alleles for blackleg resistance in canola breeding programs.

  13. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. G.; Gussenhoven, M. S.; Lynch, K. A.; Brautigam, D. H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7-satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector that create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear starts and direct energy pulses create single-event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. The properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, are described. The star count maps of the 840-km (altitude) region of space are presented.

  14. Refined mapping of a gene (NPH1) causing familial juvenile nephronophthisis and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Medhioub, M.; Cherif, D.; Benessy, F.

    1994-07-15

    Familial juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal recessive progressive tubulo-interstitial kidney disorder, responsible for 6-10% of end-stage renal failure in children, and is frequently associated with Leber amaurosis (termed Senior-Loken syndrome). The biochemical basis of NPH is unknown. The authors recently reported linkage of the purely renal form of NPH to three markers on chromosome 2. The results also suggested the existence of genetic heterogeneity between NPH and SLS. To map this NPH gene more precisely, the authors have now tested the segregation of six new microsatellite markers and five additional families. Haplotype analyses show unequivocally that four NPH families are not linked to the chromosome 2 markers, although there are no clinical or pathological features discernible in these families that could separate them from the families linked to the chromosome 2 NPH locus (NPH1). This reveals genetic heterogeneity in the purely renal form of NPH. In situ hybridization of YAC clones isolated with two closely linked markers assigned the NPH1 region to 2q13. Furthermore, based on haplotype analysis and specific recombination events, the NPH1 gene has been placed between D2S293/D2S340 and D2S121, a genetic interval of about 5-7 cM. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. DMSP dosimetry data: a space measurement and mapping of upset-causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite-dosimeter star-event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star-event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear-energy-transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy-ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high-energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, the star-count maps of the 840-km region of space, and their relation to upset phenomena are described.

  16. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term ''star event'' is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Here the authors first describe the properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7; then present the star count maps of the 840 km region of space; and finally discuss their relation to upset phenomena.

  17. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.

    2014-12-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological

  18. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Kumar, Sunil; Oliveira, Leonardo S S; Alfenas, Acelino C; Neven, Lisa G; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  19. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  20. Coagulation Factor Concentrates Fail to Restore Alterations in Fibrin Formation Caused by Rivaroxaban or Dabigatran in Studies With Flowing Blood From Treated Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Galan, Ana M; Molina, Patricia; Reverter, Joan Carles; Carné, Xavier; Villalta, Jaume; Tassies, Dolors; Lozano, Miguel; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Escolar, Gines

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the hemostatic alterations in blood from healthy individuals treated for 5 days with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) rivaroxaban (20 mg/d) or dabigatran (150 mg/12 h) in a single-blind clinical trial with crossover assignment (NCT01478282). We assessed the potential of prothrombin complex concentrates, activated prothrombin complex concentrates, or recombinant activated factor VII, when added ex vivo, to reverse the alterations caused by these DOACs. Blood was drawn at maximum plasma concentration after the last dose of each DOAC, and modifications in coagulation biomarkers were evaluated using a series of tests performed under steady conditions including routine coagulation, thrombin generation, and thromboelastometry assays. Additional studies in standardized flow devices were applied to evaluate alterations on platelet deposition and fibrin formation on damaged vascular surfaces exposed to flowing blood. Both DOACs caused important modifications of all coagulation biomarkers and significantly reduced fibrin formation in flow studies. Alterations in biomarkers observed in steady laboratory tests were normalized and occasionally overcompensated by procoagulant strategies. In contrast, reductions in fibrin formation observed in studies with flowing blood were improved, although never completely restored to baseline levels. Effects of dabigatran in flow studies appeared more resistant to reversal strategies than those of rivaroxaban. Inconsistencies between results of coagulation studies in steady or flowing assays not only raise concerns about the adequacy of the earlier tests to predict the restoration of the coagulopathy induced by DOACs but also suggest limitations of nonspecific procoagulant strategies to control severe coagulopathy in patients inadvertently overexposed these agents.

  1. Coagulation Factor Concentrates Fail to Restore Alterations in Fibrin Formation Caused by Rivaroxaban or Dabigatran in Studies With Flowing Blood From Treated Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Galan, Ana M; Molina, Patricia; Reverter, Joan Carles; Carné, Xavier; Villalta, Jaume; Tassies, Dolors; Lozano, Miguel; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Escolar, Gines

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the hemostatic alterations in blood from healthy individuals treated for 5 days with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) rivaroxaban (20 mg/d) or dabigatran (150 mg/12 h) in a single-blind clinical trial with crossover assignment (NCT01478282). We assessed the potential of prothrombin complex concentrates, activated prothrombin complex concentrates, or recombinant activated factor VII, when added ex vivo, to reverse the alterations caused by these DOACs. Blood was drawn at maximum plasma concentration after the last dose of each DOAC, and modifications in coagulation biomarkers were evaluated using a series of tests performed under steady conditions including routine coagulation, thrombin generation, and thromboelastometry assays. Additional studies in standardized flow devices were applied to evaluate alterations on platelet deposition and fibrin formation on damaged vascular surfaces exposed to flowing blood. Both DOACs caused important modifications of all coagulation biomarkers and significantly reduced fibrin formation in flow studies. Alterations in biomarkers observed in steady laboratory tests were normalized and occasionally overcompensated by procoagulant strategies. In contrast, reductions in fibrin formation observed in studies with flowing blood were improved, although never completely restored to baseline levels. Effects of dabigatran in flow studies appeared more resistant to reversal strategies than those of rivaroxaban. Inconsistencies between results of coagulation studies in steady or flowing assays not only raise concerns about the adequacy of the earlier tests to predict the restoration of the coagulopathy induced by DOACs but also suggest limitations of nonspecific procoagulant strategies to control severe coagulopathy in patients inadvertently overexposed these agents. PMID:26364029

  2. LRP4 mutations alter Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and cause limb and kidney malformations in Cenani-Lenz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Pawlik, Barbara; Elcioglu, Nursel; Aglan, Mona; Kayserili, Hülya; Yigit, Gökhan; Percin, Ferda; Goodman, Frances; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Cenani, Asim; Urquhart, Jill; Chung, Boi-Dinh; Ismail, Samira; Amr, Khalda; Aslanger, Ayca D; Becker, Christian; Netzer, Christian; Scambler, Pete; Eyaid, Wafaa; Hamamy, Hanan; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Hennekam, Raoul; Nürnberg, Peter; Herz, Joachim; Temtamy, Samia A; Wollnik, Bernd

    2010-05-14

    Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS) is an autosomal-recessive congenital disorder affecting distal limb development. It is characterized mainly by syndactyly and/or oligodactyly and is now shown to be commonly associated with kidney anomalies. We used a homozygosity-mapping approach to map the CLS1 locus to chromosome 11p11.2-q13.1. By sequencing candidate genes, we identified recessive LRP4 mutations in 12 families with CLS. LRP4 belongs to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs), which are essential for various developmental processes. LRP4 is known to antagonize LRP6-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling, a function that is lost by the identified mutations. Our findings increase the spectrum of congenital anomalies associated with abnormal lipoprotein receptor-dependent signaling.

  3. Applying shape selection methods to Landsat time series for mapping forest disturbance history and cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleeweis, K.; Moisen, G.; Meyer, M. C.; Schroeder, T. A.; Toney, C.; Liao, X.; Cohen, W. B.; Healey, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, nationwide processing of historic Landsat data has recently been completed to provide a comprehensive annual, wall-to-wall analysis of US disturbance history and cause 1982-2011. Here, we present new methodology used in this effort that involves fitting nonparametric shape-restricted regression splines to Landsat spectral trajectories which are sensitive to both forest structure (eg., Band 5) and leaf area (eg., NDVI ). The functions, developed in R and automated for nationwide processing, deliver a series of parameters for each pixel and band that identify the best (of seven possible) shapes of the spectral pattern, year(s) of inflection, magnitude, and pre- and post- inflection rates of growth or recovery. Parameters from model fits are then fed into random forests models along with static bioclimatic and vegetation data layers to predict causal agent through time. Results indicate shape parameters are the driving predictors in diverse Landsat scenes across the US, and are able to capture subtle patterns produced by low magnitude or slow change such as insect and disease. We discuss the interaction between shape parameters in the empirical models, and illustrate how the intermediate product of the fitted trajectories themselves can be used as ancillary data in model-assisted estimates of forest attributes through time.

  4. Alterations in Sociability and Functional Brain Connectivity Caused by Early-Life Seizures is Reversed by Bumetanide

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E.; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P) day 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  5. Alterations in sociability and functional brain connectivity caused by early-life seizures are prevented by bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P)days 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-P25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  6. Alterations in sociability and functional brain connectivity caused by early-life seizures are prevented by bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P)days 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-P25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  7. Automated detection and mapping of crown discolouration caused by jack pine budworm with 2.5 m resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Cloney, Ed; Joyce, Steve P.

    2005-05-01

    Jack pine budworm ( Choristoneura pinus pinus (Free.)) is a native insect defoliator of mainly jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Periodic outbreaks of this insect, which generally last two to three years, can cause growth loss and mortality and have an important impact ecologically and economically in terms of timber production and harvest. The jack pine budworm prefers to feed on current year needles. Their characteristic feeding habits cause discolouration or reddening of the canopy. This red colouration is used to map the distribution and intensity of defoliation that has taken place that year (current defoliation). An accurate and consistent map of the distribution and intensity of budworm defoliation (as represented by the red discolouration) at the stand and within stand level is desirable. Automated classification of multispectral imagery, such as is available from airborne and new high resolution satellite systems, was explored as a viable tool for objectively classifying current discolouration. Airborne multispectral imagery was acquired at a 2.5 m resolution with the Multispectral Electro-optical Imaging Sensor (MEIS). It recorded imagery in six nadir looking spectral bands specifically designed to detect discolouration caused by budworm and a near-infrared band viewing forward at 35° was also used. A 2200 nm middle infrared image was acquired with a Daedalus scanner. Training and test areas of different levels of discolouration were created based on field observations and a maximum likelihood supervized classification was used to estimate four classes of discolouration (nil-trace, light, moderate and severe). Good discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 84% for the four discolouration levels. The moderate discolouration class was the poorest at 73%, because of confusion with both the severe and light classes. Accuracy on a stand basis was also good, and regional and within stand

  8. Metabolic alterations caused by HNF1β expression in ovarian clear cell carcinoma contribute to cell survival.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasuaki; Mandai, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Kharma, Budiman; Baba, Tsukasa; Abiko, Kaoru; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-09-22

    HNF1β is expressed exclusively in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and not in other ovarian cancers, regarded as a hallmark of this tumor. This implies its central role in the unique character of OCCC, including resistance to chemotherapy, but its exact role and influence in cancer biology or the molecular bases of its function are largely unknown. Using comprehensive metabolome analysis of HNF1β_shRNA-stable cell lines, we show here that HNF1β drastically alters intracellular metabolism, especially in direction to enhance aerobic glycolysis, so called the "Warburg effect". The consequence of the metabolic change contributed cell survival under stresses such as hypoxia and chemo-reagent, only when sufficient glucose supply was available. Augmented cell survival was based on the reduced ROS activity derived from metabolic alteration such as shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and increased intracellular anti-oxidant, glutathione (GSH). One of the cystine transporters, rBAT is likely to play a major role in this GSH increase. These data suggest that HNF1β, possibly induced by stressful microenvironment in the endometriotic cyst, confers survival advantage to the epithelial cells, which leads to the occurrence of OCCC, a chemo-resistant phenotype of ovarian cancer. PMID:26318292

  9. Caffeine alters the behavioural and body temperature responses to mephedrone without causing long-term neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shortall, Sinead E; Green, A Richard; Fone, Kevin Cf; King, Madeleine V

    2016-07-01

    Administration of caffeine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters the pharmacological properties of MDMA in rats. The current study examined whether caffeine alters the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone, which has similar psychoactive effects to MDMA. Rats received either saline, mephedrone (10 mg/kg), caffeine (10 mg/kg) or combined caffeine and mephedrone intraperitoneally twice weekly on consecutive days for three weeks. Locomotor activity (days 1 and 16), novel object discrimination (NOD, day 2), elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration (day 8), rectal temperature changes (day 9) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response (day 15) were assessed. Seven days after the final injection, brain regions were collected for the measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and their metabolites. Combined caffeine and mephedrone further enhanced the locomotor response observed following either drug administered alone, and converted mephedrone-induced hypothermia to hyperthermia. Co-administration also abolished mephedrone-induced anxiogenic response on the EPM, but had no effect on NOD or PPI. Importantly, no long-term neurotoxicity was detected following repeated mephedrone alone or when co-administered with caffeine. In conclusion, the study suggests a potentially dangerous effect of concomitant caffeine and mephedrone, and highlights the importance of taking polydrug use into consideration when investigating the acute adverse effect profile of popular recreational drugs.

  10. Applied AC and DC magnetic fields cause alterations in the mitotic cycle of early sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.; Ernst, S.G.

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrates that exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields (3.4--8.8 mt) and magnetic fields over the range DC-600 kHz (2.5--6.5 mT) can alter the early embryonic development of sea urchin embryos by inducing alterations in the timing of the cell cycle. Batches of fertilized eggs were exposed to the fields produced by a coil system. Samples of the continuous cultures were taken and scored for cell division. The times of both the first and second cell divisions were advanced by ELF AC fields and by static fields. The magnitude of the 60 Hz effect appears proportional to the field strength over the range tested. the relationship to field frequency was nonlinear and complex. For certain frequencies above the ELF range, the exposure resulted in a delay of the onset of mitosis. The advance of mitosis was also dependent on the duration of exposure and on the timing of exposure relative to fertilization.

  11. Caffeine alters the behavioural and body temperature responses to mephedrone without causing long-term neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shortall, Sinead E; Green, A Richard; Fone, Kevin Cf; King, Madeleine V

    2016-07-01

    Administration of caffeine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters the pharmacological properties of MDMA in rats. The current study examined whether caffeine alters the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone, which has similar psychoactive effects to MDMA. Rats received either saline, mephedrone (10 mg/kg), caffeine (10 mg/kg) or combined caffeine and mephedrone intraperitoneally twice weekly on consecutive days for three weeks. Locomotor activity (days 1 and 16), novel object discrimination (NOD, day 2), elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration (day 8), rectal temperature changes (day 9) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response (day 15) were assessed. Seven days after the final injection, brain regions were collected for the measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and their metabolites. Combined caffeine and mephedrone further enhanced the locomotor response observed following either drug administered alone, and converted mephedrone-induced hypothermia to hyperthermia. Co-administration also abolished mephedrone-induced anxiogenic response on the EPM, but had no effect on NOD or PPI. Importantly, no long-term neurotoxicity was detected following repeated mephedrone alone or when co-administered with caffeine. In conclusion, the study suggests a potentially dangerous effect of concomitant caffeine and mephedrone, and highlights the importance of taking polydrug use into consideration when investigating the acute adverse effect profile of popular recreational drugs. PMID:27257032

  12. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Data map Rock Alteration and Water Content at Mount Adams, Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington: Implications for Lahar Hazards and Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Horton, R.; Breit, G.; John, D.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution helicopter-borne magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) data flown over the rugged, ice-covered, highly magnetic and mostly resistive volcanoes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount Baker, along with rock property measurements, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and hydrothermal fluids that are essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards and understanding hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the magnetization and resistivity of volcanic rock resulting in clear recognition of altered rock by helicopter magnetic and EM measurements. Magnetic and EM data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region, in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit, and in much of the central cone of Mount Baker. We identify the Sunset Amphitheater region and steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams as likely sources for future debris flows. In addition, the EM data identified water-saturated rocks in the upper 100-200 m of the three volcanoes. The water-saturated zone could extend deeper, but is beyond the detection limits of the EM data. Water in hydrothermal fluids reacts with the volcanic rock to produce clay minerals. The formation of clay minerals and presence of free water reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Finally, modeling requires extremely low

  13. ECK, a human EPH-related gene, maps to 1p36.1, a common region of alteration in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Sulman, E.P.; Brodeur, G.M.; Ikegaki, N.

    1997-03-01

    Mouse eck, a member of the EPH gene family, has been mapped to mouse chromosome 4. The syntenic relationship between this chromosome and human chromosome 1 suggests that the human ECK gene maps to the distal short arm of human chromosome 1 (1p). Since this region is frequently deleted or altered in certain tumors of neuroectodermal origin, it is important to define the specific chromosomal localization of the human ECK gene. PCR screening of a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel by ECK-specific primers showed that ECK is indeed localized to human chromosome 1. Additional PCR screening of a regional screening panel for chromosome 1p indicated that ECK is localized to 1p36, distal to FUCA1. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with an ECK-specific P1 clone showed that ECK maps proximal to genetic marker D1S228. Taken together, the data suggest that ECK maps to 1p36.1, a region that is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma, melanoma, and other neuroectodermal tumors. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Carbonates, Phyllosilicates, Sulfates, Altered Minerals, and Other Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  18. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

  19. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico.

  20. Quantification of local hemodynamic alterations caused by virtual implantation of three commercially available stents for the treatment of aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Dholakia, Ronak J; Ladisa, John F

    2014-04-01

    Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting to date, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of Genesis XD and modified NuMED CP stents, also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy and blood pressure data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood flow velocity and time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) results. TAWSS was quantified longitudinally and circumferentially in the stented region and dAo. While modest differences were seen in the distal portion of the stented region, marked differences were observed downstream along the posterior dAo and depended on stent type. The Genesis XD model had the least area of TAWSS values exceeding the threshold for platelet aggregation in vitro, followed by the Palmaz and NuMED CP stents. Alterations in local blood flow patterns and WSS imparted on the dAo appear to depend on the type of stent implanted for CoA. Following confirmation in larger studies, these findings may aid pediatric interventional cardiologists in selecting the most appropriate stent for each patient, and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity following treatment for CoA by stenting.

  1. Developmental Treatment with Ethinyl Estradiol, but Not Bisphenol A, Causes Alterations in Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors in Male and Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sherry A.; Law, Charles Delbert; Kissling, Grace E.

    2014-01-01

    The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 11–12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6–21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1–21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He, Z., Paule, M. G. and Ferguson, S. A. (2012) Low oral doses of bisphenol A increase volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male, but not female, rats at postnatal day 21. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 331–337). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their

  2. Developmental treatment with ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, causes alterations in sexually dimorphic behaviors in male and female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, Charles Delbert; Kissling, Grace E

    2014-08-01

    The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 11-12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6-21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He, Z., Paule, M. G. and Ferguson, S. A. (2012) Low oral doses of bisphenol A increase volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male, but not female, rats at postnatal day 21. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 331-337). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their

  3. Homozygosity Mapping and Whole Exome Sequencing Reveal a Novel Homozygous COL18A1 Mutation Causing Knobloch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Niloofar; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah; Haghighi, Amirreza; Neidhardt, John; Nürnberg, Peter; Berger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the genetic basis of a chorioretinal dystrophy with high myopia of unknown origin in a child of a consanguineous marriage. The proband and ten family members of Iranian ancestry participated in this study. Linkage analysis was carried out with DNA samples of the proband and her parents by using the Human SNP Array 6.0. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed with the patients’ DNA. Specific sequence alterations within the homozygous regions identified by whole exome sequencing were verified by Sanger sequencing. Upon genetic analysis, a novel homozygous frameshift mutation was found in exon 42 of the COL18A1 gene in the patient. Both parents were heterozygous for this sequence variation. Mutations in COL18A1 are known to cause Knobloch syndrome (KS). Retrospective analysis of clinical records of the patient revealed surgical removal of a meningocele present at birth. The clinical features shown by our patient were typical of KS with the exception of chorioretinal degeneration which is a rare manifestation. This is the first case of KS reported in a family of Iranian ancestry. We identified a novel disease-causing (deletion) mutation in the COL18A1 gene leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon in the last exon. The mutation was not present in SNP databases and was also not found in 192 control individuals. Its localization within the endostatin domain implicates a functional relevance of endostatin in KS. A combined approach of linkage analysis and WES led to a rapid identification of the disease-causing mutation even though the clinical description was not completely clear at the beginning. PMID:25392994

  4. Human congenital myopathy actin mutants cause myopathy and alter Z-disc structure in Drosophila flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Sevdali, Maria; Kumar, Vikash; Peckham, Michelle; Sparrow, John

    2013-03-01

    Over 190 mutations in the human skeletal muscle α-actin gene, ACTA1 cause congenital actin myopathies. We transgenically expressed six different mutant actins, G15R, I136M, D154N, V163L, V163M and D292V in Drosophila indirect flight muscles and investigated their effects in flies that express one wild type and one mutant actin copy. All the flies were flightless, and the IFMs showed incomplete Z-discs, disorganised actin filaments and 'zebra bodies'. No differences in levels of sarcomeric protein expression were observed, but tropomodulin staining was somewhat disrupted in D164N, V163L, G15R and V163M heterozygotes. A single copy of D292V mutant actin rescued the hypercontractile phenotypes caused by TnI and TnT mutants, suggesting that the D292V mutation interferes with thin filament regulation. Our results show that expression of actin mutations homologous to those in humans in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila disrupt sarcomere organisation, with somewhat similar phenotypes to those observed in humans. Using Drosophila to study actin mutations may help aid our understanding of congential myopathies caused by actin mutations.

  5. Detection and mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks in the vicinity of the Comstock Lode, Virginia Range, Nevada, using enhanced Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, Roger P.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.; Abrams, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Virginia Range, immediately southeast of Reno, Nev., consists mainly of flows, breccias, and turfs of Miocene age. Most of these volcanic rocks are of intermediate composition; rhyodacite is the most common rock type. Basalt, rhyolite and rhyolite tuff, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of Miocene and Pliocene age also cover substantial areas in the range. Pre-Tertiary metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and granitic rocks are exposed in scattered inliers, mostly along the southern and eastern margins of the range. Several large areas and many small areas within the volcanic pile were subjected to hydrothermal alteration during and after the period of intermediate volcanic activity. Economic precious metal mineralization is spatially and temporally associated with the hydrothermal alteration in several areas. The most important deposit is the Comstock Lode, which produced 192 million troy ounces of silver and 8.3 million troy ounces of gold from epithermal veins (Bonham, 1969). The hydrothermally altered rocks include silicified, advanced argillic, montmorillonite-bearing argillic, and propylitic types. The first three types typically contain pyrite, and some propylitic rocks contain pyrite as well. Supergene oxidation of these pyritic rocks produces limonitic bleached rocks. The term 'limonite,' as used here, refers to any combination of the minerals hematite, goethite, and Jarosite. Where vegetation cover is sparse to moderate, these limonitic rocks are readily identified on Landsat images enhanced by the color-ratio composite technique developed by Rowan and others (1974), so the altered areas can be mapped. About 30 percent tree cover (here mainly pinyon pine) is sufficient to change the spectral signature of individual picture elements (pixels) enough so that limonitic materials can no longer be uniquely identified. As in all other areas where this technique has been applied, limonitic unaltered rocks with intermediate to high albedos have the same appearance on

  6. Small Molecule Disruption of Quorum Sensing Cross-Regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causes Major and Unexpected Alterations to Virulence Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michael A.; Eibergen, Nora R.; Moore, Joseph D.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses three interwoven quorum-sensing (QS) circuits—Las, Rhl, and Pqs—to regulate the global expression of myriad virulence-associated genes. Interception of these signaling networks with small molecules represents an emerging strategy for the development of anti-infective agents against this bacterium. In the current study, we applied a chemical approach to investigate how the Las-Rhl-Pqs QS hierarchy coordinates key virulence phenotypes in wild-type P. aeruginosa. We screened a focused library of synthetic, non-native N-acyl l-homoserine lactones and identified compounds that can drastically alter production of two important virulence factors: pyocyanin and rhamnolipid. We demonstrate that these molecules act by targeting RhlR in P. aeruginosa, a QS receptor that has seen far less scrutiny to date relative to other circuitry. Unexpectedly, modulation of RhlR activity by a single compound induces inverse regulation of pyocyanin and rhamnolipid, a result that was not predicted using genetic approaches to interrogate QS in P. aeruginosa. Further, we show that certain RhlR agonists strongly repress Pqs signaling, revealing disruption of Rhl-Pqs cross-regulation as a novel mechanism for QS inhibition. These compounds significantly expand the known repertoire of chemical probes available to study RhlR in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, our results suggest that designing chemical agents to disrupt Rhl-Pqs crosstalk could be an effective antivirulence strategy to fight this common pathogen. PMID:25574853

  7. A High-Fat Diet Causes Impairment in Hippocampal Memory and Sex-Dependent Alterations in Peripheral Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Erica L.; Thompson, Lucien T.

    2016-01-01

    While high-fat diets are associated with rising incidence of obesity/type-2 diabetes and can induce metabolic and cognitive deficits, sex-dependent comparisons are rarely systematically made. Effects of exclusive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) on systemic metabolism and on behavioral measures of hippocampal-dependent memory were compared in young male and female LE rats. Littermates were fed from weaning either a HFD or a control diet (CD) for 12 wk prior to testing. Sex-different effects of the HFD were observed in classic metabolic signs associated with type-2 diabetes. Males fed the HFD became obese, and had elevated fasted blood glucose levels, elevated corticosterone, and impaired glucose-tolerance, while females on the HFD exhibited only elevated corticosterone. Regardless of peripheral metabolism alteration, rats of both sexes fed the HFD were equally impaired in a spatial object recognition memory task associated with impaired hippocampal function. While the metabolic changes reported here have been characterized previously in males, the set of diet-induced effects observed here in females are novel. Impaired memory can have significant cognitive consequences, over the short-term and over the lifespan. A significant need exists for comparative research into sex-dependent differences underlying obesity and metabolic syndromes relating systemic, cognitive, and neural plasticity mechanisms. PMID:26819773

  8. Dominant mutations causing alterations in acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase confer tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W B; Marshall, L C; Burton, J D; Somers, D A; Wyse, D L; Gronwald, J W; Gengenbach, B G

    1990-01-01

    A partially dominant mutation exhibiting increased tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides was isolated by exposing susceptible maize (Zea mays) tissue cultures to increasingly inhibitory concentrations of sethoxydim (a cyclohexanedione). The selected tissue culture (S2) was greater than 40-fold more tolerant to sethoxydim and 20-fold more tolerant to haloxyfop (an aryloxyphenoxypropionate) than the nonselected wild-type tissue culture. Regenerated S2 plants were heterozygous for the mutant allele and exhibited a high-level, but not complete, tolerance to both herbicides. Homozygous mutant families derived by self-pollinating the regenerated S2 plants exhibited no injury after treatment with 0.8 kg of sethoxydim per ha, which was greater than 16-fold the rate lethal to wild-type plants. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) is the target enzyme of cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides. ACCase activities of the nonselected wild-type and homozygous mutant seedlings were similar in the absence of herbicide. ACCase activity from homozygous tolerant plants required greater than 100-fold more sethoxydim and 16-fold more haloxyfop for 50% inhibition than ACCase from wild-type plants. These results indicate that tolerance to sethoxydim and haloxyfop is controlled by a partially dominant nuclear mutation encoding a herbicide-insensitive alteration in maize ACCase. Images PMID:1976254

  9. Small RNA fragments in complex culture media cause alterations in protein profiles of three species of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pavankumar, Asalapuram R; Ayyappasamy, Sudalaiyadum Perumal; Sankaran, Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Efforts to delineate the basis for variations in protein profiles of different membrane fractions from various bacterial pathogens led to the finding that even the same medium [e.g., Luria Bertani (LB) broth] purchased from different commercial sources generates remarkably dissimilar protein profiles despite similar growth characteristics. Given the pervasive roles small RNAs play in regulating gene expression, we inquired if these source-specific differences due to media arise from disparities in the presence of small RNAs. Indeed, LB media components from two different commercial suppliers contained varying, yet significant, amounts of 10-80 bp small RNAs. Removal of small RNA from LB using RNaseA during media preparation resulted in significant changes in bacterial protein expression profiles. Our studies underscore the fact that seemingly identical growth media can lead to dramatic alterations in protein expression patterns, highlighting the importance of utilizing media free of small RNA during bacteriological studies. Finally, these results raise the intriguing possibility that similar pools of small RNAs in the environment can influence bacterial adaptation.

  10. A mutation in the FZL gene of Arabidopsis causing alteration in chloroplast morphology results in a lesion mimic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Landoni, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants (LMMs) are a class of mutants in which hypersensitive cell death and defence responses are constitutively activated in the absence of pathogen attack. Various signalling molecules, such as salicylic acid (SA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), Ca2+, ethylene, and jasmonate, are involved in the regulation of multiple pathways controlling hypersensitive response (HR) activation, and LMMs are considered useful tools to understand the role played by the key elements of the HR cell death signalling cascade. Here the characterization of an Arabidopsis LMM lacking the function of the FZL gene is reported. This gene encodes a membrane-remodelling GTPase playing an essential role in the determination of thylakoid and chloroplast morphology. The mutant displayed alteration in chloroplast number, size, and shape, and the typical characteristics of an LMM, namely development of chlorotic lesions on rosette leaves and constitutive expression of genetic and biochemical markers associated with defence responses. The chloroplasts are a major source of ROS, and the characterization of this mutant suggests that their accumulation, triggered by damage to the chloroplast membranes, is a signal sufficient to start the HR signalling cascade, thus confirming the central role of the chloroplast in HR activation. PMID:23963675

  11. Comparative alteration mineral mapping using visible to shortwave infrared (0.4-2.4 μm) Hyperion, ALI, and ASTER imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Hyperion imaging spectrometer data covering an area in the Central Andes between Volcan Socompa and Salar de Llullaillaco were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks associated with several young volcanic systems. Six ALI channels in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.4-1.0 ??m) were useful for discriminating between ferric-iron alteration minerals based on the spectral shapes of electronic absorption features seen in continuum-removed spectra. Six ASTER channels in the short wavelength infrared (1.0-2.5 ??m) enabled distinctions between clay and sulfate mineral types based on the positions of band minima related to Al-OH vibrational absorption features. Hyperion imagery embedded in the broader image coverage of ALI and ASTER provided essential leverage for calibrating and improving the mapping accuracy of the multispectral data. This capability is especially valuable in remote areas of the earth where available geologic and other ground truth information is limited.

  12. Cardiovascular alterations caused by the administration of 2% mepivacaine HCl with 1:20,000 levonordefrin (Carbocain) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Simone, J L; Tortamano, N; Armonia, P L; Rocha, R G

    1997-01-01

    We studied possible cardiovascular effects (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures, and heart rate) caused by intraoral infiltrative administration of 2% mepivacaine HCl with 1:20,000 levonordefrin in dogs (Canis familiaris), using a Beckman electrophysiograph. Doses used were 0.514 and 1.542 mg/kg body weight corresponding to one and three 1.8-ml cartridges, respectively, in 70-kg average weight adult men. A statistically significant increase was observed in the systolic and the mean arterial blood pressures.

  13. Single housing during early adolescence causes time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, L; Roman, E; Nylander, I

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A number of experimental procedures require single housing to assess individual behaviour and physiological responses to pharmacological treatments. The endogenous opioids are closely linked to social interaction, especially early in life, and disturbance in the social environment may affect opioid peptides and thereby confound experimental outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine time-dependent effects of single housing on opioid peptides in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Early adolescent Sprague Dawley rats (post-natal day 22) were subjected to either prolonged (7 days) or short (30 min) single housing. Several brain regions were dissected and immunoreactive levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP), dynorphin B and nociception/orphanin FQ, as well as serum corticosterone were measured using RIA. KEY RESULTS Prolonged single housing reduced immunoreactive MEAP in hypothalamus, cortical regions, amygdala, substantia nigra and periaqueductal grey. Short single housing resulted in an acute stress response as indicated by high levels of corticosterone, accompanied by elevated immunoreactive nociceptin/orphanin FQ in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Neither short nor prolonged single housing affected dynorphin B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Disruption in social environmental conditions of rats, through single housing during early adolescence, resulted in time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids in the brain. These results provide further evidence for an association between early life social environment and opioids. Furthermore, the results have implications for experimental design; in any pharmacological study involving opioid peptides, it is important to distinguish between effects induced by housing and treatment. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  14. Sublethal exposure to azamethiphos causes neurotoxicity, altered energy allocation and high mortality during simulated live transport in American lobster.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C M; Burridge, L E

    2015-05-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, sea lice outbreaks in caged salmon are treated with pesticides including Salmosan(®), applied as bath treatments and then released into the surrounding seawater. The effect of chronic exposure to low concentrations of this pesticide on neighboring lobster populations is a concern. Adult male lobsters were exposed to 61 ngL(-1) of azamethiphos (a.i. in Salmosan(®) formulation) continuously for 10 days. In addition to the direct effects of pesticide exposure, effects on the ability to cope with shipping conditions and the persistence of the effects after a 24h depuration period in clean seawater were assessed. Indicators of stress and hypoxia (serum total proteins, hemocyanin and lactate), oxidative damage (protein carbonyls in gills and serum) and altered energy allocation (hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices, hepatopancreas lipids) were assessed in addition to neurotoxicity (chlolinesterase activity in muscle). Directly after exposure, azamethiphos-treated lobsters had inhibition of muscle cholinesterase, reduced gonadosomatic index and enhanced hepatosomatic index and hepatopancreas lipid content. All these responses persisted after 24-h depuration, increasing the risk of cumulative impacts with further exposure to chemical or non-chemical stressors. In both control and treated lobsters exposed to simulated shipment conditions, concentrations of protein and lactate in serum, and protein carbonyls in gills increased. However, mortality rate was higher in azamethiphos-treated lobsters (33 ± 14%) than in controls (2.6 ± 4%). Shipment and azamethiphos had cumulative impacts on serum proteins. Both direct effects on neurological function and energy allocation and indirect effect on ability to cope with shipping stress could have significant impacts on lobster population and/or fisheries.

  15. Sublethal exposure to azamethiphos causes neurotoxicity, altered energy allocation and high mortality during simulated live transport in American lobster.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C M; Burridge, L E

    2015-05-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, sea lice outbreaks in caged salmon are treated with pesticides including Salmosan(®), applied as bath treatments and then released into the surrounding seawater. The effect of chronic exposure to low concentrations of this pesticide on neighboring lobster populations is a concern. Adult male lobsters were exposed to 61 ngL(-1) of azamethiphos (a.i. in Salmosan(®) formulation) continuously for 10 days. In addition to the direct effects of pesticide exposure, effects on the ability to cope with shipping conditions and the persistence of the effects after a 24h depuration period in clean seawater were assessed. Indicators of stress and hypoxia (serum total proteins, hemocyanin and lactate), oxidative damage (protein carbonyls in gills and serum) and altered energy allocation (hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices, hepatopancreas lipids) were assessed in addition to neurotoxicity (chlolinesterase activity in muscle). Directly after exposure, azamethiphos-treated lobsters had inhibition of muscle cholinesterase, reduced gonadosomatic index and enhanced hepatosomatic index and hepatopancreas lipid content. All these responses persisted after 24-h depuration, increasing the risk of cumulative impacts with further exposure to chemical or non-chemical stressors. In both control and treated lobsters exposed to simulated shipment conditions, concentrations of protein and lactate in serum, and protein carbonyls in gills increased. However, mortality rate was higher in azamethiphos-treated lobsters (33 ± 14%) than in controls (2.6 ± 4%). Shipment and azamethiphos had cumulative impacts on serum proteins. Both direct effects on neurological function and energy allocation and indirect effect on ability to cope with shipping stress could have significant impacts on lobster population and/or fisheries. PMID:25499691

  16. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land use/land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-09-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget, which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? (2) How extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River watershed (ARW), located in California, and the Owyhee River watershed (ORW), located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are (1) the "control" scenario, representing the contemporary land use, (2) the "pre-dam" scenario, representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the "non-irrigation" scenario, representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase at dew point (up to 0.25 °C) was observed; (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available

  17. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land-use/land-cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-05-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? and (2) how extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River Watershed (ARW) located in California and the Owyhee River Watershed (ORW) located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are: (1) the control scenario representing the contemporary land-use, (2) the pre-dam scenario representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the non-irrigation scenario representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase in dewpoint (up to 0.25 °C) was observed, (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor to the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available potential

  18. Altered phosphorylation of Bacillus subtilis DegU caused by single amino acid changes in DegS.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, T; Kawata, M; Mukai, K

    1991-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis sacU locus consists of the degS and degU genes, which play a major role in controlling the production of degradative enzymes including extracellular proteases. DegS has been shown to be autophosphorylated and to transfer the phosphoryl group to DegU. In this study, we partially purified the DegS proteins which carry amino acid changes resulting from various mutations and examined the phosphorylation reaction. The mutations used were degS42, causing a reduction in exoprotease production, and degS100(Hy) and degS200(Hy), causing overproduction of the enzymes. The following results were obtained. The DegS protein derived from degS42 was deficient in both autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphate transfer to DegU. Compared with wild-type DegS, the DegS proteins derived from the overproduction mutations, degS100(Hy) and degS200(Hy), were less active in the autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of DegU. However, the DegU phosphates produced by the mutant DegS proteins were more stable than that produced by the wild-type DegS. These results suggest that phosphorylation is tightly linked to exoprotease production and that the prolonged retention of the phosphoryl moiety on DegU activates the genes for the extracellular proteases. It was also shown that the rate of dephosphorylation of DegU-phosphate was increased as the amount of DegS was increased. All of these results suggest that DegS is involved in the dephosphorylation of DegU-phosphate. Images PMID:1909319

  19. Creatine and pyruvate prevent the alterations caused by tyrosine on parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Bonorino, Narielle Ferner; Costa, Bruna May Lopes; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II. In this disease caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency, eyes, skin, and central nervous system disturbances are found. In the present study, we investigated the chronic effect of tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and/or creatine plus pyruvate on some parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex homogenates of 21-day-old Wistar. Chronic administration of TME induced oxidative stress and altered the activities of adenylate kinase and mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase. Total sulfhydryls content, GSH content, and GPx activity were significantly diminished, while DCFH oxidation, TBARS content, and SOD activity were significantly enhanced by TME. On the other hand, TME administration decreased the activity of CK from cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions but enhanced AK activity. In contrast, TME did not affect the carbonyl content and PK activity in cerebral cortex of rats. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of alterations provoked by TME administration on the oxidative stress and the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network, except in mitochondrial CK, AK, and SOD activities. These results indicate that chronic administration of TME may stimulate oxidative stress and alter the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of rats. In case this also occurs in the patients affected by these disorders, it may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction of hypertyrosinemias, and creatine and pyruvate supplementation could be beneficial to the patients.

  20. Homozygosity mapping reveals null mutations in FAM161A as a cause of autosomal-recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Bandah-Rozenfeld, Dikla; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Farhy, Chen; Obolensky, Alexey; Chowers, Itay; Pe'er, Jacob; Merin, Saul; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2010-09-10

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Using homozygosity mapping, we identified a ∼4 Mb homozygous region on chromosome 2p15 in patients with autosomal-recessive RP (arRP). This region partially overlaps with RP28, a previously identified arRP locus. Sequence analysis of 12 candidate genes revealed three null mutations in FAM161A in 20 families. RT-PCR analysis in 21 human tissues revealed high levels of FAM161A expression in the retina and lower levels in the brain and testis. In the human retina, we identified two alternatively spliced transcripts with an intact open reading frame, the major one lacking a highly conserved exon. During mouse embryonic development, low levels of Fam161a transcripts were detected throughout the optic cup. After birth, Fam161a expression was elevated and confined to the photoreceptor layer. FAM161A encodes a protein of unknown function that is moderately conserved in mammals. Clinical manifestations of patients with FAM161A mutations varied but were largely within the spectrum associated with arRP. On funduscopy, pallor of the optic discs and attenuation of blood vessels were common, but bone-spicule-like pigmentation was often mild or lacking. Most patients had nonrecordable electroretinographic responses and constriction of visual fields upon diagnosis. Our data suggest a pivotal role for FAM161A in photoreceptors and reveal that FAM161A loss-of-function mutations are a major cause of arRP, accounting for ∼12% of arRP families in our cohort of patients from Israel and the Palestinian territories.

  1. A new mutation in the CFTR gene, composed of two adjacent DNA alterations, is a common cause of cystic fibrosis among Georgian Jews

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshani, T.; Berkun, Y.; Yahav, Y.; Augarten, A.; Bashan, N.; Rivlin, Y.; Gazit, E.; Sereth, H.; Kerem, E.; Kerem, B.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Five Jewish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from four unrelated families, all of whom emigrated from what was Soviet Georgia were studied. The parents in two of the families are first-degree relatives. The clinical phenotype of the patients seems to be associated with a severe disease, as reflected by early age of diagnosis (before the age of 1 year), high sweat chloride level (105-140 meq/liter), and pancreatic insufficiency. The pulmonary function and nutritional status of these patients are normal. These patients were tested for [Delta]F508 by analysis of heteroduplex DNA (4). None of the CF chromosomes was found to carry the [Delta]F508 mutation. Subsequently, PCR-amplified genomic DNA samples from two of these patients were subjected to direct sequencing (5) of regions containing exons 7, 9-12, an 19-21 of the CF gene using the oligonucleotides previously described (3, 6). In exon 7, two DNA alterations 3 bp apart were identified in both patients. The first alteration in a C [yields] A transversion at nucleotide position 1207, changing the glutamine codon to lysine (Q359K). The second DNA alteration is a C [yields] A transversion at nucleotide position 1211 changing the threonine codon to lysine (T360K). The two DNA alterations cause nonconservative amino acid substitutions, changing each of the two uncharged polar amino acids (glutamine and threonine) to a basic amino acid, lysine. The Q359K substitution destroys an Rsal recognition site and can be detected by PCR amplification of exon 7 using 7i-5 and 7i-3 oligonucleotides (6), followed by Rsal digestion and electrophoresis on 10% polyacrylamide gels. Two Rsal sites are found in a normal amplified DNA fragment, resulting in three restriction fragments of 292, 68, and 50 bp. Digestion of the PCR fragment of an individual homozygous for this substitution resulted in only two fragments of 342 and 68 bp. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  3. Reduction of the Cholesterol Sensor SCAP in the Brains of Mice Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Altered Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ∼30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states. PMID:23585733

  4. Deficiency of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 3 (Nmnat3) Causes Hemolytic Anemia by Altering the Glycolytic Flow in Mature Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Keisuke; Ikutani, Masashi; Shito, Masayuki; Kazuma, Kohei; Gulshan, Maryam; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Konno, Katsuhiro; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kanno, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    NAD biosynthesis is of substantial interest because of its important roles in regulating various biological processes. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 (Nmnat3) is considered a mitochondria-localized NAD synthesis enzyme involved in de novo and salvage pathways. Although the biochemical properties of Nmnat3 are well documented, its physiological function in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nmnat3 was localized in the cytoplasm of mature erythrocytes and critically regulated their NAD pool. Deficiency of Nmnat3 in mice caused splenomegaly and hemolytic anemia, which was associated with the findings that Nmnat3-deficient erythrocytes had markedly lower ATP levels and shortened lifespans. However, the NAD level in other tissues were not apparently affected by the deficiency of Nmnat3. LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics revealed that the glycolysis pathway in Nmnat3-deficient erythrocytes was blocked at a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) step because of the shortage of the coenzyme NAD. Stable isotope tracer analysis further demonstrated that deficiency of Nmnat3 resulted in glycolysis stall and a shift to the pentose phosphate pathway. Our findings indicate the critical roles of Nmnat3 in maintenance of the NAD pool in mature erythrocytes and the physiological impacts at its absence in mice. PMID:24739386

  5. Sepsis in preterm infants causes alterations in mucosal gene expression and microbiota profiles compared to non-septic twins.

    PubMed

    Cernada, María; Bäuerl, Christine; Serna, Eva; Collado, Maria Carmen; Martínez, Gaspar Pérez; Vento, Máximo

    2016-05-16

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants. Neonatal microbiota plays a pivotal role in the immune system maturation. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated to inflammatory disorders; however, a link with sepsis in the neonatal period has not yet been established. We aimed to analyze gut microbiota and mucosal gene expression using non-invasively obtained samples to provide with an integrative perspective of host-microbe interactions in neonatal sepsis. For this purpose, a prospective observational case-control study was conducted in septic preterm dizygotic twins and their non-septic twin controls. Fecal samples were used for both microbiota analysis and host genome-wide expression using exfoliated intestinal cells. Gene expression of exfoliated intestinal cells in septic preterm showed an induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in the gut and pro-oxidant profile that caused dysbiosis in the gut microbiota with predominance of Enterobacteria and reduction of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp.in fecal samples, leading to a global reduction of beneficial anaerobic bacteria. Sepsis in preterm infants induced low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in the gut mucosa, and also changes in the gut microbiota. This study highlights the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis on gut microbial profiles.

  6. Sepsis in preterm infants causes alterations in mucosal gene expression and microbiota profiles compared to non-septic twins

    PubMed Central

    Cernada, María; Bäuerl, Christine; Serna, Eva; Collado, Maria Carmen; Martínez, Gaspar Pérez; Vento, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants. Neonatal microbiota plays a pivotal role in the immune system maturation. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated to inflammatory disorders; however, a link with sepsis in the neonatal period has not yet been established. We aimed to analyze gut microbiota and mucosal gene expression using non-invasively obtained samples to provide with an integrative perspective of host-microbe interactions in neonatal sepsis. For this purpose, a prospective observational case-control study was conducted in septic preterm dizygotic twins and their non-septic twin controls. Fecal samples were used for both microbiota analysis and host genome-wide expression using exfoliated intestinal cells. Gene expression of exfoliated intestinal cells in septic preterm showed an induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in the gut and pro-oxidant profile that caused dysbiosis in the gut microbiota with predominance of Enterobacteria and reduction of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp.in fecal samples, leading to a global reduction of beneficial anaerobic bacteria. Sepsis in preterm infants induced low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in the gut mucosa, and also changes in the gut microbiota. This study highlights the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis on gut microbial profiles. PMID:27180802

  7. Altering presenilin gene activity in zebrafish embryos causes changes in expression of genes with potential involvement in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Newman, Morgan; Tucker, Ben; Nornes, Svanhild; Ward, Alister; Lardelli, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant splicing and point mutations in the human presenilin genes, PSEN1 and PSEN2, have been linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously described that low-level aberrant splicing of exon 8 in zebrafish psen1 transcripts in zebrafish embryos produces potent dominant negative effects that increase psen1 transcription, cause a dramatic hydrocephalus phenotype, decreased pigmentation and other developmental defects. Similar effects are also observed after low-level interference with splicing of exon 8 of psen2. To determine the molecular etiology of these effects, we performed microarray analyses of global gene expression changes. Of the 100 genes that showed greatest dysregulation after either psen1 or psen2 manipulation, 12 genes were common to both treatments. Five of these have known function and showed increased expression: cyclin G1 (ccng1), prosaposin (psap), cathepsin Lb (ctslb), heat shock protein 70kDa (hsp70) and hatching enzyme 1 (he1). We used phylogenetic and conserved synteny analysis to confirm the orthology of zebrafish ccng1 with human CCNG1. We analyzed the expression of zebrafish ccng1 in developing embryos to 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). Decreased ccng1 expression does not rescue the hydrocephalus or pigmentation phenotypes of embryos with aberrant splicing of psen1 exon 8.

  8. Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Adabache-Ortíz, Araceli; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints.

  9. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment.

  10. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. PMID:26238033

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans par2.1/mtssb-1 is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication and its defect causes comprehensive transcriptional alterations including a hypoxia response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Tomoko; Mori, Chihiro; Takanami, Takako; Sasagawa, Yohei; Saito, Rumiko; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    DNA polymerase {gamma} and mtSSB are key components of the mtDNA replication machinery. To study the biological influences of defects in mtDNA replication, we used RNAi to deplete the gene for a putative mtSSB, par2.1, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In previous systematic RNAi screens, downregulation of this gene has not caused any clearly defective phenotypes. Here, we continuously fed a dsRNA targeting par2.1 to C. elegans over generations. Seventy-nine percent of F1 progeny produced 60-72 h after feeding grew to adulthood but were completely sterile, with an arrest of germline cell proliferation. Analyses of mtDNA copy number and cell cytology indicated that the sterile hermaphrodites had fewer mitochondria. These results indicated that par2.1 essentially functions for germline cell proliferation through mtDNA replication; we therefore termed it mtssb-1. Comprehensive transcriptional alterations including hypoxia response induction dependent on and independent of hif-1 function, occurred by RNAi depletion of mtssb-1. Treatment with ethidium bromide, which impairs mtDNA replication and transcription, caused similar transcriptional alterations. In addition, the frequency of apoptosis in the germline cells was reduced in fertile progeny with a partial RNAi effect. These suggest that RNAi depletion of C. elegans mtssb-1 is useful as a model system of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Single-cell genetic expression of mutant GABAA receptors causing Human genetic epilepsy alters dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation in a mutation-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Choudhury, Mayukh; Stoica, Ana; Di Cristo, Graziella; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding for GABAA receptor subunits is a well-established cause of genetic generalized epilepsy. GABA neurotransmission is implicated in several developmental processes including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Alteration in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic activities plays a critical role in epilepsy, thus here we investigated whether mutations in α1 subunit of GABAA receptor may affect dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation. In particular, we examined the effects of three mutations of the GABRA1 gene (D219N, A322D and K353delins18X) that were found in a cohort of French Canadian families with genetic generalized epilepsy. We used a novel single-cell genetic approach, by preparing cortical organotypic cultures from GABRA1flox/flox mice and simultaneously inactivating endogenous GABRA1 and transfecting mutant α1 subunits in single glutamatergic pyramidal cells and basket GABAergic interneurons by biolistic transfection. We found that GABRA1−/− GABAergic cells showed reduced innervation field, which was rescued by co-expressing α1-A322D and α1-WT but not α1-D219N. We further found that the expression of the most severe GABRA1 missense mutation (α1-A322D) induced a striking increase of spine density in pyramidal cells along with an increase in the number of mushroom-like spines. In addition, α1-A322D expression in GABAergic cells slightly increased perisomatic bouton density, whereas other mutations did not alter bouton formation. All together, these results suggest that the effects of different GABAAR mutations on GABAergic bouton and dendritic spine formation are specific to the mutation and cannot be always explained by a simple loss-of-function gene model. The use of single cell genetic manipulation in organotypic cultures may provide a better understanding of the specific and distinct neural circuit alterations caused by different GABAA receptor subunit mutations and will help define the pathophysiology of genetic

  13. Neonatal treatment with tamoxifen causes immediate alterations of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and medial preoptic area in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vancutsem, P M; Roessler, M L

    1997-09-01

    Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Current evolutions in preventive strategies to include healthy premenopausal women warrant the study of its developmental toxicity. Perinatal treatment of male rodents with tamoxifen caused reproductive tract lesions and sexual behavior deficits similar to those induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES). Those abnormalities could originate, at least in part, from lesions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The initial alterations caused by tamoxifen in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were studied in 6-day-old male rat pups treated with 100 micrograms tamoxifen (group 1), 1 microgram DES (group 2) or vehicle (group 3) from PN1 to 5. In situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression of the GAP-43 gene, a marker of neuronal differentiation, and morphometry was used to study the neuronal density in the SDN-POA and MPOA and the volume and number of neurons in the SDN-POA. Tamoxifen reduced severely the volume and neuron numbers in the SDN-POA (46.1% and 47.8% of controls, respectively). The neuronal density of the MPOA was not modified. GAP-43 gene expression was decreased as demonstrated by a greater percentage of unlabeled neurons (grade 0) mirrored by a lesser percentage of intensely labeled ones (grade 2) in the SDN-POA and MPOA. In contrast to the effects of the antiestrogen, DES did not affect the above endpoints. These data indicated that developmental exposure of male rat pups to tamoxifen-induced immediate neuronal loss in one and altered differentiation in two hypothalamic areas crucial to reproduction. How those initial alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of the reproductive disorders observed in the adult male needs further investigation.

  14. Alterations in midline cortical thickness and gyrification patterns mapped in children with 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Dutton, Rebecca A; Lee, Agatha D; Simon, Tony J; Cannon, Tyrone D; Emanuel, Beverly S; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine H; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome) is a neurogenetic condition associated with visuospatial deficits, as well as elevated rates of attentional disturbance, mood disorder, and psychosis. Previously, we detected pronounced cortical thinning in superior parietal and right parieto-occipital cortices in patients with this syndrome, regions critical for visuospatial processing. Here we applied cortical pattern-matching algorithms to structural magnetic resonance images obtained from 21 children with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions (ages 8-17) and 13 demographically matched comparison subjects, in order to map cortical thickness across the medial hemispheric surfaces. In addition, cortical models were remeshed in frequency space to compute their surface complexity. Cortical maps revealed a pattern of localized thinning in the ventromedial occipital-temporal cortex, critical for visuospatial representation, and the anterior cingulate, a key area for attentional control. However, children with 22q11.2DS showed significantly increased gyral complexity bilaterally in occipital cortex. Regional gray matter volumes, particularly in medial frontal cortex, were strongly correlated with both verbal and nonverbal cognitive functions. These findings suggest that aberrant parieto-occipital brain development, as evidenced by both increased complexity and cortical thinning in these regions, may be a neural substrate for the deficits in visuospatial and numerical understanding characteristic of this syndrome. PMID:18483006

  15. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  16. Loss of the insulin receptor in murine megakaryocytes/platelets causes thrombocytosis and alterations in IGF signalling

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Samantha F.; Williams, Christopher M.; Brown, Edward; Blair, Thomas A.; Harper, Matthew T.; Coward, Richard J.; Poole, Alastair W.; Hers, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Aims Patients with conditions that are associated with insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of thrombosis and a concurrent hyperactive platelet phenotype. Our aim was to determine whether insulin resistance of megakaryocytes/platelets promotes platelet hyperactivation. Methods and results We generated a conditional mouse model where the insulin receptor (IR) was specifically knocked out in megakaryocytes/platelets and performed ex vivo platelet activation studies in wild-type (WT) and IR-deficient platelets by measuring aggregation, integrin αIIbβ3 activation, and dense and α-granule secretion. Deletion of IR resulted in an increase in platelet count and volume, and blocked the action of insulin on platelet signalling and function. Platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation in response to the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonist collagen-related peptide (CRP) were significantly reduced in platelets lacking IR. This was accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of effectors downstream of GPVI. Interestingly, loss of IR also resulted in a reduction in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)- and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and GSK3β and priming of CRP-mediated platelet activation. Pharmacological inhibition of IR and the IGF-1 receptor in WT platelets recapitulated the platelet phenotype of IR-deficient platelets. Conclusions Deletion of IR (i) increases platelet count and volume, (ii) does not cause platelet hyperactivity, and (iii) reduces GPVI-mediated platelet function and platelet priming by IGF-1 and IGF-2. PMID:25902782

  17. Combination of methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 causes distinct long-term alterations of behavior, gene expression, and injury in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, Melanie M; Sanchez, Ana B; Maung, Ricky; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; Thaney, Victoria E; Piña-Crespo, Juan; Zhang, Dongxian; Roberts, Amanda J; Kaul, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is frequent in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and is suspected to aggravate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). METH is a psychostimulant that compromises several neurotransmitter systems and HIV proteins trigger neuronal injury but the combined effects of viral infection and METH abuse are incompletely understood. In this study we treated transgenic mice expressing the HIV envelope protein gp120 in the brain (HIV-1 gp120tg) at 3-4 months of age with an escalating-dose, multiple-binge METH regimen. The long-term effects were analyzed after 6-7 months of drug abstinence employing behavioral tests and analysis of neuropathology, electrophysiology and gene expression. Behavioral testing showed that both HIV-1 gp120tg and WT animals treated with METH displayed impaired learning and memory. Neuropathological analysis revealed that METH similar to HIV-1 gp120 caused a significant loss of neuronal dendrites and pre-synaptic terminals in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of WT animals. Electrophysiological studies in hippocampal slices showed that METH exposed HIV-1 gp120tg animals displayed reduced post-tetanic potentiation, whereas both gp120 expression and METH lead to reduced long-term potentiation. A quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array showed that gp120 expression, METH and their combination each caused a significant dysregulation of specific components of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission systems, providing a possible mechanism for synaptic dysfunction and behavioral impairment. In conclusion, both HIV-1 gp120 and METH caused lasting behavioral impairment in association with neuropathology and altered gene expression. However, combined METH exposure and HIV-1 gp120 expression resulted in the most pronounced, long lasting pre- and post-synaptic alterations coinciding with impaired learning and memory. PMID:25246228

  18. Combination of Methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 causes distinct long-term alterations of behavior, gene expression, and injury in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Hoefer, Melanie M.; Sanchez, Ana B.; Maung, Ricky; de Rozieres, Cyrus M.; Catalan, Irene C.; Dowling, Cari C.; Thaney, Victoria E.; Piña-Crespo, Juan; Zhang, Dongxian; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kaul, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is frequent in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and is suspected to aggravate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). METH is a psychostimulant that compromises several neurotransmitter systems and HIV proteins trigger neuronal injury but the combined effects of viral infection and METH abuse are incompletely understood. In this study we treated transgenic mice expressing the HIV envelope protein gp120 in the brain (HIV/gp120tg) at 3–4 months of age with an escalating-dose, multiple-binge METH regimen. The long-term effects were analyzed after 6–7 months of drug abstinence employing behavioral tests and analysis of neuropathology, electrophysiology and gene expression. Behavioral testing showed that both HIV/gp120tg and WT animals treated with METH displayed impaired learning and memory. Neuropathological analysis revealed that METH similar to HIV/gp120 caused a significant loss of neuronal dendrites and pre-synaptic terminals in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of WT animals. Electrophysiological studies in hippocampal slices showed that METH exposed HIV/gp120tg animals displayed reduced post-tetanic potentiation, whereas both gp120 expression and METH lead to reduced long-term potentiation. A quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array showed that gp120 expression, METH and their combination each caused a significant dysregulation of specific components of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission systems, providing a possible mechanism for synaptic dysfunction and behavioral impairment. In conclusion, both HIV-1/gp120 and METH caused lasting behavioral impairment in association with neuropathology and altered gene expression. However, combined METH exposure and HIV-1/gp120 expression resulted in the most pronounced, long lasting pre-and post-synaptic alterations coinciding with impaired learning and memory. PMID:25246228

  19. Mutations in MAP3K1 Cause 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development and Implicate a Common Signal Transduction Pathway in Human Testis Determination

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Alexander; Loke, Johnny; Le Caignec, Cedric; White, Stefan; Chin, Lisa; Friedman, Andrew; Warr, Nicholas; Willan, John; Brauer, David; Farmer, Charles; Brooks, Eric; Oddoux, Carole; Riley, Bridget; Shajahan, Shahin; Camerino, Giovanna; Homfray, Tessa; Crosby, Andrew H.; Couper, Jenny; David, Albert; Greenfield, Andy; Sinclair, Andrew; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of humans with disorders of sex development (DSDs) resulted in the discovery of many of the now-known mammalian sex-determining genes, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1, and WNT4. Here, the locus for an autosomal sex-determining gene was mapped via linkage analysis in two families with 46,XY DSD to the long arm of chromosome 5 with a combined, multipoint parametric LOD score of 6.21. A splice-acceptor mutation (c.634-8T>A) in MAP3K1 segregated with the phenotype in the first family and disrupted RNA splicing. Mutations were demonstrated in the second family (p.Gly616Arg) and in two of 11 sporadic cases (p.Leu189Pro, p.Leu189Arg)—18% prevalence in this cohort of sporadic cases. In cultured primary lymphoblastoid cells from family 1 and the two sporadic cases, these mutations altered the phosphorylation of the downstream targets, p38 and ERK1/2, and enhanced binding of RHOA to the MAP3K1 complex. Map3k1 within the syntenic region was expressed in the embryonic mouse gonad prior to, and after, sex determination. Thus, mutations in MAP3K1 that result in 46,XY DSD with partial or complete gonadal dysgenesis implicate this pathway in normal human sex determination. PMID:21129722

  20. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: Mapping hotspots of nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chao-Yi; Berridge, Kent C.

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense ‘disgust reactions’ (e.g., gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here we aimed to map forebrain candidates more precisely to identify where either local neuronal damage (excitotoxin lesions) or local pharmacological inactivation (muscimol-baclofen microinjections) caused rats to emit excessive sensory disgust reactions to sucrose. Our study compared subregions of nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, lateral hypothalamus and adjacent extended amygdala. Results indicated the posterior half of ventral pallidum to be the only forebrain site where intense sensory disgust gapes to sucrose were induced by both lesions and temporary inactivations (this site was previously identified as a hedonic hotspot for enhancements of sweetness ‘liking’). By comparison, for the nucleus accumbens, temporary GABA inactivations in the caudal half of the medial shell also generated sensory disgust but lesions never did at any site. Further, even inactivations failed to induce disgust in the rostral half of accumbens shell (which also contains a hedonic hotspot). In other structures, neither lesions nor inactivations induced disgust as long as the posterior ventral pallidum remained spared. We conclude that the posterior ventral pallidum is an especially crucial hotspot for producing excessive sensory disgust by local pharmacological/lesion dysfunction. By comparison, the nucleus accumbens appears to segregate sites for pharmacological disgust induction and hedonic enhancement into separate posterior versus rostral halves of medial shell. PMID:25229197

  1. Detection and mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks in the vicinity of the comstock lode, Virginia Range, Nevada, using enhanced LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, R. P. (Principal Investigator); Goetz, A. F. H.; Rowan, L. C.; Abrams, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT images enhanced by the band-ratioing method can be used for reconnaissance alteration mapping in moderately heavily vegetated semiarid terrain as well as in sparsely vegetated to semiarid terrain where the technique was originally developed. Significant vegetation cover in a scene, however, requires the use of MSS ratios 4/5, 4/6, and 6/7 rather than 4/5, 5/6, and 6/7, and requires careful interpretation of the results. Supplemental information suitable to vegetation identification and cover estimates, such as standard LANDSAT false-color composites and low altitude aerial photographs of selected areas is desirable.

  2. A stochastic approach to estimate the uncertainty of dose mapping caused by uncertainties in b-spline registration

    SciTech Connect

    Hub, Martina; Thieke, Christian; Kessler, Marc L.; Karger, Christian P.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In fractionated radiation therapy, image guidance with daily tomographic imaging becomes more and more clinical routine. In principle, this allows for daily computation of the delivered dose and for accumulation of these daily dose distributions to determine the actually delivered total dose to the patient. However, uncertainties in the mapping of the images can translate into errors of the accumulated total dose, depending on the dose gradient. In this work, an approach to estimate the uncertainty of mapping between medical images is proposed that identifies areas bearing a significant risk of inaccurate dose accumulation. Methods: This method accounts for the geometric uncertainty of image registration and the heterogeneity of the dose distribution, which is to be mapped. Its performance is demonstrated in context of dose mapping based on b-spline registration. It is based on evaluation of the sensitivity of dose mapping to variations of the b-spline coefficients combined with evaluation of the sensitivity of the registration metric with respect to the variations of the coefficients. It was evaluated based on patient data that was deformed based on a breathing model, where the ground truth of the deformation, and hence the actual true dose mapping error, is known. Results: The proposed approach has the potential to distinguish areas of the image where dose mapping is likely to be accurate from other areas of the same image, where a larger uncertainty must be expected. Conclusions: An approach to identify areas where dose mapping is likely to be inaccurate was developed and implemented. This method was tested for dose mapping, but it may be applied in context of other mapping tasks as well.

  3. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B disease-causing RAB7A mutant proteins show altered interaction with the neuronal intermediate filament peripherin.

    PubMed

    Cogli, Laura; Progida, Cinzia; Thomas, Claire L; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Donno, Claudia; Schiavo, Giampietro; Bucci, Cecilia

    2013-02-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) is a peripheral ulcero-mutilating neuropathy caused by four missense mutations in the rab7a gene. CMT2B is clinically characterized by prominent sensory loss, distal muscle weakness leading to muscle atrophy, high frequency of foot ulcers and infections that often results in toe amputations. RAB7A is a ubiquitous small GTPase, which controls transport to late endocytic compartments. Although the biochemical and functional properties of disease-causing RAB7A mutant proteins have been investigated, it is not yet clear how the disease originates. To understand how mutations in a ubiquitous protein specifically affect peripheral neurons, we performed a two-hybrid screen using a dorsal root ganglia cDNA library with the purpose of identifying RAB7A interactors specific for these cells. We identified peripherin, an intermediate filament protein expressed primarily in peripheral neurons, as a putative RAB7A interacting protein. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments, and established that the interaction is direct using recombinant proteins. Silencing or overexpression of wild type RAB7A changed the soluble/insoluble rate of peripherin indicating that RAB7A is important for peripherin organization and function. In addition, disease-causing RAB7A mutant proteins bind more strongly to peripherin and their expression causes a significant increase in the amount of soluble peripherin. Since peripherin plays a role not only in neurite outgrowth during development but also in axonal regeneration after injury, these data suggest that the altered interaction between disease-causing RAB7A mutants and peripherin could play an important role in CMT2B neuropathy.

  4. Rab7 Mutants Associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Cause Delayed Growth Factor Receptor Transport and Altered Endosomal and Nuclear Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    BasuRay, Soumik; Mukherjee, Sanchita; Romero, Elsa G.; Seaman, Matthew N. J.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Rab7 belongs to the Ras superfamily of small GTPases and is a master regulator of early to late endocytic membrane transport. Four missense mutations in the late endosomal Rab7 GTPase (L129F, K157N, N161T, and V162M) cause the autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) disease. As yet, the pathological mechanisms connecting mutant Rab7 protein expression to altered neuronal function are undefined. Here, we analyze the effects of Rab7 CMT2B mutants on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent intracellular signaling and trafficking. Three different cell lines expressing Rab7 CMT2B mutants and stimulated with EGF exhibited delayed trafficking of EGF to LAMP1-positive late endosomes and lysosomes and slowed EGF receptor (EGFR) degradation. Expression of all Rab7 CMT2B mutants altered the Rab7 activation cycle, leading to enhanced and prolonged EGFR signaling as well as variable increases in p38 and ERK1/2 activation. However, due to reduced nuclear translocation of p38 and ERK1/2, the downstream nuclear activation of Elk-1 was decreased along with the expression of immediate early genes like c-fos and Egr-1 by the disease mutants. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Rab7 CMT2B mutants impair growth factor receptor trafficking and, in turn, alter p38 and ERK1/2 signaling from perinuclear, clustered signaling endosomes. The resulting down-regulation of EGFR-dependent nuclear transcription that is crucial for normal axon outgrowth and peripheral innervation offers a crucial new mechanistic insight into disease pathogenesis that is relevant to other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23188822

  5. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takanori; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Kusaka, Takashi; Warita, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Jamal, Mostofa; Ueki, Masaaki; Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki; Sumitani, Kazunori; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

  6. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  7. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  8. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  9. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy maps cortical plasticity underlying altered motor performance induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hodics, Timea; Hervey, Nathan; Kondraske, George; Stowe, Ann M.; Alexandrakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human sensorimotor cortex during physical rehabilitation induces plasticity in the injured brain that improves motor performance. Bi-hemispheric tDCS is a noninvasive technique that modulates cortical activation by delivering weak current through a pair of anodal–cathodal (excitation–suppression) electrodes, placed on the scalp and centered over the primary motor cortex of each hemisphere. To quantify tDCS-induced plasticity during motor performance, sensorimotor cortical activity was mapped during an event-related, wrist flexion task by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) before, during, and after applying both possible bi-hemispheric tDCS montages in eight healthy adults. Additionally, torque applied to a lever device during isometric wrist flexion and surface electromyography measurements of major muscle group activity in both arms were acquired concurrently with fNIRS. This multiparameter approach found that hemispheric suppression contralateral to wrist flexion changed resting-state connectivity from intra-hemispheric to inter-hemispheric and increased flexion speed (p<0.05). Conversely, exciting this hemisphere increased opposing muscle output resulting in a decrease in speed but an increase in accuracy (p<0.05 for both). The findings of this work suggest that tDCS with fNIRS and concurrent multimotor measurements can provide insights into how neuroplasticity changes muscle output, which could find future use in guiding motor rehabilitation. PMID:24193947

  10. Disruption of the microtubule network alters cellulose deposition and causes major changes in pectin distribution in the cell wall of the green alga, Penium margaritaceum.

    PubMed

    Domozych, David S; Sørensen, Iben; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Willats, William G T; Popper, Zoë A

    2014-02-01

    Application of the dintroaniline compound, oryzalin, which inhibits microtubule formation, to the unicellular green alga Penium margaritaceum caused major perturbations to its cell morphology, such as swelling at the wall expansion zone in the central isthmus region. Cell wall structure was also notably altered, including a thinning of the inner cellulosic wall layer and a major disruption of the homogalacturonan (HG)-rich outer wall layer lattice. Polysaccharide microarray analysis indicated that the oryzalin treatment resulted in an increase in HG abundance in treated cells but a decrease in other cell wall components, specifically the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The ring of microtubules that characterizes the cortical area of the cell isthmus zone was significantly disrupted by oryzalin, as was the extensive peripheral network of actin microfilaments. It is proposed that the disruption of the microtubule network altered cellulose production, the main load-bearing component of the cell wall, which in turn affected the incorporation of HG in the two outer wall layers, suggesting coordinated mechanisms of wall polymer deposition.

  11. Influenza A virus infection causes alterations in expression of synaptic regulatory genes combined with changes in cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Beraki, S; Aronsson, F; Karlsson, H; Ogren, S O; Kristensson, K

    2005-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a link between certain neuropsychiatric diseases and exposure to viral infections. In order to examine long-term effects on behavior and gene expression in the brain of one candidate virus, we have used a model involving olfactory bulb injection of the neuro-adapted influenza A virus strain, WSN/33, in C57Bl/6 mice. Following this olfactory route of invasion, the virus targets neurons in the medial habenular, midline thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei as well as monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem. The mice survive and the viral infection is cleared from the brain within 12 days. When tested 14-20 weeks after infection, the mice displayed decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze test. Elevated transcriptional activity of two genes encoding synaptic regulatory proteins, regulator of G-protein signaling 4 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, was found in the amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum. It is of particular interest that the gene encoding RGS4, which has been related to schizophrenia, showed the most pronounced alteration. This study indicates that a transient influenza virus infection can cause persistent changes in emotional and cognitive functions as well as alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of synaptic activities.

  12. Disruption of the microtubule network alters cellulose deposition and causes major changes in pectin distribution in the cell wall of the green alga, Penium margaritaceum

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Application of the dintroaniline compound, oryzalin, which inhibits microtubule formation, to the unicellular green alga Penium margaritaceum caused major perturbations to its cell morphology, such as swelling at the wall expansion zone in the central isthmus region. Cell wall structure was also notably altered, including a thinning of the inner cellulosic wall layer and a major disruption of the homogalacturonan (HG)-rich outer wall layer lattice. Polysaccharide microarray analysis indicated that the oryzalin treatment resulted in an increase in HG abundance in treated cells but a decrease in other cell wall components, specifically the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The ring of microtubules that characterizes the cortical area of the cell isthmus zone was significantly disrupted by oryzalin, as was the extensive peripheral network of actin microfilaments. It is proposed that the disruption of the microtubule network altered cellulose production, the main load-bearing component of the cell wall, which in turn affected the incorporation of HG in the two outer wall layers, suggesting coordinated mechanisms of wall polymer deposition. PMID:24285826

  13. Loss of mitochondrial protease OMA1 alters processing of the GTPase OPA1 and causes obesity and defective thermogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Quirós, Pedro M; Ramsay, Andrew J; Sala, David; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Rodríguez, Francisco; Peinado, Juan R; Fernández-García, Maria Soledad; Vega, José A; Enríquez, José A; Zorzano, Antonio; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic subcellular organelles that convert nutrient intermediates into readily available energy equivalents. Optimal mitochondrial function is ensured by a highly evolved quality control system, coordinated by protein machinery that regulates a process of continual fusion and fission. In this work, we provide in vivo evidence that the ATP-independent metalloprotease OMA1 plays an essential role in the proteolytic inactivation of the dynamin-related GTPase OPA1 (optic atrophy 1). We also show that OMA1 deficiency causes a profound perturbation of the mitochondrial fusion–fission equilibrium that has important implications for metabolic homeostasis. Thus, ablation of OMA1 in mice results in marked transcriptional changes in genes of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways and substantial alterations in circulating blood parameters. Additionally, Oma1-mutant mice exhibit an increase in body weight due to increased adipose mass, hepatic steatosis, decreased energy expenditure and impaired thermogenenesis. These alterations are especially significant under metabolic stress conditions, indicating that an intact OMA1-OPA1 system is essential for developing the appropriate adaptive response to different metabolic stressors such as a high-fat diet or cold-shock. This study provides the first description of an unexpected role in energy metabolism for the metalloprotease OMA1 and reinforces the importance of mitochondrial quality control for normal metabolic function. PMID:22433842

  14. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  15. N-cadherin mediated distribution of beta-catenin alters MAP kinase and BMP-2 signaling on chondrogenesis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Modarresi, Rozbeh; Lafond, Toulouse; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Danielson, Keith G; Tuan, Rocky S; Seghatoleslami, M Reza

    2005-05-01

    We have examined the effect of calcium-dependent adhesion, mediated by N-cadherin, on cell signaling during chondrogenesis of multipotential embryonic mouse C3H10T1/2 cells. The activity of chondrogenic genes, type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 were examined in monolayer (non-chondrogenic), and micromass (chondrogenic) cultures of parental C3H10T1/2 cells and altered C3H10T1/2 cell lines that express a dominant negative form of N-cadherin (delta390-T1/2) or overexpress normal N-cadherin (MNCD2-T1/2). Our findings show that missexpression or inhibition of N-cadherin in C3H10T1/2 cells results in temporal and spatial changes in expression of the chondrogenic genes Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II. We have also analyzed activity of the serum response factor (SRF), a nuclear target of MAP kinase signaling implicated in chondrogenesis. In semi-confluent monolayer cultures (minimum cell-cell contact) of C3H10T1/2, MNCD2-T1/2, or delta390-T1/2 cells, there was no significant change in the pattern of MAP kinase or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) regulation of SRF. However, in micromass cultures, the effect of MAP kinase and BMP-2 on SRF activity was proportional to the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a Wnt stabilized cytoplasmic factor that can associate with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF) to serve as a transcription factor. Our findings suggest that the extent of adherens junction formation mediated by N-cadherin can modulate the potential Wnt-induced nuclear activity of beta-catenin. PMID:15723280

  16. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks at Cuprite, Nevada, using the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster), a new satellite-imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Hook, S.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-band multispectral instrument on board the Earth Observing System (EOS), TERRA. The three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 ??m and the six bands from 1.60 and 2.43 ??m, which have 15- and 30-m spatial resolution, respectively, were selected primarily for making remote mineralogical determinations. The Cuprite, Nevada, mining district comprises two hydrothermal alteration centers where Tertiary volcanic rocks have been hydrothermally altered mainly to bleached silicified rocks and opalized rocks, with a marginal zone of limonitic argilized rocks. Country rocks are mainly Cambrian phyllitic siltstone and limestone. Evaluation of an ASTER image of the Cuprite district shows that spectral reflectance differences in the nine bands in the 0.52 to 2.43 ??m region provide a basis for identifying and mapping mineralogical components which characterize the main hydrothermal alteration zones: opal is the spectrally dominant mineral in the silicified zone; whereas, alunite and kaolinite are dominant in the opalized zone. In addition, the distribution of unaltered country rocks was mapped because of the presence of spectrally dominant muscovite in the siltstone and calcite in limestone, and the tuffaceous rocks and playa deposits were distinguishable due to their relatively flat spectra and weak absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20 ??m, respectively. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image of the study area was processed using a similar methodology used with the ASTER data. Comparison of the ASTER and AVIRIS results shows that the results are generally similar, but the higher spectral resolution of AVIRIS (224 bands) permits identification of more individual minerals, including certain polymorphs. However, ASTER has recorded images of more than 90 percent of the Earth's land surface with less than 20 percent cloud cover, and these data are available at nominal or no cost

  17. Map of debris flows caused by rainfall during 1996 in parts of the Reedsport and Deer Head Point quadrangles, Douglas County, southern Coast Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Michael, John A.; Burgos, Marianela Mercado

    2011-01-01

    This 1:12,000-scale map shows an inventory of debris flows caused by rainfall during 1996 in a 94.4 km2 area in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. This map and associated digital data are part of a larger U.S. Geological Survey study of debris flows in the southern Coast Range. Available evidence indicates that the flows were triggered by a rain storm that occurred between November 17 and 19. The closest rain gage in the Coast Range (Goodwin Peak) recorded 245 mm during the storm. Maximum rainfall intensity during the storm was 13.2 mm/hr on November 18. Debris flows were photogrammetrically mapped from 1:12,000-scale aerial photographs flown in May, 1997. The inventory is presented on imagery derived from LiDAR data acquired in 2008. We classified mapped debris flows into four categories based on the type of debris-flow activity: (1) discrete slide source areas, (2) predominantly erosion, (3) predominantly transport or mixed erosion and deposition, and (4) predominantly deposition. Locations of woody-debris jams are also shown on the map. The area encompassed by debris flows is 2.1 percent of the 94.4 km2 map area.

  18. Three-factor reciprocal cross mapping of a gene that causes expression of feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J H; Davis, E J; Madu, A C; Braxter, S E

    1981-01-01

    The ilv-662 allele was previously identified as a mutation that caused acetohydroxy acid synthase activity to be resistant to feedback inhibition by valine (Davis et al. 1977). This allele was mapped between thr and leu by cotransduction analysis and labeled ilvJ. This report describes the mapping of ilvJ relative to genes that lie between thr and leu (ara, carA and pdxA) by three factor reciprocal cross analyses. We find that the probable gene order is thr-carA-pdxA-ilvJ-ara-leu. Although the phenotypic properties of ilvJ662 appear to be quite distinct from brnS, a gene reported to involve branched chain amino acid transport (Guardiola et al. 1974), we do not rule out possible allelism because of the uncertainty of the map position of brnS.

  19. Host Restriction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Is Not Caused by Functional Alteration of SipA, SopB, or SopD

    PubMed Central

    Raffatellu, Manuela; Sun, Yao-Hui; Wilson, R. Paul; Tran, Quynh T.; Chessa, Daniela; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Figueiredo, Josely F.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a strictly human adapted pathogen that does not cause disease in nonprimate vertebrate hosts, while Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a broad-host-range pathogen. Serotype Typhi lacks some of the proteins (effectors) exported by the invasion-associated type III secretion system that are required by serotype Typhimurium for eliciting fluid secretion and inflammation in bovine ligated ileal loops. We investigated whether the remaining serotype Typhi effectors implicated in enteropathogenicity (SipA, SopB, and SopD) are functionally exchangeable with their serotype Typhimurium homologues. Serotype Typhi elicited fluid accumulation in bovine ligated ileal loops at levels similar to those elicited by a noninvasive serotype Typhimurium strain (the sipA sopABDE2 mutant) or by sterile culture medium. However, introduction of the cloned serotype Typhi sipA, sopB, and sopD genes complemented the ability of a serotype Typhimurium sipA sopABDE2 mutant to elicit fluid secretion in bovine ligated ileal loops. Introduction of the cloned serotype Typhi sipA, sopB, and sopD genes increased the invasiveness of a serotype Typhimurium sipA sopABDE2 mutant for human colon carcinoma epithelial (HT-29 and T84) cells and bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Translational fusions between the mature TEM-1 β-lactamase reporter and SipA or SopD demonstrated that serotype Typhi translocates these effectors into host cells. We conclude that the inability of serotype Typhi to cause fluid accumulation in bovine ligated ileal loops is not caused by a functional alteration of its SipA, SopB, and SopD effector proteins with respect to their serotype Typhimurium homologues. PMID:16299271

  20. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The ASTER alteration map and corresponding geologic maps were used to select circular to elliptical patterns of argillic- and phyllic-altered volcanic and intrusive rocks as potential porphyry copper sites. One hundred and seventy eight potential porphyry copper sites were mapped along the UDVB, and 23 sites were mapped along the CVB. The potential sites were selected to assist in further exploration and assessments of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  1. Fusarium graminearum gene deletion mutants map1 and tri5 reveal similarities and differences in the pathogenicity requirements to cause disease on Arabidopsis and wheat floral tissue.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Alayne; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F. graminearum (strain PH-1) and two isogenic transformants lacking either the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAP1 gene or the trichodiene synthase TRI5 gene were individually spray- or point-inoculated onto Arabidopsis and wheat floral tissue. Disease development was quantitatively assessed both macroscopically and microscopically and deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin concentrations determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Wild-type strain inoculations caused high levels of disease in both plant species and significant DON production. The map1 mutant caused minimal disease and DON accumulation in both hosts. The tri5 mutant, which is unable to produce DON, exhibited reduced pathogenicity on wheat ears, causing only discrete eye-shaped lesions on spikelets which failed to infect the rachis. By contrast, the tri5 mutant retained full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis floral tissue. This study reveals that DON mycotoxin production is not required for F. graminearum to colonize Arabidopsis floral tissue. PMID:18179606

  2. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers.

    PubMed

    Adderley, Shaquria P; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O; Breslin, Jerome W

    2015-07-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:25948734

  3. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers

    PubMed Central

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:25948734

  4. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers.

    PubMed

    Adderley, Shaquria P; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O; Breslin, Jerome W

    2015-07-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity.

  5. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC1(2) cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H(2)O(2), catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction.

  6. Postnatal ethanol exposure alters levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol-metabolizing enzymes and pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase does not cause neurodegeneration in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Subbanna, Shivakumar; Psychoyos, Delphine; Xie, Shan; Basavarajappa, Balapal S

    2015-07-01

    The consumption of ethanol by pregnant women may cause neurological abnormalities, affecting learning and memory processes in children, and are collectively described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are still poorly understood. In our previous studies, we found that ethanol treatment of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice significantly enhances the anandamide levels but not the 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) levels and induces widespread neurodegeneration, but the reason for the lack of significant effects of ethanol on the 2-AG level is unknown. In this study, we examined developmental changes in diacylglycerol lipase-α, β (DAGL-α and β) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We found that the levels of these proteins were significantly higher in adult brains compared to those detected early in brain development. Next, we examined the influence of P7 ethanol treatment on these enzymes, finding that it differentially altered the DAGL-α protein and mRNA levels but consistently enhanced those of the DAGL-β. Interestingly, the ethanol treatment enhanced MAGL protein and mRNA levels. Inhibition of MAGL with KML29 failed to induce neurodegeneration in P7 mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ethanol significantly activates DAGL-β and MAGL in the neonatal brain, resulting in no net change in 2-AG levels.

  7. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells.

    PubMed

    Varani, Stefania; Gelsomino, Francesco; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Antonio; Briganti, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Patrizia; Albertini, Francesco; Calzetti, Carlo; Prati, Francesca; Cenni, Patrizia; Castellani, Gastone; Morini, Silvia; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-11-11

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS) cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  8. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016.

  9. Mitochondrial protein alterations in a familial peripheral neuropathy caused by the V144D amino acid mutation in the sphingolipid protein, SPTLC1.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Scott E; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is the final common path in many neurological disorders. Subsets of neuropathies involving the sensory neuron are known as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs). Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN-I) is the most common subtype of HSN with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with clinical symptom onset between the second or third decade of life. Heterozygous mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) gene were identified as the pathogenic cause of HSN-I. Ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria from HSN-I patient cells has displayed unique morphological abnormalities that are clustered to the perinucleus where they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This investigation defines a small subset of proteins with major alterations in abundance in mitochondria harvested from HSN-I mutant SPTLC1 cells. Using mitochondrial protein isolates from control and patient lymphoblasts, and a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we have shown the increased abundance of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1, an electron transport chain protein, as well as the immunoglobulin, Ig kappa chain C. The regulation of these proteins may provide a new route to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying HSN-I. PMID:25584079

  10. Removal of immunoglobulin-like domains from titin’s spring segment alters titin splicing in mouse skeletal muscle and causes myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Danielle; Smith, John E.; Chung, Charles S.; Ono, Yasuko; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Labeit, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Titin is a molecular spring that determines the passive stiffness of muscle cells. Changes in titin’s stiffness occur in various myopathies, but whether these are a cause or an effect of the disease is unknown. We studied a novel mouse model in which titin’s stiffness was slightly increased by deleting nine immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains from titin’s constitutively expressed proximal tandem Ig segment (IG KO). KO mice displayed mild kyphosis, a phenotype commonly associated with skeletal muscle myopathy. Slow muscles were atrophic with alterations in myosin isoform expression; functional studies in soleus muscle revealed a reduced specific twitch force. Exon expression analysis showed that KO mice underwent additional changes in titin splicing to yield smaller than expected titin isoforms that were much stiffer than expected. Additionally, splicing occurred in the PEVK region of titin, a finding confirmed at the protein level. The titin-binding protein Ankrd1 was highly increased in the IG KO, but this did not play a role in generating small titin isoforms because titin expression was unaltered in IG KO mice crossed with Ankrd1-deficient mice. In contrast, the splicing factor RBM20 (RNA-binding motif 20) was also significantly increased in IG KO mice, and additional differential splicing was reversed in IG KO mice crossed with a mouse with reduced RBM20 activity. Thus, increasing titin’s stiffness triggers pathological changes in skeletal muscle, with an important role played by RBM20. PMID:24470489

  11. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Stefania; Gelsomino, Francesco; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Antonio; Briganti, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Patrizia; Albertini, Francesco; Calzetti, Carlo; Prati, Francesca; Cenni, Patrizia; Castellani, Gastone; Morini, Silvia; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS) cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:26569288

  12. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanzhi; He, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Zhiming; Sun, Congwei; Mou, Tongmin; Li, Xinqi; Zhang, Yuanming; Hu, Zhongli

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica x japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica x indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1 - L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  13. Photolytic degradation products of two highly brominated flame retardants cause cytotoxicity and mRNA expression alterations in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Giesy, John P; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-10-21

    Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) are photolytically unstable flame retarding chemicals. Here, photocatalyzed byproducts of TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209 (i.e Br(8)- to Br(11)-PB-DiPhOBz congeners from TeDB-DiPhOBz, and Br(6)- to Br(8)-BDE congeners from BDE-209), formed after 21 days of natural sunlight irradiation (SI), were assessed for exposure effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression levels of selected genes in chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH). CEHs were exposed for 36 h to concentrations of SI- and nonirradiated (NI)-TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209. Cytotoxic effects were observed only in CEH exposed to 50 μM SI-BDE-209. Results from a custom-designed Avian ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array showed that NI-TeDB-DiPhOBz and NI-BDE-209, up to maximum concentrations of 1.9 and 9 μM, respectively, caused limited changes in mRNA levels of 27 genes from toxicologically relevant pathways, including phase I/II metabolism, the thyroid hormone pathway, lipid/cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress, immune response, and cell death. In contrast, 12 and 14 of the 27 genes were altered after exposure to 25 μM SI-TeDB-DiPhOBz or 10 μM SI-BDE-209, respectively. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-related CYP1A4 mRNA levels were the most altered on the PCR array with an induction of 560- and 5200-fold after exposure to 1 or 25 μM SI-TeDB-DiPhOBz, respectively, and 2500- and 2300-fold after exposure to 1 or 10 μM SI-BDE-209, respectively. A dioxin-responsive luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that the CYP1A4 inductions were independent of the dissolution solvents used (tetrahydrofuran/n-hexane, n-hexane, or methanol) during photolysis. Overall, degradation of TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209 by natural sunlight generates byproducts that affect in vitro expression of genes, especially the AhR-mediated CYP1A4. PMID:25222814

  14. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoko; Meijer, Judith; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Xu; Kondo, Tomomi; Ito, Tetsuya; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Van Kuilenburg, André B. P.

    2016-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R) in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients. PMID:26771602

  15. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP

    PubMed Central

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A.; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-01-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity. PMID:25545599

  16. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  17. Alterations in the glycoform of cisplatin-resistant human carcinoma cells are caused by defects in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Ohira, Miki; Hayashi, Shunji; Abe, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin; Nagahori, Noriko; Monde, Kenji; Shinohara, Yasuro; Fujitani, Naoki; Kondo, Hirosato; Akiyama, Shin-Ichi; Nakagawara, Akira; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Cisplatin, cis-diamineplatinum-(II) dichloride (CDDP), is one of the most common and valuable chemotherapeutic reagents for various cancers. However, it is well known that tumor cells gain acquired or intrinsic resistance to treatment by this anti-cancer reagent. In spite of extensive efforts using genetic and proteomic approaches, the mechanism underlying CDDP resistance remains unclear. In the present study, we report drastic structural changes in the N-glycans of glycoproteins in CDDP-resistant tumor cells (the KCP-4 cell line obtained from KB-3-1 human carcinoma cells). It was suggested that the CDDP-resistant cells exhibited an increase in one of the high-mannose-type glycans, particularly M8.1. This N-glycan is well known as a tag for the transport of unfolded protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lysosome, a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system. The revertant cells (KCP-4R) obtained from the KCP-4 cell line showed almost the same glycoform profile as that of the parental cells, suggesting that N-glycan biosynthesis in tumor cells clearly corresponds to the alteration in the sensitivity against CDDP. Gene expression analysis using a cDNA microarray showed a decrease in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in the resistant cells. MHC proteins form a complex with lysosome-degradated proteins and are presented on the cell surface. These results suggest that CDDP tolerance in KCP-4 cells is caused by a defect in the ERAD system. PMID:18573595

  18. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  19. Alterations caused to soil organic matter by post-fire rehabilitation actions in a pine forest from doñana national park (southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Granged, Arturo J. P.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire rehabilitation actions and recovery attempts of burned soils include a range of management practices (tillage, tree logging, reforestation …), in some cases producing an additional damage to that directly caused by fire. Among negative impacts derived from unappropriated rehab practices are the increase soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and alterations in the hydrological cycle. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) is an appropriate technique to study organic matter characteristics within complex matrices. Here this technique is used to study the alterations caused by burning and post-fire rehab plans to soil organic matter (SOM). Fire and post-fire rehab actions impact on SOM is studied in a sandy soil under pine (Pinus pinea) forest that was affected by a severe fire in August 2012 in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Bulk samples as well as its sieved soil fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected from an undisturbed burned area (B) and in an adjacent burned area after rehab practices (BR) (logging and extraction of burned trees) were studied. An additional adjacent unburned (UB) area was used as a control. Conspicuous differences among bulk samples from the B, BR and UB control areas were found in the relative proportions of the main molecular families obtained by analytical pyrolysis, including alkane/alkene pairs, unspecific aromatic compounds (UAC), peptides, methoxyphenols, fatty acids, carbohydrates, N-compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The B site SOM showed lower proportion of lignin methoxyphenols and higher of UAC and PAH than the SOM from the UB site. This indicates that fire produced methoxyphenol de-functionalization, increasing the proportion of recalcitrant compounds. With respect to soil size fractions, in all cases, the coarse fraction showed a high content of carbohydrate-derived compounds and methoxyphenols followed by fatty acids, in line with inputs of new litter from stressed post-fire vegetation

  20. Map showing areas of visible land disturbances caused by two military training operations in the Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Land disturbances caused by these training exercises are still evident today throughout the designated training areas (Lathrop, 1983; Prose, 1985; Prose and Metzger, 1985). The World War II base-camp locations are easily identified because the networks of dirt roads are still used by campers, hunters, artifact seekers, and other visitors. Vehicle trails and single tracks remain on many relatively stable surfaces and are most conspicuous on surfaces composed of a veneer of stones (desert pavement).

  1. uPAR peptide antagonist alters regulation of MAP kinases and Bcl-2 family members in favor of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tarighi, P.; Montazeri, H.; Khorramizadeh, M.R.; sobhani, A. Madadkar; Ostad, S.N.; Ghahremani, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligands play a major role in many tumors by mediating extracellular matrix degradation and signaling cascades leading to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Recently we introduced uPAR decapeptide antagonist with cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB-231 cell line. In this study we assessed the alteration in uPAR downstream signaling following treatment with the peptide antagonist. In this regard, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 from mitogen-activated protein kinase family and Bcl-2, Bim and Bax from Bcl-2 protein family were investigated. Our data revealed that the peptide caused p38 activation and low ERK activation. On the other hand, the peptide induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bim without Bax modulation. Changes in target protein expression/activation explain the apoptotic property of the peptide and highlight its potential to be used as a therapeutic agent in cancerous cells expressing high levels of uPAR. PMID:26600846

  2. A gene defect causing a novel progressive epilepsy with mental retardation, EPMR, maps to chromosome 8p

    SciTech Connect

    Ranta, S.; Tahvanainen, E.; Karila, E.

    1994-09-01

    EPMR (progressive epilepsy with mental retardation) is a newly discovered autosomal recessively inherited disorder which occurs with high frequency in an isolated rural population in Finland. So far 25 patients have been identified, 21 of whom are alive. Twenty-three patients share a common ancestor from the 18th century. The main features of EPMR are: normal early development, tonic-clonic seizures with onset between ages 5 and 10, and mental retardation which begins approximately 2 years after the onset of epilepsy and soon leads to deepening mental retardation. Adult patients do not manage their daily life without help. The EEG is normal at the onset of epilepsy but later progressive slowing of the background activity occurs. The etiology and pathogenesis of EPMR remain known. As this is a novel disease entity without any definitive diagnostic marker we wished to begin its elucidation by first defining its gene locus. A random search for linkage in four multiplex families (only 20 individuals tested) resulted in the finding of linkage to marker D8S264 with a lod score of 4.45 at zero recombination. The EPMR gene resides in a 7 centimorgan interval between marker loci AFM185xb2 and D8S262 with a maximum multipoint lod score of 7.03 at 1.8 centimorgans proximal to D8S264. Physically this region is very distal on 8p. Of the sixteen EPMR chromosomes haplotyped 15 were identical or almost identical. One chromosome, however, had a distinctly different haplotype raising the possibility of there being two different mutations or one very old mutation. These findings are a starting point toward isolating and characterizing the gene and its protein product. Physical mapping has been initiated by isolating nine YACs from the region.

  3. A recurrent KCNQ2 pore mutation causing early onset epileptic encephalopathy has a moderate effect on M current but alters subcellular localization of Kv7 channels.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Affef; Devaux, Jérôme J; Molinari, Florence; Alcaraz, Gisèle; Michon, François-Xavier; Sutera-Sardo, Julie; Becq, Hélène; Lacoste, Caroline; Altuzarra, Cécilia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Isidor, Bertrand; Guyen, Sylvie N; Colin, Estelle; De La Vaissière, Sabine; Haye, Damien; Trauffler, Adeline; Badens, Catherine; Prieur, Fabienne; Lesca, Gaetan; Villard, Laurent; Milh, Mathieu; Aniksztejn, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ2 gene encoding the voltage-dependent potassium M channel Kv7.2 subunit cause either benign epilepsy or early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). It has been proposed that the disease severity rests on the inhibitory impact of mutations on M current density. Here, we have analyzed the phenotype of 7 patients carrying the p.A294V mutation located on the S6 segment of the Kv7.2 pore domain (Kv7.2(A294V)). We investigated the functional and subcellular consequences of this mutation and compared it to another mutation (Kv7.2(A294G)) associated with a benign epilepsy and affecting the same residue. We report that all the patients carrying the p.A294V mutation presented the clinical and EEG characteristics of EOEE. In CHO cells, the total expression of Kv7.2(A294V) alone, assessed by western blotting, was only 20% compared to wild-type. No measurable current was recorded in CHO cells expressing Kv7.2(A294V) channel alone. Although the total Kv7.2(A294V) expression was rescued to wild-type levels in cells co-expressing the Kv7.3 subunit, the global current density was still reduced by 83% compared to wild-type heteromeric channel. In a configuration mimicking the patients' heterozygous genotype i.e., Kv7.2(A294V)/Kv7.2/Kv7.3, the global current density was reduced by 30%. In contrast to Kv7.2(A294V), the current density of homomeric Kv7.2(A294G) was not significantly changed compared to wild-type Kv7.2. However, the current density of Kv7.2(A294G)/Kv7.2/Kv7.3 and Kv7.2(A294G)/Kv7.3 channels were reduced by 30% and 50% respectively, compared to wild-type Kv7.2/Kv7.3. In neurons, the p.A294V mutation induced a mislocalization of heteromeric mutant channels to the somato-dendritic compartment, while the p.A294G mutation did not affect the localization of the heteromeric channels to the axon initial segment. We conclude that this position is a hotspot of mutation that can give rise to a severe or a benign epilepsy. The p.A294V mutation does not exert a

  4. Skin Barrier Defects Caused by Keratinocyte-Specific Deletion of ADAM17 or EGFR Are Based on Highly Similar Proteome and Degradome Alterations.

    PubMed

    Tholen, Stefan; Wolf, Cristina; Mayer, Bettina; Knopf, Julia D; Löffek, Stefanie; Qian, Yawen; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Biniossek, Martin L; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Schilling, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Keratinocyte-specific deletion of ADAM17 in mice impairs terminal differentiation of keratinocytes leading to severe epidermal barrier defects. Mice deficient for ADAM17 in keratinocytes phenocopy mice with a keratinocyte-specific deletion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which highlights the role of ADAM17 as a "ligand sheddase" of EGFR ligands. In this study, we aim for the first proteomic/degradomic approach to characterize the disruption of the ADAM17-EGFR signaling axis and its consequences for epidermal barrier formation. Proteomic profiling of the epidermal proteome of mice deficient for either ADAM17 or EGFR in keratinocytes at postnatal days 3 and 10 revealed highly similar protein alterations for ADAM17 and EGFR deficiency. These include massive proteome alterations of structural and regulatory components important for barrier formation such as transglutaminases, involucrin, filaggrin, and filaggrin-2. Cleavage site analysis using terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates revealed increased proteolytic processing of S100 fused-type proteins including filaggrin-2. Alterations in proteolytic processing are supported by altered abundance of numerous proteases upon keratinocyte-specific Adam17 or Egfr deletion, among them kallikreins, cathepsins, and their inhibitors. This study highlights the essential role of proteolytic processing for maintenance of a functional epidermal barrier. Furthermore, it suggests that most defects in formation of the postnatal epidermal barrier upon keratinocyte-specific ADAM17 deletion are mediated via EGFR.

  5. Ecdysone and insulin signaling play essential roles in readjusting the altered body size caused by the dGPAT4 mutation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Hanqing; Lindström-Battle, Anya; Jiao, Renjie

    2015-09-20

    Body size is one of the features that distinguish one species from another in the biological world. Animals have developed mechanisms to control their body size during normal development. However, how animals cope with genetic alterations and/or environmental stresses to develop into normal-sized adults remain poorly understood. The ability of the animals to develop into a normal-sized adult after the challenges of genetic alterations and/or environmental stresses reveals a robustness of body size control. Here we show that the mutation of dGPAT4, a de novo synthase of lysophosphatidic acid, is a genetic alteration that triggers such a robust response of the animals to body size challenges in Drosophila. Loss of dGPAT4 leads to a severe delay of development, slow growth and resultant small-sized animals during the larval stages, but results in normal-sized adult flies. The robust body size adjustment of the dGPAT4 mutant is likely achieved by corresponding changes in ecdysone and insulin signaling, which is also manifested by compromised food intake. Thus, we propose that a strategy has been evolved by the animals to reach final body size when challenged by genetic alterations, which requires the coordinated ecdysone and insulin signaling.

  6. Fine mapping of the 1p36 deletion syndrome identifies mutation of PRDM16 as a cause of cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M Khaled; Plovie, Eva R; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A; MacRae, Calum A; Klaassen, Sabine

    2013-07-11

    Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM.

  7. Maps Showing Locations of Damaging Landslides Caused by El Nino Rainstorms, Winter Season 1997-98, San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. Reports of landsliding began in early January 1998 and continued throughout the winter and spring. On February 9, President Clinton declared all 10 counties eligible for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) disaster assistance. In April and May of 1998, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a field reconnaissance in the area to provide a general overview of landslide damage resulting from the 1997-98 sequence of El Nino-related storms. Seven scientists from the USGS Landslide Hazards Program based in Reston, Virginia; Golden, Colorado; and Menlo Park, California; and five scientists from the USGS Geologic Mapping Program?s San Francisco Bay Mapping Team based in Menlo Park, California, cooperated in the landslide-damage assessments. The assessments were done for 10 counties in the Bay area: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Solano, and Sonoma. USGS Maps in this series include: MF-2325-A (Napa County), MF-2325-B (Alameda County), MF-2325-C (Marin County), MF-2325-D (Santa Cruz County), MF-2325-E (Contra Costa County), MF-2325-F (Sonoma County), MF-2325-G (San Francisco City and County), MF-2325-H (San Mateo County), MF-2325-I (Solano County), MF-2325-J (Santa Clara County). In addition to USGS scientists providing data from the field evaluation, each of the counties, many consultants, and others cooperated fully in providing the landslide-damage information compiled here.

  8. Influence on Depth Perception Caused by Modifying Gradation of Depth Map Images with Gray Level for Computer-Generated Stereogram and Its Subjective Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Ookuma, Yoshio; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    There is a lot of information on the internet web site concerning all aspects of stereogram history, science, social organization, and various types of stereograms. A stereogram is a two dimensional flat image viewed in such a fashion as to produce a three dimensional effect, i.e., visual depth perception. A variety of software for generating effectively the random dot stereogram (RDS) and single image stereogram (SIS) has been released on the internet web site. On the other hand, various hidden object images often called depth map image (DMI) with gradation in monochrome must be prepared in advance. This research note focuses on the influence of the depth perception caused be modifying hidden object images for digital stereogram. The possibility of subjective estimation of the depth is discussed using the simultaneous observation of a few stereograms.

  9. Inhibition of photosystem II photochemistry by Cr is caused by the alteration of both D1 protein and oxygen evolving complex.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadia Ait; Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Popovic, Radovan

    2006-09-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) on photosystem II (PSII) electron transport and the change of proteins content within PSII complex were investigated. When Lemna gibba was exposed to Cr during 96 h, growth inhibition was found to be associated with an alteration of the PSII electron transport at both PSII oxidizing and reducing sides. Investigation of fluorescence yields at transients K, J, I, and P suggested for Cr inhibitory effect to be located at the oxygen-evolving complex and Q(A) reduction. Those Cr-inhibitory effects were related to the change of the turnover of PSII D1 protein and the alteration of 24 and 33 kDa proteins of the oxygen-evolving complex. The inhibition of the PSII electron transport and the formation of reactive oxygen species induced by Cr were highly correlated with the decrease in the content of D1 protein and the amount of 24 and 33 kDa proteins. Therefore, functional alteration of PSII activity by Cr was closely related with the structural change within PSII complex. PMID:16969717

  10. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development.

  11. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  12. Mutation of the RDR1 gene caused genome-wide changes in gene expression, regional variation in small RNA clusters and localized alteration in DNA methylation in rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous small (sm) RNAs (primarily si- and miRNAs) are important trans/cis-acting regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. In plants, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are essential for smRNA biogenesis. It has been established that RDR2 is involved in the 24 nt siRNA-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recent studies have suggested that RDR1 is involved in a second RdDM pathway that relies mostly on 21 nt smRNAs and functions to silence a subset of genomic loci that are usually refractory to the normal RdDM pathway in Arabidopsis. Whether and to what extent the homologs of RDR1 may have similar functions in other plants remained unknown. Results We characterized a loss-of-function mutant (Osrdr1) of the OsRDR1 gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) derived from a retrotransposon Tos17 insertion. Microarray analysis identified 1,175 differentially expressed genes (5.2% of all expressed genes in the shoot-tip tissue of rice) between Osrdr1 and WT, of which 896 and 279 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in Osrdr1. smRNA sequencing revealed regional alterations in smRNA clusters across the rice genome. Some of the regions with altered smRNA clusters were associated with changes in DNA methylation. In addition, altered expression of several miRNAs was detected in Osrdr1, and at least some of which were associated with altered expression of predicted miRNA target genes. Despite these changes, no phenotypic difference was identified in Osrdr1 relative to WT under normal condition; however, ephemeral phenotypic fluctuations occurred under some abiotic stress conditions. Conclusions Our results showed that OsRDR1 plays a role in regulating a substantial number of endogenous genes with diverse functions in rice through smRNA-mediated pathways involving DNA methylation, and which participates in abiotic stress response. PMID:24980094

  13. Infection by a black spot-causing species of Uvulifer and associated opercular alterations in fishes from a high-desert stream in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Black spot is a common disease syndrome of freshwater fishes. This study provides information on the rank of density of the black spot agent and opercular bone alterations associated with at least one digenean, Uvulifer sp., infecting native and non-native catostomids and cyprinids of the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluated the density rank of pigmented metacercariae and associated alterations in the operculum of the bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker C. latipinnis, white sucker C. commersoni, catostomid hybrids, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, sampled from Muddy Creek, Wyoming, USA in 2003 or 2004. All fish species contained individuals that exhibited gross signs of the black spot agent. Bluehead and flannelmouth suckers had 100% prevalence of infection. Although the other suckers and chubs contained encysted metacercariae in at least one individual, the presence of pigmented metacercariae was not apparent (i.e. based on gross observations) in many individuals. Catostomids had higher densities of metacercariae than cyprinids, as shown by frequency distributions of density ranks. Opercular holes (i.e. holes that completely penetrated the opercle and were in direct association with the pigment associated metacercariae) and pockets (depressions on the external surface of the opercle associated with metacercariae) were abundant among catostomids but rare among cyprinids. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  14. Altered Ion Channel/Receptor Expression and Function in Extrinsic Sensory Neurons: The Cause of and Solution to Chronic Visceral Pain?

    PubMed

    Brierley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is unique in that it is innervated by several distinct populations of neurons, whose cell bodies are either intrinsic (enteric, viscerofugal) or extrinsic (sympathetic, sensory afferents) to the wall of the gut. We are usually completely unaware of the continuous, complicated orchestra of functions that these neurons conduct. However, for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) or functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) altered gastrointestinal motility, discomfort and pain are common, debilitating symptoms. Whilst bouts of inflammation underlie the symptoms associated with IBD, over the past few years there is increased pre-clinical and clinical evidence that infection and inflammation are key risk factors for the development of several functional gastrointestinal disorders, in particular IBS. There is a strong correlation between prior exposure to gut infection and symptom occurrence; with the duration and severity of the initial illness the strongest associated risk factors. This review discusses the current body of evidence for neuroplasticity during inflammation and how in many cases fails to reset back to normal, long after healing of the damaged tissues. Recent evidence suggests that the altered expression and function of key ion channels and receptors within extrinsic sensory neurons play fundamental roles in the aberrant pain sensation associated with these gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. PMID:27379637

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Identification of altered microRNAs and mRNAs in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients: miRNA-509-3p promotes oestradiol secretion by targeting MAP3K8.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Liu, Chang; Hao, Cuifang; Tang, Qianqing; Liu, Riming; Lin, Shaoxia; Zhang, Luping; Yan, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women and is characterised by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Although the clinical and biochemical signs of PCOS are typically heterogeneous, abnormal folliculogenesis is considered a common characteristic of PCOS. Our aim is to identify the altered miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients to investigate their molecular function in the aetiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of the cumulus cell samples isolated from five PCOS and five control patients were determined by an miRNA microarray. At the same time, the altered mRNA profiles of the same cumulus cell samples were also identified by a cDNA microarray. From the microarray data, 17 miRNAs and 1263 mRNAs showed significantly different expression in the PCOS cumulus cells. The differentially expressed miRNA-509-3p and its potential target gene (MAP3K8) were identified from the miRNA and mRNA microarrays respectively. The expression of miRNA-509-3p was up-regulated and MAP3K8 was down-regulated in the PCOS cumulus cells. The direct interaction between miRNA-509-3p and MAP3K8 was confirmed by a luciferase activity assay in KGN cells. In addition, miRNA-509-3p mimics or inhibitor transfection tests in KGN cells further confirmed that miRNA-509-3p improved oestradiol (E2) secretion by inhibiting the expression of MAP3K8 These results help to characterise the pathogenesis of anovulation in PCOS, especially the regulation of E2 production.

  2. Osbpl8 deficiency in mouse causes an elevation of high-density lipoproteins and gender-specific alterations of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Béaslas, Olivier; Metso, Jari; Nissilä, Eija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Kaiharju, Essi; Batchu, Krishna Chaithanya; Kaipiainen, Leena; Mäyränpää, Mikko I; Yan, Daoguang; Gylling, Helena; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2013-01-01

    OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8(-/-) (KO) C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+79%) and phospholipids (+35%), while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27%) was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or hepatic lipase (HL) activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model, demonstrating a

  3. Osbpl8 Deficiency in Mouse Causes an Elevation of High-Density Lipoproteins and Gender-Specific Alterations of Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Béaslas, Olivier; Metso, Jari; Nissilä, Eija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Kaiharju, Essi; Batchu, Krishna Chaithanya; Kaipiainen, Leena; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Yan, Daoguang; Gylling, Helena; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2013-01-01

    OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8−/− (KO) C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+79%) and phospholipids (+35%), while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27%) was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or hepatic lipase (HL) activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model, demonstrating a

  4. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    PubMed

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (p<0.05. The fresh cowpea leaf b-carotene and vitamin C content was 140.9 and 164.3 mg / 100g DM respectively and decreased (p<0.05) with drying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (p<0.05) with drying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  5. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    PubMed

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (p<0.05. The fresh cowpea leaf b-carotene and vitamin C content was 140.9 and 164.3 mg / 100g DM respectively and decreased (p<0.05) with drying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (p<0.05) with drying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention. PMID:15477192

  6. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  7. Neurochemical and electrophysiological deficits in the ventral hippocampus and selective behavioral alterations caused by high-fat diet in female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, S; Keralapurath, M M; Lin, Z; Wagner, J J; de La Serre, C B; Harn, D A; Filipov, N M

    2015-06-25

    Mounting experimental evidence, predominantly from male rodents, demonstrates that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and ensuing obesity are detrimental to the brain. To shed additional light on the neurological consequences of HFD consumption in female rodents and to determine the relatively early impact of HFD in the likely continuum of neurological dysfunction in the context of chronic HFD intake, this study investigated effects of HFD feeding for up to 12weeks on selected behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological parameters in adult female C57BL/6 mice; particular focus was placed on the ventral hippocampus (vHIP). Selected locomotor, emotional and cognitive functions were evaluated using behavioral tests after 5weeks on HFD or control (low-fat diet) diets. One week later, mice were sacrificed and brain regional neurochemical (monoamine) analysis was performed. Behaviorally naïve mice were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 5-6weeks at which time synaptic plasticity was determined in ex vivo slices from the vHIP. HFD-fed female mice exhibited increased: (i) locomotor activity in the open field testing, (ii) mean turn time on the pole test, (iii) swimming time in the forced swim test, and (iv) number of marbles buried in the marble burying test. In contrast, the novel object recognition memory was unaffected. Mice on HFD also had decreased norepinephrine and dopamine turnover, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex and the vHIP. HFD consumption for a total of 11-12weeks altered vHIP synaptic plasticity, evidenced by significant reductions in the paired-pulse ratio and long-term potentiation (LTP) magnitude. In summary, in female mice, HFD intake for several weeks induced multiple behavioral alterations of mainly anxiety-like nature and impaired monoamine pathways in a brain region-specific manner, suggesting that in the female, certain behavioral domains (anxiety) and associated brain regions, i.e., the vHIP, are preferentially

  8. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  9. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  10. A MIXTURE OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE AND SODIUM CHLORATE ENHANCES ALTERATIONS OF THE PITUITARY-THYROID AXIS CAUSED BY THE INDIVIDUAL CHEMICALS IN ADULT MALE F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) and sodium chlorate (SC) have been detected in public drinking water supplies in many parts of the U.S. These chemicals cause perturbations in pituitary-thyroid homeostasis in animals by competitively inhibiting the iodide uptake, thus hindering the synt...

  11. Exposure to the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 causes alterations in gene expression and sublethal hepatotoxicity in eleutheroembryo medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Law, Sheran H.W.; Law, J. McHugh; Mondon, J.A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Hinton, David E.

    2010-02-15

    The small freshwater teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has a history of usage in studies of chronic toxicity of liver and biliary system. Recent progress with this model has focused on defining the medaka hepatobiliary system. Here we investigate critical liver function and toxicity by examining the in vivo role and function of the farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXRalpha, NR1H4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis. Quantitative mRNA analysis of medaka FXRalpha demonstrates differential expression of two FXRalpha isoforms designated Fxralpha1 and Fxralpha2, in both free swimming medaka embryos with remaining yolk (eleutheroembryos, EEs) and adults. Activation of medaka Fxralpha in vivo with GW4064 (a strong FXRalpha agonist) resulted in modification of gene expression for defined FXRalpha gene targets including the bile salt export protein, small heterodimer partner, and cytochrome P450 7A1. Histological examination of medaka liver subsequent to GW4064 exposure demonstrated significant lipid accumulation, cellular and organelle alterations in both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells of the liver. This report of hepatobiliary injury following GW4064 exposure extends previous investigations of the intrahepatic biliary system in medaka, reveals sensitivity to toxicant exposure, and illustrates the need for added resolution in detection and interpretation of toxic responses in this vertebrate.

  12. Exposure to the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 causes alterations in gene expression and sublethal hepatotoxicity in eleutheroembryo medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Howarth, Deanna L; Law, Sheran H W; Law, J McHugh; Mondon, J A; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

    2010-02-15

    The small freshwater teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has a history of usage in studies of chronic toxicity of liver and biliary system. Recent progress with this model has focused on defining the medaka hepatobiliary system. Here we investigate critical liver function and toxicity by examining the in vivo role and function of the farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXRalpha, NR1H4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis. Quantitative mRNA analysis of medaka FXRalpha demonstrates differential expression of two FXRalpha isoforms designated Fxralpha1 and Fxralpha2, in both free swimming medaka embryos with remaining yolk (eleutheroembryos, EEs) and adults. Activation of medaka Fxralpha in vivo with GW4064 (a strong FXRalpha agonist) resulted in modification of gene expression for defined FXRalpha gene targets including the bile salt export protein, small heterodimer partner, and cytochrome P450 7A1. Histological examination of medaka liver subsequent to GW4064 exposure demonstrated significant lipid accumulation, cellular and organelle alterations in both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells of the liver. This report of hepatobiliary injury following GW4064 exposure extends previous investigations of the intrahepatic biliary system in medaka, reveals sensitivity to toxicant exposure, and illustrates the need for added resolution in detection and interpretation of toxic responses in this vertebrate.

  13. Alteration of cell cytoskeleton and functions of cell recovery of normal human osteoblast cells caused by factors associated with real space flight.

    PubMed

    Kapitonova, M Y; Salim, N; Othman, S; Muhd Kamauzaman, T M H T; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H M; Froemming, G R A

    2013-12-01

    Experiments involving short-term space flight have shown an adverse effect on the physiology, morphology and functions of cells investigated. The causes for this effect on cells are: microgravity, temperature fluctuations, mechanical stress, hypergravity, nutrient restriction and others. However, the extent to which these adverse effects can be repaired by short-term space flown cells when recultured in conditions of normal gravity remains unclear. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term spaceflight on cytoskeleton distribution and recovery of cell functions of normal human osteoblast cells. The ultrastructure was evaluated using ESEM. Fluorescent staining was done using Hoechst, Mito Tracker CMXRos and Tubulin Tracker Green for cytoskeleton. Gene expression of cell functions was quantified using qPCR. As a result, recovered cells did not show any apoptotic markers when compared with control. Tubulin volume density (p<0.001) was decreased significantly when compared to control, while mitochondria volume density was insignificantly elevated. Gene expression for IL-6 (p<0.05) and sVCAM-1 (p<0.001) was significantly decreased while alkaline phosphatase (p<0.001), osteocalcin and sICAM (p<0.05) were significantly increased in the recovered cells compared to the control ones. The changes in gene and protein expression of collagen 1A, osteonectin, osteoprotegerin and beta-actin, caused by short-term spaceflight, were statistically not significant. These data indicate that short term space flight causes morphological changes in osteoblast cells which are consistent with hypertrophy, reduced cell differentiation and increased release of monocyte attracting proteins. The long-term effect of these changes on bone density and remodeling requires more detailed studies.

  14. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies.

  15. Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  16. Comparison of the duration and power spectral changes of monopolar and bipolar M waves caused by alterations in muscle fibre conduction velocity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Navallas, Javier; Malanda, Armando; Rodriguez-Martin, Olivia

    2014-08-01

    The muscle compound action potential (M wave) recorded under monopolar configuration reflects both the propagation of the action potentials along the muscle fibres and their extinction at the tendon. M waves recorded under a bipolar configuration contain less cross talk and noise than monopolar M waves, but they do not contain the entire informative content of the propagating potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of changes in muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) on monopolar and bipolar M waves and how this effect depends on the distance between the recording electrodes and tendon. The study was based on a simulation approach and on an experimental investigation of the characteristics of surface M waves evoked in the vastus lateralis during 4-s step-wise isometric contractions in knee extension at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% MVC. The peak-to-peak duration (Durpp) and median frequency (Fmedian) of the M waves were calculated. For monopolar M waves, changes in Durpp and Fmedian produced by MFCV depended on the distance from the electrode to the tendon, whereas, for bipolar M waves, changes in Durpp and Fmedian were largely independent of the electrode-to-tendon distance. When the distance between the detection point and tendon lay between approximately 15 and 40mm, changes in Durpp of bipolar M waves were more pronounced than those of distal monopolar M waves but less marked than those of proximal monopolar M waves, and the opposite occurred for Fmedian. Since, for bipolar M waves, changes in duration and power spectral features produced by alterations in MFCV are not influenced by the electrode-to-tendon distance, the bipolar electrode configuration is a preferable choice over monopolar arrangements to estimate changes in conduction velocity.

  17. Deregulation of the OsmiR160 Target Gene OsARF18 Causes Growth and Developmental Defects with an Alteration of Auxin Signaling in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression as key negative regulators at the post-transcriptional level. MiR160 plays a pivotal role in Arabidopsis growth and development through repressing expression of its target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes; however, the function of miR160 in monocots remains elusive. In this study, we found that the mature rice miR160 (OsmiR160) was mainly derived from OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b genes. Among four potential OsmiR160 target OsARF genes, the OsARF18 transcript was cleaved at the OsmiR160 target site. Rice transgenic plants (named mOsARF18) expressing an OsmiR160-resistant version of OsARF18 exhibited pleiotropic defects in growth and development, including dwarf stature, rolled leaves, and small seeds. mOsARF18 leaves were abnormal in bulliform cell differentiation and epidermal cell division. Starch accumulation in mOsARF18 seeds was also reduced. Moreover, auxin induced expression of OsMIR160a, OsMIR160b, and OsARF18, whereas expression of OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b as well as genes involved in auxin signaling was altered in mOsARF18 plants. Our results show that negative regulation of OsARF18 expression by OsmiR160 is critical for rice growth and development via affecting auxin signaling, which will advance future studies on the molecular mechanism by which miR160 fine-tunes auxin signaling in plants. PMID:27444058

  18. A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration caused by dams in the Northeastern United States using a Neural Network based daily reservoir operation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.; Tessler, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    Considering the impacts of dams on natural hydrology and ecosystems, it is important to be able to simulate their behavior and effects in hydrological and ecological models. Overlooking human engineering of river systems may significantly affect modelling results and impact decisions addressing water management issues. Simulating reservoir operation at the regional and global scale remains a challenge in water resource and environmental science. There are numerous studies that model the operating rules of a single or small cluster of dams based on available observed data or that try to find an optimized set of rules for their operation based on their characteristics and intended purpose. On the other hand, there are few works that consider the operation of dams for regional and global hydrological models. One major problem in modeling dams operation in such large-scale systems is the lack of efficient algorithms for modelling reservoir operation. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each dam has a specific and optimum operating rule; as a result, effective simulation of their operation is not a trivial task when hundreds and thousands of dams exist in the area of study. As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrological modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. We use an Artificial Neural Network to develop an accurate yet generalized daily operating rule with minimal input requirements that is suitable for use in large scale hydrological models. We implement this reservoir operating scheme into WBMplus and study how dams alter natural hydrology of the Northeastern United States. We also show how climate change impacts the operation of reservoirs and hence availability of water in the region by the end of the 21st century.

  19. In Utero Exposure to a Cardiac Teratogen Causes Reversible Deficits in Postnatal Cardiovascular Function, But Altered Adaptation to the Burden of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Maciver, Rebecca D; Ramchandani, Shyamlal; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2015-11-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth anomaly and while many resolve spontaneously by 1 year of age, the lifelong burden on survivors is poorly understood. Using a rat model of chemically induced CHD that resolve postnatally, we sought to characterize the postnatal changes in cardiac function, and to investigate whether resolved CHD affects the ability to adapt to the increased the cardiovascular (CV) burden of pregnancy. To generate rats with resolved CHD, pregnant rats were administered distilled water or dimethadione (DMO) [300 mg/kg b.i.d. on gestation day (gd) 9 and 10] and pups delivered naturally. To characterize structural and functional changes in the heart, treated and control offspring were scanned by echocardiography on postnatal day 4, 21, and 10-12 weeks. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of hemodynamics. Females were mated and scanned by echocardiography on gd12 and gd18 during pregnancy. On gd18, maternal hearts were collected for structural and molecular assessment. Postnatal echocardiography revealed numerous structural and functional differences in treated offspring compared with control; however, these resolved by 10-12 weeks of age. The CV demand of pregnancy revealed differences between treated and control offspring with respect to mean arterial pressure, CV function, cardiac strain, and left ventricular gene expression. In utero exposure to DMO also affected the subsequent generation. Gd18 fetal and placental weights were increased in treated F2 offspring. This study demonstrates that in utero chemical exposure may permanently alter the capacity of the postnatal heart to adapt to pregnancy and this may have transgenerational effects.

  20. A novel mutation within the MIR96 gene causes non-syndromic inherited hearing loss in an Italian family by altering pre-miRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Soldà, Giulia; Robusto, Michela; Primignani, Paola; Castorina, Pierangela; Benzoni, Elena; Cesarani, Antonio; Ambrosetti, Umberto; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 microRNA (miRNA) family is essential for differentiation and function of the vertebrate inner ear. Recently, point mutations within the seed region of miR-96 were reported in two Spanish families with autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) and in a mouse model of NSHL. We screened 882 NSHL patients and 836 normal-hearing Italian controls and identified one putative novel mutation within the miR-96 gene in a family with autosomal dominant NSHL. Although located outside the mature miR-96 sequence, the detected variant replaces a highly conserved nucleotide within the companion miR-96*, and is predicted to reduce the stability of the pre-miRNA hairpin. To evaluate the effect of the detected mutation on miR-96/mir-96* biogenesis, we investigated the maturation of miR-96 by transient expression in mammalian cells, followed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that both miR-96 and miR-96* levels were significantly reduced in the mutant, whereas the precursor levels were unaffected. Moreover, miR-96 and miR-96* expression levels could be restored by a compensatory mutation that reconstitutes the secondary structure of the pre-miR-96 hairpin, demonstrating that the mutation hinders precursor processing, probably interfering with Dicer cleavage. Finally, even though the mature miR-96 sequence is not altered, we demonstrated that the identified mutation significantly impacts on miR-96 regulation of selected targets. In conclusion, we provide further evidence of the involvement of miR-96 mutations in human deafness and demonstrate that a quantitative defect of this miRNA may contribute to NSHL. PMID:22038834

  1. Deregulation of the OsmiR160 Target Gene OsARF18 Causes Growth and Developmental Defects with an Alteration of Auxin Signaling in Rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression as key negative regulators at the post-transcriptional level. MiR160 plays a pivotal role in Arabidopsis growth and development through repressing expression of its target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes; however, the function of miR160 in monocots remains elusive. In this study, we found that the mature rice miR160 (OsmiR160) was mainly derived from OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b genes. Among four potential OsmiR160 target OsARF genes, the OsARF18 transcript was cleaved at the OsmiR160 target site. Rice transgenic plants (named mOsARF18) expressing an OsmiR160-resistant version of OsARF18 exhibited pleiotropic defects in growth and development, including dwarf stature, rolled leaves, and small seeds. mOsARF18 leaves were abnormal in bulliform cell differentiation and epidermal cell division. Starch accumulation in mOsARF18 seeds was also reduced. Moreover, auxin induced expression of OsMIR160a, OsMIR160b, and OsARF18, whereas expression of OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b as well as genes involved in auxin signaling was altered in mOsARF18 plants. Our results show that negative regulation of OsARF18 expression by OsmiR160 is critical for rice growth and development via affecting auxin signaling, which will advance future studies on the molecular mechanism by which miR160 fine-tunes auxin signaling in plants. PMID:27444058

  2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a source to detect markers of homeostatic alterations caused by the intake of diets with an unbalanced macronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Caimari, Antoni; van Schothorst, Evert M; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are accessible in humans, and their gene expression pattern was shown to reflect overall physiological response of the body to a specific stimulus, such as diet. We aimed to study the impact of sustained intake (4months) of diets with an unbalanced macronutrient proportion (rich in fat or protein) administered isocalorically to a balanced control diet, as physiological stressors on PBMC whole-genome gene expression in rats, to better understand the effects of these diets on metabolism and health and to identify biomarkers of nutritional imbalance. Dietary macronutrient composition (mainly increased protein content) altered PBMC gene expression, with genes involved in immune response being the most affected. Intake of a high-fat (HF) diet decreased the expression of genes related to antigen recognition/presentation, whereas the high-protein (HP) diet increased the expression of these genes and of genes involved in cytokine signaling and immune system maturation/activation. Key energy homeostasis genes (mainly related to lipid metabolism) were also affected, reflecting an adaptive response to the diets. Moreover, HF diet feeding impaired expression of genes involved in redox balance regulation. Finally, we identified a common gene expression signature of 7 genes whose expression changed in the same direction in response to the intake of both diets. These genes, individually or together, constitute a potential risk marker of diet macronutrient imbalance. In conclusion, we newly show that gene expression analysis in PBMCs allows for detection of diet-induced physiological deviations that distinguish from a diet with a proper and equilibrated macronutrient composition.

  3. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  4. Disturbance Distance: Using a process based ecosystem model to estimate and map potential thresholds in disturbance rates that would give rise to fundamentally altered ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Flanagan, S.; LePage, Y.; Sahajpal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. As recent studies highlight novel disturbance regimes resulting from pollution, invasive pests and climate change, there is a need to include these alterations in predictions of future forest function and structure. The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model is a mechanistic model of forest ecosystem dynamics in which individual-based forest dynamics can be efficiently implemented over regional to global scales due to advanced scaling methods. We utilize ED to characterize the sensitivity of potential vegetation structure and function to changes in rates of density independent mortality. Disturbance rate within ED can either be altered directly or through the development of sub-models. Disturbance sub-models in ED currently include fire, land use and hurricanes. We use a tiered approach to understand the sensitivity of North American ecosystems to changes in background density independent mortality. Our first analyses were conducted at half-degree spatial resolution with a constant rate of disturbance in space and time, which was altered between runs. Annual climate was held constant at the site level and the land use and fire sub-models were turned off. Results showed an ~ 30% increase in non-forest area across the US when disturbance rates were changed from 0.6% a year to 1.2% a year and a more than 3.5 fold increase in non-forest area when disturbance rates doubled again from 1.2% to 2.4%. Continued runs altered natural background disturbance rates with the existing fire and hurricane sub models turned on as well as historic and future land use. By quantify differences between model outputs that characterize ecosystem structure and function related to the carbon cycle across the US, we

  5. Monitoring dynamic alterations in calcium homeostasis by T1-mapping manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in the early stage of small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Da-wei; Zhang, Le-tian; Cheng, Hai-yun; Zhang, Yu-long; Min, Jia-yan; Xiao, Hua-liang; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI studies have proven to be useful in monitoring physiological activities associated with calcium ions (Ca(2+)) due to the paramagnetic property of the manganese ion (Mn(2+)), which makes it an excellent probe of Ca(2+) . In this study, we developed a method in which a Mn(2+)-enhanced T1 -map MRI could enable the monitoring of Ca(2+) influx during the early stages of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The Mn(2+) infusion protocol was optimized by obtaining dose-dependent and time-course wash-out curves using a Mn(2+)-enhanced T1-map MRI of rabbit abdomens following an intravenous infusion of 50 mmol/l MnCl2 (5-10 nmol/g body weight (BW)). In the rabbit model of intestinal I/R injury, T1 values were derived from the T1 maps in the intestinal wall region and revealed a relationship between the dose of the infused MnCl2 and the intestinal wall relaxation time. Significant Mn(2+) clearance was also observed over time in control animals after the infusion of Mn(2+) at a dose of 10 nmol/g BW. This technique was also shown to be sensitive enough to monitor variations in calcium ion homeostasis in vivo after small intestinal I/R injury. The T1 values of the intestinal I/R group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group at 5, 10, and 15 min after Mn(2+) infusion. Our data suggest that MnCl2 has the potential to be an MRI contrast agent that can be effectively used to monitor changes in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis during the early stages of intestinal I/R injury.

  6. A Recurrent Mutation in CACNA1G Alters Cav3.1 T-Type Calcium-Channel Conduction and Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Coutelier, Marie; Blesneac, Iulia; Monteil, Arnaud; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Ando, Kunie; Mundwiller, Emeline; Brusco, Alfredo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Anheim, Mathieu; Castrioto, Anna; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Lory, Philippe; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Hereditary cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by a cerebellar syndrome, often accompanied by other neurological or non-neurological signs. All transmission modes have been described. In autosomal-dominant CA (ADCA), mutations in more than 30 genes are implicated, but the molecular diagnosis remains unknown in about 40% of cases. Implication of ion channels has long been an ongoing topic in the genetics of CA, and mutations in several channel genes have been recently connected to ADCA. In a large family affected by ADCA and mild pyramidal signs, we searched for the causative variant by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing. In CACNA1G, we identified a c.5144G>A mutation, causing an arginine-to-histidine (p.Arg1715His) change in the voltage sensor S4 segment of the T-type channel protein Cav3.1. Two out of 479 index subjects screened subsequently harbored the same mutation. We performed electrophysiological experiments in HEK293T cells to compare the properties of the p.Arg1715His and wild-type Cav3.1 channels. The current-voltage and the steady-state activation curves of the p.Arg1715His channel were shifted positively, whereas the inactivation curve had a higher slope factor. Computer modeling in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons suggested that the mutation results in decreased neuronal excitability. Taken together, these data establish CACNA1G, which is highly expressed in the cerebellum, as a gene whose mutations can cause ADCA. This is consistent with the neuropathological examination, which showed severe Purkinje cell loss. Our study further extends our knowledge of the link between calcium channelopathies and CAs. PMID:26456284

  7. αB-Crystallin R120G variant causes cardiac arrhythmias and alterations in the expression of Ca(2+) -handling proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qibin; Sanbe, Atsushi; Zhang, Xingwei; Liu, Jun-Ping; Minamisawa, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    Mutations of αB-crystallin (CryαB), a small heat shock protein abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles, are known to cause desmin-related myopathies. The CryαB R120G allele has been linked to a familial desminopathy and, in transgenic mice, causes a sudden death at about 28 weeks of age. To investigate the mechanisms of the sudden cardiac arrest of CryαB R120G transgenic mice, we prepared protein samples from left ventricular tissues of two different age groups (10 and 28 weeks) and examined Ca(2+) -handling proteins. Expression of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) 2, phospholamban, ryanodine receptor 2 and calsequestrin 2 was significantly decreased in 28- versus 10-week-old CryαB R120G transgenic mice. In addition, low heart rate variability, including heart rate, total power and low frequency, was observed and continuous electrocardiogram monitoring revealed cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular block and atrial flutter, in 28-week-old CryαB R120G transgenic mice. In contrast, expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein, inositol requirement 1 and X-box binding protein 1 were increased significantly in 28- versus 10-week-old CryαBR120G transgenic mice, suggesting that the CryαBR120G transgenic mice exhibit increased ER stress compared with wild-type mice. Together, the data suggest that the CryαB R120G dominant variant induces ER stress and impairs Ca(2+) regulation, leading to ageing-related cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and decreased autonomic tone with shortened lifespan.

  8. A Recurrent Mutation in CACNA1G Alters Cav3.1 T-Type Calcium-Channel Conduction and Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Coutelier, Marie; Blesneac, Iulia; Monteil, Arnaud; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Ando, Kunie; Mundwiller, Emeline; Brusco, Alfredo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Anheim, Mathieu; Castrioto, Anna; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Lory, Philippe; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by a cerebellar syndrome, often accompanied by other neurological or non-neurological signs. All transmission modes have been described. In autosomal-dominant CA (ADCA), mutations in more than 30 genes are implicated, but the molecular diagnosis remains unknown in about 40% of cases. Implication of ion channels has long been an ongoing topic in the genetics of CA, and mutations in several channel genes have been recently connected to ADCA. In a large family affected by ADCA and mild pyramidal signs, we searched for the causative variant by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing. In CACNA1G, we identified a c.5144G>A mutation, causing an arginine-to-histidine (p.Arg1715His) change in the voltage sensor S4 segment of the T-type channel protein Cav3.1. Two out of 479 index subjects screened subsequently harbored the same mutation. We performed electrophysiological experiments in HEK293T cells to compare the properties of the p.Arg1715His and wild-type Cav3.1 channels. The current-voltage and the steady-state activation curves of the p.Arg1715His channel were shifted positively, whereas the inactivation curve had a higher slope factor. Computer modeling in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons suggested that the mutation results in decreased neuronal excitability. Taken together, these data establish CACNA1G, which is highly expressed in the cerebellum, as a gene whose mutations can cause ADCA. This is consistent with the neuropathological examination, which showed severe Purkinje cell loss. Our study further extends our knowledge of the link between calcium channelopathies and CAs. PMID:26456284

  9. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  10. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  11. The pathogenicity determinant of Citrus tristeza virus causing the seedling yellows syndrome maps at the 3'-terminal region of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Marti, Maria R; Robertson, Cecile; Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Belliure, Belén; Garnsey, Stephen M; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) causes some of the more important viral diseases of citrus worldwide. The ability to map disease-inducing determinants of CTV is needed to develop better diagnostic and disease control procedures. A distinctive phenotype of some isolates of CTV is the ability to induce seedling yellows (SY) in sour orange, lemon and grapefruit seedlings. In Florida, the decline isolate of CTV, T36, induces SY, whereas a widely distributed mild isolate, T30, does not. To delimit the viral sequences associated with the SY syndrome, we created a number of T36/T30 hybrids by substituting T30 sequences into different regions of the 3' half of the genome of an infectious cDNA of T36. Eleven T36/T30 hybrids replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. Five of these hybrids formed viable virions that were mechanically transmitted to Citrus macrophylla, a permissive host for CTV. All induced systemic infections, similar to that of the parental T36 clone. Tissues from these C. macrophylla source plants were then used to graft inoculate sour orange and grapefruit seedlings. Inoculation with three of the T30/T36 hybrid constructs induced SY symptoms identical to those of T36; however, two hybrids with T30 substitutions in the p23-3' nontranslated region (NTR) (nucleotides 18 394-19 296) failed to induce SY. Sour orange seedlings infected with a recombinant non-SY p23-3' NTR hybrid also remained symptomless when challenged with the parental virus (T36), demonstrating the potential feasibility of using engineered constructs of CTV to mitigate disease.

  12. Mutations in human C2CD3 cause skeletal dysplasia and provide new insights into phenotypic and cellular consequences of altered C2CD3 function

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Claudio R.; McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Vogel, Ida; Rondón Galeano, Maria C.; Leo, Paul J.; Harris, Jessica E.; Anderson, Lisa K.; Keith, Patricia A.; Brown, Matthew A.; Ramsing, Mette; Duncan, Emma L.; Zankl, Andreas; Wicking, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by defective assembly or dysfunction of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular organelle that plays a key role in developmental signalling. Ciliopathies are clinically grouped in a large number of overlapping disorders, including the orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDS), the short rib polydactyly syndromes and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding the centriolar protein C2CD3 have been described in two families with a new sub-type of OFDS (OFD14), with microcephaly and cerebral malformations. Here we describe a third family with novel compound heterozygous C2CD3 mutations in two fetuses with a different clinical presentation, dominated by skeletal dysplasia with no microcephaly. Analysis of fibroblast cultures derived from one of these fetuses revealed a reduced ability to form cilia, consistent with previous studies in C2cd3-mutant mouse and chicken cells. More detailed analyses support a role for C2CD3 in basal body maturation; but in contrast to previous mouse studies the normal recruitment of the distal appendage protein CEP164 suggests that this protein is not sufficient for efficient basal body maturation and subsequent axonemal extension in a C2CD3-defective background. PMID:27094867

  13. Allozyme Segregation Ratios in the Interspecific Cross CUCURBITA MAXIMAxC. ECUADORENSIS Suggest That Hybrid Breakdown Is Not Caused by Minor Alterations in Chromosome Structure

    PubMed Central

    Weeden, N. F.; Robinson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The parentals of the interspecific cross Cucurbita maxima x C. ecuadorensis had different isozyme phenotypes for 12 enzyme systems. Characterization of the systems demonstrated that the expression and intracellular distribution of the isozymes were similar to those in other plant taxa; however, a considerable number of duplicate loci were identified, indicative of a polyploid ancestry for Cucurbita. Genetic analysis provided evidence for 20 loci segregating in F2 and backcross populations. Five linkage groups were identified, consisting of the loci Aat-mb – – Mdh-m2; Gal-1 – – Gal-2; Aat-p2 – – Gpi-c2; Acp-1 – – Pgm-c2 – – Pgm-p; and Est-1 – – Tpi-c2. Significant deviations from Mendelian segregation ratios were observed in 14% of the data sets for individual loci. However, these instances were scattered among the loci, no single locus consistently displaying skewed ratios. Recombination frequencies between linked loci were similar to those observed in intraspecific crosses, and the ratio of heterozygous to homozygous genotypes in backcross populations was very close to one. These results suggest that small differences in chromosome structure were not the major cause of the loss of fertility observed in F2 and backcross populations. PMID:17246350

  14. A Genomic Study of DNA Alteration Events Caused by Ionizing Radiation in Human Embryonic Stem Cells via Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van; Panyutin, Irina V.; Panyutin, Igor G.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen that is widely employed for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To study the extent of genetic variations in DNA caused by IR, we used IR-sensitive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Four hESC cell lines, H1, H7, H9, and H14, were subjected to IR at 0.2 or 1 Gy dose and then maintained in culture for four days before being harvested for DNA isolation. Irradiation with 1 Gy dose resulted in significant cell death, ranging from 60% to 90% reduction in cell population. Since IR is often implicated as a risk for inducing cancer, a primer pool targeting genomic “hotspot” regions that are frequently mutated in human cancer genes was used to generate libraries from irradiated and control samples. Using a semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing approach, we were able to consistently sequence these samples with deep coverage for reliable data analysis. A possible rare nucleotide variant was identified in the KIT gene (chr4:55593481) exclusively in H1 hESCs irradiated with 1 Gy dose. More extensive further studies are warranted to assess the extent and distribution of genetic changes in hESCs after IR exposure. PMID:26709353

  15. Mutations in human C2CD3 cause skeletal dysplasia and provide new insights into phenotypic and cellular consequences of altered C2CD3 function.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Claudio R; McInerney-Leo, Aideen M; Vogel, Ida; Rondón Galeano, Maria C; Leo, Paul J; Harris, Jessica E; Anderson, Lisa K; Keith, Patricia A; Brown, Matthew A; Ramsing, Mette; Duncan, Emma L; Zankl, Andreas; Wicking, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by defective assembly or dysfunction of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular organelle that plays a key role in developmental signalling. Ciliopathies are clinically grouped in a large number of overlapping disorders, including the orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDS), the short rib polydactyly syndromes and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding the centriolar protein C2CD3 have been described in two families with a new sub-type of OFDS (OFD14), with microcephaly and cerebral malformations. Here we describe a third family with novel compound heterozygous C2CD3 mutations in two fetuses with a different clinical presentation, dominated by skeletal dysplasia with no microcephaly. Analysis of fibroblast cultures derived from one of these fetuses revealed a reduced ability to form cilia, consistent with previous studies in C2cd3-mutant mouse and chicken cells. More detailed analyses support a role for C2CD3 in basal body maturation; but in contrast to previous mouse studies the normal recruitment of the distal appendage protein CEP164 suggests that this protein is not sufficient for efficient basal body maturation and subsequent axonemal extension in a C2CD3-defective background. PMID:27094867

  16. A Genomic Study of DNA Alteration Events Caused by Ionizing Radiation in Human Embryonic Stem Cells via Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van; Panyutin, Irina V; Panyutin, Igor G; Neumann, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen that is widely employed for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To study the extent of genetic variations in DNA caused by IR, we used IR-sensitive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Four hESC cell lines, H1, H7, H9, and H14, were subjected to IR at 0.2 or 1 Gy dose and then maintained in culture for four days before being harvested for DNA isolation. Irradiation with 1 Gy dose resulted in significant cell death, ranging from 60% to 90% reduction in cell population. Since IR is often implicated as a risk for inducing cancer, a primer pool targeting genomic "hotspot" regions that are frequently mutated in human cancer genes was used to generate libraries from irradiated and control samples. Using a semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing approach, we were able to consistently sequence these samples with deep coverage for reliable data analysis. A possible rare nucleotide variant was identified in the KIT gene (chr4:55593481) exclusively in H1 hESCs irradiated with 1 Gy dose. More extensive further studies are warranted to assess the extent and distribution of genetic changes in hESCs after IR exposure. PMID:26709353

  17. Altered expression of triadin 95 causes parallel changes in localized Ca2+ release events and global Ca2+ signals in skeletal muscle cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, János; Gönczi, Monika; Sztretye, Monika; Dienes, Beatrix; Oláh, Tamás; Szabó, László; Csoma, Eszter; Szentesi, Péter; Szigeti, Gyula P; Marty, Isabelle; Csernoch, László

    2008-01-01

    The 95 kDa triadin (Trisk 95), an integral protein of the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane in skeletal muscle, interacts with both the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and calsequestrin. While its role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis has been extensively studied, data are not available on whether the overexpression or the interference with the expression of Trisk 95 would affect calcium sparks the localized events of calcium release (LCRE). In the present study LCRE and calcium transients were studied using laser scanning confocal microscopy on C2C12 cells and on primary cultures of skeletal muscle. Liposome- or adenovirus-mediated Trisk 95 overexpression and shRNA interference with triadin translation were used to modify the level of the protein. Stable overexpression in C2C12 cells significantly decreased the amplitude and frequency of calcium sparks, and the frequency of embers. In line with these observations, depolarization-evoked calcium transients were also suppressed. Similarly, adenoviral transfection of Trisk 95 into cultured mouse skeletal muscle cells significantly decreased both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous global calcium transients. Inhibition of endogenous triadin expression by RNA interference caused opposite effects. Primary cultures of rat skeletal muscle cells expressing endogenous Trisk 95 readily generated spontaneous calcium transients but rarely produced calcium sparks. Their transfection with specific shRNA sequence significantly reduced the triadin-specific immunoreactivity. Functional experiments on these cells revealed that while caffeine-evoked calcium transients were reduced, LCRE appeared with higher frequency. These results suggest that Trisk 95 negatively regulates RyR function by suppressing localized calcium release events and global calcium signals in cultured muscle cells. PMID:18845610

  18. Near-infrared reflectance of zunyite: implications for field mapping and remote-sensing detection of hydrothermally altered high alumina rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Several hydroxyl-bearing minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 2.0-2.4 mu m wave length range, and can be identified with an orbital radiometer and with high-resolution airborne and field portable spectrometers. Among such minerals, zunyite, 143Al13Si5O20(OH,F)18Cl, has distinctive spectral absorption characteristics and is notably restricted to, and thus an indicator mineral of, advanced argillic alteration. Although seldom noted because it visually resembles quartz, zunyite is probably not as rare as generally believed. Laboratory measurements and general considerations underlie suggestions favouring the feasibility of detecting zunyite, alone and in mixtures with other Al-OH minerals, using field portable spectrometers.-G.J.N.

  19. Disturbance Distance: Combining a process based ecosystem model and remote sensing data to map the vulnerability of U.S. forested ecosystems to potentially altered disturbance rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. In addition, recent studies suggest that disturbance rates may increase in the future under altered climate and land use scenarios. Thus understanding how vulnerable forested ecosystems are to potential changes in disturbance rates is of high importance. This study calculated the theoretical threshold rate of disturbance for which forest ecosystems could no longer be sustained (λ*) across the Coterminous U.S. using an advanced process based ecosystem model (ED). Published rates of disturbance (λ) in 50 study sites were obtained from the North American Forest Disturbance (NAFD) program. Disturbance distance (λ* - λ) was calculated for each site by differencing the model based threshold under current climate conditions and average observed rates of disturbance over the last quarter century. Preliminary results confirm all sample forest sites have current average rates of disturbance below λ*, but there were interesting patterns in the recorded disturbance distances. In general western sites had much smaller disturbance distances, suggesting higher vulnerability to change, while eastern sites showed larger buffers. Ongoing work is being conducted to assess the vulnerability of these sites in the context of potential future changes by propagating scenarios of future climate and land-use change through the analysis.

  20. Both chronic treatments by epothilone D and fluoxetine increase the short-term memory and differentially alter the mood status of STOP/MAP6 KO mice.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Vincent; de Lavilléon, Gaetan; Schweitzer, Annie; Giros, Bruno; Andrieux, Annie; Martres, Marie-Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of neuronal cytoskeleton in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. In this line, the deletion of STOP/MAP6 (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide), a microtubule-stabilizing protein, triggers various neurotransmission and behavioral defects, suggesting that STOP knockout (KO) mice could be a relevant experimental model for schizoaffective symptoms. To establish the predictive validity of such a mouse line, in which the brain serotonergic tone is dramatically imbalanced, the effects of a chronic fluoxetine treatment on the mood status of STOP KO mice were characterized. Moreover, we determined the impact, on mood, of a chronic treatment by epothilone D, a taxol-like microtubule-stabilizing compound that has previously been shown to improve the synaptic plasticity deficits of STOP KO mice. We demonstrated that chronic fluoxetine was either antidepressive and anxiolytic, or pro-depressive and anxiogenic, depending on the paradigm used to test treated mutant mice. Furthermore, control-treated STOP KO mice exhibited paradoxical behaviors, compared with their clear-cut basal mood status. Paradoxical fluoxetine effects and control-treated STOP KO behaviors could be because of their hyper-reactivity to acute and chronic stress. Interestingly, both epothilone D and fluoxetine chronic treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice. Such treatments did not affect the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter densities in cerebral areas of mice. Altogether, these data demonstrated that STOP KO mice could represent a useful model to study the relationship between cytoskeleton, mood, and stress, and to test innovative mood treatments, such as microtubule-stabilizing compounds.

  1. Alteration of structure and function of ATP synthase and cytochrome c oxidase by lack of Fo-a and Cox3 subunits caused by mitochondrial DNA 9205delTA mutation.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Kaplanová, Vilma; Nůsková, Hana; Kovářová, Nikola; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Seneca, Sara; Houštěk, Josef

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene are frequent causes of severe mitochondrial disorders. Typically, these are missense mutations, but another type is represented by the 9205delTA microdeletion, which removes the stop codon of the MT-ATP6 gene and affects the cleavage site in the MT-ATP8/MT-ATP6/MT-CO3 polycistronic transcript. This interferes with the processing of mRNAs for the Atp6 (Fo-a) subunit of ATP synthase and the Cox3 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Two cases described so far presented with strikingly different clinical phenotypes-mild transient lactic acidosis or fatal encephalopathy. To gain more insight into the pathogenic mechanism, we prepared 9205delTA cybrids with mutation load ranging between 52 and 99% and investigated changes in the structure and function of ATP synthase and the COX. We found that 9205delTA mutation strongly reduces the levels of both Fo-a and Cox3 proteins. Lack of Fo-a alters the structure but not the content of ATP synthase, which assembles into a labile, ∼60 kDa smaller, complex retaining ATP hydrolytic activity but which is unable to synthesize ATP. In contrast, lack of Cox3 limits the biosynthesis of COX but does not alter the structure of the enzyme. Consequently, the diminished mitochondrial content of COX and non-functional ATP synthase prevent most mitochondrial ATP production. The biochemical effects caused by the 9205delTA microdeletion displayed a pronounced threshold effect above ∼90% mutation heteroplasmy. We observed a linear relationship between the decrease in subunit Fo-a or Cox3 content and the functional presentation of the defect. Therefore we conclude that the threshold effect originated from a gene-protein level. PMID:25588698

  2. Alteration of structure and function of ATP synthase and cytochrome c oxidase by lack of Fo-a and Cox3 subunits caused by mitochondrial DNA 9205delTA mutation.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Kaplanová, Vilma; Nůsková, Hana; Kovářová, Nikola; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Seneca, Sara; Houštěk, Josef

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene are frequent causes of severe mitochondrial disorders. Typically, these are missense mutations, but another type is represented by the 9205delTA microdeletion, which removes the stop codon of the MT-ATP6 gene and affects the cleavage site in the MT-ATP8/MT-ATP6/MT-CO3 polycistronic transcript. This interferes with the processing of mRNAs for the Atp6 (Fo-a) subunit of ATP synthase and the Cox3 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Two cases described so far presented with strikingly different clinical phenotypes-mild transient lactic acidosis or fatal encephalopathy. To gain more insight into the pathogenic mechanism, we prepared 9205delTA cybrids with mutation load ranging between 52 and 99% and investigated changes in the structure and function of ATP synthase and the COX. We found that 9205delTA mutation strongly reduces the levels of both Fo-a and Cox3 proteins. Lack of Fo-a alters the structure but not the content of ATP synthase, which assembles into a labile, ∼60 kDa smaller, complex retaining ATP hydrolytic activity but which is unable to synthesize ATP. In contrast, lack of Cox3 limits the biosynthesis of COX but does not alter the structure of the enzyme. Consequently, the diminished mitochondrial content of COX and non-functional ATP synthase prevent most mitochondrial ATP production. The biochemical effects caused by the 9205delTA microdeletion displayed a pronounced threshold effect above ∼90% mutation heteroplasmy. We observed a linear relationship between the decrease in subunit Fo-a or Cox3 content and the functional presentation of the defect. Therefore we conclude that the threshold effect originated from a gene-protein level.

  3. Mapping and characterization of land subsidence in Beijing Plain caused by groundwater pumping using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) InSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M. L.; Gong, H. L.; Chen, B. B.; Zhou, C. F.; Liu, K. S.; Shi, M.

    2015-11-01

    InSAR time series analysis is widely used for detection and monitoring of slow surface deformation. In this paper, 15 TerraSAR-X radar images acquired in stripmap mode between 2012 and 2013 are processed for land subsidence monitoring with the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach in Beijing Plain in China. Mapping results produced by SBAS show that the subsidence rates in the area of Beijing Plain range from -97.5 (subsidence) and to +23.8 mm yr-1 (uplift), relative to a presumably stable benchmark. The mapping result also reveals that there are the five subsidence centers formed by surface deformation spreading north to south east of the downtown. An uneven subsidence patten was detected near the Beijing Capital International Airpor, which may be related to loading of buildings and the aircraft.

  4. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Atrazine via the Drinking Water Causes Specific Behavioral Deficits and Selectively Alters Monoaminergic Systems in C57BL/6 Mouse Dams, Juvenile and Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams’ cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. PMID:24913803

  5. Rapid identification of a natural knockout allele of ARMADILLO REPEAT-CONTAINING KINESIN1 that causes root hair branching by mapping-by-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rishmawi, Louai; Sun, Hequan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Hülskamp, Martin; Schrader, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), branched root hairs are an indicator of defects in root hair tip growth. Among 62 accessions, one accession (Heiligkreuztal2 [HKT2.4]) displayed branched root hairs, suggesting that this accession carries a mutation in a gene of importance for tip growth. We determined 200- to 300-kb mapping intervals using a mapping-by-sequencing approach of F2 pools from crossings of HKT2.4 with three different accessions. The intersection of these mapping intervals was 80 kb in size featuring not more than 36 HKT2.4-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, only two of which changed the coding potential of genes. Among them, we identified the causative single nucleotide polymorphism changing a splicing site in ARMADILLO REPEAT-CONTAINING KINESIN1. The applied strategies have the potential to complement statistical methods in high-throughput phenotyping studies using different natural accessions to identify causative genes for distinct phenotypes represented by only one or a few accessions. PMID:25248719

  6. Two novel α2 gene mutations causing altered amino acid sequences produce a mild (Hb Kinshasa, HBA2: c.428A > T) and severe (HBA2: c.342-345insCC) α-thalassemia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Saller, Elisabeth; Dutly, Fabrizio; Frischknecht, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    We describe two novel α2 gene mutations that result in an altered amino acid sequence. In case 1, the α2 stop codon was mutated from TAA > TTA (HBA2: c.428A > T), resulting in an α2 protein chain extension of 31 amino acids. The new hemoglobin (Hb) variant was named Hb Kinshasa for the place of origin of the patient. This patient was also a carrier of Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T), which was expressed at reduced levels, but had an otherwise normal blood count. For cases 2 and 3, an α2 frameshift mutation caused a premature α2 protein chain termination at position 133 (HBA2: c.342-345insCC). The phenotype of this mutation seems to be rather severe as judged by the pronounced microcytosis and hypochromia observed in case 2. In addition, the father of this patient (case 3) also carried a β(0)-thalassemia (β(0)-thal) mutation (HBB: c.118C > T). PMID:25786670

  7. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  8. Historical mapping reveals causes and temporal patterns of woodland contraction in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla from the 12th century AD to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Þorbjarnarson, Höskuldur

    2016-04-01

    Land-cover changes in Iceland over the last millennium encompass birch (Betula pubescens) woodland depletion and extensive soil erosion. Yet few studies have focused on spatial change of birch woodland coverage in Iceland over centuries and why and how the woodland depletion took place. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to map the woodland distribution today in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla (3041 km2) in southern Iceland; (2) to map woodland holdings over a period of 900 years from eleventh. AD 1100 to the early 20th century; (3) explain the relative impacts of socio-economic and natural forces on woodland cover over this period. We use a combined approach of historical reconstruction from diverse written archives, GIS techniques and field work. The woodland in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla now covers 73.2 km2 (2.5% of the study area). The woodland holdings, 44 in total, are regularly listed in the church inventories from 1179 to 1570 and are owned by the church. In the first complete register for the district in 1641 the woodland holdings were 73, owned and used by 58 estates, and distributed across Austur-Skaftafellssýsla. All the main patches of woodland remain today, with the exception of four minor woodlands which were exhausted near the end of the 19th century. The woodland was used for firewood and charcoal making as well as grazing during the study period but, crucially, in most cases only one estate had authority over each holding, none were commons. The main driving force behind the development of woodlands was socio-economic, rather than natural, where the form of ownership was fundamental for the fate of the woodland. Harsh climate and volcanism were not directly responsible for woodland depletion. The latter half of the 19th century was the period of greatest woodland loss. This period coincides with considerable expansion in livestock numbers, especially sheep and associated all year around grazing, at a time when the Little Ice Age culminated in

  9. Pyridostigmine prevents haemodynamic alterations but does not affect their nycthemeral oscillations in infarcted mice.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Wesley G; Durand, Marina T; Becari, Christiane; Tezini, Geisa C S V; do Carmo, Jussara M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Prado, Cibele M; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Helio C

    2015-01-01

    The increase in acetylcholine yielded by pyridostigmine (PYR), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was evaluated for its effect on the haemodynamic responses-mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR)-and their nycthemeral oscillation in mice before and one week after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice were anesthetized (isoflurane), and a telemetry transmitter was implanted into the carotid artery. After 5 days of recovery, the MAP and HR were recorded for 48 h (10 s every 10 min). Following this procedure, mice were submitted to surgery for sham or coronary artery ligation and received drinking water (VEHICLE) with or without PYR. Five days after surgery, the haemodynamic recordings were recommenced. Sham surgery combined with VEHICLE did not affect basal MAP and HR; nevertheless, these haemodynamic parameters were higher during the night, before and after surgery. MI combined with VEHICLE displayed decreased MAP and increased HR; these haemodynamic parameters were also higher during the night, before and after surgery. Sham surgery combined with PYR displayed similar results for MAP as sham combined with VEHICLE; however, PYR produced bradycardia. Nevertheless, MI combined with PYR exhibited no change in MAP and HR, but these haemodynamic parameters were also higher during the night, before and after surgery. Therefore, MI decreased MAP and increased HR, while PYR prevented these alterations. Neither MI nor PYR affected nycthemeral oscillations of MAP and HR. These findings indicate that the increase in acetylcholine yielded by PYR protected the haemodynamic alterations caused by MI in mice, without affecting the nycthemeral haemodynamic oscillations.

  10. Precise mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight, caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O, using an Advanced Intercross Maize Population.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IBM population, an advanced intercross recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines Mo17 (resistant) and B73 (susceptible), was evaluated in four environments for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O. ...

  11. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  12. Map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    An inaccurate map is not a reliable map. "X" may mark the spot where the treasure is buried, but unless the seeker can locate "X" in relation to known landmarks or positions, the map is not very useful.

  13. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  14. The effects of artificial alteration on sulfur in Arctica islandica shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Vanessa; Huthwelker, Thomas; Borca, Camelia N.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Griesshaber, Erika; Yin, Xiaofei; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Immenhauser, Adrian; Strauss, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) is an important proxy for reconstructing redox conditions in former oceans. Especially for biogenic carbonates it is not fully understood where exactly the CAS is incorporated, how much is incorporated in respect to ambient sulfate concentrations, and how CAS is affected by diagenetic alteration. By combining sulfur K μ-XANES and μ-XRF analyses with geochemical methods (CAS-extraction, sulfur isotope measurements), this study aims at specifying the location of incorporation of CAS. Moreover, the effects of diagenetic alteration on sulfur abundance, speciation and distribution in shells of the marine bivalve Arctica islandica will be assessed through alteration experiments. Hereby, shell pieces were hydrothermally altered at two different temperatures (100°C and 175°C) for different times (one to twelve weeks) with sulfate-free artificial seawater. Our results show that the samples altered at 100°C retain the original/primary sulfur distribution and concentration, similar to a non-altered Arctica islandica shell. In contrast, μ-XRF maps of the shells altered at 175°C exhibit a significant change in the sulfur distribution and a decrease in sulfur concentration. The respective incubation solutions, in turn, show an increase in sulfate concentration with longer alteration times at 175°C. Furthermore, μ-XRF maps of sulfur not only record the growth of calcite crystals with longer alteration times at 175°C but also indicate that newly formed crystals are characterized by a near complete absence of sulfur. We propose that the process of recrystallization from aragonite to calcite between 100°C and 175°C causes the loss of sulfur from the bivalve shell. This is consistent with S K XANES analyses which indicate that the majority of sulfur in the Arctica islandica shell is present as sulfate integrated into the inorganic, aragonitic part, where the spectra resemble sulfate in aqueous solution.

  15. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system.

  16. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  17. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  18. MAP3K1

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trang T.; Angus, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    MAP3K1 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family of serine/threonine kinases. MAP3K1 regulates JNK activation and is unique among human kinases in that it also encodes an E3 ligase domain that ubiquitylates c-Jun and ERK1/2. Full length MAP3K1 regulates cell migration and contributes to pro-survival signaling while its caspase 3-mediated cleavage generates a C-terminal kinase domain that promotes apoptosis. The critical function of MAP3K1 in cell fate decisions suggests that it may be a target for deregulation in cancer. Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed that MAP3K1 copy number loss and somatic missense or nonsense mutations are observed in a significant number of different cancers, being most prominent in luminal breast cancer. The alteration of MAP3K1 in diverse cancer types demonstrates the importance of defining phenotypes for possible therapeutic targeting of tumor cell vulnerabilities created when MAP3K1 function is lost or gained. PMID:24386504

  19. Exploring maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Exploring Maps is an interdisciplinary set of materials on mapping for grades 7-12. Students will learn basic mapmaking and map reading skills and will see how maps can answer fundamental geographic questions: "Where am I?" "What else is here?" "Where am I going?"

  20. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B Alter E2F1/Rb Pathways and E2F1 Localization and Cause Cell Cycle Arrest in Infected T Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Mlechkovich, Guy; Frenkel, Niza

    2007-01-01

    E2F transcription factors play pivotal roles in controlling the expression of genes involved in cell viability as well as genes involved in cell death. E2F1 is an important constituent of this protein family, which thus far contains eight members. The interaction of E2F1 with its major regulator, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), has been studied extensively in the past two decades, concentrating on the role of E2F1 in transcriptional regulation and the role of Rb in cell replication and cancer formation. Additionally, the effect of viral infections on E2F1/Rb interactions has been analyzed for different viruses, concentrating on cell division, which is essential for viral replication. In the present study, we monitored E2F1-Rb interactions during human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B infections of SupT1 T cells. The results have shown the following dramatic alterations in E2F1-Rb pathways compared to the pathways of parallel mock-infected control cultures. (i) The E2F1 levels were elevated during viral infections. (ii) The cellular localization of E2F1 was dramatically altered, and it was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, as opposed to the strict nuclear localization seen in the mock-infected cells. (iii) Although E2F1 expression was elevated, two exemplary target genes, cyclin E and MCM5, were not upregulated. (iv) The Rb protein was dephosphorylated early postinfection, a trait that also occurred with UV-inactivated virus. (v) Infection was associated with significant reduction of E2F1/Rb complexing. (vi) HHV-6 infections were accompanied by cell cycle arrest. The altered E2F1-Rb interactions and functions might contribute to the observed cell cycle arrest. PMID:17913805

  2. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles May Disrupt the Protective Human Mucus Barrier by Altering Its Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; So, Conan; Schneider, Craig; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Mucus secretions typically protect exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts from foreign entities, including pathogens and environmental ultrafine particles. We hypothesized that excess exposure to some foreign particles, however, may cause disruption of the mucus barrier. Many synthetic nanoparticles are likely to be mucoadhesive due to hydrophobic, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding interactions. We therefore sought to determine whether mucoadhesive particles (MAP) could alter the mucus microstructure, thereby allowing other foreign particles to more easily penetrate mucus. We engineered muco-inert probe particles 1 µm in diameter, whose diffusion in mucus is limited only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, and used them to measure possible MAP-induced changes to the microstructure of fresh human cervicovaginal mucus. We found that a 0.24% w/v concentration of 200 nm MAP in mucus induced a ∼10-fold increase in the average effective diffusivity of the probe particles, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the fraction capable of penetrating physiologically thick mucus layers. The same concentration of muco-inert particles, and a low concentration (0.0006% w/v) of MAP, had no detectable effect on probe particle penetration rates. Using an obstruction-scaling model, we determined that the higher MAP dose increased the average mesh spacing (“pore” size) of mucus from 380 nm to 470 nm. The bulk viscoelasticity of mucus was unaffected by MAP exposure, suggesting MAP may not directly impair mucus clearance or its function as a lubricant, both of which depend critically on the bulk rheological properties of mucus. Our findings suggest mucoadhesive nanoparticles can substantially alter the microstructure of mucus, highlighting the potential of mucoadhesive environmental or engineered nanoparticles to disrupt mucus barriers and cause greater exposure to foreign particles, including pathogens and other potentially

  5. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13911.001 PMID:27310531

  6. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S; Goodhill, Geoffrey J; Ibbotson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. PMID:27310531

  7. White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

  8. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane.

  9. Traumatic brain injury causes a long-lasting calcium (Ca2+)-plateau of elevated intracellular Ca levels and altered Ca2+ homeostatic mechanisms in hippocampal neurons surviving brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, David A.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Sombati, Sompong; Baranova, Anya; Wilson, Margaret S.; Hamm, Robert J.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer chronically from significant morbidity associated with cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties and a post-traumatic syndrome and thus it is important to understand the pathophysiology of these long-term plasticity changes after TBI. Calcium (Ca2+) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI-induced neuronal death and other forms of brain injury including stroke and status epilepticus. However, the potential role of long-term changes in neuronal Ca2+ dynamics after TBI has not been evaluated. In the present study, we measured basal free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in acutely isolated CA3 hippocampal neurons from Sprague–Dawley rats at 1, 7 and 30 days after moderate central fluid percussion injury. Basal [Ca2+]i was significantly elevated when measured 1 and 7 days post-TBI without evidence of neuronal death. Basal [Ca2+]i returned to normal when measured 30 days post-TBI. In contrast, abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis were found for as long as 30 days after TBI. Studies evaluating the mechanisms underlying the altered Ca2+ homeostasis in TBI neurons indicated that necrotic or apoptotic cell death and abnormalities in Ca2+ influx and efflux mechanisms could not account for these changes and suggested that long-term changes in Ca2+ buffering or Ca2+ sequestration/release mechanisms underlie these changes in Ca2+ homeostasis after TBI. Further elucidation of the mechanisms of altered Ca2+ homeostasis in traumatized, surviving neurons in TBI may offer novel therapeutic interventions that may contribute to the treatment and relief of some of the morbidity associated with TBI. PMID:18371074

  10. Loss of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) Isoforms in the Testes of Male Mice Causes Subfertility, Reduces Sperm Numbers, and Alters Expression of Genes That Regulate Undifferentiated Spermatogonia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ningxia; Sargent, Kevin M.; Clopton, Debra T.; Pohlmeier, William E.; Brauer, Vanessa M.; McFee, Renee M.; Weber, John S.; Ferrara, Napoleone; Silversides, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform treatment has been demonstrated to alter spermatogonial stem cell homeostasis. Therefore, we generated pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa−/− (knockout, KO) mice by crossing pDmrt1-Cre mice to floxed Vegfa mice to test whether loss of all VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells would impair spermatogenesis. When first mated, KO males took 14 days longer to get control females pregnant (P < .02) and tended to take longer for all subsequent parturition intervals (9 days; P < .07). Heterozygous males sired fewer pups per litter (P < .03) and after the first litter took 10 days longer (P < .05) to impregnate females, suggesting a more progressive loss of fertility. Reproductive organs were collected from 6-month-old male mice. There were fewer sperm per tubule in the corpus epididymides (P < .001) and fewer ZBTB16-stained undifferentiated spermatogonia (P < .003) in the testes of KO males. Testicular mRNA abundance for Bcl2 (P < .02), Bcl2:Bax (P < .02), Neurog3 (P < .007), and Ret was greater (P = .0005), tended to be greater for Sin3a and tended to be reduced for total Foxo1 (P < .07) in KO males. Immunofluorescence for CD31 and VE-Cadherin showed no differences in testis vasculature; however, CD31-positive staining was evident in undifferentiated spermatogonia only in KO testes. Therefore, loss of VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells alters genes necessary for long-term maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, ultimately reducing sperm numbers and resulting in subfertility. PMID:24169552

  11. RICH MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Michael Goodchild recently gave eight reasons why traditional maps are limited as communication devices, and how interactive internet mapping can overcome these limitations. In the past, many authorities in cartography, from Jenks to Bertin, have emphasized the importance of sim...

  12. Map adventures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1994-01-01

    Map Adventures, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for grades K-3. Students will learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand /and use maps.

  13. Historical Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps become out of date over time. Maps that are out of date, however, can be useful to historians, attorneys, environmentalists, genealogists, and others interested in researching the background of a particular area. Local historians can compare a series of maps of the same area compiled over a long period of time to learn how the area developed. A succession of such maps can provide a vivid picture of how a place changed over time.

  14. Rice RCN1/OsABCG5 mutation alters accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals and causes a high Na/K ratio, resulting in a salt-sensitive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yamashiro, Nobuhiro; Yasuno, Naoko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Kitazawa, Hideyuki; Takano, Sho; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Tani, Masayuki; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2014-07-01

    Mineral balance and salt stress are major factors affecting plant growth and yield. Here, we characterized the effects of rice (Oryza sativa L.) reduced culm number1 (rcn1), encoding a G subfamily ABC transporter (OsABCG5) involved in accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals, the Na/K ratio, and salt tolerance. Reduced potassium and elevated sodium in field-grown plants were evident in rcn1 compared to original line 'Shiokari' and four independent rcn mutants, rcn2, rcn4, rcn5 and rcn6. A high Na/K ratio was evident in the shoots and roots of rcn1 under K starvation and salt stress in hydroponically cultured plants. Downregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in rcn1 shoots under salt stress demonstrated that normal function of RCN1/OsABCG5 is essential for upregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 under salt stress. The accumulation of various minerals in shoots and roots was also altered in the rcn1 mutant compared to 'Shiokari' under control conditions, potassium starvation, and salt and d-sorbitol treatments. The rcn1 mutation resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype. We concluded that RCN1/OsABCG5 is a salt tolerance factor that acts via Na/K homeostasis, at least partly by regulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in shoots.

  15. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  16. Stable learning of functional maps in self-organizing spiking neural networks with continuous synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Jiang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a spiking model that self-organizes for stable formation and maintenance of orientation and ocular dominance maps in the visual cortex (V1). This self-organization process simulates three development phases: an early experience-independent phase, a late experience-independent phase and a subsequent refinement phase during which experience acts to shape the map properties. The ocular dominance maps that emerge accommodate the two sets of monocular inputs that arise from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to layer 4 of V1. The orientation selectivity maps that emerge feature well-developed iso-orientation domains and fractures. During the last two phases of development the orientation preferences at some locations appear to rotate continuously through ±180° along circular paths and referred to as pinwheel-like patterns but without any corresponding point discontinuities in the orientation gradient maps. The formation of these functional maps is driven by balanced excitatory and inhibitory currents that are established via synaptic plasticity based on spike timing for both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The stability and maintenance of the formed maps with continuous synaptic plasticity is enabled by homeostasis caused by inhibitory plasticity. However, a prolonged exposure to repeated stimuli does alter the formed maps over time due to plasticity. The results from this study suggest that continuous synaptic plasticity in both excitatory neurons and interneurons could play a critical role in the formation, stability, and maintenance of functional maps in the cortex. PMID:23450808

  17. Topographic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  18. Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features.

    PubMed

    Reversade, Bruno; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Dimopoulou, Aikaterini; Fischer, Björn; Chng, Serene C; Li, Yun; Shboul, Mohammad; Tham, Puay-Yoke; Kayserili, Hülya; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Shahwan, Monzer; Brancati, Francesco; Lee, Hane; O'Connor, Brian D; Schmidt-von Kegler, Mareen; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stanley F; Masri, Amira; Alkazaleh, Fawaz; Guerra, Deanna; Ferrari, Paola; Nanda, Arti; Rajab, Anna; Markie, David; Gray, Mary; Nelson, John; Grix, Arthur; Sommer, Annemarie; Savarirayan, Ravi; Janecke, Andreas R; Steichen, Elisabeth; Sillence, David; Hausser, Ingrid; Budde, Birgit; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Seemann, Petra; Kunkel, Désirée; Zambruno, Giovanna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Schuelke, Markus; Robertson, Stephen; Hamamy, Hanan; Wollnik, Bernd; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Mundlos, Stefan; Kornak, Uwe

    2009-09-01

    Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity mapping in several kindreds with ARCL identified a candidate region on chromosome 17q25. By high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, we detected disease-causing mutations in the gene PYCR1. We found that the gene product, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, localizes to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential and increased apoptosis rate upon oxidative stress were evident in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Knockdown of the orthologous genes in Xenopus and zebrafish led to epidermal hypoplasia and blistering that was accompanied by a massive increase of apoptosis. Our findings link mutations in PYCR1 to altered mitochondrial function and progeroid changes in connective tissues.

  19. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.)) resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I.), or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK) GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence) within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. Results A BAC (B73p06) encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location) with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30–50%). In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control) as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. Conclusions The inference that soybean has adapted part of an

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms That Cause Structural Changes in the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Transcriptional Regulator of the Tuberculosis Vaccine Strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Alter Global Gene Expression without Attenuating Growth▿

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Debbie M.; Saldanha, José W.; Brennan, John F.; Benjamin, Pearline; Strom, Molly; Cole, Jeffrey A.; Spreadbury, Claire L.; Buxton, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present in the global transcriptional regulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) of the attenuated vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We have found that these SNPs resulted in small but significant changes in the expression of a number of genes in M. tuberculosis when a deletion of the Rv3676 CRP was complemented by the BCG allele, compared to complementation by the M. tuberculosis allele. We can explain these changes in gene expression by modeling the structure of the mycobacterial protein on the known structure of CRP from Escherichia coli. Thus, the SNP change in the DNA-binding domain, Lys178, is predicted to form a hydrogen bond with the phosphate backbone of the DNA, as does the equivalent residue in E. coli, whereas Glu178 in M. tuberculosis/M. bovis does not, thus explaining the stronger binding reported for CRP of BCG to CRP-binding sites in mycobacterial DNA. In contrast, the SNP change in the nucleotide binding domain (Leu47Pro) is predicted to result in the loss of one hydrogen bond, which is accommodated by the structure, and would not therefore be expected to cause any change in function relating to cAMP binding. The BCG allele fully complemented the growth defect caused by the deletion of the Rv3676 protein in M. tuberculosis, both in vitro and in macrophage and mouse infections, suggesting that these SNPs do not play any role in the attenuation of BCG. However, they may have allowed BCG to grow better under the in vitro-selective conditions used in its derivation from the M. bovis wild type. PMID:18332206

  1. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  2. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  3. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  4. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness.

  5. Epigenetic alterations in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most malignant tumors and the second or third most common type of cancer in women worldwide. The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC is widely known and accepted (99.7% of cases). At present, the pathogenesis mechanisms of CC are not entirely clear. It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis, caused by the genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the past, it was generally thought that genetic mutation was a key event of tumor pathogenesis, especially somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes. With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes, as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification, is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis. The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms, other than changes in DNA sequence. Specific epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, chromotin remodeling, histone modification, and microRNA regulations. These alterations, in combination or individually, make it possible to establish the methylation profiles, histone modification maps, and expression profiles characteristic of this pathology, which become useful tools for screening, early detection, or prognostic markers in cervical cancer. This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the CC study, and tries to depict the relationships between CC and DNA methylation, histone modification, as well as microRNA regulations. PMID:22938091

  6. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  7. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  8. Endovascular Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Are Linked to Clonal Complex-Specific Alterations in Binding and Invasion Domains of Fibronectin-Binding Protein A as Well as the Occurrence of fnbB

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan Q.; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia N.; Fowler, Vance G.; Rude, Thomas; DiBartola, Alex C.; Lins, Roberto D.; Abdel-Hady, Wessam; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus involve interactions with fibronectin present as extracellular matrix or surface ligand on host cells. We examined the expression, structure, and binding activity of the two major S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPA, FnBPB) in 10 distinct, methicillin-resistant clinical isolates from patients with either persistent or resolving bacteremia. The persistent bacteremia isolates (n = 5) formed significantly stronger bonds with immobilized fibronectin as determined by dynamic binding measurements performed with atomic force microscopy. Several notable differences were also observed when the results were grouped by clonal complex 5 (CC5) strains (n = 5) versus CC45 strains (n = 5). Fibronectin-binding receptors on CC5 formed stronger bonds with immobilized fibronectin (P < 0.001). The fnbA gene was expressed at higher levels in CC45, whereas fnbB was found in only CC5 isolates. The fnbB gene was not sequenced because all CC45 isolates lacked this gene. Instead, comparisons were made for fnbA, which was present in all 10 isolates. Sequencing of fnbA revealed discrete differences within high-affinity, fibronectin-binding repeats (FnBRs) of FnBPA that included (i) 5-amino-acid polymorphisms in FnBR-9, FnBR-10, and FnBR-11 involving charged or polar side chains, (ii) an extra, 38-amino-acid repeat inserted between FnBR-9 and FnBR-10 exclusively seen in CC45 isolates, and (iii) CC5 isolates had the SVDFEED epitope in FnBR-11 (a sequence shown to be essential for fibronectin binding), while this sequence was replaced in all CC45 isolates with GIDFVED (a motif known to favor host cell invasion at the cost of reduced fibronectin binding). These complementary sequence and binding data suggest that differences in fnbA and fnbB, particularly polymorphisms and duplications in FnBPA, give S. aureus two distinct advantages in human endovascular infections: (i) FnBPs similar to that of CC5 enhance ligand binding and

  9. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  10. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  11. Map Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet about maps, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for students in grades K-3. Students learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand and use maps. Lessons in the packet center on a story about a little girl, Nikki, who rides in a hot-air balloon that gives her, and…

  12. The hydrothermal alteration of cooling lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Calder, Eliza S.; Valentine, Greg A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is a recognized cause of volcanic instability and edifice collapse, including that of lava domes or dome complexes. Alteration by percolating fluids transforms primary minerals in dome lavas to weaker secondary products such as clay minerals; moreover, secondary mineral precipitation can affect the porosity and permeability of dome lithologies. The location and intensity of alteration in a dome depend heavily on fluid pathways and availability in conjunction with heat supply. Here we investigate postemplacement lava dome weakening by hydrothermal alteration using a finite element numerical model of water migration in simplified dome geometries. This is combined with the rock alteration index (RAI) to predict zones of alteration and secondary mineral precipitation. Our results show that alteration potential is highest at the interface between the hot core of a lava dome and its clastic talus carapace. The longest lived alteration potential fields occur in domes with persistent heat sources and permeabilities that allow sufficient infiltration of water for alteration processes, but not so much that domes cool quickly. This leads us to conclude that alteration-induced collapses are most likely to be shallow seated and originate in the talus or talus/core interface in domes which have a sustained supply of magmatic heat. Mineral precipitation at these zones of permeability contrast could create barriers to fluid flow, potentially causing gas pressurization which might promote deeper seated and larger volume collapses. This study contributes to our knowledge of how hydrothermal alteration can affect lava domes and provides constraints on potential sites for alteration-related collapses, which can be used to target hazard monitoring.

  13. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  14. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  15. Mapping racism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  16. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  17. Mapping Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  18. The Loss and Gain of Functional Amino Acid Residues Is a Common Mechanism Causing Human Inherited Disease.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Pejaver, Vikas; Pagel, Kymberleigh A; Jain, Shantanu; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N; Mooney, Sean D; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-08-01

    Elucidating the precise molecular events altered by disease-causing genetic variants represents a major challenge in translational bioinformatics. To this end, many studies have investigated the structural and functional impact of amino acid substitutions. Most of these studies were however limited in scope to either individual molecular functions or were concerned with functional effects (e.g. deleterious vs. neutral) without specifically considering possible molecular alterations. The recent growth of structural, molecular and genetic data presents an opportunity for more comprehensive studies to consider the structural environment of a residue of interest, to hypothesize specific molecular effects of sequence variants and to statistically associate these effects with genetic disease. In this study, we analyzed data sets of disease-causing and putatively neutral human variants mapped to protein 3D structures as part of a systematic study of the loss and gain of various types of functional attribute potentially underlying pathogenic molecular alterations. We first propose a formal model to assess probabilistically function-impacting variants. We then develop an array of structure-based functional residue predictors, evaluate their performance, and use them to quantify the impact of disease-causing amino acid substitutions on catalytic activity, metal binding, macromolecular binding, ligand binding, allosteric regulation and post-translational modifications. We show that our methodology generates actionable biological hypotheses for up to 41% of disease-causing genetic variants mapped to protein structures suggesting that it can be reliably used to guide experimental validation. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of disease-causing human variants mapping to protein structures are function-altering both in the presence and absence of stability disruption. PMID:27564311

  19. The Loss and Gain of Functional Amino Acid Residues Is a Common Mechanism Causing Human Inherited Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Pejaver, Vikas; Pagel, Kymberleigh A.; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Mooney, Sean D.; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the precise molecular events altered by disease-causing genetic variants represents a major challenge in translational bioinformatics. To this end, many studies have investigated the structural and functional impact of amino acid substitutions. Most of these studies were however limited in scope to either individual molecular functions or were concerned with functional effects (e.g. deleterious vs. neutral) without specifically considering possible molecular alterations. The recent growth of structural, molecular and genetic data presents an opportunity for more comprehensive studies to consider the structural environment of a residue of interest, to hypothesize specific molecular effects of sequence variants and to statistically associate these effects with genetic disease. In this study, we analyzed data sets of disease-causing and putatively neutral human variants mapped to protein 3D structures as part of a systematic study of the loss and gain of various types of functional attribute potentially underlying pathogenic molecular alterations. We first propose a formal model to assess probabilistically function-impacting variants. We then develop an array of structure-based functional residue predictors, evaluate their performance, and use them to quantify the impact of disease-causing amino acid substitutions on catalytic activity, metal binding, macromolecular binding, ligand binding, allosteric regulation and post-translational modifications. We show that our methodology generates actionable biological hypotheses for up to 41% of disease-causing genetic variants mapped to protein structures suggesting that it can be reliably used to guide experimental validation. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of disease-causing human variants mapping to protein structures are function-altering both in the presence and absence of stability disruption. PMID:27564311

  20. Planetary Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    2007-02-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction R. Greeley and R. M. Batson; 2. History of planetary cartography R. M. Batson, E. A. Whitaker and D. E. Wilhelms; 3. Cartography R. M. Batson; 4. Planetary nomenclature M. E. Strobell and H. Masursky; 5. Geodetic control M. E. Davies; 6. Topographic mapping S. S. C. Wu and F. J. Doyle; 7. Geologic mapping D. E. Wilhelms; Appendices R. M. Batson and J. L. Inge; Index.

  1. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  2. Venus mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Morgan, H. F.; Sucharski, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Semicontrolled image mosaics of Venus, based on Magellan data, are being compiled at 1:50,000,000, 1:10,000,000, 1:5,000,000, and 1:1,000,000 scales to support the Magellan Radar Investigator (RADIG) team. The mosaics are semicontrolled in the sense that data gaps were not filled and significant cosmetic inconsistencies exist. Contours are based on preliminary radar altimetry data that is subjected to revision and improvement. Final maps to support geologic mapping and other scientific investigations, to be compiled as the dataset becomes complete, will be sponsored by the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and/or the Venus Data Analysis Program. All maps, both semicontrolled and final, will be published as I-maps by the United States Geological Survey. All of the mapping is based on existing knowledge of the spacecraft orbit; photogrammetric triangulation, a traditional basis for geodetic control on planets where framing cameras were used, is not feasible with the radar images of Venus, although an eventual shift of coordinate system to a revised spin-axis location is anticipated. This is expected to be small enough that it will affect only large-scale maps.

  3. Primary blast injury causes cognitive impairments and hippocampal circuit alterations.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Matthew; Tummala, Shanti R; Gullotti, David; Kopil, Catherine; Gorka, Samuel; Ted Abel; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Morrison, Barclay; Cohen, Akiva S; Meaney, David F

    2016-09-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and its long term consequences are a major health concern among veterans. Despite recent work enhancing our knowledge about bTBI, very little is known about the contribution of the blast wave alone to the observed sequelae. Herein, we isolated its contribution in a mouse model by constraining the animals' heads during exposure to a shockwave (primary blast). Our results show that exposure to primary blast alone results in changes in hippocampus-dependent behaviors that correspond with electrophysiological changes in area CA1 and are accompanied by reactive gliosis. Specifically, five days after exposure, behavior in an open field and performance in a spatial object recognition (SOR) task were significantly different from sham. Network electrophysiology, also performed five days after injury, demonstrated a significant decrease in excitability and increase in inhibitory tone. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP and Iba1 performed ten days after injury showed a significant increase in staining. Interestingly, a threefold increase in the impulse of the primary blast wave did not exacerbate these measures. However, we observed a significant reduction in the contribution of the NMDA receptors to the field EPSP at the highest blast exposure level. Our results emphasize the need to account for the effects of primary blast loading when studying the sequelae of bTBI.

  4. Primary blast injury causes cognitive impairments and hippocampal circuit alterations

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Matthew; Tummala, Shanti R.; Gullotti, David; Kopil, Kathryn; Gorka, Samuel; Abel, Ted; “Dale” Bass, Cameron R.; Morrison, Barclay; Cohen, Akiva S.; Meaney, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and its long term consequences are a major health concern among veterans. Despite recent work enhancing our knowledge about bTBI, very little is known about the contribution of the blast wave alone to the observed sequelae. Herein, we isolated its contribution in a mouse model by constraining the animals' heads during exposure to a shockwave (primary blast). Our results show that exposure to primary blast alone results in changes in hippocampus-dependent behaviors that correspond with electro-physiological changes in area CA1 and are accompanied by reactive gliosis. Specifically, five days after exposure, behavior in an open field and performance in a spatial object recognition (SOR) task were significantly different from sham. Network electrophysiology, also performed five days after injury, demonstrated a significant decrease in excitability and increase in inhibitory tone. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP and Iba1 performed ten days after injury showed a significant increase in staining. Interestingly, a threefold increase in the impulse of the primary blast wave did not exacerbate these measures. However, we observed a significant reduction in the contribution of the NMDA receptors to the field EPSP at the highest blast exposure level. Our results emphasize the need to account for the effects of primary blast loading when studying the sequelae of bTBI. PMID:27246999

  5. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  6. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  7. Altered phosphorylation of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic Irish Setters

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnick, J.; Takemoto, D.J.; Takemoto, L.J.

    1986-03-05

    The carboxyl-terminus of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic (rd) Irish Setters is altered near a possible phosphorylation site. To determine if this alteration affects ATP-mediated phosphorylation they compared the phosphorylation of rhodopsin from rd affected Irish Setters and normal unaffected dogs. Retinas from 8-week-old Irish Setters were phosphorylated with ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP and separated on SDS-PAGE. Compared to unaffected normal retinas, equalized for rhodopsin content, phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin was drastically reduced. When rd retinas were mixed with normal dog retinas, phosphorylation of the latter was inhibited. Inhibition also occurred when bovine retinas were mixed with rd retinas. The rd-mediated inhibition of phosphorylation was prevented by including 1mM NaF in the reaction mixture. Likewise, 1mM NaF restored phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin to normal levels. Phosphopeptide maps of rd and normal rhodopsin were identical and indicated 5 phosphopeptides present in each. Results suggest that one cause of the depressed rd rhodopsin phosphorylation is an increased phosphatase activity.

  8. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  9. Disease-Associated Mutations That Alter the RNA Structural Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Matthew; Martin, Joshua S.; Broadaway, Sam; Laederach, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often identify disease-associated mutations in intergenic and non-coding regions of the genome. Given the high percentage of the human genome that is transcribed, we postulate that for some observed associations the disease phenotype is caused by a structural rearrangement in a regulatory region of the RNA transcript. To identify such mutations, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of all known disease-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) that map to the untranslated regions (UTRs) of a gene. Rather than using minimum free energy approaches (e.g. mFold), we use a partition function calculation that takes into consideration the ensemble of possible RNA conformations for a given sequence. We identified in the human genome disease-associated SNPs that significantly alter the global conformation of the UTR to which they map. For six disease-states (Hyperferritinemia Cataract Syndrome, β-Thalassemia, Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia, Retinoblastoma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Hypertension), we identified multiple SNPs in UTRs that alter the mRNA structural ensemble of the associated genes. Using a Boltzmann sampling procedure for sub-optimal RNA structures, we are able to characterize and visualize the nature of the conformational changes induced by the disease-associated mutations in the structural ensemble. We observe in several cases (specifically the 5′ UTRs of FTL and RB1) SNP–induced conformational changes analogous to those observed in bacterial regulatory Riboswitches when specific ligands bind. We propose that the UTR and SNP combinations we identify constitute a “RiboSNitch,” that is a regulatory RNA in which a specific SNP has a structural consequence that results in a disease phenotype. Our SNPfold algorithm can help identify RiboSNitches by leveraging GWAS data and an analysis of the mRNA structural ensemble. PMID:20808897

  10. Mole Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  11. Memphis Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Stanley; Cox, David; Martin, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    The Memphis Maps program, a collaborative effort of Memphis (Tennessee) educational institutions, public agencies, a bank, and community programs, trains local students in Geographic Information Systems technology and provides the community with valuable demographic and assessment information. The program is described, and factors contributing to…

  12. Thermal maturity patterns (conodont color alteration index and vitrinite reflectance) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin: a major revision of USGS Map I-917-E using new subsurface collections: Chapter F.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of this report are to present revised CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front (fig. 1). Vitrinite reflectance, based on dispersed vitrinite in Devonian black shale, is another important parameter for estimating the thermal maturity in pre-Pennsylvanian-age rocks of the Appalachian basin (Streib, 1981; Cole and others, 1987; Gerlach and Cercone, 1993; Rimmer and others, 1993; Curtis and Faure, 1997). This chapter also presents a revised percent vitrinite reflectance (%R0) isograd map based on dispersed vitrinite recovered from selected Devonian black shales. The Devonian black shales used for the vitrinite studies reported herein also were analyzed by RockEval pyrolysis and total organic

  13. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  14. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M.; Goel, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer “epigenome” has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, is presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:26216839

  15. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  16. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  17. Multiple genetic alterations in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T; Terada, M; Yokota, J; Hirohashi, S; Wakabayashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Cancer development in man appeared to be a multistage process as suggested by epidemiological studies on commonly occurring gastric, colon, and breast cancers and also on human retrovirus-related leukemia, and by the finding by physicians and surgeons of precancerous lesions for many types of neoplasias. In the last 10 years it has become evident that human cancers have multiple genetic alterations caused by point mutations, recombinations, amplifications, and/or deletions. The genes affected include both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes and genes that accelerate cell proliferation and metastasis. Cancers with more malignant properties and poorer prognosis are generally associated with larger numbers of genetic alterations. These multiple genetic alterations are considered to be a direct reflection of the multiple steps involved in carcinogenesis. The multiple genetic alterations are caused by multiple environmental carcinogenic substances or factors, each of which usually exists only at minute concentrations and does not exert any major impact alone except under particular occupational, iatrogenic, and locally geographic conditions. The fact that carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving multiple genetic alterations clearly needs to be taken into consideration in assessing the risks of environmental carcinogenic substances or factors. The increasing incidence of multiple primary cancers is also most easily understood from the viewpoint of multiple steps in carcinogenesis. Possible multiple approaches to cancer prevention should therefore be considered in relation to multistep carcinogenesis and multiple carcinogenic factors. PMID:1486862

  18. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. PMID:24524972