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Sample records for mapping coastal aquaculture

  1. Aquaculture siting issues in Washington's coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, N.

    1980-01-01

    Greater commitments of aquatic resources are required as aquaculture activities expand and intensify. At the same time, increasing recreational and residential uses of the coast are placing other demands on many of the same resources. Multiple use disputes are arising and conflicts are intensifying. This paper is a problem analysis based on recent public debates in the state of Washington which surrounded the mechanical harvest of clams, raft culture of mussels, and pen rearing of salmon. Subjects of potential conflict are shown in the questions of continuing the subtidal harvest of geoducks, raft culturing of marine algae for food and chemical extracts, and continuing the use of public nearshore aquatic areas for private oyster farming. This report also suggests that better coastal management techniques need to be developed which address: (1) how environmental impacts and risks are determined; (2) how claims for esthetic quality can be evaluated and measured; and (3) which methods can be used to plan for the aquatic areas which recognize the special features of the aquatic areas.

  2. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  3. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  4. Coastal aquaculture development in Bangladesh: unsustainable and sustainable experiences.

    PubMed

    Azad, A Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R; Lin, C Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species (Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp (P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp (M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  5. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  6. Coastal pollution due to increasing nutrient flux in aquaculture sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. P. C.; Sta. Maria, Y. Y.; Siringan, F. P.; Reotita, J. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Villanoy, C. L.; Sombrito, E. Z.; Azanza, R. V.

    2009-07-01

    The supply of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal zones through time is reflected in the nutrients’ concentration in the sediment record. Five aquaculture sites in the Philippines were investigated in an effort to establish how long-term changes in land and coastal water use could have led to biogeochemical modifications affecting the coastal ecosystem. Samples from study sites show a narrow concentration range for nitrogen and did not reveal any significant trend through time. In contrast, phosphorus concentrations in most sites start at less than 20 ppm in sediments 30 years and older. The phosphorus value continuously increase in younger sediments, with each site having a different magnitude change as well as timing of when the major increase happened. The uppermost 10 cm, representing the last 15 years in sites with age control, typically show a 2- to 3-fold increase in P load values. Historical increase in nutrient load also coincides with harmful algal bloom events in each area; when effective P input exceeded 130 kg/km2 per year. Lastly, the observed increase may be attributed to several factors including physical attributes of the area, urbanization of coastal zones, but most importantly in the proliferation of aquaculture activities.

  7. Merging remotely sensed data, models and indicators for a sustainable development of coastal aquaculture in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Lourguioui, Hichem; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Finfish cage farming is an economically relevant activity, which exerts pressures on coastal systems and thus require a science-based management, based on the Ecosystem Approach, in order to be carry out in a sustainable way. Within MEDINA project (EU 282977), ocean color data and models were used for estimating indicators of pressures of aquaculture installations along the north African coast. These indicators can provide important support for decision makers in the allocation of new zones for aquaculture, by taking into account the suitability of an area for this activity and minimizing negative environmental effects, thus enhancing the social acceptability of aquaculture. The increase in the number of farms represents a strategic objective for the Algerian food production sector, which is currently being supported by different national initiatives. The case-study presented in this work was carried out in the Gulf of Bejaia. Water quality for aquaculture was first screened based on ocean color CDOM data (http://www.globcolour.info/). The SWAN model was subsequently used to propagate offshore wave data and to derive wave height statistics. On this basis, sub-areas of the Gulf were ranked, according their optimality in respect to cage resistance and fish welfare requirements. At the three best sites an integrated aquaculture impact assessment model was therefore applied: this tool allows one to obtain a detailed representation of fish growth and population dynamics inside the rearing cages, and to simulate the deposition of uneaten food and faeces on the sediment and the subsequent mineralization of organic matter. This integrated model was used to produce a set of indicators of the fish cages environmental interaction under different scenarios of forcings (water temperature, feeding, currents). These model-derived indicators could usefully contribute to the implementation of the ecosystem approach for the management of aquaculture activities, also required by the

  8. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  9. Coastal resource and sensitivity mapping of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Odin, L.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a project to establish a relationship between environmental sensitivity (primarily to oil pollution) and response planning and prevention priorities for Vietnamese coastal regions. An inventory of coastal environmental sensitivity and the creation of index mapping was performed. Satellite and geographical information system data were integrated and used for database creation. The database was used to create a coastal resource map, coastal sensitivity map, and a field inventory base map. The final coastal environment sensitivity classification showed that almost 40 percent of the 7448 km of mapped shoreline has a high to medium high sensitivity to oil pollution.

  10. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  11. Coastal aquaculture development in eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: prospects and problems for food security and local economies.

    PubMed

    Rönnback, Patrik; Bryceson, Ian; Kautsky, Nils

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region.

  12. Numerical simulations of aquaculture dissolved waste transport in a coastal embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venayagamoorthy, Subhas; Fringer, Oliver; Koseff, Jeffrey; Naylor, Rosamond

    2008-11-01

    The present study focuses on understanding the transport and fate of dissolved wastes from aquaculture pens in near-coastal environments using the hydrodynamics code SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier- Stokes Simulator), which employs unstructured grids to compute flows in the coastal ocean at very high resolution. Simulations of a pollutant concentration field (in time and space) as a function of the local environment (bathymetry, rotation), flow conditions (tides, wind-induced currents and wind stress), and the location of the pens were performed to study their effects on the evolution of the waste plume. The presence of the fish farm pens causes partial blockage of the flow, leading to the deceleration of the approaching flow and formation of downstream wakes. Results of both the near-field area (area within 10 to 20 pen diameters of the fish-pen site) as well as far-field behavior of the pollutant field are presented. These results highlight for the first time the importance of the wake vortex dynamics on the evolution of the near-field plume as well as the rotation of the earth on the far-field plume. The results provide an understanding of the impact of aquaculture fish-pens on coastal water quality.

  13. Farming-up coastal fish assemblages through a massive aquaculture escape event.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Benjumea, María E; Brito, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the changes on the mean trophic level of fish assemblages across different spatiotemporal scales, before and after a massive escape event occurred off La Palma (Canary Islands), which resulted in the release of 1.5 million fish (mostly Dicentrarchus labrax) into the wild. The presence of escaped fish altered significantly the mean trophic level of fish assemblages in shallow coastal waters. This alteration was exacerbated by the massive escape. A nearby marine protected area buffered the changes in mean trophic level but exhibited the same temporal patterns as highly fished areas. Moreover, escaped fish exploited natural resources according to their total length and possibly, time since escapement. New concerns arise as a "farming up" process is detected in shallow coastal fish assemblages where marine aquaculture is established.

  14. Nocturnal planktonic assemblages of amphipods vary due to the presence of coastal aquaculture cages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V; Fernandez-Jover, D; Toledo-Guedes, K; Valero-Rodriguez, J M; Sanchez-Jerez, P

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal pelagic swimming is common in the daily activity of peracarids in marine ecosystems. Fish farming facilities in coastal areas constitute an optimal artificial habitat for invertebrates such as amphipods, which can reach high abundance and biomass in fouling communities. Additionally, fish farms may modify the local oceanographic conditions and the distribution of pelagic communities. The aim of this study was to determine if nocturnal abundance and species composition of planktonic amphipod assemblages are affected by fish farm structures, using light traps as collecting method. A total of 809 amphipods belonging to 21 species were captured in farm areas, compared to 42 individuals and 11 species captured in control areas. The most important species contributing to the dissimilarity between farms and controls were the pelagic hyperiid Lestrigonus schizogeneios, the fouling inhabitants Ericthonius punctatus, Jassa marmorata, Stenothoe sp. and Caprella equilibra, and the soft-bottom gammarids Periculodes aequimanus and Urothoe pulchella. The great concentrations of planktonic amphipods at fish farm facilities is a result of the input of individuals from fouling communities attached to aquaculture facilities, along with the potential retention there of hyperiids normally present in the water column and migrant amphipods from soft sediments. Therefore, in addition to the effects of aquaculture on benthic communities, the presence of fish farms induces major changes in planktonic assemblages of invertebrates such as amphipods.

  15. Nocturnal planktonic assemblages of amphipods vary due to the presence of coastal aquaculture cages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V; Fernandez-Jover, D; Toledo-Guedes, K; Valero-Rodriguez, J M; Sanchez-Jerez, P

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal pelagic swimming is common in the daily activity of peracarids in marine ecosystems. Fish farming facilities in coastal areas constitute an optimal artificial habitat for invertebrates such as amphipods, which can reach high abundance and biomass in fouling communities. Additionally, fish farms may modify the local oceanographic conditions and the distribution of pelagic communities. The aim of this study was to determine if nocturnal abundance and species composition of planktonic amphipod assemblages are affected by fish farm structures, using light traps as collecting method. A total of 809 amphipods belonging to 21 species were captured in farm areas, compared to 42 individuals and 11 species captured in control areas. The most important species contributing to the dissimilarity between farms and controls were the pelagic hyperiid Lestrigonus schizogeneios, the fouling inhabitants Ericthonius punctatus, Jassa marmorata, Stenothoe sp. and Caprella equilibra, and the soft-bottom gammarids Periculodes aequimanus and Urothoe pulchella. The great concentrations of planktonic amphipods at fish farm facilities is a result of the input of individuals from fouling communities attached to aquaculture facilities, along with the potential retention there of hyperiids normally present in the water column and migrant amphipods from soft sediments. Therefore, in addition to the effects of aquaculture on benthic communities, the presence of fish farms induces major changes in planktonic assemblages of invertebrates such as amphipods. PMID:25164018

  16. Capturing Ecosystem Services, Stakeholders' Preferences and Trade-Offs in Coastal Aquaculture Decisions: A Bayesian Belief Network Application

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development. PMID:24155876

  17. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  18. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  19. Mapping of the coastal zone of Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, L.

    1997-06-01

    Uppsala University, Sweden in co-operation with Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), Jamaica have been mapping the coastal zone of Jamaica from remote sources and field inventories for planning and management purposes. All beaches were field-checked and other types of shores classified from Landsat and aerial photos and data evaluated using Excel. The sub-water environment has been classified from Landsat TM, with reference data from echo sounder, GPS and manual observations stored into a computer directly in the field. A comprehensive database was created containing important information for the planners, like coastline types, maps of land and sea-bottom cover. An ARC/INFO structure has been created allowing NRCA to continually improve and update the knowledge of the coastal zone.

  20. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  1. Incorporating DEM Uncertainty in Coastal Inundation Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Javier X.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal managers require reliable spatial data on the extent and timing of potential coastal inundation, particularly in a changing climate. Most sea level rise (SLR) vulnerability assessments are undertaken using the easily implemented bathtub approach, where areas adjacent to the sea and below a given elevation are mapped using a deterministic line dividing potentially inundated from dry areas. This method only requires elevation data usually in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). However, inherent errors in the DEM and spatial analysis of the bathtub model propagate into the inundation mapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of spatially variable and spatially correlated elevation errors in high-spatial resolution DEMs for mapping coastal inundation. Elevation errors were best modelled using regression-kriging. This geostatistical model takes the spatial correlation in elevation errors into account, which has a significant impact on analyses that include spatial interactions, such as inundation modelling. The spatial variability of elevation errors was partially explained by land cover and terrain variables. Elevation errors were simulated using sequential Gaussian simulation, a Monte Carlo probabilistic approach. 1,000 error simulations were added to the original DEM and reclassified using a hydrologically correct bathtub method. The probability of inundation to a scenario combining a 1 in 100 year storm event over a 1 m SLR was calculated by counting the proportion of times from the 1,000 simulations that a location was inundated. This probabilistic approach can be used in a risk-aversive decision making process by planning for scenarios with different probabilities of occurrence. For example, results showed that when considering a 1% probability exceedance, the inundated area was approximately 11% larger than mapped using the deterministic bathtub approach. The probabilistic approach provides visually intuitive maps that convey

  2. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay.

  3. Coastal Circulation and Potential Disease Pathways Among Aquaculture Sites Near the Eastern U.S.- Canadian Border.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) is a flu-like virus that can be transmitted between aquaculture sites by tides and currents, contaminated boats and equipment, fish wastes, and ectoparasites. In 1997 ISA outbreaks were reported in Canadian net-pen aquaculture sites in Passamaquoddy Bay, near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. In March 2001, the first incidence of ISA in the United States occurred at a site near the entrance to Cobscook Bay, about 5 km west of previously infected sites in Canada. In December 2001, it was necessary to destroy Cobscook fish worth about \\12 million at maturity, decimating the local industry. Most net-pen sites are located in protected bays east of Penobscot Bay, Maine, where large tides and cold waters are favorable for aquaculture. Chaotic tidal mixing provides a ready supply of nutrients and oxygen, and also a potential mechanism for ISA transmission within and between coastal bays. In cold water (~6°$C), the ISA virus may remain infective for several days or longer, according to a recent report from a joint government/industry study in Scotland. Recent model studies indicate rapid spreading of neutral particles over distances of 5 km or more, possibly linking Cobscook and Passamaquoddy Bays within a few tidal cycles. On a larger scale, observations and models show the seasonal development of a coastal current that flows southwestward from the Saint John River in the Bay of Fundy toward Penobscot Bay, where the current generally turns offshore to become part of the circulation in the Gulf of Maine. Tidal excursions superimposed on the nontidal coastal current can result in particle displacements of 10-20 km per day, raising concerns about further migration of fish disease pathogens along the Maine coast.

  4. Tsunami Inundation Mapping of Coastal Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.; Marriott, D.; Combellick, R.

    2004-05-01

    Seismic events that occur within the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone have a high potential for generating both local and Pacific-wide tsunamis. To help mitigate the large risk these earthquakes and tsunamis pose to Alaskan coastal communities, the Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team addresses the problem of predicting runup of tsunami waves using a numerical modeling technique. The model solves nonlinear shallow-water equations with a finite-difference method. Embedded grids of different resolution are employed to increase spatial resolution in the shelf area. Numerical simulations yield runup heights, extent of maximum inundation for chosen tsunami scenarios, depths of inundation on dry land, and maximum velocity current distribution in inundation zones. The communities for inundation mapping are selected in coordination with the Alaska Division of Emergency Services with consideration to location, infrastructure, availability of bathymetric and topographic data, and community involvement.The communities of Homer and Seldovia are located in Kachemak Bay, which is one of the high-priority region for Alaska inundation mapping. We modeled two hypothetical earthquake scenarios as potential sources of tsunami waves that affect the Kachemak Bay communities. They represent both distant and local sources, and we model them using the multiple fault approach. Seward, a community in the Prince William Sound area, suffered an extensive damage and 12 fatalities during the 1964 tsunami. The most destructive waves in Seward were local slump-generated tsunamis. We consider several tsunami scenarios for Seward inundation mapping that include both tectonic and landslide sources.

  5. Benthic processes and coastal aquaculture: merging models and field data at a local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Rabouille, Christophe; Bombled, Bruno; Colla, Silvia; Pastres, Roberto; Pranovi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Shellfish farming is regarded as an organic extractive aquaculture activity. However, the production of faeces and pseudofaeces, in fact, leads to a net transfer of organic matter from the water column to the surface sediment. This process, which is expected to locally affect the sediment biogeochemistry, may also cause relevant changes in coastal areas characterized by a high density of farms. In this paper, we present the result of a study recently carried out in the Gulf of Venice (northern Adriatic sea), combining mathematical modelling and field sampling efforts. The work aimed at using a longline mussel farm as an in-situ test-case for modelling the differences in soft sediments biogeochemical processes along a gradient of organic deposition. We used an existing integrated model, allowing to describe biogeochemical fluxes towards the mussel farm and to predict the extent of the deposition area underneath it. The model framework includes an individual-based population dynamic model of the Mediterranean mussel coupled with a Lagrangian deposition model and a 1D benthic model of early diagenesis. The work was articulated in 3 steps: 1) the integrated model allowed to simulate the downward fluxes of organic matter originated by the farm, and the extent of its deposition area; 2) based on the first model application, two stations were localized, at which sediment cores were collected during a field campaign, carried out in June 2015. Measurements included O2 and pH microprofiling, porosity and micro-porosity, Total Organic Carbon, and pore waters NH4, PO4, SO4, Alkalinity, and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; 3) two distinct early diagenesis models were set-up, reproducing observed field data in the sampled cores. Observed oxygen microprofiles showed a different behavior underneath the farm with respect to the outside reference station. In particular, a remarkable decrease in the oxygen penetration depth, and an increase in the O2 influx calculated from the

  6. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. PMID:22325583

  7. An object-based image analysis approach for aquaculture ponds precise mapping and monitoring: a case study of Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Virdis, Salvatore Gonario Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and mapping shrimp farms, including their impact on land cover and land use, is critical to the sustainable management and planning of coastal zones. In this work, a methodology was proposed to set up a cost-effective and reproducible procedure that made use of satellite remote sensing, object-based classification approach, and open-source software for mapping aquaculture areas with high planimetric and thematic accuracy between 2005 and 2008. The analysis focused on two characteristic areas of interest of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon (in central Vietnam), which have similar farming systems to other coastal aquaculture worldwide: the first was primarily characterised by locally referred "low tide" shrimp ponds, which are partially submerged areas; the second by earthed shrimp ponds, locally referred to as "high tide" ponds, which are non-submerged areas on the lagoon coast. The approach was based on the region-growing segmentation of high- and very high-resolution panchromatic images, SPOT5 and Worldview-1, and the unsupervised clustering classifier ISOSEG embedded on SPRING non-commercial software. The results, the accuracy of which was tested with a field-based aquaculture inventory, showed that in favourable situations (high tide shrimp ponds), the classification results provided high rates of accuracy (>95 %) through a fully automatic object-based classification. In unfavourable situations (low tide shrimp ponds), the performance degraded due to the low contrast between the water and the pond embankments. In these situations, the automatic results were improved by manual delineation of the embankments. Worldview-1 necessarily showed better thematic accuracy, and precise maps have been realised at a scale of up to 1:2,000. However, SPOT5 provided comparable results in terms of number of correctly classified ponds, but less accurate results in terms of the precision of mapped features. The procedure also demonstrated high degrees of reproducibility

  8. Shape up or ship out: can we enhance productivity in coastal aquaculture to compete with other uses?

    PubMed

    Schrobback, Peggy; Pascoe, Sean; Coglan, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    Coastal resources are coming under increasing pressure from competition between recreational, commercial and conservation uses. This is particularly so in coastal areas adjacent to major population centres. Given high recreational and conservation values in such areas, economic activities need to be highly efficient in order to persist. Management of these industries must therefore also encourage efficient production and full utilisation of the areas available. In order to achieve this, managers must first understand the level and drivers of productivity, and how these can be influenced. In this study, by way of illustration, the focus was on the Sydney rock oyster industry within Queensland's Moreton Bay, a multiple use marine park with high recreational and conservation value adjacent to Australia's third largest city. Productivity of the oyster industry in Moreton Bay is currently low compared to historic levels, and management has an objective of reversing this trend. It is unclear whether this difference is due to oyster farmers' business choices and personal characteristics or whether varying environmental conditions in the Moreton Bay limit the capacity of the oyster industry. These require different management responses in order to enhance productivity. The study examined different productivity measures of the oyster industry using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to determine where productivity gains can be made and by how much. The findings suggest that the industry is operating at a high level of capacity utilisation, but a low level of efficiency. The results also suggest that both demographic and environmental conditions affect technical efficiency in the Bay, with water characteristics improvements and appropriate training potentially providing the greatest benefits to the industry. Methods used in this study are transferable to other industries and provide a means by which coastal aquaculture may be managed to ensure it remains competitive with other

  9. Shape Up or Ship Out: Can We Enhance Productivity in Coastal Aquaculture to Compete with Other Uses?

    PubMed Central

    Schrobback, Peggy; Pascoe, Sean; Coglan, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    Coastal resources are coming under increasing pressure from competition between recreational, commercial and conservation uses. This is particularly so in coastal areas adjacent to major population centres. Given high recreational and conservation values in such areas, economic activities need to be highly efficient in order to persist. Management of these industries must therefore also encourage efficient production and full utilisation of the areas available. In order to achieve this, managers must first understand the level and drivers of productivity, and how these can be influenced. In this study, by way of illustration, the focus was on the Sydney rock oyster industry within Queensland's Moreton Bay, a multiple use marine park with high recreational and conservation value adjacent to Australia’s third largest city. Productivity of the oyster industry in Moreton Bay is currently low compared to historic levels, and management has an objective of reversing this trend. It is unclear whether this difference is due to oyster farmers’ business choices and personal characteristics or whether varying environmental conditions in the Moreton Bay limit the capacity of the oyster industry. These require different management responses in order to enhance productivity. The study examined different productivity measures of the oyster industry using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to determine where productivity gains can be made and by how much. The findings suggest that the industry is operating at a high level of capacity utilisation, but a low level of efficiency. The results also suggest that both demographic and environmental conditions affect technical efficiency in the Bay, with water characteristics improvements and appropriate training potentially providing the greatest benefits to the industry. Methods used in this study are transferable to other industries and provide a means by which coastal aquaculture may be managed to ensure it remains competitive with

  10. Shape up or ship out: can we enhance productivity in coastal aquaculture to compete with other uses?

    PubMed

    Schrobback, Peggy; Pascoe, Sean; Coglan, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    Coastal resources are coming under increasing pressure from competition between recreational, commercial and conservation uses. This is particularly so in coastal areas adjacent to major population centres. Given high recreational and conservation values in such areas, economic activities need to be highly efficient in order to persist. Management of these industries must therefore also encourage efficient production and full utilisation of the areas available. In order to achieve this, managers must first understand the level and drivers of productivity, and how these can be influenced. In this study, by way of illustration, the focus was on the Sydney rock oyster industry within Queensland's Moreton Bay, a multiple use marine park with high recreational and conservation value adjacent to Australia's third largest city. Productivity of the oyster industry in Moreton Bay is currently low compared to historic levels, and management has an objective of reversing this trend. It is unclear whether this difference is due to oyster farmers' business choices and personal characteristics or whether varying environmental conditions in the Moreton Bay limit the capacity of the oyster industry. These require different management responses in order to enhance productivity. The study examined different productivity measures of the oyster industry using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to determine where productivity gains can be made and by how much. The findings suggest that the industry is operating at a high level of capacity utilisation, but a low level of efficiency. The results also suggest that both demographic and environmental conditions affect technical efficiency in the Bay, with water characteristics improvements and appropriate training potentially providing the greatest benefits to the industry. Methods used in this study are transferable to other industries and provide a means by which coastal aquaculture may be managed to ensure it remains competitive with other

  11. Effect of Changes in Seasonal Rain Regime on Coastal Ecosystem Structure and Aquaculture Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosimo, S.; Melaku Canu, D.; Libralato, S.; Cossarini, G.; Giorgi, F.

    2008-12-01

    A downscaling experiment linked climate forcing produced by a Regional Climate Model for Europe to a 3D high resolution coupled transport biogeochemical model for the Lagoon of Venice, which in turn forced: a) a food web model for evaluation of cascading effects on ecosystem structure and b) a population dynamic bioenergetic filter feeders bivalvae model for evaluation of effects on aquaculture activities. The hierarchy of models was used to compare result for a reference situation (RF, 1961-1990) with results for two future IPCC scenarios (2071-2100), representing market oriented and local sustainability policies (scenarios A2 and B2, respectively). Future climate projections suggest that, locally, annual mean rain will not change much but the seasonal patterns will likely do so. Summer and spring will be more dry and winter and autumn more rainy. This will potentially increase winter nutrient concentrations but -because of unfavourable timing - primary and secondary productions will decrease, and nutrient surplus will be exported from the Lagoon of Venice to the Adriatic Sea. The impacts on higher trophic levels could be softened thanks to presence of alternative energy pathways and role of omnivory. However, in our future scenario of the lagoon food web the suitability for higher trophic level organisms seems lower. A more detailed analysis on clam aquaculture indicates that this activity will suffer the decrease of primary productivity, and point to the need of implementation of proper aquaculture management policies. In the light of adaptive management. These policies cannot be a straightfoward extrapolation of present practises, but need to be defined basing on future conditions.

  12. Central Texas coastal classification maps - Aransas Pass to Mansfield Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk from storm waves. A secondary purpose of the project is to develop a geomorphic (land feature) coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States. A Coastal Classification Map describing local geomorphic features is the first step toward determining the hazard vulnerability of an area. The Coastal Classification Maps of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Project present ground conditions such as beach width, dune elevations, overwash potential, and density of development. In order to complete a hazard-vulnerability assessment, that information must be integrated with other information, such as prior storm impacts and beach stability. The Coastal Classification Maps provide much of the basic information for such an assessment and represent a critical component of a storm-impact forecasting capability.

  13. Integrating Enhanced Satellite Data Maps Into Coastal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Petra M.; Foley, David G.; King, Chad; Schwing, Franklin B.; Price, Holly; Bograd, Steven J.; Palacios, Daniel M.

    2006-04-01

    Coastal areas continue to be popular destinations for tourists as well as for a large population who now reside year-round near coasts and whose size is predicted to grow steadily. Along with rapid growth in recreational and commercial marine activities, this increase in coastal development also brings issues related to urban runoff, water quality, beach access, and marine ecosystem health. All of these factors contribute to an increase in pressure on the living marine biota found in coastal waters. Coastal managers are therefore faced with the dual task of conserving and protecting marine resources as well as allowing for multiple uses within nearshore waters. A beneficial tool that has yet to be routinely integrated in discussions between regional planners and various stakeholders is a data map depicting representative oceanic conditions of coastal and adjacent waters. Classifying the state of the pelagic realm provides much needed information when deliberating such issues as the creation of marine reserves.

  14. Mapping Atlantic coastal marshlands, Maryland, Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Eastern coastal marshes are the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Groundbased and low-altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time-consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test sites selected were in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and Ossabaw Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS imagery, enlarged to 1:250,000: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; and (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS will be an excellent tool for many types of coastal wetland mapping.

  15. Integrating multiple spatial scales in the carrying capacity assessment of a coastal ecosystem for bivalve aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyondet, Thomas; Roy, Suzanne; Koutitonsky, Vladimir G.; Grant, Jon; Tita, Guglielmo

    2010-10-01

    A calibrated fine resolution physical-biogeochemical model coupled with a dynamic energy budget (DEB) is used to investigate the local and system scale interactions between a mussel farm and the receiving coastal ecosystem. Using a set of published parameters for the DEB, the coupled model reproduces quite accurately both the local mussel growth and its spatial distribution over the farm area. Mussel related process rates are also well reproduced, allowing the study of mussel/environment interactions. Results show the local importance of cultured mussels in the cycling of nitrogen within the cultivation area. Despite the strongly reduced influence exerted by the mussel farm at the scale of the entire system, the culture activity still has the ability to alter the structure of Grande-Entrée lagoon's ecosystem. The coupled model results show that the mussel stock could be greatly increased before reaching the maximum production capacity of Grande-Entrée lagoon. However, when the ecological aspect is accounted for, using model results along with objective criteria such as the depletion footprint curve, the overall carrying capacity of Grande-Entrée lagoon must be significantly reduced. The coupled fine scale numerical model developed for this study gives the opportunity to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a coastal region for shellfish culture accounting for both local and system scale processes.

  16. Ecological characterization atlas of coastal Alabama: Map narrative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F. Jr. )

    1984-08-01

    The southwest Alabama coastal region is the study area of this narrative and accompanying maps. The offshore area includes the region from the State-Federal demarcation to the shoreline, and the inland area includes Mobile and Baldwin Counties. These counties are included in the following six US Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale topographic maps: Citronelle, Atmore, Mobile, Bay Minette, Biloxi, and Pensacola. The data in this atlas meet all cartographic and narrative specifications of the Minerals Management Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service and should be useful for coastal decisionmakers. The topics included within this map narrative are biological resources; socioeconomic features; soils and landforms; oil, gas, and mineral resources; and hydrology and climatology. 21 figs., 52 tabs.

  17. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically. PMID:17929084

  18. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  19. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  20. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  1. Coastal mapping and modelling of Tuktoyaktuk Harbour, Western Arctic, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models suggest that sea ice in the Arctic is expected to decrease and that the frequency of storms bringing high waves and storm surges is expected to increase. Reduced sea ice, higher waves, and higher storm surge water levels have implications for coastal infrastructure, nearshore sediment transport, and rates of coastal change. Tuktoyaktuk is an important shipping terminal servicing the petroleum industry and Inuvialuit communities in the western Canadian Arctic. The hydrodynamic model Delft3D is used to model sediment transport in Tuktoyaktuk Harbour and the approaches. For nearshore applications, Delft3D works best with a seamless coastal digital elevation model (DEM). A DEM was constructed from a variety of sources. Terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) uses an infrared laser to construct a detailed elevation model of the terrestrial coastal zone. Multibeam bathymetry uses arrays of acoustic signals to collect detailed of the subaqueous coastal zone. Bathymetry data, and charts from the Canadian Hydrographic Service supplement the offshore bathymetry. The shoreline is derived from CanCoast, a nationally consistent geospatial database of Canada's marine coasts. The Coastal Information System (CIS) supplements CanCoast and describes coastal geomorphology in local areas. With these data, Delft3D delivered wave, current, and sediment transport data in a common reference frame. When compared to measurements, the model successfully simulates waves and currents. Output from Delft3D was mapped into a Geographic Information System, and combined with other data to help an Arctic community and industries adapt to potential climate-related hazards .

  2. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  3. Composition, biomass and secondary production of the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in a coastal lagoon exploited for extensive aquaculture: Valle Smarlacca (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Massimo; Antonia Colangelo, Marina; Ugo Ceccherelli, Victor

    2007-10-01

    Macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages were investigated monthly, from June 1998 to October 1999, at four sites in Valle Smarlacca pond, a north-western Adriatic coastal lagoon, in order to estimate secondary production exploitable for extensive fish aquaculture and to investigate the factors affecting this production. Benthic assemblages comprised 28 taxa, of which Hydrobia sp., Chironomus salinarius and Abra segmentum were the main contributors to both overall biomass and secondary production. Annual secondary production varied from 102.7 g AFDM m -2 y -1, in the unvegetated perimeter channel, to 152.6 g AFDM m -2 y -1 in the shallowest area where a Ruppia cirrhosa meadow was present. Multivariate correlations between environmental variables and the macrobenthic assemblage biomass highlighted the role of the water level, temperature, sediment organic carbon content and dissolved oxygen in the differentiation of the communities in the pond. Composition, biomass and secondary annual production of macrobenthic communities were dramatically affected by summer dystrophic crises. The isolation of this habitat limits the recovery of the invertebrate benthic assemblages. Only populations of two species, Hydrobia sp. and C. salinarius, seemed to be able to recover quickly after the dystrophic crises, which, in turn, could compromise the overall secondary production, with negative effects on the aquaculture activities. Water renewal and nutrient inputs should be regulated in this pond to reduce the risk of zoobenthic mass mortality and to ensure a sustainable extensive aquaculture based on natural primary and secondary production.

  4. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer.

  5. Mapping of chlorophyll a distributions in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that chlorophyll a is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, nutrient loads, and pollution effects in coastal zones. High chlorophyll a concentrations occur in areas which have high nutrient inflows from sources such as sewage treatment plants and industrial wastes. Low chlorophyll a concentrations may be due to the addition of toxic substances from industrial wastes or other sources. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to assess distributions of water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll a. A description is presented of the chlorophyll a analysis and a quantitative mapping of the James River, Virginia. An approach considered by Johnson (1977) was used in the analysis. An application of the multiple regression analysis technique to a data set collected over the New York Bight, an environmentally different area of the coastal zone, is also discussed.

  6. Mapping pollution and coastal hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B.; Halkjær, Max

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hydrology is becoming the focus of increasing interest for several reasons. Hydrogeological models need good boundary conditions at the coastline, and with the expected sea level rise due to climate changes, it becomes increasingly important to grasp the dynamics of coastal hydrology in order to predict the consequences of sea level rise for nature and society. We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted site with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the coastal hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities. Data are subjected to constrained inversion with one-dimensional multi-layer (smooth) models. The extent of the pollution plume estimated from a conductive anomaly in the survey results is mainly in accordance with results from other investigations, but also points to hitherto unknown directions of seepage. The interleaving of freshwater extending under the offshore shallow sea and saltwater infiltrating under the onshore freshwater aquifer can be clearly discerned and preferential flow channels are revealed.

  7. Impacts of long-line aquaculture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) on sulfate reduction and diffusive nutrient flux in the coastal sediments of Jinhae-Tongyeong, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Han; Mok, Jin-Sook; Lee, Jae Seong; An, Sung-Uk; Lee, Won-Chan; Jung, Rae-Hong

    2013-09-15

    We investigated the environmental impacts of long-line aquaculture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) on sediment geochemistry and carbon oxidation by sulfate reduction and diffusive benthic nutrient flux in a coastal ecosystem in Korea. Inventories of the NH4(+) and HPO4(2-) at the farm site were 7.7-11.5 and 1.8-8.0 times higher, respectively, than those at a reference site. Sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) at the oyster farm were 2.4-5.2 times higher than SRRs at the reference site. The SRRs at the farm site were responsible for 48-99% (average 70%) of the total C oxidation in the sediment. The diffusive benthic fluxes of NH4(+) and HPO4(2-) at the oyster farm were comparable to 30-164% and 19-58%, respectively, of the N and P demands for primary production, and were responsible for the enhanced benthic microalgal biomass on the surface sediment.

  8. Coastal system mapping: a new approach to formalising and conceptualising the connectivity of large-scale coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.; Whitehouse, R.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of the coastal sediment cell has proved invaluable as a basis for estimating sediment budgets and as a framework for coastal management. However, whilst coastal sediment cells are readily identified on compartmentalised coastlines dominated by beach-grade material, the cell concept is less suited to handling broader linkages between estuarine, coastal and offshore systems, and for incorporating longer-range suspended sediment transport. We present a new approach to the conceptualisation of large-scale coastal geomorphic systems based on a hierarchical classification of component landforms and management interventions and mapping of the interactions between them. Coastal system mapping is founded on a classification that identifies high-level landform features, low-level landform elements and engineering interventions. Geomorphic features define the large-scale organisation of a system and include landforms that define gross coastal configuration (e.g. headland, bay) as well as fluvial, estuarine and offshore sub-systems that exchange sediment with and influence the open coast. Detailed system structure is mapped out with reference to a larger set of geomorphic elements (e.g. cliff, dune, beach ridge). Element-element interactions define cross-shore linkages (conceptualised as hinterland, backshore and foreshore zones) and alongshore system structure. Both structural and non-structural engineering interventions are also represented at this level. Element-level mapping is rationalised to represent alongshore variation using as few elements as possible. System linkages include both sediment transfer pathways and influences not associated with direct mass transfer (e.g. effect of a jetty at an inlet). A formal procedure for capturing and graphically representing coastal system structure has been developed around free concept mapping software, CmapTools (http://cmap.ihmc.us). Appended meta-data allow geographic coordinates, data, images and literature

  9. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  10. Influence of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) aquaculture on benthic-pelagic coupling in coastal waters: A study of the South Sea in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Yong-Tae; Hong, Sok Jin; Han, Jeong Hee; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2012-03-01

    The influence of sea squirt aquaculture on benthic-pelagic coupling was evaluated in semi-enclosed Korean coastal waters with an in situ benthic chamber and results show for the first time that suspended sea squirt cultures play an important role in benthic-pelagic coupling in the coastal zone. Measurements of primary production, vertical particulate fluxes, and benthic fluxes were made at two stations, a sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) farm (SSF) and an area of organic-matter-enriched sediment in Jinhae Bay. The vertical material fluxes of organic carbon, nitrogen, and biogenic silicate (BSi) were significantly higher at SSF than in Jinhae Bay, indicating massive biodeposits in the surface sediments at SSF. The organic carbon oxidation rates (Cox) were estimated after correction for CaCO3 dissolution. The average Cox at SSF (204 mmol C m-2 d-1) was significantly higher than that in the organic-enriched Jinhae Bay sediment (77 mmol C m-2 d-1). The organic carbon burial fluxes were determined using vertical profiles of organic carbon of up to 30 cm and the sedimentation rate calculated from the excess 210Pb distribution. At both stations, ˜95% of the settled organic carbon was oxidized and only ˜5% was buried in the deep sediment layer. The benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate at SSF were 2-12 times higher than in Jinhae Bay, corresponding to 85%, and 270%, respectively, of the requirements for primary production.

  11. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  13. Alabama-Mississippi Coastal Classification Maps - Perdido Pass to Cat Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high-priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk from storm waves. Another purpose of the project is to develop a geomorphic (land feature) coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States. A Coastal Classification Map describing local geomorphic features is the first step toward determining the hazard vulnerability of an area. The Coastal Classification Maps of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Project present ground conditions such as beach width, dune elevations, overwash potential, and density of development. In order to complete a hazard vulnerability assessment, that information must be integrated with other information, such as prior storm impacts and beach stability. The Coastal Classification Maps provide much of the basic information for such an assessment and represent a critical component of a storm-impact forecasting capability. The map above shows the areas covered by this web site. Click on any of the location names or outlines to view the Coastal Classification Map for that area.

  14. The need for sustained and integrated high-resolution mapping of dynamic coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Lillycrop, Jeff W.; Howd, Peter A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the United States' coastal zone response to both human activities and natural processes is dynamic. Coastal resource and population protection requires understanding, in detail, the processes needed for change as well as the physical setting. Sustained coastal area mapping allows change to be documented and baseline conditions to be established, as well as future behavior to be predicted in conjunction with physical process models. Hyperspectral imagers and airborne lidars, as well as other recent mapping technology advances, allow rapid national scale land use information and high-resolution elevation data collection. Coastal hazard risk evaluation has critical dependence on these rich data sets. A fundamental storm surge model parameter in predicting flooding location, for example, is coastal elevation data, and a foundation in identifying the most vulnerable populations and resources is land use maps. A wealth of information for physical change process study, coastal resource and community management and protection, and coastal area hazard vulnerability determination, is available in a comprehensive national coastal mapping plan designed to take advantage of recent mapping technology progress and data distribution, management, and collection.

  15. Numerical Modeling to Support Floodplain Mapping in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Shrestha, P. L.; Hamilton, D.; Rezakhani, M.; Scheffner, N.; Lenaburg, R.

    2009-12-01

    A hurricane-induced flood mapping study was conducted for the State of Hawaii encompassing the six major Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. The objective of the study was to use numerical methods to compute storm surge frequency relationships using the Empirical Simulation Technique (EST). This paper describes the EST methodology. Ultimately, the storm surge frequency data and water surface elevations determined through the modeling effort define coastal inundation areas to revise Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FRIMs). Such information guides coastal development and highlights flood risks in coastal areas. To perform a realistic storm surge analysis, historical events impacting the islands in the study area were selected from the National Hurricane Center’s Eastern and Central North Pacific Basin Hurricane database. The database consists of hurricanes, tropical storms, and tropical depressions impacting the Hawaiian Islands from 1949 through 2005 and includes records of the latitude, longitude, maximum wind speed, and, often, the central pressure of the eye of the storm. For this study, candidate events were selected based on two criteria. Storms were required to pass within 200 nautical miles of at least two of the islands with maximum winds at that point of at least tropical storm-strength (39 mph.) Of the 794 storm events in the database, 11 events met these criteria and were used to generate wind and pressure fields for the modeling effort. An assumption of the EST analysis is that each of the 11 events has an equal probability of impacting the islands within the 200 nautical mile ellipse. Therefore, the 11events were translated by one Radius-to-Maximum winds across the ellipse so that each event impacted each island, generating 102 impacting events. The hypothetical events were used to generate wind and pressure fields for input to the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) long-wave hydrodynamic model to compute storm surge at defined

  16. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes...

  17. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes...

  18. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes...

  19. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping... base flood storm surges and associated wave action where the cross-sectional area of the primary... storm surges and associated wave action....

  20. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping... base flood storm surges and associated wave action where the cross-sectional area of the primary... storm surges and associated wave action....

  1. Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes over a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps consisting of 24 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002).

  2. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cozannet, G.; Garcin, M.; Bulteau, T.; Mirgon, C.; Yates, M. L.; Méndez, M.; Baills, A.; Idier, D.; Oliveros, C.

    2013-05-01

    Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets), simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP) to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France) and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean), notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  3. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  4. A new GIS approach for reconstructing and mapping dynamic late Holocene coastal plain palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierik, H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2016-10-01

    The geomorphological development of Holocene coastal plains around the world has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century from various disciplines, resulting in large amounts of data. However, the overwhelming quantities and heterogeneous nature of this data have caused the divided knowledge to remain inconsistent and fragmented. To keep improving the understanding of coastal plain geomorphology and geology, cataloguing of data and integration of knowledge are essential. In this paper we present a GIS that incorporates the accumulated data of the Netherlands' coastal plain and functions as a storage and integration tool for coastal plain mapped data. The GIS stores redigitised architectural elements (beach barriers, tidal channels, intertidal flats, supratidal flats, and coastal fresh water peat) from earlier mappings in separate map layers. A coupled catalogue-style database stores the dating information of these elements, besides references to source studies and annotations regarding changed insights. Using scripts, the system automatically establishes palaeogeographical maps for any chosen moment, combining the above mapping and dating information. In our approach, we strip the information to architectural element level, and we separate mapping from dating information, serving the automatic generation of time slice maps. It enables a workflow in which the maker can iteratively regenerate maps, which speeds up fine-tuning and thus the quality of palaeogeographical reconstruction. The GIS currently covers the late Holocene coastal plain development of the Netherlands. This period witnessed widespread renewed flooding along the southern North Sea coast, coinciding with large-scale reclamation and human occupation. Our GIS method is generic and can be expanded and adapted to allow faster integrated processing of growing amounts of data for many coastal areas and other large urbanising lowlands around the world. It allows maintaining actual data

  5. Arctic coastal zone mapping: Evolution of sedimentary coasts in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens many of the coastal areas all over the world. In the Arctic, the warming happens at a rate which is three times faster than the global average increasing the pressure on the coast. Arctic coasts differ from coasts in lower latitude in terms of the natural conditions prevailing, i.e. sea-ice, permafrost, and thermal erosion. These factors are likely to change with an increasing temperature, and thereby the erodibility of the shores and the erosivity of the coastal processes are changing. The majority of studies on arctic coasts focus on tundra coasts. Here, there is a general increase of coastal erosion rates over the last decades. However, the arctic coastal areas of Greenland differ; they are often close to hard rock protrusions and are characterized by large differences in geomorphology, erodibility of sediments, and erosivity by coastal processes. Sedimentary coasts in Greenland are only sporadically investigated, and it is thus difficult to predict the impact of climate changes in these areas. With this work we focus on sedimentary coasts in Greenland and present shoreline analysis of two sedimentary coastal sites. We show how the position of the shoreline has changed since the 1930'ies and we address the responsible factors controlling this evolution. The hotspots of coastal change are all located near delta mouths and the detected changes are coupled to dominating process occurring here.

  6. Extensive mapping of coastal change in Alaska by Landsat time-series analysis, 1972-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Spencer, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The landscape-scale effects of coastal storms on Alaska's Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska coasts includes coastal erosion, migration of spits and barrier islands, breaching of coastal lakes and lagoons, and inundation and salt-kill of vegetation. Large changes in coastal storm frequency and intensity are expected due to climate change and reduced sea-ice extent. Storms have a wide range of impacts on carbon fluxes and on fish and wildlife resources, infrastructure siting and operation, and emergency response planning. In areas experiencing moderate to large effects, changes can be mapped by analyzing trends in time series of Landsat imagery from Landsat 1 through Landsat 8. The authors are performing a time-series trend analysis for over 22,000 kilometers of coastline along the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. Ice- and cloud-free Landsat imagery from Landsat 1-8, covering 1972-2013, were analyzed using a combination of regression, changepoint detection, and classification tree approaches to detect, classify, and map changes in near-infrared reflectance. Areas with significant changes in coastal features, as well as timing of dominant changes and, in some cases, rates of change were identified . The approach captured many coastal changes over the 42-year study period, including coastal erosion exceeding the 60-m pixel resolution of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data and migrations of coastal spits and estuarine channels.

  7. Inter- and intra-annual patterns of Ulva prolifera green tides in the Yellow Sea during 2007-2009, their origin and relationship to the expansion of coastal seaweed aquaculture in China.

    PubMed

    Keesing, John K; Liu, Dongyan; Fearns, Peter; Garcia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The large green-tide events that occurred in the Yellow Sea in 2008 (3489km(2)) and 2009 (4994km(2)) are shown to be novel events preceded only once by a much smaller event in 2007 (82km(2)). The blooms originated in the coastal area of Jiangsu province and spread north-east towards the Shandong Peninsula. The blooms grew at different rates and mesoscale variability in surface winds explained the differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of blooms in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 bloom was tracked to its origin immediately offshore of extensive intertidal flats between Yancheng and Nantong where recent rapid expansion of Porphyra aquaculture has occurred. We review published hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the occurrence of blooms and in light of our findings, we conclude that the accumulation and disposal of waste Ulva prolifera from Porphyra aquaculture rafts is the most likely cause of the blooms.

  8. Aquaculture-derived enrichment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in coastal sediments of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Cheng, Zhang; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Leung, Ho-Man; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of sediments along the coast of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in surface and core sediments were measured in six mariculture zones. In surface sediments (0 to 5 cm), concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in mariculture sediments were approximately 1.3- and 7.7-fold greater, respectively, than those detected in sediments at corresponding reference sites, which were 1 to 2 km away in areas where there was no mariculture. Similarly, in cores of sediments, concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs were 1.2- and 14-fold greater in mariculture zones, respectively. Enrichment relative to regional background concentrations, expressed as percentages was as large as 8.67 × 10(3)% for o,p'-DDD. The major sources of the enriched organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were hypothesized to be derived from the use of contaminated fish feeds and anti-fouling paints for maintaining fish cages. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that enriched OCPs had a large potential to contaminate the surrounding marine environment and lead to adverse effects on the associated biota. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differences of OCP contaminations between mariculture and natural coastal sediments.

  9. Aeromagnetic and aeromagnetic-based geologic maps of the Coastal Belt, Franciscan Complex, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex represents a Late Cretaceous to Miocene accretionary prism and overlying slope deposits. Its equivalents may extend from the offshore outer borderland of southern California to north of the Mendocino Triple Junction under the Eel River Basin and in the offshore of Cascadia. The Coastal belt is exposed on land in northern California, yet its structure and stratigraphy are incompletely known because of discontinuous exposure, structural disruption, and lithologically non-distinctive clastic rocks. The intent of this report is to make available, in map form, aeromagnetic data covering the Coastal belt that provide a new dataset to aid in mapping, understanding, and interpreting the incompletely understood geology and structure in northern California. The newly merged aeromagnetic data over the Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex reveal long, linear anomalies that indicate remarkably coherent structure within a terrane where mapping at the surface indicates complex deformation and that has been described as "broken formation" and, even locally as "melange". The anomalies in the Coastal belt are primarily sourced by volcanic-rich graywackes and exotic blocks of basalt. Some anomalies along the contact of the Coastal belt with the Central belt are likely caused by local interleaving of components of the Coast Ranges ophiolite. These data can be used to map additional exotic blocks within the Coastal belt and to distinguish lithologically indistinct graywackes within the Coastal terrane. Using anomaly asymmetry allows projection of these "layers" into the subsurface. This analysis indicates predominant northeast dips consistent with tectonic interleaving of blocks within a subduction zone.

  10. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  11. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Thomson, Janet W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Glacier Studies Project (GSP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre (MAGIC) of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) began a formal cooperative 3-year endeavor to prepare three maps of the Antarctic Peninsula region. The maps will be based on a large variety of cartographic, aerial photograph, satellite image, and ancillary historical datasets archived at each institution. The maps will document dynamic changes on the peninsula during the past 50 years. The three maps are part of a planned 24-map series (I-2600) being published by the USGS in both paper and digital format (see USGS Fact Sheet FS-050-98 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs50-98/); the maps are of the Trinity Peninsula area (I-2600-A), the Larsen Ice Shelf area (I-2600-B), and the Palmer Land area (I-2600-C). The 1:1,000,000-scale maps will encompass an area 1,800 kilometers (km) long and with an average width of 400 km (range of 200 to 600 km wide); the area is between lats 60? and 76? S. and longs 52? and 80? W. Each of the three maps will include an interpretive booklet that analyzes documented historical changes in the fronts of the ice shelves and termini of the outlet glaciers.

  12. Mapping southern Atlantic coastal marshland, South Carolina-Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Southeastern coastal marshes are among the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Ground based and low altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's ERTS-1 has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test site selected was an area from the South Carolina border to Saint Catherine's Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS-1 imagery: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities such as Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Juncus roemerianus; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS-1 will be an excellent tool for many types of coastal wetland mapping.

  13. Vulnerability assessment for preliminary flood risk mapping and management in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Planning and management of coastal environment, both terrestrial and marine, is affected by several actions in environment resource conservation and improvement paying specific attention to risk forecasting and preventing. In such context the EU flood Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires Member States the assessment and management of flood risk, and the EU water framework Directive (2000/60/EC) are the key factors in the integrated river basin management to assure an efficient and rational use of resources. Afterwards, coastal risk assessment and mapping is a propaedeutic phase to plan and manage coastal areas. In this work risk analysis refers to the results obtained by the combined application of coastal flooding and erosion risks in the activities carried out to prepare Regional Coast Management Plan for the Ionian coast of Basilicata Region located in the south of Italy. In order to define the driving forces acting on the shore, high resolution lidar data, bathymetric information and wave climate statistics acquired by meteorological analyses on wind field data referred to different acquisition times are used. The systemic vulnerability estimation is achieved by composing both hazard factors combined in the Criticality Coastal Index depending on of the assessment of Coastal Flood Index and Coastal Erosion Index based on morphologic and socio-economic variables.

  14. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  15. How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  16. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  17. National scale high-resolution mapping of coastal wave overtopping risk in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Rebecca; Hird, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The coastal flooding associated with the 2013-2014 UK winter storms caused widespread property damage and one fatality along the coastlines of south-west England and Wales. High spring tides and large waves combined to unexpectedly overtop coastal flood defences. The increasing risk of waves overtopping sea defences coupled with the rise in property development along the coast highlights the need for new and innovative tools for understanding coastal flood risk. Until now, broad-scale coastal hazard maps have overlooked coastal wave overtopping inundation, thereby underestimating flood risk. Recognising this gap has led to the development of the first nation-wide wave overtopping flood map for England and Wales, which we present here. Aimed primarily at the re/insurance sector, JBA has established a methodology for rapidly modelling large-scale wave overtopping flooding. An inception study investigated a range of modelling approaches for national scale modelling and the most suitable design computed general peak wave overtopping rates representative of four separate return period events. Hydrographs were calculated to reflect the changes in the overtopping rate as a result of changes to the water levels throughout the tidal cycle. Overtopping volumes were then computed from the overtopping rates and defence polylines digitised in ArcGIS. Finally, topographically controlled inundation was simulated across a high-resolution digital terrain model using a 2D hydrodynamic flood model. Results from the selected methodology compared well against test areas modelled in detail using additional data on bathymetry, beach profiles, and defence geometry. Sensibility checks were performed using extreme sea level value data to ensure that the model outputs were consistent with the sea level heights expected during a storm event of a particular return period. Moreover, model results corroborated well with media reports on flood extents experienced by communities during the 2013

  18. Application of automated multispectral analysis to Delaware's coastal vegetation mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Daiber, D.; Bartlett, D. S.; Crichton, O. W.; Fornes, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Overlay maps of Delaware's wetlands have been prepared, showing the dominant species or group of species of vegetation present. Five such categories of vegetation were used indicating marshes dominated by: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle; and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Fifteen such maps cover Delaware's wetlands from the Pennsylvania to the Maryland borders. The mapping technique employed utilizes the General Electric multispectral data processing system. This system is a hybrid analog-digital system designed as an analysis tool to be used by an operator whose own judgment and knowledge of ground truth can be incorporated at any time into the analyzing process. The result is a high speed, cost effective method for producing enhanced photomaps showing a number of spectral classes, each enhanced spectral class being representative of a vegetative species or group of species.

  19. Making Coastal Flood Hazard Maps to Support Decision-Making - What End Users Want

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J.; Cheung, W. H.; Luke, A.; Gallien, T.; Aghakouchak, A.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Growing awareness about accelerating Sea Level Rise (SLR) is contributing to coastal resilience initiatives around the world, with an emphasis on coastal planning, infrastructure adaptation, and emergency preparedness. Maps are the primary tool for communicating flood hazard, and their design raises two fundamental challenges: (1) representing the flood hazard in a scientifically defensible manner considering complexity associated with multiple drivers of flooding (e.g., rainfall, streamflow, storm surge, high tides, waves), urban infrastructure, and human interventions (e.g. pumping, sand bags) and (2) effectively communicating hazard information considering the specific needs of decision-makers. In this research we rely on a hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding that can be forced by multiple drivers of flooding (rainfall, high water levels, and waves) to simulate extreme flooding scenarios at street-level resolution. Model scenarios include 20%, 10%, 5%, 2% and 1% annual exceedance probability (AEP) scenarios for each possible driver of flooding and for both present and future sea levels. The resulting flood zones and related flood depths are aggregated using GIS techniques and transformed into a set of maps depicting annual exceedance probability, multi-year flood probability, 1% AEP flooding depth, uncertainty associated with model forcing data, and road network accessibility. The usability of each map is assessed through focus group discussions with local stakeholders who have distinct decision-making needs, such as homeowners, planners, and emergency response managers. Findings from this research reveal the mapped flood risk information and visualizations preferred by different decision-makers.

  20. Tropical Cyclone Vulnerability Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: Application to a Coastal Upazila in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, M. A. A.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Childs, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclones are one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. Globally, many coastal regions are vulnerable to different categories cyclones. In Bangladesh, disasters from tropical cyclones are annual occurrences in coastal areas. The intensity and extent of damage due to tropical cyclones are very high. An appropriate mapping approach is essential for producing detail vulnerability assessments to deliver useful information for reducing the impacts of cyclones on people, property and environment. The present study developed and tested a vulnerability mapping approach for tropical cyclone impacts in Sarankhola upazila a 151 km2 local government area located in coastal Bangladesh. The study applied the approach by integrating remote sensing, field data and multi-criteria evaluation at regional scales covering <1000 km2. Seven criteria concerned with cyclone impacts were considered for the study: elevation, slope, geomorphology, proximity to coastline, proximity to cyclone track, land uses and population density. Thematic raster map layers were prepared for every criterion and weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with sensitivity analysis. Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) technique was used for overlaying standardized criteria maps with their weights to produce the vulnerability map. Our results indicated that 15% of the study area had very high vulnerability; mostly close to the river and densely populated areas, with 40 % area as high vulnerability on cropped grounds. Around 25% area was classified at moderate vulnerability covering most of the forests. The low and very low vulnerable area accounts the 12% and 8% respectively. This approach provided very promising result and it was verified by field survey. The result provides the strong applicability of this approach to assess the vulnerability of coastal Bangladesh to tropical cyclones.

  1. Multipolarization P-, L-, and C-band radar for coastal zone mapping - The Louisiana example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarization P-, L-, and C-band airborne SAR data sets were acquired over a coastal zone and a forested wetland of southern Louisiana. The data sets were used with field-collected surface-parameter data in order to determine the value of SAR systems in assessing and mapping coastal-zone surface features. The coastal-zone surface features in this study are sediments, sediment distribution, and the formation of new isles and banks. Results of the data analysis indicate that the P-band radar with 68-cm wavelength is capable of detecting the submerged sediment if the area is very shallow (i.e., a water depth of less than one meter). The penetration capability of P-band radar is also demonstrated in the forested wetland area. The composition and condition of the ground surface can be detected, as well as the standing water beneath dense tree leaves.

  2. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  3. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  4. Comparative utility of LANDSAT-1 and Skylab data for coastal wetland mapping and ecological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R.; Alsid, L.; Carter, V.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab 190-A photography and LANDSAT-1 analog data have been analyzed to determine coastal wetland mapping potential as a near term substitute for aircraft data and as a long term monitoring tool. The level of detail and accuracy of each was compared. Skylab data provides more accurate classification of wetland types, better delineation of freshwater marshes and more detailed analysis of drainage patterns. LANDSAT-1 analog data is useful for general classification, boundary definition and monitoring of human impact in wetlands.

  5. Developing Coastal Surface Roughness Maps Using ASTER and QuickBird Data Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation regards one element of a larger project on the integration of NASA science models and data into the Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard (HAZUS-MH) Hurricane module for hurricane damage and loss risk assessment. HAZUS-MH is a decision support tool being developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It includes the Hurricane Module, which employs surface roughness maps made from National Land Cover Data (NLCD) maps to estimate coastal hurricane wind damage and loss. NLCD maps are produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This presentation discusses an effort to improve upon current HAZUS surface roughness maps by employing ASTER multispectral classifications with QuickBird "ground reference" imagery.

  6. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  7. Mapping northern Atlantic coastal marshlands, Maryland-Virginia, using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data provides repetitive synoptic coverage for DC 00000 of wetland ecology, detection of change, and mapping or inventory of wetland boundaries and plant communities. ERTS-1 positive transparencies of Atlantic Coastal wetlands were enlarged to different scales and mapped using a variety of methods. Results of analysis indicate: (1) mapping of wetland boundaries and vegetative communities from imagery at a scale of 1:1,000,000 is impractical because small details are difficult to illustrate; (2) mapping to a scale of 1:250,000 is practical for defining land-water interface, upper wetland boundary, gross vegetative communities, and spoil disposal/dredge and fill operations; (3) 1:125,000 enlargements provide additional information on transition zones, smaller plant communities, and drainage or mosquito ditching. Overlays may be made directly from prints.

  8. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  9. Assessment and control of an invasive aquaculture species: An update on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in coastal Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slack, W. Todd; Peterson, Mark S.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    We provide information about the effects of Hurricane Katrina on populations of an invasive fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in southern Mississippi. By resampling areas surveyed before the storm, we attempted to determine whether the species expanded its range by moving with storm-related floods. Additionally, we used rotenone to eradicate individuals of this species at a hurricane-damaged aquaculture facility on the Mississippi coast. Although our survey was limited geographically, we did not find the species to occur beyond the aquaculture facility, other than in an adjacent bayou. Our rotenone treatment of the facility appeared effective with only a single O. niloticus being collected six weeks after the treatment. To reduce the spread of O. niloticus in the southeastern U.S., it is important to continue to control feral populations, work to eliminate vectors for dispersal, and continue monitoring their distribution.

  10. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  11. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  12. Automated Mapping of Rapid Arctic Ocean Coastal Change Over Large Spans of Time and Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.

    2012-12-01

    While climate change is global in scope, its impacts vary greatly from region to region. The dynamic Arctic Ocean coastline often shows greater sensitivity to climate change and more obvious impacts. Current longer ice-free conditions, rising sea level, thawing permafrost, and melting of larger ice bodies combine to produce extremely rapid coastal change and erosion. Anderson et al. (2009; Geology News) have measured erosion rates at sites along the Alaskan Arctic Ocean coast of 15 m per year and greater. Completely understanding coastal change in the Arctic requires mapping both current erosional regimes as well as changes in erosional rates over several decades. Studying coastal change and trends in the Arctic, however, presents several significant difficulties. The study area is enormous, with over 45,000 km of coastline; it is also one of the most remote, inaccessible, and hostile environments on Earth. Moreover, the region has little to no historical data from which to start. Thus, any study of the area must be able to construct its own baseline. Remote sensing offers the best solution given these difficulties. Spaceborne platforms allow for regular global coverage at temporal and spatial scales sufficient for mapping coastal erosion and deposition. The Landsat family of instruments (MSS, TM, and ETM) has data available as frequently as every 16 days and starting as early as 1972. The data are freely available from the USGS through earthexplorer.usgs.gov and are well calibrated both geometrically and spectrally, eliminating expensive pre-processing steps and making them analysis-ready. Finally, because manual coastline delineation of the quantity of data involved would be prohibitive in both budget and labor, an automated processing chain must be used. ENVI Feature Extraction can provide results in line with those generated by expert analysts (Hulslander, et al., 2008; GEOBIA 2008 Proceedings). Previous studies near Drew Point, Alaska have shown that feature

  13. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  14. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  15. a Framework for Capacity Building in Mapping Coastal Resources Using Remote Sensing in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamondong, A.; Cruz, C.; Ticman, T.; Peralta, R.; Go, G. A.; Vergara, M.; Estabillo, M. S.; Cadalzo, I. E.; Jalbuena, R.; Blanco, A.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing has been an effective technology in mapping natural resources by reducing the costs and field data gathering time and bringing in timely information. With the launch of several earth observation satellites, an increase in the availability of satellite imageries provides an immense selection of data for the users. The Philippines has recently embarked in a program which will enable the gathering of LiDAR data in the whole country. The capacity of the Philippines to take advantage of these advancements and opportunities is lacking. There is a need to transfer the knowledge of remote sensing technology to other institutions to better utilize the available data. Being an archipelagic country with approximately 36,000 kilometers of coastline, and most of its people depending on its coastal resources, remote sensing is an optimal choice in mapping such resources. A project involving fifteen (15) state universities and colleges and higher education institutions all over the country headed by the University of the Philippines Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry and funded by the Department of Science and Technology was formed to carry out the task of capacity building in mapping the country's coastal resources using LiDAR and other remotely sensed datasets. This paper discusses the accomplishments and the future activities of the project.

  16. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  17. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  18. Subsurface object recognition by means of regularization techniques for mapping coastal waters floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Luis O.; Umana-Diaz, Alejandra; Diaz-Santos, Jose; Neira-Carolina, Gerardino; Morales-Morales, Javier; Rodriguez, Eladio

    2005-10-01

    A fundamental challenge to Remote Sensing is mapping the ocean floor in coastal shallow waters where variability, due to the interaction between the coast and the sea, can bring significant disparity in the optical properties of the water column. The objects to be detected, coral reefs, sands and submerged aquatic vegetation, have weak signals, with temporal and spatial variation. In real scenarios the absorption and backscattering coefficients have spatial variation due to different sources of variability (river discharge, different depths of shallow waters, water currents) and temporal fluctuations. This paper presents the development of algorithms for retrieving information and its application to the recognition, classification and mapping of objects under coastal shallow waters. A mathematical model that simplifies the radiative transfer equation was used to quantify the interaction between the object of interest, the medium and the sensor. The retrieval of information requires the development of mathematical models and processing tools in the area of inversion, image reconstruction and detection. The algorithms developed were applied to one set of remotely sensed data: a high resolution HYPERION hyperspectral imagery. An inverse problem arises as this spectral data is used for mapping the ocean shallow waters floor. Tikhonov method of regularization was used in the inversion process to estimate the bottom albedo of the ocean floor using a priori information in the form of stored spectral signatures, previously measured, of objects of interest, such as sand, corals, and sea grass.

  19. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  20. Mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Vietnam using VNREDSAT-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. V.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Tong Phuoc, H. S.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seagrass beds and coral reefs are two important ecosystems in the coastal zone. They play an important role to protect and shelter various marine organisms. Both seagrass beds and coral reefs could prevent the coastline from erosion. While seagrass stabilizes sediments and acts as a biofilter, coral reefs can control carbon dioxide in the ocean water. Besides, seagrass also provides direct food for many fish and marine animals. Therefore, mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs is very important for coastal management and conservation. In May 2013, Vietnam launched the first satellite for earth observations, called Vietnam Natural Resources, Environment and Disaster Monitoring Satellite (VNREDSAT-1). It is a great opportunity for environmental monitoring in the country using the data from this satellite. The objective of this study is to use the VNREDSAT-1 data to map seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Ninh Hai district, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam, where the seagrass still remains in good a condition. We processed the VNREDSAT-1 image through four steps: (1) Atmospheric correction using Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model (6S), (2) Sun glint removal by using Hedley method, (3) Water column correction using the depth-variant index (DII) proposed by Lyzenga, and (4) Image classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm. The mapping results verified with the ground reference data showed a good overall accuracy of 75% and Kappa coefficient of 0.7. The total area of seagrass beds was approximately 323.09 ha, which mainly distributed in My Hoa and Thai An villages. The total area of coral reefs was approximately 564.42 ha, located along the coast and on outer area to seagrass and shoreline reefs. This study demonstrates the applicability of VNREDSAT-1 for underwater habitat monitoring. The results could be useful for natural resources managers to devise strategies for management and

  1. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    We use high-resolution aeromagnetic data to map magnetic bodies of graywacke of limited exposure that are either interbedded or structurally emplaced within broader areas of non-magnetic graywacke within the Franciscan Complex Coastal belt in northern California, which is bounded by the San Andreas Fault on the west and the Franciscan Complex Central belt on the south and east. Previous work has not extensively subdivided the Coastal belt because of the poor exposure and the fact that the exposed lithology is primarily graywacke indistinguishable in outcrop and hand sample and is thus difficult to map in the field. A hand-held magnetic susceptibility meter, however, in combination with thin-section analysis, reveals that some Coastal belt graywackes are magnetic. The thin-section analysis shows that the magnetic samples have a significant component of andesitic grains, whereas the non-magnetic samples do not. Further, the locations of these magnetic rocks correspond to elongate regions of high magnetic intensity (magnetic anomalies) kilometers to tens of kilometers in length. Previous 2D modeling showed that the bodies of magnetic graywacke can be modeled as a folded sheet, with antiformal limbs near or exposed at the surface and synformal limbs reaching a depth of about 1 km. Locations of edges of magnetic source bodies can be extracted from their magnetic anomalies. Near surface, steeply dipping edges lie beneath local maxima in the horizontal gradient of the magnetic potential surface. The edges are demarcated by locating discrete points along the local maxima. We connected these points, using an algorithm with a specific set of parameters, to delineate the edges of the magnetic graywacke bodies. Together with the previous 2D modeling, the anomalies and their edges show that the Coastal belt contains antiformal structures 5 to 20 km in length and 1.5 km in width, with a wavelength approximately 1.5 km. The modal direction of elongation is oriented approximately

  2. Near Real-time Visualization of the Coastal Ocean: A Google Maps Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrill, E.; Reuter, P.; Hazard, L.; Otero, M.; Cook, T.; Bowen, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Coastal Observing R&D Center (CORDC) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed and implemented real-time data management and display tools for use in the Google Maps environment. A primary use of these tools is for displaying data measured, aggregated, and distributed by a regional observing system. CORDC developed and continues to maintain these tools that are now in use by a broad suite of end users, including local, state and federal agencies, resource managers, industry, policy makers, educators, scientists and the general public for the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS). These data feeds encompass the ongoing monitoring of a broad suite of ocean observing data including, but not limited to: surface currents, satellite imagery, wave conditions and forecasts, meteorological conditions and forecasts, water quality, bathymetry, ocean temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, and density in the form of data products and raw data. By leveraging Google Maps, this effort has achieved seamless integration of disparate datasets into a unifying, low latency interface for on-line visualization and interaction. The resulting interfaces have brought national attention to the public display of data that SCCOOS serves, notably for ease of use and navigation. While the Google Maps API provides basic capabilities for spatially zooming and panning, developers are able to extend the API to include customized temporal browsing of spatial maps, info. displays, legends, dynamic color scaling and interactive data queries resulting in time series or other point/slice plots. Visualizations of products with more mature Google Maps interfaces will be presented, including statewide ocean surface currents, meteorological observations, ship tracking and output from an operational ocean current models that pose additional challenges of 4D data sets. Current developments involving product layering and API extensions will also be presented.

  3. Mapping an invasive plant, Phragmites australis, in coastal wetlands using the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pengra, B.W.; Johnston, C.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Mapping tools are needed to document the location and extent of Phragmites australis, a tall grass that invades coastal marshes throughout North America, displacing native plant species and degrading wetland habitat. Mapping Phragmites is particularly challenging in the freshwater Great Lakes coastal wetlands due to dynamic lake levels and vegetation diversity. We tested the applicability of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping Phragmites in wetlands of the west coast of Green Bay in Wisconsin, U.S.A. A reference spectrum created using Hyperion data from several pure Phragmites stands within the image was used with a Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) algorithm to create a raster map with values ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represented the greatest similarity between the reference spectrum and the image spectrum and 1 the least similarity. The final two-class thematic classification predicted monodominant Phragmites covering 3.4% of the study area. Most of this was concentrated in long linear features parallel to the Green Bay shoreline, particularly in areas that had been under water only six years earlier when lake levels were 66??cm higher. An error matrix using spring 2005 field validation points (n = 129) showed good overall accuracy-81.4%. The small size and linear arrangement of Phragmites stands was less than optimal relative to the sensor resolution, and Hyperion's 30??m resolution captured few if any pure pixels. Contemporary Phragmites maps prepared with Hyperion imagery would provide wetland managers with a tool that they currently lack, which could aid attempts to stem the spread of this invasive species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Holographic Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  5. Aquaculture Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomics chapter covers the basics of genome mapping and sequencing and the current status of several relevant species. The chapter briefly describes the development and use of (cDNA, BAC, etc.) libraries for mapping and obtaining specific sequence information. Other topics include comparative ...

  6. Coastal and estuarine habitat mapping, using LIDAR height and intensity and multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Franco, Javier; Uriarte, Adolfo

    2008-07-01

    The airborne laser scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTM) that have been applied recently to the characterization, quantification and monitoring of coastal environments. This study assesses the contribution of LIDAR altimetry and intensity data, topographically-derived features (slope and aspect), and multi-spectral imagery (three visible and a near-infrared band), to map coastal habitats in the Bidasoa estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Basque Country, northern Spain). The performance of high-resolution data sources was individually and jointly tested, with the maximum likelihood algorithm classifier in a rocky shore and a wetland zone; thus, including some of the most extended Cantabrian Sea littoral habitats, within the Bay of Biscay. The results show that reliability of coastal habitat classification was more enhanced with LIDAR-based DTM, compared with the other data sources: slope, aspect, intensity or near-infrared band. The addition of the DTM, to the three visible bands, produced gains of between 10% and 27% in the agreement measures, between the mapped and validation data (i.e. mean producer's and user's accuracy) for the two test sites. Raw LIDAR intensity images are only of limited value here, since they appeared heterogeneous and speckled. However, the enhanced Lee smoothing filter, applied to the LIDAR intensity, improved the overall accuracy measurements of the habitat classification, especially in the wetland zone; here, there were gains up to 7.9% in mean producer's and 11.6% in mean user's accuracy. This suggests that LIDAR can be useful for habitat mapping, when few data sources are available. The synergy between the LIDAR data, with multi-spectral bands, produced high accurate classifications (mean producer's accuracy: 92% for the 16 rocky habitats and 88% for the 11 wetland habitats). Fusion of the data enabled discrimination of intertidal communities, such as Corallina elongata

  7. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  8. Comparative analysis of Worldview-2 and Landsat 8 for coastal saltmarsh mapping accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Diti, Israt Jahan; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Coastal saltmarsh and their constituent components and processes are of an interest scientifically due to their ecological function and services. However, heterogeneity and seasonal dynamic of the coastal wetland system makes it challenging to map saltmarshes with remotely sensed data. This study selected four important saltmarsh species Pragmitis australis, Sporobolus virginicus, Ficiona nodosa and Schoeloplectus sp. as well as a Mangrove and Pine tree species, Avecinia and Casuarina sp respectively. High Spatial Resolution Worldview-2 data and Coarse Spatial resolution Landsat 8 imagery were selected in this study. Among the selected vegetation types some patches ware fragmented and close to the spatial resolution of Worldview-2 data while and some patch were larger than the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 8 data. This study aims to test the effectiveness of different classifier for the imagery with various spatial and spectral resolutions. Three different classification algorithm, Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested and compared with their mapping accuracy of the results derived from both satellite imagery. For Worldview-2 data SVM was giving the higher overall accuracy (92.12%, kappa =0.90) followed by ANN (90.82%, Kappa 0.89) and MLC (90.55%, kappa = 0.88). For Landsat 8 data, MLC (82.04%) showed the highest classification accuracy comparing to SVM (77.31%) and ANN (75.23%). The producer accuracy of the classification results were also presented in the paper.

  9. Spatial analysis of potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in aquacultural tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in blackfoot disease hyperendemic areas.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Kao-Hung; Huang, Feng-Mei; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2006-03-01

    This work analyzed spatially potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in coastal regions of southwestern Taiwan, where the blackfoot disease prevails. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was used to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural tilapia was calculated to evaluate the potential risk to human health. Owing to sparse measured data, Monte Carlo simulation and SIS properly accounted for the uncertainty of assessed parameters. The probabilistic risk assessment formulated suitable strategies under various remedial stages. Aquacultural regions with high risks were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use at different depths. Many TRs determined from the risks at the 75th and 95th percentiles exceed one millionth in the regions, indicating that ingesting tilapia farmed in the highly As-polluted regions poses potential cancer threats to human health. The 75th percentile of TR is considered in formulating a remedial strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage. Additionally, this study suggests reducing the use of groundwater in aquaculture or changing the depths from which groundwater is withdrawn in the areas with high risks of cancer.

  10. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping /1:25,000/ by computer analysis of Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single data Landsat MSS imagery of a coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map, and featuring large dynamic sediment transport processes. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map containing five water depth/sediment classes, two shoreline/tidal classes and five coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%; the training sets were selected by direct examination of the digitally displayed imagery. The unsupervised ISOCLAS (Senkus, 1976) clustering analysis was performed to assess the relative value of this approach to image classification in areas of sparse or nonexistent ground control. Results indicate that it is feasible to produce quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a Landsat image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  11. All about Aquaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; Patterson, B. Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Describes a sequence of activities in which students set up a classroom aquarium to learn about aquaculture. Discusses the aquarium system, filtration and maintenance, adding organisms to the system, technological considerations, aquaculture economics, and political and social aspects of aquaculture. (MDH)

  12. Susceptibility of coastal plain aquifers to contamination, Fairfax County, Virginia; a computer composite map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Richard H.; Van Driel, J. Nicholas

    1978-01-01

    A map is presented that classifies the Coastal Plain of Fairfax County, Virginia according to the susceptibility of the principal sand aquifers to contamination from surface sources. The following classification is used: (1) areas where leachate can readily enter the principal sand aquifers, (2) areas offering great natural protection against migration of leachate into the aquifers, and, (3) areas where the contamination risk is uncertain and onsite investigations are needed. Approximately 20 percent of the area is in the high-risk category. The map is computer generated and was made by combining four source maps depicting those hydrogeologic factors related to movement of contaminants into the aquifers. These factors are (1) lithologic character of the upper 25 feet of sediments, (2) clay thickness above uppermost sand aquifer, (3) hydraulic gradient direction and head difference between water table and artesian head in principal aquifer, and (4) areal occurrence of moderate to high transmissiviry aquifers. The map is designed to be used by planners with little or no earth-science background, however, a technical discussion for hydrologists and geologists is also provided. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. A low-cost drone based application for identifying and mapping of coastal fish nursery grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Daniele; Bruno, Michele; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring seabed, landform or other topographic data in the field of marine ecology has a pivotal role in defining and mapping key marine habitats. However, accessibility for this kind of data with a high level of detail for very shallow and inaccessible marine habitats has been often challenging, time consuming. Spatial and temporal coverage often has to be compromised to make more cost effective the monitoring routine. Nowadays, emerging technologies, can overcome many of these constraints. Here we describe a recent development in remote sensing based on a small unmanned drone (UAVs) that produce very fine scale maps of fish nursery areas. This technology is simple to use, inexpensive, and timely in producing aerial photographs of marine areas. Both technical details regarding aerial photos acquisition (drone and camera settings) and post processing workflow (3D model generation with Structure From Motion algorithm and photo-stitching) are given. Finally by applying modern algorithm of semi-automatic image analysis and classification (Maximum Likelihood, ECHO and Object-based Image Analysis) we compared the results of three thematic maps of nursery area for juvenile sparid fishes, highlighting the potential of this method in mapping and monitoring coastal marine habitats.

  14. The emergence of a community mapping network: coastal eelgrass mapping in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Wright, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document and theorize the emergence of a network of stewards concerned about the conservation of a marine habitat called eelgrass along the coastline of British Columbia, Canada. Today, by engaging as professional biologists, government employees, and volunteers using various mapping, outreach, and communication tools, these stewards generate knowledge on the geographic location and health of eelgrass habitat, how to educate the public, how to coordinate volunteers, and how to approach local governments--with the ultimate goal of convincing others that eelgrass is worth protecting. Our two-year ethnographic study began in the second year of a project that was designed to train twenty community coordinators how to map and monitor eelgrass habitat. The coordinators were faced with complex social, cultural, political, historical, and material landscapes--which made us wonder about how it was possible for the network to hold together while extending its reach. We provide evidence to support the claim that the network became more stable and was extended by particular performances. These performances emerged from recognition and resolution of resistances, in which the network was both resource for and object of its activity. In the process, (a) knowledge produced is made to move and do something, (b) coordinators and scientists involved acted as knowledge brokers between various communities, and (c) communication between coordinators was enabled and maintained.

  15. Mapping reef fish and the seascape: using acoustics and spatial modeling to guide coastal management.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bryan; Taylor, J Christopher; Kracker, Laura; Battista, Tim; Pittman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Reef fish distributions are patchy in time and space with some coral reef habitats supporting higher densities (i.e., aggregations) of fish than others. Identifying and quantifying fish aggregations (particularly during spawning events) are often top priorities for coastal managers. However, the rapid mapping of these aggregations using conventional survey methods (e.g., non-technical SCUBA diving and remotely operated cameras) are limited by depth, visibility and time. Acoustic sensors (i.e., splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) are not constrained by these same limitations, and were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef fish aggregations were documented along the shelf edge, an ecologically important ecotone in the region. Fish were grouped into three classes according to body size, and relationships with the benthic seascape were modeled in one area using Boosted Regression Trees. These models were validated in a second area to test their predictive performance in locations where fish have not been mapped. Models predicting the density of large fish (≥ 29 cm) performed well (i.e., AUC = 0.77). Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m). Models of small (≤ 11 cm) and medium (12-28 cm) fish performed poorly (i.e., AUC = 0.49 to 0.68) due to the high prevalence (45-79%) of smaller fish in both locations, and the unequal prevalence of smaller fish in the training and validation areas. Integrating acoustic sensors with spatial modeling offers a new and reliable approach to rapidly identify fish aggregations and to predict the density large fish in un-surveyed locations. This integrative approach will help coastal managers to prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher conservation value. PMID:24454886

  16. Mapping Reef Fish and the Seascape: Using Acoustics and Spatial Modeling to Guide Coastal Management

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Bryan; Taylor, J. Christopher; Kracker, Laura; Battista, Tim; Pittman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Reef fish distributions are patchy in time and space with some coral reef habitats supporting higher densities (i.e., aggregations) of fish than others. Identifying and quantifying fish aggregations (particularly during spawning events) are often top priorities for coastal managers. However, the rapid mapping of these aggregations using conventional survey methods (e.g., non-technical SCUBA diving and remotely operated cameras) are limited by depth, visibility and time. Acoustic sensors (i.e., splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) are not constrained by these same limitations, and were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef fish aggregations were documented along the shelf edge, an ecologically important ecotone in the region. Fish were grouped into three classes according to body size, and relationships with the benthic seascape were modeled in one area using Boosted Regression Trees. These models were validated in a second area to test their predictive performance in locations where fish have not been mapped. Models predicting the density of large fish (≥29 cm) performed well (i.e., AUC = 0.77). Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m). Models of small (≤11 cm) and medium (12–28 cm) fish performed poorly (i.e., AUC = 0.49 to 0.68) due to the high prevalence (45–79%) of smaller fish in both locations, and the unequal prevalence of smaller fish in the training and validation areas. Integrating acoustic sensors with spatial modeling offers a new and reliable approach to rapidly identify fish aggregations and to predict the density large fish in un-surveyed locations. This integrative approach will help coastal managers to prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher conservation value. PMID:24454886

  17. Mapping reef fish and the seascape: using acoustics and spatial modeling to guide coastal management.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bryan; Taylor, J Christopher; Kracker, Laura; Battista, Tim; Pittman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Reef fish distributions are patchy in time and space with some coral reef habitats supporting higher densities (i.e., aggregations) of fish than others. Identifying and quantifying fish aggregations (particularly during spawning events) are often top priorities for coastal managers. However, the rapid mapping of these aggregations using conventional survey methods (e.g., non-technical SCUBA diving and remotely operated cameras) are limited by depth, visibility and time. Acoustic sensors (i.e., splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) are not constrained by these same limitations, and were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef fish aggregations were documented along the shelf edge, an ecologically important ecotone in the region. Fish were grouped into three classes according to body size, and relationships with the benthic seascape were modeled in one area using Boosted Regression Trees. These models were validated in a second area to test their predictive performance in locations where fish have not been mapped. Models predicting the density of large fish (≥ 29 cm) performed well (i.e., AUC = 0.77). Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m). Models of small (≤ 11 cm) and medium (12-28 cm) fish performed poorly (i.e., AUC = 0.49 to 0.68) due to the high prevalence (45-79%) of smaller fish in both locations, and the unequal prevalence of smaller fish in the training and validation areas. Integrating acoustic sensors with spatial modeling offers a new and reliable approach to rapidly identify fish aggregations and to predict the density large fish in un-surveyed locations. This integrative approach will help coastal managers to prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher conservation value.

  18. A comparison of spatial and spectral image resolution for mapping invasive plants in coastal california.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Ustin, Susan L; Ramirez, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  19. Improved coastal wetland mapping using very-high 2-meter spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Merton, Elizabeth J.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate wetland maps are a fundamental requirement for land use management and for wetland restoration planning. Several wetland map products are available today; most of them based on remote sensing images, but their different data sources and mapping methods lead to substantially different estimations of wetland location and extent. We used two very high-resolution (2 m) WorldView-2 satellite images and one (30 m) Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image to assess wetland coverage in two coastal areas of Tampa Bay (Florida): Fort De Soto State Park and Weedon Island Preserve. An initial unsupervised classification derived from WorldView-2 was more accurate at identifying wetlands based on ground truth data collected in the field than the classification derived from Landsat 8 OLI (82% vs. 46% accuracy). The WorldView-2 data was then used to define the parameters of a simple and efficient decision tree with four nodes for a more exacting classification. The criteria for the decision tree were derived by extracting radiance spectra at 1500 separate pixels from the WorldView-2 data within field-validated regions. Results for both study areas showed high accuracy in both wetland (82% at Fort De Soto State Park, and 94% at Weedon Island Preserve) and non-wetland vegetation classes (90% and 83%, respectively). Historical, published land-use maps overestimate wetland surface cover by factors of 2-10 in the study areas. The proposed methods improve speed and efficiency of wetland map production, allow semi-annual monitoring through repeat satellite passes, and improve the accuracy and precision with which wetlands are identified.

  20. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles.

  1. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles. PMID:26020969

  2. Mapping the in situ microscale distribution of microphytobenthic biomass in coastal sediments: a hyperspectral methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennu, A.; Volkenborn, N.; Janssen, F.; Polerecky, L.

    2012-04-01

    Microphytobenthic primary production is the fundament of the trophic food web in coastal marine sediments. The concentration of photopigments, which are a proxy for phototrophic biomass, in the surface sediment is considered as a basic environmental descriptor in benthic studies. The mechanisms that control the distribution of benthic microalgae are complex, ranging from physico-chemical drivers (e.g. tidal action, nutrient availability) to ecological drivers (e.g. grazing). Here we present a novel, field-deployable hyperspectral imaging system that allows non-invasive in situ mapping of the photosynthetic microalgal biomass distribution with a high spatial (<1mm) and temporal (minutes) resolution. Using this system, we found a remarkably heterogeneous and dynamic distribution of microalgae in surficial intertidal sediments. These distributions were tightly linked to sediment surface topography (e.g. ripples) and to the distribution and activity of benthic infauna. We hypothesize that this correlation is facilitated by the influence of these factors on the advective transport of porewater and the associated fluxes of dissolved nutrients across the sediment-water interface. We argue that the utility of the high-resolution hyperspectral imaging method overcomes the inadequate resolution of traditional methods based on sedimentary chlorophyll extraction, and significantly improves our understanding of the processes that control benthic productivity in coastal sediments.

  3. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control.

  4. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control. PMID:26048558

  5. Using MODIS Terra 250 m Imagery to Map Concentrations of Total Suspended Matter in Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; McKee, Brent A.

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of suspended particulate matter in coastal waters directly effect or govern numerous water column and benthic processes. The concentration of suspended sediments derived from bottom sediment resuspension or discharge of sediment-laden rivers is highly variable over a wide range of time and space scales. Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of suspended particulate matter, there are limited routine applications of this technology due in-part to the low spatial resolution, long revisit period, or cost of most remotely sensed data. In contrast, near daily coverage of medium-resolution data is available from the MODIS Terra instrument without charge from several data distribution gateways. Equally important, several display and processing programs are available that operate on low cost computers.

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Bakutis Coast, Antarctica: 1972-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of the polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Loss of the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet alone could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 m. The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m to 73 m. In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. As a result, measurement of changes in the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. An archive of early 1970's Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the fact that the repeat coverage with satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica. The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT images to compare changes over a 20- to 25- year time interval and to prepare a series of 24 1:1,000,000-scale and 1 1:5,000,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Maps ('I-Maps') (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002) in both paper and digital format.

  7. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  8. Extensive mapping of coastal change in Alaska by Landsat time-series analysis, 1972-2013 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Reynolds, J.

    2013-12-01

    The landscape-scale effects of coastal storms on Alaska's Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska coasts includes coastal erosion, migration of spits and barrier islands, breaching of coastal lakes and lagoons, and inundation and salt-kill of vegetation. Large changes in coastal storm frequency and intensity are expected due to climate change and reduced sea-ice extent. Storms have a wide range of impacts on carbon fluxes and on fish and wildlife resources, infrastructure siting and operation, and emergency response planning. In areas experiencing moderate to large effects, changes can be mapped by analyzing trends in time series of Landsat imagery from Landsat 1 through Landsat 8. ABR, Inc.--Environmental Research & Services and the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative are performing a time-series trend analysis for over 22,000 kilometers of coastline along the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The archive of Landsat imagery covers the time period 1972-present. For a pilot study area in Kotzebue Sound, we conducted a regression analysis of changes in near-infrared reflectance to identify areas with significant changes in coastal features, 1972-2011. Suitable ice- and cloud-free Landsat imagery was obtained for 28 of the 40 years during the period. The approach captured several coastal changes over the 40-year study period, including coastal erosion exceeding the 60-m pixel resolution of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data and migrations of coastal spits and estuarine channels. In addition several lake drainage events were identified, mostly inland from the coastal zone. Analysis of shorter, decadal time periods produced noisier results that were generally consistent with the long-term trend analysis. Unusual conditions at the start or end of the time-series can strongly influence decadal results. Based on these results the study is being scaled up to map coastal change for over 22,000 kilometers of coastline along the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska coast. The

  9. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  10. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  11. ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS OF AIRBORNE HYSPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR MAPPING OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN FRESHWATER COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  12. An Object-Based Workflow Developed to Extract Aquaculture Ponds from Airborne LIDAR Data: a Test Case in Central Visayas, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberternos, R. A.; Porpetcho, W. P.; Graciosa, J. C. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional remote sensing approach for mapping aquaculture ponds typically involves the use of aerial photography and high resolution images. The current study demonstrates the use of object-based image processing and analyses of LiDAR-data-generated derivative images with 1-meter resolution, namely: CHM (canopy height model) layer, DSM (digital surface model) layer, DTM (digital terrain model) layer, Hillshade layer, Intensity layer, NumRet (number of returns) layer, and Slope layer. A Canny edge detection algorithm was also performed on the Hillshade layer in order to create a new image (Canny layer) with more defined edges. These derivative images were then used as input layers to perform a multi-resolution segmentation algorithm best fit to delineate the aquaculture ponds. In order to extract the aquaculture pond feature, three major classes were identified for classification, including land, vegetation and water. Classification was first performed by using assign class algorithm to classify Flat Surfaces to segments with mean Slope values of 10 or lower. Out of these Flat Surfaces, assign class algorithm was then performed to determine Water feature by using a threshold value of 63.5. The segments identified as Water were then merged together to form larger bodies of water which comprises the aquaculture ponds. The present study shows that LiDAR data coupled with object-based classification can be an effective approach for mapping coastal aquaculture ponds. The workflow currently presented can be used as a model to map other areas in the Philippines where aquaculture ponds exist.

  13. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a

  14. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  15. Aquaculture: Challenges and promise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms, which includes fish, mollusks, crustaceans, algae and plants. People have been involved in different forms of aquaculture for thousands of years, with early documented evidence dating back as far as 500 BC in China (Ling 1977). Today, the practice of ...

  16. Seismic hazard in the South Carolina coastal plain: 2002 update of the USGS national seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Mays, T.W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The damaging 1886 moment magnitude ???7 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake is indicative of the moderately likely earthquake activity along this portion of the Atlantic Coast. A recurrence of such an earthquake today would have serious consequences for the nation. The national seismic hazard maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide a picture of the levels of seismic hazard across the nation based on the best and most current scientific information. The USGS national maps were updated in 2002 and will become part of the International Codes in 2006. In the past decade, improvements have occurred in the scientific understanding of the nature and character of earthquake activity and expected ground motions in the central and eastern U.S. The paper summarizes the new knowledge of expected earthquake locations, magnitudes, recurrence, and ground-motion decay with distance. New estimates of peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration are compared with those displayed in the 1996 national maps. The 2002 maps show increased seismic hazard in much of the coastal plain of South Carolina, but a decrease in long period (1 s and greater) hazard by up to 20% at distances of over 50 km from the Charleston earthquake zone. Although the national maps do not account for the effects of local or regional sediments, deep coastal-plain sediments can significally alter expected ground shaking, particularly at long period motions where it can be 100% higher than the national maps.

  17. A multi-method approach for benthic habitat mapping of shallow coastal areas with high-resolution multibeam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Le Bas, Timothy P.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Blondel, Philippe; Hühnerbach, Veit; Deidun, Alan

    2012-05-01

    The coastal waters of the Maltese Islands, central Mediterranean Sea, sustain a diversity of marine habitats and support a wide range of human activities. The islands' shallow waters are characterised by a paucity of hydrographic and marine geo-environmental data, which is problematic in view of the requirements of the Maltese Islands to assess the state of their coastal waters by 2012 as part of the EU Marine Strategy Directive. Multibeam echosounder (MBES) systems are today recognised as one of the most effective tools to map the seafloor, although the quantitative characterisation of MBES data for seafloor and habitat mapping is still an underdeveloped field. The purpose of this study is to outline a semi-automated, Geographic Information System-based methodology to map the distribution of habitats in shallow coastal waters using high-resolution MBES data. What distinguishes our methodology from those proposed in previous studies is the combination of a suite of geomorphometric and textural analytical techniques to map specific types of seafloor morphologies and compositions; the selection of the techniques is based on identifying which geophysical parameter would be influenced by the seabed type under consideration. We tested our approach in a 28 km2 area of Maltese coastal waters. Three data sets were collected from this study area: (i) MBES bathymetry and backscatter data; (ii) Remotely Operated Vehicle imagery and (iii) photographs and sediment samples from dive surveys. The seabed was classified into five elementary morphological zones and features - flat and sloping zones, crests, depressions and breaks of slope - using morphometric derivatives, the Bathymetric Position Index and geomorphometric mapping. Segmentation of the study area into seagrass-covered and unvegetated seafloor was based on roughness estimation. Further subdivision of these classes into the four predominant types of composition - medium sand, maërl associated with sand and gravel

  18. A Review of Land-Cover Mapping Activities in Coastal Alabama and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    -based land-use classifications. Aerial photography is typically selected for smaller landscapes (watershed-basin scale), for greater definition of the land-use categories, and for increased spatial resolution. Disadvantages of using photography include time-consuming digitization, high costs for imagery collection, and lack of seasonal data. Recently, the availability of high-resolution satellite imagery has generated a new category of LULC data product. These new datasets have similar strengths to the aerial-photo-based LULC in that they possess the potential for refined definition of land-use categories and increased spatial resolution but also have the benefit of satellite-based classifications, such as repeatability for change analysis. LULC classification based on high-resolution satellite imagery is still in the early stages of development but merits greater attention because environmental-monitoring and landscape-modeling programs rely heavily on LULC data. This publication summarizes land-use and land-cover mapping activities for Alabama and Mississippi coastal areas within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project boundaries. Existing LULC datasets will be described, as well as imagery data sources and ancillary data that may provide ground-truth or satellite training data for a forthcoming land-cover classification. Finally, potential areas for a high-resolution land-cover classification in the Alabama-Mississippi region will be identified.

  19. Mapping and Assessing Variability in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone, the Pack Ice and Coastal Polynyas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore mapping their spatial extent, seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biological active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of different ice types to the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent data record for assessing different ice types. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depends strongly on what sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Polynya area is also larger in the NASA Team algorithm, and the timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.

  20. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  1. Sinking Coastlines: Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River Delta, China, measured with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Tanaka, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land subsidence in river deltas is a global problem. It heightens storm surges, salinates groundwater, intensifies river flooding, destabilizes infrastructure and accelerates shoreline retreat. Measurements of delta subsidence typically rely on point measures such as GPS devices, tide gauges or extensometers, but spatial coverage is needed to fully assess risk across river deltas. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) is a satellite-based technique that can provide maps of ground deformation with mm to cm-scale vertical resolution. We apply D-InSAR to the coast of the Yellow River Delta in China, which is dominated by aquaculture facilities and has experienced severe coastal erosion in the last twenty years. We extract deformation patterns from dry land adjacent to aquaculture facilities along the coast, allowing the first measurements of subsidence at a non-urban delta shoreline. Results show classic cones-of-depression surrounding aquaculture facilities, likely due to groundwater pumping. Subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y at the largest facility on the delta. These rates exceed local and global average sea level rise by nearly two orders of magnitude. If these rates continue, large aquaculture facilities in the area could induce more than a meter of relative sea level rise every five years. Given the global explosion in fish farming in recent years, these results also suggest that similar subsidence and associated relative sea level rise may present a significant hazard for other Asian megadeltas. False-color MODIS image of the Yellow River delta in September 2012. Water appears dark blue, highlighting the abundance of aquaculture facilities along the coast. Green land is primarily agricultural; brown is urban. Red boxes indicate locations of aquaculture facilities examined in this study. Figure from Higgins, S., Overeem, I., Tanaka, A., & Syvitski, J.P.M., (2013), Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River

  2. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  3. Federal coastal wetland mapping programs: A report by the National Ocean Pollution Policy Board's Habitat Loss and Modification Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Buffington, J.D.; Kiraly, S.J.; Cross, F.A.

    1990-12-01

    The manuscripts contained in the report describe what the Federal government is doing to map the Nation's coastal wetlands. Various aspects of a series of Federally funded programs are described, including the purpose and intent of the programs, technologies used, the type of data and other mapping products generated, and how the information is used. The report summarizes the major programs and present the Habitat Loss and Modification Working Group's conclusions and recommendations for actions that could be taken to improve the effectiveness of Federal activities.

  4. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    (MSS) images of Ant-arctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) consisting of 23 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  5. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Eights Coast area, Antarctica, 1972-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Rosanova, Christine E.; Dailide, Lina M.

    2004-01-01

    availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes over a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps consisting of 24 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002).

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica; 1972-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Hallam, Cheryl A.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes over a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps consisting of 24 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002).

  7. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  8. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nutrient cycling within a Rhode Island estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for other organisms. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification. However, this has not been exam...

  9. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  10. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nitrogen removal within a Rhode Island estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via assimilation, burial, or benthic denitrification. Stu...

  11. South Texas coastal classification maps - Mansfield Channel to the Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The Nation's rapidly growing coastal population requires reliable information regarding the vulnerability of coastal regions to storm impacts. This has created a need for classifying coastal lands and evaluating storm-hazard vulnerability. Government officials and resource managers responsible for dealing with natural hazards also need accurate assessments of potential storm impacts in order to make informed decisions before, during, and after major storm events. Both economic development and coastal-damage mitigation require integrated models of storm parameters, hazard vulnerability, and expected coastal responses. Thus, storm-hazard vulnerability assessments constitute one of the fundamental components of forecasting storm impacts. Each year as many as 10 to 12 hurricanes and tropical storms will be the focus of national attention. Of particular interest are intense hurricanes (Categories 3 to 5 of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) that have the potential to cause substantial economic and environmental damage to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These coastal regions include some of the largest metropolitan areas in the country and they continue to experience rapid population growth. Based on media reports, there is a general lack of public knowledge regarding how different coastal segments will respond to the same storm or how the same coastal segment will respond differently depending on storm conditions. A primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk. A secondary purpose is to develop a broad coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States.

  12. Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin B.; O'Connell, Jessica L.; Di Tommaso, Stefania; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to quantify large-scale plant productivity in coastal marshes to understand marsh resilience to sea level rise, to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits, and to monitor impacts from land use, eutrophication and contamination. Remote monitoring of aboveground biomass of emergent wetland vegetation will help address this need. Differences in sensor spatial resolution, bandwidth, temporal frequency and cost constrain the accuracy of biomass maps produced for management applications. In addition the use of vegetation indices to map biomass may not be effective in wetlands due to confounding effects of water inundation on spectral reflectance. To address these challenges, we used partial least squares regression to select optimal spectral features in situ and with satellite reflectance data to develop predictive models of aboveground biomass for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. We used field spectrometer data to test model errors associated with hyperspectral narrowbands and multispectral broadbands, the influence of water inundation on prediction accuracy, and the ability to develop species specific models. We used Hyperion data, Digital Globe World View-2 (WV-2) data, and Landsat 7 data to scale up the best statistical models of biomass. Field spectrometer-based models of the full dataset showed that narrowband reflectance data predicted biomass somewhat, though not significantly better than broadband reflectance data [R2 = 0.46 and percent normalized RMSE (%RMSE) = 16% for narrowband models]. However hyperspectral first derivative reflectance spectra best predicted biomass for plots where water levels were less than 15 cm (R2 = 0.69, %RMSE = 12.6%). In species-specific models, error rates differed by species (Typha spp.: %RMSE = 18.5%; S. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and

  13. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hydroacoustic seafloor mapping is a reliable and cost-effective method to investigate and monitor the seafloor in high spatial and temporal resolution. The results are important for the evaluation of benthic habitats and help to identify vulnerable environments that require protection. Yet, how can we overcome the problems that occur when different gear produces different results, which are evaluated by people that have different points of view and different backgrounds? These aspects form an integer part of the project WIMO ("Scientific concepts for monitoring the German Bight, SE North Sea", Subproject 1.1: "Hydroacoustic Habitat Mapping"). It aims at comparing different hydroacoustic gear, methodologies and workflows in order to work out basic routines for universal use in marine benthic habitat mapping. The project investigates a number of target areas in the German Bight (North Sea) using different sidescan sonars (SSS), acoustic seafloor-classification systems (AGDS), multibeams, and different sampling and grain-size analytical methods as well as sea-floor imaging methods. We tested different gear on different ships, on the same ship but not synchronously, and as many instruments as possible measuring at the same time on the same ship. Our results suggest that guidelines and requirements for surveys can hardly be standardized as they depend largely on the water depth, the seabed, and on the vessel and the equipment available. All of these frame conditions usually differ from survey to survey. Taking this into account, we present a reasonable workflow for time and cost-effective benthic habitat mapping and monitoring. Transect-line distances as well as monitoring frequencies, number and positioning of ground-truth samples and seabed imaging are discussed. We recommend frequency combinations and appropriate swath widths and overlaps for SSS and show a way to ground-truth lower-frequency data using high-frequency data. Acoustic ground discrimination systems are

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  15. Sustainable aquaculture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

  16. Landslides hazard mapping integrating remote sensing and geo-morphological data in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    spinetti, claudia; bisson, marina; tolomei, cristiano; colini, laura; galvani, alessandro; moro, marco; saroli, michele; sepe, vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The densely inhabited Campania region (Southern Italy) is affected by numerous and dangerous landslides. In particular, the coastal area of Sorrentina Peninsula is one of the zones most subjected to two types of landslides: volcanoclastic debris flows and rock fall. The first type occurs during intensive or persistent precipitations and on significant hillslopes where carbonatic bedrock is covered by pyroclastic deposits related to the Somma-Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields explosive activity. The second type could be triggered by seismic events and occurs in areas where outcropping bedrock with steep slopes (e.g. the cliffs) is subjected to coastal erosion generating cliff instability. In order to improve the landslides hazard zonation in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal area, we show a multidisciplinary approach to identify the areas more prone to generate such types of landslide. Our approach involves the analyses of ERS (temporal span between 1992-2000), Envisat (2003-2010), and COSMO-SkyMed (2013-2015) SAR data elaborated applying multi-temporal InSAR techniques to obtain the ground displacement maps and the relative displacement time series, integrated by means of GPS data. These maps were used to identify the instability areas and subsequently investigated by field survey, airborne photogeological interpretation and morphometric elaborations derived from airborne Lidar information. In addition, the land cover mapping was obtained using satellite high-medium resolution data. The analysis was performed in a GIS environment allowing to identify the main parameters that influence the slope instability and to obtain the landslide hazard map. finally, the comparison with the landslides historical database provides the different landslides susceptibility degrees classes.

  17. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  18. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) images (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images), RADARSAT images, aerial photography, and other data where available, to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) (Williams and others, 1995; Swithinbank and others, 2003a,b, 2004; Ferrigno and others, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and in press; and Williams and Ferrigno, 2005) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  19. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) images [and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images], RADARSAT images, aerial photography, and other data where available, to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) (Williams and others, 1995; Ferrigno and others, 2002; and Williams and Ferrigno, 2005) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  20. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Johann D.; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Gehrke, Peter C.; Griffiths, Shane P.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Johnson, Johanna E.; Le Borgne, Robert; Lehodey, Patrick; Lough, Janice M.; Matear, Richard J.; Pickering, Timothy D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Gupta, Alex Sen; Senina, Inna; Waycott, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere-ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers--tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector--tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline.

  1. Landsat digital data as tool for mining exploration and geologic mapping in coastal plain of Malaysian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Prelat, A.E.

    1986-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were used for systematic mapping of the coastal plain of the Malaysian Peninsula. The study was conducted to evaluate the use of Landsat digital data to assist the geologist in the exploration and mapping of the coastal plain of the Malaysian peninsula. The brightness of the four Landsat MSS channels and six ratios were recorded for each pixel, and were subsequently used as input to the supervised classification technique. Several lithologic units were selected to define training groups, and the remaining study area was classified into the preselected categories. The results indicated that using Landsat digital data combined with geologic and topographic information can improve the interpretation and quality of the geologic maps. The Landsat information was an effective tool to delineate the structural features and recognize different geologic patterns that can be defined as exploration targets. The most useful Landsat parameters to study the geology in the area were channels 5 and 7 and their ratio 7/5. Vegetation areas were enhanced by the ratio 6/4. Further field work in the area will confirm the results of the present study.

  2. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  3. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  4. The Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS): Early Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, K. C.; Shrestha, K.; Cossio, T.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Florida (UF) are developing a next generation airborne laser mapping instrument under a contract with the Office of Naval Research. The Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) is based on a different paradigm than the commercially developed units currently in wide use. The commercial units achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per pulse by using a relatively long pulse (typically about 10 nanoseconds) infrared laser, illuminating a single small footprint (typically a few decimeters in diameter) with a strong signal (typically on the order of 100 microjoules per pulse). Laser pulse rates of 25 kHz to 100 kHz are common. The detector is a single avalanche photodiode, and the signal is large enough that multiple discrete returns (from vegetation) can be detected sequentially, or the unit can be equipped with a wave form digitizer. The CATS unit uses a short pulse (480 picosecond FWHM) frequency-doubled NdYAG (0.530 micrometer wavelength) micro laser, and illuminates a patch (nominally 2 meters by 2 meters) with a 10 by 10 array of laser beams, each having about 30 nanojoules of energy. The returning signals may be as low as a single photon per channel, and the sensor is a 100 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT). The range electronics have multi-stop capabilities in each channel. Each channel of the CATS instrument has a much lower SNR than the current generation of commercial units, but even operating at pulse rates as low as 8,000 pulses per second, it provides essentially contiguous coverage of the terrain in a single pass, sampling 800,000 points per second—as compared to 100,000 points per second for the leading commercial unit. And the short laser pulse length results in sub-nanosecond inter-pulse dead times. Another anticipated advantage of the CATS design is being able to penetrate water to depths of about 5 meters. The CATS unit is fully assembled and ground testing began in early 2006. Initial testing has focused on

  5. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  6. Land Area Changes in Coastal Louisiana After the 2005 Hurricanes: A Series of Three Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2006-01-01

    This report includes three posters with analyses of net land area changes in coastal Louisiana after the 2005 hurricanes (Katrina and Rita). The first poster presents a basic analysis of net changes from 2004 to 2005; the second presents net changes within marsh communities from 2004 to 2005; and the third presents net changes from 2004 to 2005 within the historical perspective of change in coastal Louisiana from 1956 to 2004. The purpose of this analysis was to provide preliminary information on land area changes shortly after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring wetland recovery following the 2005 hurricane season. Estimation of permanent losses cannot be made until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized, but this preliminary analysis indicates an approximate 217-mi2 (562.03-km2) decrease in land/increase in water across coastal Louisiana. These posters are presented in high-resolution PDF format that is not Section 508 compliant. For ease in accessibility, viewing, and printing, each poster is accompanied by PDF files that contain the corresponding methodology, tables, and figures. Funding for this project was provided by the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Science & Technology Office.

  7. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  8. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  9. Safety in Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  10. Aquacultural Occupational Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dung, Elaine; Wakui, Lawrence S.

    A study was conducted by the Office of the Chancellor for Community Colleges in Hawaii to assess the vocational skills required of workers in the aquaculture industry and to determine if these skills should be reflected in the community college curriculum. In addition to a review of relevant literature, the study involved field observations at 17…

  11. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  12. Capabilities of the bathymetric Hawk Eye LiDAR for coastal habitat mapping: A case study within a Basque estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Grande, Maitane; Galparsoro, Ibon; Uriarte, Adolfo; Borja, Ángel

    2010-10-01

    The bathymetric LiDAR system is an airborne laser that detects sea bottom at high vertical and horizontal resolutions in shallow coastal waters. This study assesses the capabilities of the airborne bathymetric LiDAR sensor (Hawk Eye system) for coastal habitat mapping in the Oka estuary (within the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai, SE Bay of Biscay, northern Spain), where water conditions are moderately turbid. Three specific objectives were addressed: 1) to assess the data quality of the Hawk Eye LiDAR, both for terrestrial and subtidal zones, in terms of height measurement density, coverage, and vertical accuracy; 2) to compare bathymetric LiDAR with a ship-borne multibeam echosounder (MBES) for different bottom types and depth ranges; and 3) to test the discrimination potential of LiDAR height and reflectance information, together with multi-spectral imagery (three visible and near infrared bands), for the classification of 22 salt marsh and rocky shore habitats, covering supralittoral, intertidal and subtidal zones. The bathymetric LiDAR Hawk Eye data enabled the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Oka estuary, at 2 m of horizontal spatial resolution in the terrestrial zone (with a vertical accuracy of 0.15 m) and at 4 m within the subtidal, extending a water depth of 21 m. Data gaps occurred in 14.4% of the area surveyed with the LiDAR (13.69 km 2). Comparison of the LiDAR system and the MBES showed no significant mean difference in depth. However, the Root Mean Square error of the former was high (0.84 m), especially concentrated upon rocky (0.55-1.77 m) rather than in sediment bottoms (0.38-0.62 m). The potential of LiDAR topographic variables and reflectance alone for discriminating 15 intertidal and submerged habitats was low (with overall classification accuracy between 52.4 and 65.4%). In particular, reflectance retrieved for this case study has been found to be not particularly useful for classification purposes. The combination of the Li

  13. Applications of ERTS data to coastal wetland ecology with special reference to plant community mapping and typing and impact of man. [Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. P.; Mcginness, J.

    1974-01-01

    Complete seasonal ERTS-1 coverage of Atlantic coastal wetlands from Delaware Bay to Georgia provides a basis for assessment of temporal data for wetland mapping, evaluation, and monitoring. Both MSS imagery and digital data have proved useful for gross wetland species delineation and determination of the upper wetland boundary. Tidal effects and (band to band or seasonal) spectral reflectance differences make it possible to type vegetatively coastal wetlands in salinity related categories. Management areas, spoil disposal sites, drainage ditches, lagoon-type developments and highway construction can be detected indicating a monitoring potential for the future. A northern test site (Maryland-Virginia) and a southern test site (Georgia-South Carolina), representing a range of coastal marshes from saline to fresh, were chosen for intensive study. Wetland maps were produced at various scales using both ERTS imagery (bands 5 and 7) and digital data (bands 4, 5 and 7).

  14. Marketing Netcoatings for Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  15. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  16. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  17. Evaluating Landsat 8 Satellite Sensor Data for Improved Vegetation Mapping Accuracy of the New Hampshire Coastal Watershed Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Lindsay

    Remote sensing is a technology that has been used for many years to generate land cover maps. These maps provide insight as to the landscape, and features that are on the ground. One way in which this is useful is through the visualization of forest cover types. The forests of New England have been notoriously difficult to map, due to their high complexity and fine-scale heterogeneity. In order to be able to better map these features, the newest satellite imagery available may be the best technology to use. Landsat 8 is the newest satellite created by a team of scientists and engineers from the United States Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was launched in February of 2013. The Landsat 8 satellite sensor is considered an improvement over previous Landsat sensors, as it has three additional bands: (1) a coastal/ aerosol band, band 1, that senses light in deep blue, (2) a cirrus band, band 9, that provides detection of wispy clouds that may interfere with analysis, and (3) a Quality Assessment band whose bits contain information regarding conditions that may affect the quality and applicability of certain image pixels. In addition to these added bands, the data generated by Landsat 8 are delivered at an increased radiometric resolution compared with previous Landsat sensors, increasing the dynamic range of the data the sensor can retrieve. In order to investigate the satellite sensor data, a novel approach to classifying Landsat 8 imagery was used. Object-Based Image Analysis was employed, along with the random forest machine learning classifier, to segment and classify the land cover of the Coastal Watershed of southeastern New Hampshire. In order to account strictly for band improvements, supervised classification using the maximum likelihood classifier was completed, on imagery created: (1) using all of the original bands provided by Landsat 8, and (2) an image created using Landsat 8 bands that were only available on

  18. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  19. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2015-06-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  20. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  1. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  2. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  3. Contact zoonotic risks for aquaculture professionals in warm water aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases. This growth enhances an increase in zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are A...

  4. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica: 1972-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Foley, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite images from 1972 to 1997 have been used to prepare a map showing glaciological features of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica. Analysis of the imagery shows a trend toward ice-front retreat that may be a result of changing environmental conditions.

  5. Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Gracia, A; Flores-Verdugo, F; Lyle-Fritch, L P; Alonso-Rodríguez, R; Roque, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C

    2003-07-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, the Gulf of California ecoregion experienced a boom in shrimp aquaculture and became the second largest producer in the western hemisphere. The moderated, but continual development of shrimp farming, in conjunction with municipal and agriculture effluents has been accompanied by concern about: (a) depletion of fishing stocks, (b) reduction of mangrove forest, (c) frequent harmful algal blooms in coastal waters and shrimp ponds, and (d) water quality deterioration. We demonstrate that environmental degradation resulted from a conjunction of factors including agriculture, untreated municipal effluents, shrimp aquaculture, increasing number of fishermen, and an absence of an effective regulatory program. We recommend the immediate implementation of an integrated coastal management program to protect the integrity of the coastal ecosystems and operate upon the principle of environmental sustainability for the different economic activities including shrimp aquaculture.

  6. Built-up land mapping capabilities of the ASTER and Landsat ETM+ sensors in coastal areas of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hanqiu; Huang, Shaolin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide urbanization has accelerated expansion of urban built-up lands and resulted in substantial negative impacts on the global environments. Precisely measuring the urban sprawl is becoming an increasing need. Among the satellite-based earth observation systems, the Landsat and ASTER data are most suitable for mesoscale measurements of urban changes. Nevertheless, to date the difference in the capability of mapping built-up land between the two sensors is not clear. Therefore, this study compared the performances of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors for built-up land mapping in the coastal areas of southeastern China. The comparison was implemented on three date-coincident image pairs and achieved by using three approaches, including per-band-based, index-based, and classification-based comparisons. The index used is the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI), while the classification algorithm employed is the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that in the study areas, ETM+ and ASTER have an overall similar performance in built-up land mapping but also differ in several aspects. The IBI values determined from ASTER were consistently higher than from ETM+ by up to 45.54% according to percentage difference. The ASTER also estimates more built-up land area than ETM+ by 5.9-6.3% estimated with the IBI-based approach or 3.9-6.1% with the SVM classification. The differences in the spectral response functions and spatial resolution between relative spectral bands of the two sensors are attributed to these different performances.

  7. Assessing suitability of multispectral satellites for mapping benthic macroalgal cover in turbid coastal waters by means of model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutser, Tiit; Vahtmäe, Ele; Martin, Georg

    2006-04-01

    One of the objectives of monitoring benthic algal cover is to observe short- and long-term changes in species distribution and structure of coastal benthic habitats as indicators of ecological state. Mapping benthic algal cover with conventional methods (diving) provides great accuracy and high resolution, yet is very expensive and is limited by the time and manpower necessary. We measured reflectance spectra of three indicator species for the Baltic Sea: Cladophora glomerata (green macroalgae), Furcellaria lumbricalis (red macroalgae), and Fucus vesiculosus (brown macroalgae) and used a bio-optical model in an attempt to estimate whether these algae are separable from each other and sandy bottom or deep water by means of satellite remote sensing. Our modelling results indicate that to some extent it is possible to map the studied species with multispectral satellite sensors in turbid waters. However, the depths where the macroalgae can be detected are often shallower than the maximum depths where the studied species usually grow. In waters deeper than just a few meters, the differences between the studied bottom types are seen only in band 2 (green) of the multispectral sensors under investigation. It means that multispectral sensors are capable of detecting difference in brightness only in one band which is insufficient for recognition of different bottom types in waters where no or few in situ data are available. Configuration of MERIS spectral bands allows the recognition of red, green and brown macroalgae based on their spectral signatures provided the algal belts are wider than MERIS spatial resolution. Commercial stock of F. lumbricalis in West-Estonian Archipelago covers area where MERIS 300 m spatial resolution is adequate. However, strong attenuation of light in the water column and signal to noise ratio of the sensor do not allow mapping of Furcellaria down to maximum depths where it occurs.

  8. Tsunami Risk Mapping in Coastal Zones of Low Tsunami Hazard: The Case of the Balchik Town, Bulgarian Coast, Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokaefs, A. L.; Diakogianni, G.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Ranguelov, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by low seismicity and low tsunami hazard. However, in the coastal zone of Balchik, located about 20 km to the north of Varna, Bulgaria, a few strong earthquakes associated with damaging tsunami waves have been reported historically: AD544 or 545 and 1901. In addition, Varna and Balchik, is a highly tourist destination. Therefore, the town of Balchik, has been selected as one of the test-sites of the EU tsunami research project SCHEMA. One of the major components in that research project as regards the test-site of Balchik is the production of tsunami risk maps. Our contribution is outlined as follows. We compile an updated and revised earthquake and tsunami catalogue for the Black Sea and select the large event of AD545 to produce an extreme tsunami scenario on the basis of two independent approaches. The first is based only on tsunami descriptions contained in historical documentary sources and on findings of possible tsunami effects in the archaeological site of Cibele temple. The second is based on inundation results coming from numerical simulation of a tsunamigenic source which is only hypothetical given that we have no precise information about the focal parameters of the causative earthquake of 545. Finally we adopted an extreme wave of 3-5 m in height. Maps illustrating a number of attributes, such as tsunami inundation, local topography, land use/land cover, importance of facilities etc. have been used to characterize and map the expected tsunami impact in scale 1:5000 which is practically applicable. The tsunami impact scenario includes three different items: damage potential, vulnerability of population, risk of life. This is a contribution of the EU Research Project "SCHEMA", contract n. 030963, FP6.

  9. Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

    This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

  10. Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a coastal site using a Worldview-2 satellite image.

    PubMed

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers.

  11. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  12. Quantitative mapping of chlorophyll a distributions in coastal zones by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted in the James River, Virginia and the New York Bight indicate that concurrently collected sea-truth measurements may be used to calibrate remotely sensed multispectral scanner data collected over each of these environmentally different scenes. Statistical stepwise regression analysis was used in both experiments to incorporate significant bands of MSS data into regression equations that quantitatively relate remotely sensed data to water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll a and suspended sediment. These regression equations are used to map synoptic distributions of chlorophyll a in the remotely sensed scenes.

  13. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas.

  14. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas. PMID:23518446

  15. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Trinity Peninsula area and south Shetland Islands, Antarctica: 1843-2001: Chapter A in Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2006-01-01

    Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) [and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)], RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I–2600) consisting of 23 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002).

  16. A review of ocean color remote sensing methods and statistical techniques for the detection, mapping and analysis of phytoplankton blooms in coastal and open oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondeau-Patissier, David; Gower, James F. R.; Dekker, Arnold G.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Brando, Vittorio E.

    2014-04-01

    The need for more effective environmental monitoring of the open and coastal ocean has recently led to notable advances in satellite ocean color technology and algorithm research. Satellite ocean color sensors' data are widely used for the detection, mapping and monitoring of phytoplankton blooms because earth observation provides a synoptic view of the ocean, both spatially and temporally. Algal blooms are indicators of marine ecosystem health; thus, their monitoring is a key component of effective management of coastal and oceanic resources. Since the late 1970s, a wide variety of operational ocean color satellite sensors and algorithms have been developed. The comprehensive review presented in this article captures the details of the progress and discusses the advantages and limitations of the algorithms used with the multi-spectral ocean color sensors CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS. Present challenges include overcoming the severe limitation of these algorithms in coastal waters and refining detection limits in various oceanic and coastal environments. To understand the spatio-temporal patterns of algal blooms and their triggering factors, it is essential to consider the possible effects of environmental parameters, such as water temperature, turbidity, solar radiation and bathymetry. Hence, this review will also discuss the use of statistical techniques and additional datasets derived from ecosystem models or other satellite sensors to characterize further the factors triggering or limiting the development of algal blooms in coastal and open ocean waters.

  17. Flood-Inundation Maps of Selected Areas Affected by the Flood of October 2015 in Central and Coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Painter, Jaime A.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2016-02-22

    Heavy rainfall occurred across South Carolina during October 1–5, 2015, as a result of an upper atmospheric low-pressure system that funneled tropical moisture from Hurricane Joaquin into the State. The storm caused major flooding in the central and coastal parts of South Carolina. Almost 27 inches of rain fell near Mount Pleasant in Charleston County during this period. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages recorded peaks of record at 17 locations, and 15 other locations had peaks that ranked in the top 5 for the period of record. During the October 2015 flood event, USGS personnel made about 140 streamflow measurements at 86 locations to verify, update, or extend existing rating curves (which are used to compute streamflow from monitored river stage). Immediately after the storm event, USGS personnel documented 602 high-water marks, noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Later in October, 50 additional high-water marks were documented near bridges for South Carolina Department of Transportation. Using a subset of these high-water marks, 20 flood-inundation maps of 12 communities were created. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, and water depth rasters are all available for download.

  18. Flood-Inundation Maps of Selected Areas Affected by the Flood of October 2015 in Central and Coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Painter, Jaime A.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy rainfall occurred across South Carolina during October 1–5, 2015, as a result of an upper atmospheric low-pressure system that funneled tropical moisture from Hurricane Joaquin into the State. The storm caused major flooding in the central and coastal parts of South Carolina. Almost 27 inches of rain fell near Mount Pleasant in Charleston County during this period. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages recorded peaks of record at 17 locations, and 15 other locations had peaks that ranked in the top 5 for the period of record. During the October 2015 flood event, USGS personnel made about 140 streamflow measurements at 86 locations to verify, update, or extend existing rating curves (which are used to compute streamflow from monitored river stage). Immediately after the storm event, USGS personnel documented 602 high-water marks, noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Later in October, 50 additional high-water marks were documented near bridges for South Carolina Department of Transportation. Using a subset of these high-water marks, 20 flood-inundation maps of 12 communities were created. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, and water depth rasters are all available for download.

  19. Estimation and Mapping of Coastal Mangrove Biomass Using Both Passive and Active Remote Sensing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiqiong, L.; Lu, W.; Zhou, J.; Gan, W.; Cui, X.; Lin, G., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Mangrove forests play an important role in global carbon cycle, but carbon stocks in different mangrove forests are not easily measured at large scale. In this research, both active and passive remote sensing methods were used to estimate the aboveground biomass of dominant mangrove communities in Zhanjiang National Mangrove Nature Reserve in Guangdong, China. We set up a decision tree including spectral, texture, position and geometry indexes to achieve mangrove inter-species classification among 5 main species named Aegiceras corniculatum, Aricennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, Sonneratia apetala by using 5.8m multispectral ZY-3 images. In addition, Lidar data were collected and used to obtain the canopy height of different mangrove species. Then, regression equations between the field measured aboveground biomass and the canopy height deduced from Lidar data were established for these mangrove species. By combining these results, we were able to establish a relatively accurate method for differentiating mangrove species and mapping their aboveground biomass distribution at the estuary scale, which could be applied to mangrove forests in other regions.

  20. Mapping the land cover in coastal Gabes oases using the EO-1 HYPERION hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Arfa, Jouda; Bergès, Jean Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Rim, Katlane; Zargouni, Fouad

    2015-04-01

    Gabes region is characterized by unique maritime oases in Mediterranean basin. Unfortunately these oases are sensitive areas due to a harsh competition for land and water between different user groups (urban, industry, agriculture). An industrial complex is now located in center of this region, cultivation practices have shifted from a traditional multi-layer plant association system and moreover the Gabes city itself is expanding in the very core of oases. The oases of Gabes are transformed into city oases; they undergo multiform interactions whose amplify their environmental dynamic. A proper management of this environment should be based on a fine cartography of land use and remote sensing plays a major role in this issue. However the use of legacy natural resource remote sensing data is disappointing. The crop production strategies rely on a fine scale ground split among various uses and the ground resolution of these satellites is not adequate. Our study relies on hyperspectral images in order to cartography oases boundaries and land use. We tested the potential of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping dynamics oases covered. We have the opportunity to access EO1/Hyperion data on seven different dates on 2009 and 2010. This dataset allows us to compare various hyperspectral based processing both on the basis on information pertinence and time stability. In this frame some index appear as significantly efficient: cellulose index, vegetation mask, water presence index. On another side spectral unmixing looks as more sensitive to slight ground changes. These results raise the issue of compared interest of enhancing spatial resolution versus spectral resolution. Whereas high resolution ground observation satellites are obviously more appropriate for visual recognition process, reliable information could be extracted from hyperspectral information through a fully automatic process.

  1. Probabilistically determining roles of groundwater use in aquacultural fishponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liou, Yi-Ting; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThis work probabilistically determined roles of groundwater use in farmed fishponds in the Pingtung plain, southern Taiwan. According to the standard of water quality for aquaculture, three hydrochemical parameters were considered - manganese, arsenic and ammonium-nitrogen. A minimal utilization ratio (UR) of groundwater was obtained from integrating the hydrochemical parameters diluted with surface water or seawater. Through the integration process, safe groundwater used for aquaculture can be determined effectively. Indicator kriging was adopted to estimate spatial probability distributions of UR. A proper groundwater role - UR < 0.1 (sparsely used), 0.1 ≦ UR < 0.5 (minor), 0.5 ≦ UR < 1 (major) or UR = 1 (completely used) - was gauged based on estimated probabilities. The analyzed results reveal that manganese and ammonium-nitrogen are the key factors influencing on groundwater use for aquaculture in this plain. After making the comparison of surveyed and estimated groundwater URs, this study recommends that groundwater in coastal townships can be sparsely used for elevating temperatures of pond water in winter. Meanwhile, inland townships of groundwater overuse should cultivate fish using surface water instead of groundwater; that is, groundwater plays a minor role in fishponds. Aquaculture industries using the substantial amount of groundwater are merely appropriate for development of few inland townships.

  2. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  3. Assessment of Coastal Communities' Vulnerability to Hurricane Surge under Climate Change via Probabilistic Map - A Case Study of the Southwest Coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    The US coastline, over the past few years, has been overwhelmed by major storms including Hurricane Katrina (2005), Ike (2008), Irene (2011), and Sandy (2012). Supported by a growing and extensive body of evidence, a majority of research agrees hurricane activities have been enhanced due to climate change. However, the precise prediction of hurricane induced inundation remains a challenge. This study proposed a probabilistic inundation map based on a Statistically Modeled Storm Database (SMSD) to assess the probabilistic coastal inundation risk of Southwest Florida for near-future (20 years) scenario considering climate change. This map was processed through a Joint Probability Method with Optimal-Sampling (JPM-OS), developed by Condon and Sheng in 2012, and accompanied by a high resolution storm surge modeling system CH3D-SSMS. The probabilistic inundation map shows a 25.5-31.2% increase in spatially averaged inundation height compared to an inundation map of present-day scenario. To estimate climate change impacts on coastal communities, socioeconomic analyses were conducted using both the SMSD based probabilistic inundation map and the present-day inundation map. Combined with 2010 census data and 2012 parcel data from Florida Geographic Data Library, the differences of economic loss between the near-future and present day scenarios were used to generate an economic exposure map at census block group level to reflect coastal communities' exposure to climate change. The results show that climate change induced inundation increase has significant economic impacts. Moreover, the impacts are not equally distributed among different social groups considering their social vulnerability to hazards. Social vulnerability index at census block group level were obtained from Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute. The demographic and economic variables in the index represent a community's adaptability to hazards. Local Moran's I was calculated to identify the clusters

  4. Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniu, Ian; Darby, Iain G.; Kalambuka Angeyo, Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

  5. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  6. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  7. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  8. Nutrition of aquaculture species.

    PubMed

    Lovell, R T

    1991-10-01

    Dietary requirements for amino acids and fatty acids have been reported for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapias (Oreochromis spp.), and eel (Anguilla japonicus). Most of the vitamin and mineral requirements are available for channel catfish and salmonids, and some are available for common carp, tilapia, eel, and other finfish and crustaceans. From this available information, cost-effective feeds can be formulated for the major commercial aquaculture species. Major differences in nutrient requirements between fish and mammals or birds are as follows: fish have a lower digestible energy:protein ratio (8 to 10 kcal of DE/g of CP for fish vs 15 to 20 kcal of DE/g of CP for livestock); fish require n-3 fatty acids and land animals require n-6; fish can absorb minerals from the water, which negates the need for some minerals in the diet; and fish have limited ability to synthesize vitamin C and must depend on a dietary source. Areas for further research include 1) refinement of nutrient requirements of the major culture species considering effects of fish size, temperature, and management; 2) nutrient requirements of crustaceans; 3) effects of nutrition on fish health and product quality; and 4) feeding technology. PMID:1778835

  9. Avermectin use in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Horsberg, Tor E

    2012-05-01

    The main indication for use of avermectins in aquaculture-produced fish is infestations with ectoparasitic copepods. The compounds ivermectin and emamectin benzoate are predominantly used as in-feed formulations on salmonid fish against copepods in the family Caligidae: Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus elongatus and C. rogercresseyi. These agents are well-documented as very effective on all developmental stages of the parasites. The duration of effect can be up to 10 weeks. The safety margin for ivermectin is narrow, but better for emamectin benzoate. Environmental impact from these chemicals on bottom-dwelling and sediment-dwelling organisms occurs, but these are restricted to the immediate area around the production site. Avermectins are incompletely absorbed from the intestine of the fish and slowly excreted. They penetrate the blood-brain barrier of the fish, ivermectin more than emamectin benzoate. Resistance has developed against these agents in L. salmonis in almost all major salmon producing areas. The situation must be viewed as serious and can render these agents completely ineffective for salmon lice control.

  10. Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

  11. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Northern Ross Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica: 1962-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) images (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus [ETM+] images), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, in order to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I?2600) (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  12. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  13. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  14. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  15. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  16. Managing animal health from an aquaculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the production of aquatic animals for food. The aquaculture industry is a rapidly expanding segment of U. S. agriculture and NOAA estimated the industry was worth $1.2 billion in 2011. Disease related losses in aquaculture either by decreased performance and/or mortality is estimate...

  17. Exploring Aquaculture. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes aquaculture career…

  18. Compartmentalisation in aquaculture production systems.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Jones, J B; Zagmutt, F J

    2008-04-01

    Compartmentalisation is a new tool for disease management within a country. In aquaculture, the successful application of compartmentalisation is largely dependent on the system of production and the epidemiology of the disease(s) for which the compartment is being defined. Therefore, compartmentalisation may not be universally applicable across all systems and diseases. The paper examines the implementation of the concept, providing examples of specific industries, and discusses the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to the biosecurity of the system. The role of compartmentalisation in the management of aquaculture disease emergencies is also discussed.

  19. Remote Sensing Approach for Documenting the Conversion of Mangroves to Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, E.

    2007-12-01

    The loss of mangrove forests to aquaculture, particularly shrimp farming, in coastal Thailand presents serious environmental and societal problems. Shrimp farming is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in many parts of the world, as well as one of the most controversial. In spite of considerable work put into understanding the impacts of shrimp aquaculture, few studies provide detailed assessment of the issue through time. This research compares three change detection techniques (Object-based; Change Vector Analysis (CVA); and Integrated GIS and Remote Sensing) in order to assess the mangrove conversion caused by aquaculture development in Krabi Province, Thailand between 1989, 2001 and 2007 using Landsat TM data. All three methods provide valuable information though each has its own merits. Preliminary results show 40% loss of mangroves between 1989 and 2007, 25% of which is to aquaculture development, 10% to urban, and 5% to agricultural land. This study will help establish a methodology that will aid coastal communities in Southeast Asia in determining sustainable land use management approaches.

  20. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  1. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  2. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  3. Public health issues in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G L; Greenlees, K J

    1997-08-01

    The authors address the public health issues associated with the consumption of aquacultural products using numerous examples from the United States of America. As with other foods, public health risks exist but these mostly involve open water environments or products which are consumed raw or undercooked. Unlike wild fisheries, inland aquaculture systems can minimise public health risks by proper site evaluation and good aquacultural practices. Responsible use of pesticides and therapeutants can prevent violative residues to assure product safety and wholesomeness. The implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point regulations will further enhance the preventive approach to hazards control. The most challenging public health risks arise from shellfish production in open, surface waters, where both naturally-occurring and trace environmental residue contaminants can bioaccumulate in tissues and may cause disease outbreaks (and, in severe cases, death). Water quality certification programmes and field surveillance efforts including product sampling, testing and monitoring can address critical safety criteria. This paper focuses primarily on public health risks associated with production: however, the fact that consumer risks also occur as a result of the processing of aquacultural products and that foodborne diseases arise additionally from unsanitary handling or preparation and storage at incorrect temperatures (as is the case for food products from other animals) must also be taken into consideration.

  4. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  5. Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blogoslawski, Walter J.

    1992-07-01

    For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

  6. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  7. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  8. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a...

  9. Map showing coastal cliff retreat rates along the Big Sur coast, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Green, Krystal R.

    2004-01-01

    The average coastal cliff retreat rate along the Big Sur coast is 18 ? 6 cm/yr as measured over a 52-year time period. The erosion reference features measured as the cliff edge include the well-defined cliff edges common to marine terraces, slight breaks in the slope defining the upper edge of the active lower slope, and the road grade. Cliff erosion and retreat are focused in isolated erosion hotspots that account for most of the calculated average retreat.

  10. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  11. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L; Purcell, Maureen K; Read, Andrew F; Winton, James R; Wargo, Andrew R

    2016-02-01

    Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.

  12. Modeling and predicting the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: implications for planning of aquaculture and eutrophication mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2015-12-01

    The increased pressure on the marine ecosystems highlights the need for policies and integrated approaches for sustainable management of coastal areas. Spatial planning based on geographic information of human activities, ecological structures and functions, and their associated goods and services is a fundamental component in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential of predictive modeling to provide spatial data on one ecosystem function, mussel growth for use in such processes. We developed a methodology based on statistical modeling, spatial prediction, and mapping for the relative growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We evaluated the performance of different modeling techniques and classification schemes using empirical measurements of growth from 144 sampling sites and data on biological, chemical, and physical predictors. Following comparisons of the different techniques and schemes, we developed random forest models to predict growth along the Swedish west coast. Implemented into GIS the best model produced in this study predicts that low, intermediate, and high growth rates can be expected in 53%, 32%, and 15% of modeled area, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the nature and quality of predictor data hold the key to improving the predictive power of models. On a more general note, this study exemplifies a feasible approach based on measuring, modeling, and mapping for obtaining scientifically based spatial information on ecosystem functions and services affected by a complex set of factors. Such information is fundamental for maritime spatial planning and ecosystem-based management and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Because of its close link to nutrient assimilation and production yield, site-specific information of soft tissue growth such as the map of predicted growth rate developed in this study can be used as a tool for optimizing actions aimed at mitigating eutrophication and aquaculture

  13. Modeling and predicting the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: implications for planning of aquaculture and eutrophication mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2015-12-01

    The increased pressure on the marine ecosystems highlights the need for policies and integrated approaches for sustainable management of coastal areas. Spatial planning based on geographic information of human activities, ecological structures and functions, and their associated goods and services is a fundamental component in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential of predictive modeling to provide spatial data on one ecosystem function, mussel growth for use in such processes. We developed a methodology based on statistical modeling, spatial prediction, and mapping for the relative growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We evaluated the performance of different modeling techniques and classification schemes using empirical measurements of growth from 144 sampling sites and data on biological, chemical, and physical predictors. Following comparisons of the different techniques and schemes, we developed random forest models to predict growth along the Swedish west coast. Implemented into GIS the best model produced in this study predicts that low, intermediate, and high growth rates can be expected in 53%, 32%, and 15% of modeled area, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the nature and quality of predictor data hold the key to improving the predictive power of models. On a more general note, this study exemplifies a feasible approach based on measuring, modeling, and mapping for obtaining scientifically based spatial information on ecosystem functions and services affected by a complex set of factors. Such information is fundamental for maritime spatial planning and ecosystem-based management and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Because of its close link to nutrient assimilation and production yield, site-specific information of soft tissue growth such as the map of predicted growth rate developed in this study can be used as a tool for optimizing actions aimed at mitigating eutrophication and aquaculture

  14. Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, H.

    2003-04-01

    Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the

  15. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  16. Seawater intrusion mapping using electrical resistivity tomography and hydrochemical data. An application in the coastal area of eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, N; Pavlou, A; Vargemezis, G; Voudouris, K S; Soulios, G; Pliakas, F; Tsokas, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and geometrical characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Hydrochemical data and geoelectrical measurements were combined and supplemented to determine the hydrochemical regime of the study site in regard to seawater phenomena. Chemical analysis of groundwater was performed in 126 boreholes and fifteen electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) were measured, whereas in two sites the ERT measurements were repeated following the wet season. The Cl(-) concentrations recorded reached 2240 mg/L indicating seawater intrusion which was also verified by ionic ratios. The ionic ratios were overlapped and a seawater intrusion map (SWIM) was produced. A significant part of the coastal aquifer (up to 150 km(2)) is influenced by seawater intrusion. The areas with the most intensive salinization are located between Nea Kallikratia-Epanomi and Aggelochori-Peraia. According to the ERTs, in the influenced areas the salinization of the aquifer exceeds 1 km toward the mainland and its depth reaches 200 m. In the area surrounding Thessaloniki airport, the ERTs revealed salinization of the upper aquifer to depths of up to 40 m, whereas the lower aquifer is uninfluenced. This abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion demonstrates the value of geoelectrical methods in the study of seawater intrusion especially in areas with limited available hydrochemical data.

  17. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  18. Simulations of Mixing and Transport of Dissolved Waste Discharged From a Submerged Aquaculture pen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venayagamoorthy, S. K.; Fringer, O. B.; Koseff, J. R.; Naylor, R. L.

    2007-05-01

    The present study focuses on understanding the transport and fate of dissolved wastes from an aquaculture pen in near-coastal environments using the hydrodynamic code SUNTANS, which uses unstructured grids to compute flows at very high resolution. Simulations of the pollutant concentration field (in time and space) as a function of the local environment (stratification, bathymetry, wind), flow conditions (tides, currents), and the location of the pen were performed. The fish-pen causes partial blockage of the water flow, causing deceleration of the approaching flow and the formation of a downstream wake. Results of both the near-field (area within 10 to 20 pen diameters of fish-pen site) as well as the far-field behavior of the pollutant field will be presented. The results provide an understanding of the impact of aquaculture fish-pens on coastal water quality.

  19. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  20. An integrated study of spatial multicriteria analysis and mathematical modelling for managed aquifer recharge site suitability mapping and site ranking at Northern Gaza coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Uddin, Mohammad Salah; Lutz, Annegret; Saada, Muath Abu; Sauter, Martin

    2013-07-30

    This paper describes an integrated approach of site suitability mapping and ranking of the most suitable sites, for the implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects, using spatial multicriteria decision analysis (SMCDA) techniques and mathematical modelling. The SMCDA procedure contains constraint mapping, site suitability analysis with criteria standardization and weighting, criteria overlay by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) combined with weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted averaging (OWA), and sensitivity analysis. The hydrogeological impacts of the selected most suitable sites were quantified by using groundwater flow and transport modelling techniques. Finally, ranking of the selected sites was done with the WLC method. The integrated approach is demonstrated by a case study in the coastal aquifer of North Gaza. Constraint mapping shows that 50% of the total study area is suitable for MAR implementation. About 25% of the total area is "very good" and 25% percent is "good" for MAR, according to the site suitability analysis. Six locations were selected and ranked against six representative decision criteria. Long term (year 2003 to year 2040) groundwater flow and transport simulations were performed to quantify the selected criteria under MAR project operation conditions at the selected sites. Finally, the suitability mapping and hydrogeological investigation recommends that the location of the existing infiltration ponds, constructed near the planned North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant (NGWWTP) is most suitable for MAR project implementation. This paper concludes that mathematical modelling should be combined with the SMCDA technique in order to select the best location for MAR project implementation. Besides MAR project implementation, the generalised approach can be applicable for any other water resources development project that deals with site selection and implementation. PMID:23603773

  1. An inventory of wetland impoundments in the coastal zone of Louisiana, USA: Historical trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Richard H.; Holz, Robert K.; Day, John W.

    1990-03-01

    We inventoried wetland impoundments in the Louisiana, USA, coastal zone from the late 1900s to 1985. Historically, impoundment of wetlands for reclamation resulted in direct wetland loss after levees (dikes) failed and the impounded area was permanently flooded, reverting not to wetland, but to open-water habitat. A current management approach is to surround wetlands by levees and water control structures, a practice termed semi-impoundment marsh management. The purpose of this semi-impoundment is to retard saltwater intrusion and reduce water level fluctuations in an attempt to reduce wetland loss, which is a serious problem in coastal Louisiana. In order to quantify the total impounded area, we used historic data and high-altitude infrared photography to map coastal impoundments. Our goal was to produce a documented inventory of wetlands intentionally impounded by levees in the coastal zone of Louisiana in order to provide a benchmark for further research. We inventoried 370,658 ha within the coastal zone that had been intentionally impounded before 1985. This area is equal to about 30% of the total wetland area in the coastal zone. Of that total area, approximately 12% (43,000 ha) is no longer impounded (i.e., failed impoundments; levees no longer exist or only remnants remain). Of the 328,000 ha still impounded, about 65% (214,000 ha) is developed (agriculture, aquaculture, urban and industrial development, and contained spoil). The remaining 35% (114,000 ha) of impoundments are in an undeveloped state (wetland or openwater habitat). In December 1985, approximately 50% (78,000 ha) of the undeveloped and failed impoundments were open-water habitat. This inventory will allow researchers to monitor future change in land-water ratios that occur within impounded wetlands and thus to assess the utility of coastal wetland management using impoundments.

  2. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    PubMed

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture.

  3. Use of SPOT 5 and IKONOS imagery for mapping biocenoses in a Tunisian Coastal Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, A.; Pasqualini, V.; Leoni, V.; Djelouli, A.; Langar, H.; Pergent, G.; Pergent-Martini, C.; Ferrat, L.; Ridha, M.; Djabou, H.

    2008-09-01

    Mapping marine biocenoses is an efficient method for providing useful data for the management and conservation of Mediterranean lagoons. Fused images from two satellites, SPOT 5 and IKONOS, were tested as management tools for identifying specific ecosystems in the El Bibane lagoon, situated in southern Tunisia near the Libyan border. The objectives of this study were to provide a precise map of the entire El Bibane lagoon using fused images from SPOT 5 and to compare fused images from SPOT 5 and IKONOS over a test-area. After applying a supervised classification, pixels are automatically classified in four classes: low seagrass cover, high seagrass cover, superficial mobile sediments and deep mobile sediments. The maps of the lagoon revealed and confirmed an extremely wide distribution of seagrass meadows within the lagoon (essentially Cymodocea nodosa; 19 546 ha) and a large area of mobile sediments more or less parallel to the shore (3 697 ha). A direct comparison of overall accuracy between SPOT 5 over the entire area, SPOT 5 over the test-area and IKONOS over the test-area revealed that these tools provided accurate mapping of the lagoon environment (83.25%, 85.91% and 73.41% accuracy, respectively). The SPOT 5 images provided greater overall accuracy than the IKONOS image, but did not take into account the heterogeneous spatial structure of the seagrasses and sediments present in the lagoon environment. Although IKONOS imagery provided lower overall accuracy than SPOT 5, it proved a very useful tool for the mapping of heterogeneous structures as it enabled the patchiness of formations to be better taken into account. The use of SPOT 5 and IKONOS fused images appears to be very promising for completing the mapping of lagoons in other regions and countries of the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture has emerged as an important economical agribusiness, worldwide. Among the top barrier to growth of aquaculture is infectious disease that is causing severe economic losses. Bacterial species of more than 20 genera have been reported as causes of diseases. The risk of disease is often ...

  5. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  6. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  7. Water use for aquaculture in Minnesota, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trotta, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Little change in the number of licensees since 1980 -indicates that aquaculture is a viable segment of the Minnesota economy. Trout farming has grown from 10 farms in 1978, to 23 in 1984; most use dug ponds sustained by ground-water inflow. Withdrawals for aquaculture are nonconsumptive and are small compared to other water-use categories in Minnesota.

  8. Aquaculture Farm Facility Loss Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung-Rim; Park, Byoung-Kwon; Park, Yong-Sung; Lee, Chang-Sup; Choi, Ki-Nam; Park, Chang-Hyun; Jo, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ha

    The loss of aquaculture farm facilities occurring from natural disasters of accidents can cause not only property damage but also marine environmental pollution and vessel safety accidents. When aquaculture farm facilities have been lost to sink down to the bottom of the water, those should be picked up through direct searches but it is difficult to find them because they cannot be visually identified and they are in the sea. In this study, a system that can efficiently manage aquaculture farm facility loss using a new technology IP-RFID will be presented. By attaching IP-Tags to aquaculture farm facilities, this technology enables the transmission of facility information and locations to diverse users in real time through the IPs and through this, the efficiency of aquaculture farm facility management and supervision can be improved and marine environmental pollution can be reduced.

  9. Application of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for land use mapping and resource inventories in the central coastal region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Thaman, R. R.; Senger, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery has proved a valuable data source for land use as well as natural and cultural resource studies on a regional basis. ERTS-1 data also provide an excellent base for mapping resource related features and phenomena. These investigations are focused on a number of potential applications which are already showing promise of having operational utility.

  10. Mapping and Monitoring of Dynamic Seafloor Features with Hydroacoustic Devices in Sandy Coastal Areas (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, S.; Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand marine ecosystems and to provide basic data for a sustainable management in these vulnerable areas, seafloor mapping has become increasingly important. Since the knowledge regarding the seabed environments and their dynamics are still sparse, new mapping techniques have evolved in the last years and hydroacoustic devices became an important tool for quick and reliable mapping. In 2007 we started a monitoring program in the German Bight (North Sea) using sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) in a study site comprising approximately 1,500 km2. In subsequent years, the area was mapped repeatedly with a resolution of ~25 cm. For ground truthing, several hundred sediment samples were taken. The investigations reveal that the area is mainly characterized by fine to coarse sand which is arranged in different seafloor features such as subaquatic dunes or relicts of Pleistocene moraines. While the alignment and position of the moraines was stable throughout the years, the dunes can be highly dynamic. Their migration indicates the amount of sediment transport in these areas. Some seafloor features could be identified as so-called sorted bedforms, which are spatially-grain-size-sorted patterns on the seafloor consisting of small rippled medium sand surrounded by smooth fine sand. These flow-transverse features are morphological linked to ridges and depressions and are further maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The medium sand is separated from the fine sand by sharp boundaries in all directions which were generated by the bidirectional flow field. The extend and alignment of the sorted bedforms seem to be relatively stable in a time frame of 6 years, however small-scale variabilities up to serveral meters could be detected. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during storm surges while the fine-sand layers are winnowed away and hence the shapes of the bedforms changes.

  11. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  12. Mapping and assessing variability in the Antarctic marginal ice zone, pack ice and coastal polynyas in two sea ice algorithms with implications on breeding success of snow petrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Campbell, G. Garrett; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore, mapping their spatial extent as well as seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biologically active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas in the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent record for assessing the proportion of the sea ice cover that is covered by each of these ice categories. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depend strongly on which sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap, and applies the same thresholds to the sea ice concentrations to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal that the seasonal cycle in the MIZ and pack ice is generally similar between both algorithms, yet the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Trends also differ, with the Bootstrap algorithm suggesting statistically significant trends towards increased pack ice area and no statistically significant trends in the MIZ. The NASA Team algorithm on the other hand indicates statistically significant positive trends in the MIZ during spring. Potential coastal polynya area and amount of broken ice within the consolidated ice pack are also larger in the NASA Team algorithm. The timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These

  13. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA214 Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National...: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA is seeking...

  14. Aquaculture effects on environmental and public welfare - the case of Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Grigorakis, K; Rigos, G

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic farming has been considered, during the last decades, as the fastest growing food production industry powered by governmental and technological impulsion. Compensation for fisheries decline, creation of new jobs and source of financial windfall are the most important benefits. However, similar to most of the human food-production activities, aquaculture raised several issues related to the environmental welfare and consumer safety. An effort to record the aquaculture-environment and -human safety interactions with regard to the Mediterranean mariculture, is attempted herein. We focused on this geographical area due to its individualities in both the hydrological and physicochemical characteristics and the forms of aquaculture activities. The cage farming of euryhaline marine fish species and more recently of bluefin tuna and mollusk farming are the dominating aquaculture activities. The impacts of these activities to the environment, through wastes offloads, introduction of alien species, genetic interactions, disease transfer, release of chemicals, use of wild recourses, alterations of coastal habitats and disturbance of wildlife, are analytically considered. Also the consumer safety issues related to the farming are assessed, including generation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, contaminants transferred to humans though food chain and other hazards from consumption of aquacultured items. Within these, the major literature findings are critically examined and suggestions for scientific areas that need further development are made. The major tasks for future aquaculture development in this region are: (i) to ensure sustainability and (ii) to balance the risks to public or environmental health with the substantial economical benefits. In regard with monitoring, tools must be created or adapted to predict the environmental costs and estimate consumer impact. At a canonistic and legal basis, the establishment of appropriate legal guidelines and common

  15. Aquaculture effects on environmental and public welfare - the case of Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Grigorakis, K; Rigos, G

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic farming has been considered, during the last decades, as the fastest growing food production industry powered by governmental and technological impulsion. Compensation for fisheries decline, creation of new jobs and source of financial windfall are the most important benefits. However, similar to most of the human food-production activities, aquaculture raised several issues related to the environmental welfare and consumer safety. An effort to record the aquaculture-environment and -human safety interactions with regard to the Mediterranean mariculture, is attempted herein. We focused on this geographical area due to its individualities in both the hydrological and physicochemical characteristics and the forms of aquaculture activities. The cage farming of euryhaline marine fish species and more recently of bluefin tuna and mollusk farming are the dominating aquaculture activities. The impacts of these activities to the environment, through wastes offloads, introduction of alien species, genetic interactions, disease transfer, release of chemicals, use of wild recourses, alterations of coastal habitats and disturbance of wildlife, are analytically considered. Also the consumer safety issues related to the farming are assessed, including generation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, contaminants transferred to humans though food chain and other hazards from consumption of aquacultured items. Within these, the major literature findings are critically examined and suggestions for scientific areas that need further development are made. The major tasks for future aquaculture development in this region are: (i) to ensure sustainability and (ii) to balance the risks to public or environmental health with the substantial economical benefits. In regard with monitoring, tools must be created or adapted to predict the environmental costs and estimate consumer impact. At a canonistic and legal basis, the establishment of appropriate legal guidelines and common

  16. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  17. Digital Mapping of Coastal Erosion on the Baldwin Peninsula, NW Alaska: Past Rates, Present Processes and Future Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, N. F.; Crosby, B. T.

    2007-12-01

    As Arctic temperatures warm and increase the period of ice-free seas, coasts are exposed to longer periods of wave-based erosion. In addition, warming accelerates permafrost degradation and thus decreases the mechanical stability of coastal bluffs. In this study we examine the Baldwin Peninsula which extends 108 km northwest into Kotzebue Sound but narrows to a neck less than 700 meters wide at its midpoint. Currently, water discharge and fish runs from Selawik and Kobuk Rivers are routed around the northern tip of the peninsula, adjacent to where the Noatak River enters the sea. The eventual breach of the narrowest part of the peninsula will result in drastic changes in fish passage, the morphology of the Noatak River delta and local economies dependent on subsistence and commercial fishing. To constrain past and present rates of bluff erosion, we completed a high resolution (~3 m spacing) topographic survey along ~5 km of the narrowest segment of the Baldwin Peninsula. The total station survey (georeferenced using GPS measurements at stations) defined the current bluff edge position on both the seaward and estuary side of the peninsula. In addition, the position of the bluff base was collected on the seaward side. Bluff retreat is accomplished by failure of adjoining arcuate-shaped thermal slumps. Seasonal wave erosion at the base of the bluff prevents slumps from ever stabilizing. To determine historical rates of retreat, we used geo-referenced historical aerial photographs from 1953 to the present processed in ArcGIS. Future surveys will determine if retreat is accelerating or maintaining current rates and identify if certain portions are retreating faster than others or if retreat is even along the coast.

  18. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  19. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

  20. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    PubMed

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  1. Coastal Land-Use Dynamics in Southern Sonora, Mexico Between 1973-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luers, A. L.; Seto, K. C.; Matson, P. A.; Matson, P. A.; Naylor, R.; Moreno, G. C.

    2001-12-01

    Human activities, such as urbanization, agriculture, and shrimp farming are dramatically changing the coastal landscape of southern Sonora, Mexico, and threatening the ecosystems goods and services these natural systems provide. In this study we investigate the trends of human-induced transformations of coastal lands between 1973 and the present. Subscenes from two mosaicked Landsat images from 1973 (MSS), 1986 (MSS), 1992 (MSS), 1994 (TM), 2000 (ETM), 2001 (ETM) were analyzed to evaluate land use and cover changes. We used a combination of supervised and unsupervised maximum likelihood classification to produce thematic land use and land cover maps for change detection and modeling. The results show that the most prevalent form of land-use change in the region over the study period has been the transformation of Pithaya forest and coastal wetlands to shrimp aquaculture. Shrimp farms that did not exist in the region in the early 1980s now represent over 12 percent of the study area. Our analysis suggests that this boom in shrimp farming was influenced by a series of policy reforms instituted by the Mexican Government over the last decade intended to open the rural economy to global markets. These reforms include modifications to the Fisheries, Foreign Investment and Land Tenure Laws, changes in the rural credit system, and liberalization of international trade policies (NAFTA). The data indicate overall increased rates of land conversion from natural covers (Pithaya forest, Mesquite forest, Choyal, salt flats) to human dominated ecosystems (aquaculture, agriculture, salt ponds, urban) in the post-reform period (1994 - 2001) compared to the pre-reform period (1973 - 1992). Our results highlight the importance of monitoring local impacts in evaluating national policies.

  2. Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folke, Carl

    1988-07-01

    Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free

  3. Coastal salt pans: strengthening the new emerging role of Maltese shore platforms for geo-tourism with GIS Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Ritienne; Schembri, John A.; Mizzi, Raphael; Inkpen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Salt has been a foremost natural resource for millennia with a wide range of uses from preserving edible foods, and cooking with it, to cleaning, laundry, hygiene, and as a medicinal balm. The Mediterranean, with its long indented coastline, numerous islands and a distinctive climate has been a favourable area for salt production from sea water. It was the source of supply of salt to the Eurasian land mass, and trekking it through to sub-Saharan Africa. With a salinity of around 36 ppt, the Mediterranean is one of the most productive areas in the globe for salt yield per volume of water. In small islands with poor natural resources, the production of salt from sea water, through insolation, aeolian processes and intense human endeavour, offered economic benefits and created a socio-environmental cultural heritage around the sites of production of this staple resource. The Maltese Islands are no exception to this activity with rectangular or oblong pans etched on the softer surface limestone of Malta and Gozo. Located strategically on the foreshore, the rectangular (0.5-1.5 m2), shallow pits (ca 15cm), supplemented by larger reservoirs occupy significant areas as near to the shoreline as possible. There are about 40 artisanal sites along the littoral varying in area from one thousand to 17,000 m2and with their nearest point located between one and ten metres from the water's edge. Some are no longer in use. Their total area around the islands is about 170,000 m2. This aim of this paper is to explore the multiple geographies of still existing salt pans in selected sites on Malta. This research aims to map out the traditional but complex management system present at each selected shore platform site, some of which are considered the best preserved salt pans on the Islands. Consequently, they transform into focal touristic attractions, especially during the summer months when a daily display of soil harvesting work can be witnessed and admired. The mapping and

  4. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  5. Food safety and products from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Reilly, A; Käferstein, F

    1998-12-01

    Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production systems in the world with production increasing at an average rate of 9.6% per year over the past decade. As world fish stocks are reaching the limits of exploitation, we shall rely to a far greater extent on products from aquaculture as food sources of high nutritional value. Approximately 90% of global aquaculture production is based in Asia, where it provides an important source of dietary animal protein of the region and income for millions of small-scale farmers. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many producing countries, where highly valued species are a major source of foreign. Many different aquaculture systems exist world wide, ranging from small family-sized fish ponds to intensive cage culture industries as used in salmon fishing. There has been an expansion in the use of integrated farming systems, especially in Asia, where animal and human faeces are used to fertilise ponds. This paper will review global aquaculture systems used in the production of finfish and crustaceans and will focus on potential hazards arising from biological contamination of products that pose risks to public health.

  6. Probiotics in aquaculture: importance and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Maloy Kumar; Swarnakumar, N S; Sivakumar, K; Thangaradjou, T; Kannan, L

    2008-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest developing growth sectors in the world and Asia presently contributes about 90% to the global production. However, disease outbreaks are constraint to aquaculture production thereby affects both economic development of the country and socio-economic status of the local people in many countries of Asia-Pacifi c region. Disease control in aquaculture industry has been achieved by following different methods using traditional ways, synthetic chemicals and antibiotics. However, the use of such expensive chemotherapeutants for controlling diseases has been widely criticized for their negative impacts like accumulation of residues, development of drug resistance, immunosuppressants and reduced consumer preference for aqua products treated with antibiotics and traditional methods are ineffective against controlling new diseases in large aquaculture systems. Therefore, alternative methods need to be developed to maintain a healthy microbial environment in the aquaculture systems there by to maintain the health of the cultured organisms. Use of probiotics is one of such method that is gaining importance in controlling potential pathogens. This review provides a summary of the criteria for the selection of the potential probiotics, their importance and future perspectives in aquaculture industry.

  7. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

  8. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E S; dos Santos, C L; Jahncke, M L

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

  9. Estimating population abundance and mapping distribution of wintering sea ducks in coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Forsell, D.J.; Wortham, J.S.; Boomer, G.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    abundance and mapping distribution and suggest improvements for future surveys.

  10. Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

  11. Assessment and Management of Groundwater Used in Aquacultural Fishponds Based on the Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.-P.; Jang, C.-S.; Wang, S.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Aquaculture is a general landscape in western and southwestern coastal areas, Taiwan. Aquaculture industries frequently require the huge quantity of water resources. However, surface water resources are limited in the regions. Therefore, fishers abundantly pump groundwater to cultivate fish and shellfish, resulting in substantial decreases in groundwater levels and the occurrence of seawater intrusion over several decades. . To reduce adverse effects on fish growth and potential land subsidence due to pumping, this work combined the spatial variability of groundwater quality and quantity parameters to assess zones of suitable groundwater used in aquacultural fishponds in the Pingtung plain, Taiwan. First, according to an aquacultural water quality standard in Taiwan, two pollutants in groundwater - manganese and ammonium-nitrogen - were considered. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to characterize realizations of the pollutants and to probabilistically determine four roles in the groundwater utilization ratio (UR) - UR<0.1 (strictly limited), 0.1≦UR<0.5 (minor), 0.5≦UR<1 (major) and UR=1 (completely used). A safe groundwater UR was determined from the two pollutants based on dominant estimated probabilities. Then, SIS also was used to grade transmissivity fields representing the pumping capacity of aquifers. Finally, recommended combinations of different levels of groundwater quality and quantity in fishponds were spatially delineated based on estimated probabilities and provided decision makers with detailed information to wisely select a reliable scheme of groundwater management. The analyzed results indicate that the recommended pumping zones for aquaculture are mainly distributed in the northeastern, southwestern and partial southeastern aquifers. The factor of groundwater quantity is more important than that of groundwater quality for aquaculture in this plain. Therefore, a development and management scheme of groundwater resources in

  12. Synchrotron Micro-XRF Mapping of Ag Storage in a Coastal Marine Diatom: Implications for Ag as a Novel Paleoproductivity Proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M. W.; Hendy, I. L.; Lai, B.

    2012-12-01

    Silver (Ag) has potential for use as a paleoproductivity proxy in environments where a high flux of organic matter creates reducing conditions in sediments. Its proposed sequestration under reducing conditions as the species Ag2S confers an advantage over the more conventional productivity proxy barite, which becomes unreliable when sulfate reduction occurs in sediments. Other conventional productivity proxies (organic carbon and biogenic silica) are subject to rapid remineralization during early diagenesis, whereas Ag is likely to be preserved. Prior studies have hinted that Ag may be delivered to sediments via diatom debris. However, whether Ag is primarily associated with the frustule silica matrix or with diatom organic matter has not been established, and hence the mechanism of Ag delivery to sediments remains ambiguous. In this study we investigated the location of Ag storage in diatoms using synchrotron micro-XRF to map Ag, along with Ca, P, S, Si, and Fe, in single cells of the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Diatoms were cultured in the laboratory with Ag added to the growth medium at 50 and 100 ppb. Samples were analyzed at the sub-micron scale at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Detectable Ag concentrations appear to be localized to intracellular "hotspots" that are not associated with frustule Si, either as part of the matrix or surface-adsorbed. Silver "hotspots" are co-localized with Fe, suggesting that Ag is stored within vacuoles, as recently shown for Fe in centric diatoms. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that Ag is delivered to sediments with diatom organic matter and suggest a common strategy by centric diatoms for intracellular sequestration of micronutrient (Fe) and nonessential (Ag) trace metals.

  13. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  14. Application of total-count aeroradiometric maps to the exploration for heavy-mineral deposits in the coastal plain of Virginia, with a section on field-spectrometer-data reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, A.E.; Kosanke, Kenneth L.

    1983-01-01

    Total-count contoured aeroradiometric maps for the Coastal Plain of Virginia were used in an effort to locate economic heavy-mineral placer deposits. The principle behind this approach is that heavy- mineral suites commonly contain radioactive minerals that, if the concentration of heavy minerals is exposed at or within inches of the surface, enable the deposit to be located by use of airborne instruments because of its radiometric contrast with the host sediment. Detailed and regional geologic maps, soil maps, land-use and land- cover maps, information on fertilizer use, and ground-spectrometer data were used to study aeroradiometric anomalies for efficient exploration. Aeroradiometric anomalies in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have three general causes. First, the most intense anomalies are associated with cultural features, such as roads made of granitic material. Second, most anomalies of high to intermediate intensity are associated with land used for agricultural purposes and evidently are caused by applications of radioactive fertilizer. Third, anomalies of intermediate to low intensity are associated with heavy-mineral deposits. Results of this study show that aeroradiometric anomalies associated with heavy-mineral accumulations in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have ground radiometric spectra in which thorium is the strongest component and uranium and potassium are lesser components. Heavy-mineral accumulations found in this study by use of the aeroradiometric data are not considered to be of economic importance, mostly because of the low percentage of economic minerals in the heavy-mineral suites and also because of other factors such as the very fine grained nature of the host sediments and competing land use.

  15. Metaproteomic analysis of bacterial communities in marine mudflat aquaculture sediment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui; Lin, Xiangmin; Guo, Tingting; Wu, Linkun; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria living in marine sediment play crucial roles in the benthic-pelagic interface coupling process. However, the complexity of the marine environment and the abundance of interfering materials hamper metaproteomic research of the marine mudflat environment. In this study, a modified sequential protein extraction method was used for marine mudflat sediment metaproteomic investigation. For marine sediment samples in cultured clam mudflat, more than 1000 protein spots were visualized in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map and 78 % of 194 randomly selected spots were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. We further applied this method to compare long-term clam aquaculture and natural mudflat sediment and identified 53 altered proteins from different microbe resources, which belonged to different functional categories or metabolic pathways. We found that proteins involved in stress/defense response process, ATP regeneration and protein folding more inclined to increase abundance while arginine biosynthesis and signal transduction process related proteins preferred to decrease in clam cultured mudflat sediment. Meanwhile, proteins were abundant in pathogens of bivalves, such as Vibrio and Photobacterium, and decreased in Acinetobacter, after about 8 months clam cultured. Furthermore, the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was performed to compare microbial community composition between sediments mentioned above. Results showed that the top three enrich genera in natural sediment were Cytophaga, Butyrivibrio and Spirochaeta, while Cytophaga, Spirochaeta and Azoarcus were found enrichment in long-term mudflat aquaculture sediment.

  16. Coastal Prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The coastal prairie, located along the coastal plain of southwestern Louisiana and southcentral Texas, is the southernmost tip of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem so prevalent in the Midwest. The coastal prairie ecosystem once covered as much as 3.8 million ha (9 million acres); today, more than 99% of this land has been lost to agriculture, range improvement, and urbanization. The remainder is highly fragmented and severely threatened by invasions of exotic species and urban sprawl. In Louisiana, the former 1 million ha of coastal prairie have now been reduced to about 100 ha. In Texas, only about 100,000 ha of coastal prairie remain intact.

  17. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  18. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  19. Sea ducks and aquaculture: the cadmium connection.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2011-03-01

    Elevated concentrations of cadmium have been reported in the kidneys of sea ducks that forage along the Pacific Northwest, and cadmium has been postulated as a possible cause of population declines. The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) which occurs in dense numbers on aquaculture structures and are a primary prey item for sea ducks also contain elevated cadmium concentrations. To determine if foraging on mussels associated with aquaculture structures could pose a toxicological risk to sea ducks, amounts of cadmium ingested per body weight per day by a representative sea duck species, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), were estimated and compared to the reported avian cadmium NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) and LOAEL (lowest observable adverse effect level). Results indicate that in some locations within the Pacific Northwest, sea ducks could be exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium associated with mussels foraged from aquaculture structures. This raises the possibility that such exposure could be contributing to observed population declines in these species.

  20. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  1. Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2011 totaled 60 million tons valued at $119 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  2. Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

  3. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  4. Coastal environmental profile of South Jahore, Malaysia. Technical pub. series 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Malaysia's South Johore region has undergone rapid development recently, seriously damaging its ecologically sensitive and important coastal resources. The report profiles the area's coastal environment and identies major environmental problems, as well as chief obstacles to sustainable development. Chapter 2 describes South Johore's physical environment, physiography, climate, and geology. Chapters 3-7 cover in detail the area's natural resource endowment; coastal ecosystems; population and socioeconomics; land use; and fisheries and aquaculture. Chapter 8 focuses on economic sectors other than aquaculture, including agriculture, forestry, livestock, shipping, industry, and transportation, while Chapter 9 covers tourism and its potential impact on South Johore's ecology. Chapter 10 reviews the major types of environmental degradation in the region, including various types of coastal pollution, forest destruction, and coastal erosion. The laws, regulations, and institutions that govern environmental management are covered in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 concludes the report with an overview of the chief constraints to effective environmental management.

  5. Aquaculture techniques: a production forecasting model for aquaculture systems. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, P.C.; Klontz, G.W.

    1983-03-01

    Computer implementation of the mathematical models of quantitative relationships in aquaculture systems is a dynamic process which provides a conceptual framework for understanding systems behavior. These models can provide useful information on variable significance to systems functioning. This computer-implemented mathematical model addresses one of the significant limitations of aquaculture systems management, namely, production forecasting, by providing a method of using current technology to predict Allowable Growth Rate (AGR).

  6. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liming; Chu, Guannan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Zhai, Jieming; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Half smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis (Pleuronectiformes, Cynoglossidae), is an important aquaculture species throughout coastal areas of China which has a high nutritional and economic value. Genetic linkage map is an important tool for accelerating aquatic breeding process through marker assisted selection (MAS) and quantitative trait locus (QTL). Here, 325 polymorphic microsatellite markers were explored and sex-specific genetic linkage map were constructed using these markers. The female map contained 193 markers located at 21 linkage groups, with a total length of 1041cM and an average resolution of 6.8cM; the male map contained 195 markers located at 21 linkage groups, with a total length of 1154cM and an average resolution of 7.2cM, they covered approximately 76.72% and 78.12% genomes, respectively. The recombination ratio of female/male was about 1:1.02 estimated in the sex-specific frame map. All developed microsatellite markers and this linkage map could serve as the foundation for further study in high density linkage map construction.

  7. Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture” provides technical guidance to improve the environmental performance of fish and shellfish farming. The book is the only comprehensive guide to mitigation of environmental impacts of aquaculture. Topics include the histiory and use...

  8. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  9. Recirculation technology – The future of aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of farmed fish is eclipsing that of wild caught fish and will be supplying half of the total fish and shellfish for human consumption. With limited resources to increase the wild harvest fishing industry, the U. S. and foreign countries are expanding their aquaculture production. Betw...

  10. Copper toxicity in aquaculture: A practical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate is used as a therapeutant for various applications in aquaculture. There is a great deal of information on the toxicity of copper, especially in low-alkalinity waters; however, much of this information is fragmented, and a comprehensive guide of copper toxicity and safe concentration...

  11. Government Seeking Ways to Encourage Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. imports more than half its fish foods per year. As a result, the federal government is now showing an interest in aquaculture and has designated the Department of Agriculture as the lead agency for research, extension, and education. Catfish, salmon, and oyster farming are given as examples. (MA)

  12. Best Management Practices for Responsible Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture has become a significant component of global fish production contributing about 380% in 2003 of fish products for human consumption. The proportion is likely to increase further due to increased demand of fish for food and stagnated capture fishery. Paralleling to the growth of aquacultu...

  13. Copper toxicity in aquaculture: A practical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate has been used in aquaculture for many years to control weeds, algae, snails (which carry catfish trematode), and ecto-parasitic organisms in catfish production. Our research has also shown it to be safe and effective to treat fungus on various fish eggs (catfish, hybrid striped bass,...

  14. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture: applications and trends.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro M; Silva, Tomé S; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming

    2012-07-19

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5 million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue.

  15. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed.

  16. Inverness College: Innovations in Aquaculture Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…

  17. Ecological data in Integrated Coastal Zone Management: case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Ferrat, Lila; Pergent, Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) contributes towards maximizing the benefits provided by the coastal zone and minimizing conflicts and the harmful effects of activities upon each other. The coastal zone includes highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems, but ecological data (including structure and processes) seem to be neglected. The purpose of this article is to present a case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows (seagrass beds) along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea) in order to exemplify the usefulness of ecological data to Integrated Costal Management programs. We will try to determine how the use of organisms could be enhanced. These investigations show the undoubted success of the Corsican Posidonia oceanica protection program, with a detailed description of the ICZM that precisely presents each component (e.g., mapping, assessment of water quality, implementation of a system to aid decision-making concerning the installation of new aquaculture units). This experience on the Corsican coasts could be used as an example in order to transfer to other locations in the Mediterranean Sea and/or to other target species. PMID:17001505

  18. Effluent, nutrient and organic matter export from shrimp and fish ponds causing eutrophication in coastal and back-reef waters of NE Hainan, tropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbeck, Lucia S.; Unger, Daniela; Wu, Ying; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2013-04-01

    Global aquaculture has grown at a rate of 8.7% per year since 1970. Particularly along the coasts of tropical Asia, aquaculture ponds have expanded rapidly at the expense of natural wetlands. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the extent and production process of brackish-water pond aquaculture at the NE coast of Hainan, tropical China, (ii) to quantify effluent and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus export from shrimp and fish ponds and (iii) to trace their effect on the water quality in adjacent estuarine and nearshore coastal waters harboring seagrass meadows and coral reefs. During two expeditions in 2008 and 2009, we determined dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), chlorophyll a (chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in aquaculture ponds, drainage channels and coastal waters in three areas varying in extent of aquaculture ponds. From the analysis of satellite images we calculated a total of 39.6 km² covered by shrimp and fish ponds in the study area. According to pond owners, there is no standardized production pattern for feeding management and water exchange. Nutrient and suspended matter concentrations were high in aquaculture ponds and drainage channels, but varied considerably. The calculated annual export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) from pond aquaculture into coastal waters was 612 and 680 t yr-1, respectively. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and chl a at the majority of the coastal stations point at eutrophication of coastal waters, especially close to shore. Coastal eutrophication driven by the introduction of untreated aquaculture effluents may be especially harmful in back-reef areas, where estuarine retention and mixing with open ocean water is restricted thus threatening seagrasses and corals.

  19. Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales.

  20. Effects of land use changes on the ecosystem service values of coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Valdez, Vera; Ruiz-Luna, Arturo; Ghermandi, Andrea; Berlanga-Robles, César A; Nunes, Paulo A L D

    2014-10-01

    Changes in the coastal landscape of Southern Sinaloa (Mexico), between 2000 and 2010, were analyzed to relate spatial variations in wetlands extent with the provision and economic value of the ecosystem services (ES). Remote sensing techniques applied to Landsat TM imagery were used to evaluate land use/land cover changes while the value transfer method was used to assess the value of ES by land cover category. Five wetland types and other four land covers were found as representative of the coastal landscape. Findings reveal a 14 % decrease in the saltmarsh/forested mangrove area and a 12 % increase in the area of shrimp pond aquaculture (artificial wetland) during the study period. ES valuation shows that the total value flow increased by 9 % from $215 to $233 million (2007 USD) during the 10-year period. This increase is explained as result of the high value worldwide assigned to saltmarsh. We recognize limitations in the transfer-based approach in quantifying and mapping ES values in the region, but this method provides with value estimates spatially defined, and also provides some guidance in the preliminary screening of policies and projected development in the context of data-scarce regions.

  1. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Ecosystem Service Values of Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Valdez, Vera; Ruiz-Luna, Arturo; Ghermandi, Andrea; Berlanga-Robles, César A.; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.

    2014-10-01

    Changes in the coastal landscape of Southern Sinaloa (Mexico), between 2000 and 2010, were analyzed to relate spatial variations in wetlands extent with the provision and economic value of the ecosystem services (ES). Remote sensing techniques applied to Landsat TM imagery were used to evaluate land use/land cover changes while the value transfer method was used to assess the value of ES by land cover category. Five wetland types and other four land covers were found as representative of the coastal landscape. Findings reveal a 14 % decrease in the saltmarsh/forested mangrove area and a 12 % increase in the area of shrimp pond aquaculture (artificial wetland) during the study period. ES valuation shows that the total value flow increased by 9 % from 215 to 233 million (2007 USD) during the 10-year period. This increase is explained as result of the high value worldwide assigned to saltmarsh. We recognize limitations in the transfer-based approach in quantifying and mapping ES values in the region, but this method provides with value estimates spatially defined, and also provides some guidance in the preliminary screening of policies and projected development in the context of data-scarce regions.

  2. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  3. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  4. Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Calado, Ricardo; Sheridan, Christopher; Alimonti, Andrea; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the 'blue gold' in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bioactive metabolites. The ex hospite culture of coral symbiotic microbiota is extremely challenging and only limited examples of successful culture exist today. By contrast, in toto aquaculture of corals is a commonly applied technology to produce corals for aquaria. Here, we suggest that coral aquaculture could as well be a viable and economically feasible option to produce the biomass required to execute the first steps of the NP-based drug discovery pipeline.

  5. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  6. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  7. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  8. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  9. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  10. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  11. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  12. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  13. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  14. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  15. Integrating high-resolution mapping of the seafloor with sediment-transport measurements to understand coastal erosion in northern South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, W.; Baldwin, W.; Denny, J.; Schwab, W.; Paul, G.; Driscoll, N.; Warner, J.; Voulgaris, G.

    2006-12-01

    Shoreline behavior along the coast of Long Bay, South Carolina is dictated by waves, tidal currents, and sediment supply that act within the overall constraints of the regional geologic setting. This study examined the influence of the geologic framework on coastal evolution through the interpretation of high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan-sonar imagery, seismic-reflection profiles), bottom samples and cores. Interpreted geophysical data were used to form conceptual models of sediment flux in the nearshore area, which are being tested by conducting site-specific sediment transport and oceanographic measurements and modeling. The inner shelf of Long Bay extends from the shoreface to about 10 km offshore (5-15 m water depth). It is underlain by coastal-plain strata of Cretaceous/Tertiary age that are incised by large fluvial channels formed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The indurated coastal-plain and channel-fill deposits are exposed as hardgrounds over large expanses of the inner shelf, and locally overlain by a discontinuous veneer of sandy Holocene sediment generally less than 1-m thick. A regional unconformity, thought to represent erosion during the most recent marine transgression, coincides with the seafloor in these areas of sparse sediment. Minor bathymetric highs occur where relatively thicker accumulations of Holocene sediment lie above the low- relief, transgressive unconformity. One of the thickest accumulations of Holocene sediment is contained within an anomalous, shore-oblique sand body that lies 3 km offshore of Myrtle Beach and is not associated with a modern tidal inlet. The lobate deposit is approximately 11-km long, 3-km wide, and up to 3-m thick. Cores show that the shoal is a marine deposit less than 5000 years old with a gravelly lag at the base representing the transgressive surface. It contains an estimated volume of 26 million m3 of sediment, largely consisting of fine to medium, well sorted quartz sand and

  16. Coastal Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey dedicated its new Center for Coastal Geology June 12 at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. Robert Halley leads the staff of nine USGS scientists studying coastal erosion and pollution and underwater mineral resources in cooperation with the university's Marine Science Department. Current research is on erosion along Lake Michigan and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The number of USGS scientists at the center should increase to 30 over five years.

  17. Genetic evidence for the uncoupling of local aquaculture activities and a population of an invasive species--a case study of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Kochmann, Judith; Carlsson, Jens; Crowe, Tasman P; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human-mediated introduction of nonnative species into coastal areas via aquaculture is one of the main pathways that can lead to biological invasions. To develop strategies to counteract invasions, it is critical to determine whether populations establishing in the wild are self-sustaining or based on repeated introductions. Invasions by the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) have been associated with the growing oyster aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, temporal genetic variability of farmed and wild oysters from the largest enclosed bay in Ireland was assessed to reconstruct the recent biological history of the feral populations using 7 anonymous microsatellites and 7 microsatellites linked to expressed sequence tags (ESTs). There was no evidence of EST-linked markers showing footprints of selection. Allelic richness was higher in feral than in aquaculture samples (P = 0.003, paired t-test). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygote deficiencies were detected for almost all loci and samples, most likely explained by the presence of null alleles. Relatively high genetic differentiation was found between aquaculture and feral oysters (largest pairwise multilocus F(ST) 0.074, P < 0.01) and between year classes of oysters from aquaculture (largest pairwise multilocus F(ST) 0.073, P < 0.01), which was also confirmed by the strong separation of aquaculture and wild samples using Bayesian clustering approaches. A 10-fold higher effective population size (N(e)) and a high number of private alleles in wild oysters suggest an established self-sustaining feral population. The wild oyster population studied appears demographically independent from the current aquaculture activities in the estuary and alternative scenarios of introduction pathways are discussed.

  18. Maps showing estimated sediment yield from coastal landslides and active slope distribution along the Big Sur coast, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Green, Krystal R.; Dallas, Kate

    2004-01-01

    The 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Ni?os brought very high precipitation to California?s central coast; this precipitation resulted in raised groundwater levels, coastal flooding, and destabilized slopes throughout the region. Large landslides in the coastal mountains of Big Sur in Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties blocked sections of California State Route 1, closing the road for months at a time. Large landslides such as these occur frequently in the winter months along the Big Sur coast due to the steep topography and weak bedrock. A large landslide in 1983 resulted in the closure of Highway 1 for over a year to repair the road and stabilize the slope. Resulting work from the 1983 landslide cost over $7 million and generated 30 million cubic yards of debris from landslide removal and excavations to re-establish the highway along the Big Sur coast. Before establishment of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) in 1992, typical road opening measures involved disposal of some landslide material and excess material generated from slope stabilization onto the seaward side of the highway. It is likely that some or most of this disposed material, either directly or indirectly through subsequent erosion, was eventually transported downslope into the ocean. In addition to the landslides that initiate above the road, natural slope failures sometimes occur on the steep slopes below the road and thus deliver material to the base of the coastal mountains where it is eroded and dispersed by waves and nearshore currents. Any coastal-slope landslide, generated through natural or anthropogenic processes, can result in sediment entering the nearshore zone. The waters offshore of the Big Sur coast are part of the MBNMS. Since it was established in 1992, landslide-disposal practices came under question for two reasons. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 15, Section 922.132 prohibits discharging or depositing, from beyond the boundary of the Sanctuary, any material

  19. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals.

  20. Algal Bioremediation of Waste Waters from Land-Based Aquaculture Using Ulva: Selecting Target Species and Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine which species of Ulva occur naturally in this region and conducted growth trials at three temperature treatments on a subset of samples from each location to determine whether local strains had superior performance under local environmental conditions. DNA barcoding using the markers ITS and tufA identified six species of Ulva, with U. ohnoi being the most common blade species and U. sp. 3 the most common filamentous species. Both species occurred at multiple land-based aquaculture facilities in Townsville and Brisbane and multiple strains of each species grew well in culture. Specific growth rates of U. ohnoi and U. sp. 3 were high (over 9% and 15% day−1 respectively) across temperature treatments. Within species, strains of U. ohnoi had higher growth in temperatures corresponding to local conditions, suggesting that strains may be locally adapted. However, across all temperature treatments Townsville strains had the highest growth rates (11.2–20.4% day−1) and Sydney strains had the lowest growth rates (2.5–8.3% day−1). We also found significant differences in growth between strains of U. ohnoi collected from the same geographic location, highlighting the potential to isolate and cultivate fast growing strains. In contrast, there was no clearly identifiable competitive strain of filamentous Ulva, with multiple species and strains having variable performance. The fast growth rates and broad geographical distribution of U. ohnoi make this an ideal species to target for

  1. Algal bioremediation of waste waters from land-based aquaculture using ulva: selecting target species and strains.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca J; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine which species of Ulva occur naturally in this region and conducted growth trials at three temperature treatments on a subset of samples from each location to determine whether local strains had superior performance under local environmental conditions. DNA barcoding using the markers ITS and tufA identified six species of Ulva, with U. ohnoi being the most common blade species and U. sp. 3 the most common filamentous species. Both species occurred at multiple land-based aquaculture facilities in Townsville and Brisbane and multiple strains of each species grew well in culture. Specific growth rates of U. ohnoi and U. sp. 3 were high (over 9% and 15% day(-1) respectively) across temperature treatments. Within species, strains of U. ohnoi had higher growth in temperatures corresponding to local conditions, suggesting that strains may be locally adapted. However, across all temperature treatments Townsville strains had the highest growth rates (11.2-20.4% day(-1)) and Sydney strains had the lowest growth rates (2.5-8.3% day(-1)). We also found significant differences in growth between strains of U. ohnoi collected from the same geographic location, highlighting the potential to isolate and cultivate fast growing strains. In contrast, there was no clearly identifiable competitive strain of filamentous Ulva, with multiple species and strains having variable performance. The fast growth rates and broad geographical distribution of U. ohnoi make this an ideal species to target for

  2. Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

  3. The application of satellite data for the quantification of mangrove loss and coastal management in the Godavari estuary, East Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, D R; Krupadam, R J; Kumar, L Pawan; Wate, S R

    2007-11-01

    The mangrove formations of Godavari estuary are due to silting over many centuries. The estuary covers an area of 62,000 ha of which dense Coringa mangrove forest spread in 6,600 ha. Satellite sensor data was used to detect change in the mangrove cover for a period of 12 years (1992-2004). It was found that an area of about 1,250 ha of mangroves was destroyed by anthropogenic interference like aquaculture, and tree felling etc. It was found that mangrove's spectral response/digital number (DN) value is much lower than non-mangrove vegetation such as plantation and paddy fields in SWIR band. By taking this as an advantage, spectral data was utilized for clear demarcation of mangroves from nearby paddy fields and other vegetation. Simpson's diversity index, which is a measure of biodiversity, was found to be 0.09, showing mangroves dominance. Ecological parameters like mud-flats/swamps, mangrove cover alterations, and biodiversity status are studied in detail for a period of 12 years. The increase in mangrove front towards coast was delineated using remote sensing data. The major advantages of remote sensing data is monitoring of change periodically. The combination of moderate and high-resolution data provided detailed coastal land use maps for implementing coastal regulation measures. The classification accuracy has been achieved is 90%. Overall, simple and viable measures are suggested based on multi-spectral data to sustain this sensitive coastal ecology. PMID:17345010

  4. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  5. Mapping and improving frequency, accuracy, and interpretation of land cover change: Classifying coastal Louisiana with 1990, 1993, 1996, and 1999 Landsat Thematic Mapper image data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, G.; Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin within the chenier coastal plain and the adjacent uplands of Louisiana, USA. Landcover classes followed that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods needed to be developed to meet these national standards. Our first classification was limited to the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) in southcentral Louisiana, and the years of 1990, 1993, and 1996. To overcome problems due to class spectral inseparable, spatial and spectra continuums, mixed landcovers, and abnormal transitions, we separated the coastal area into regions of commonality and applying masks to specific land mixtures. Over the three years and 14 landcover classes (aggregating the cultivated land and grassland, and water and floating vegetation classes), overall accuracies ranged from 82% to 90%. To enhance landcover change interpretation, three indicators were introduced as Location Stability, Residence stability, and Turnover. Implementing methods substantiated in the multiple date MRB classification, we spatially extended the classification to the entire Louisiana coast and temporally extended the original 1990, 1993, 1996 classifications to 1999 (Figure 1). We also advanced the operational functionality of the classification and increased the credibility of change detection results. Increased operational functionality that resulted in diminished user input was for the most part gained by implementing a classification logic based on forbidden transitions. The logic detected and corrected misclassifications and mostly alleviated the necessity of subregion separation prior to the classification. The new methods provided an improved ability for more timely detection and response to landcover impact. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  6. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future.

  7. Raft River aquaculture project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beleau, M.H.; Woiwode, J.G.

    1980-07-01

    The commercial potential for geothermal aquaculture was evaluated for 2 years at the Department of Energy's Raft River geothermal site in southcentral Idaho. Common carp '(Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were selected as culture species. Objectives of the study included investigation of: (1) growth rates; (2) nutrition trials; (3) histological and physiological parameters; (4) bioaccumulation of heavy metals; and (5) reproductive capacity. The second year project efforts were primarily studying the effects of geothermal water on the reproductive capacity of common carp by: (1) determining the effects of geothermal water on gonadal development of common carp; and (2) determining the effects of geothermal water on common carp embryogenesis.

  8. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Choi, Ohkyung; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-06-15

    This study examines the effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bench-scale intensive aquaculture system rearing Koi fish. The water temperature varied from 15 to 24 °C at interval of 3 °C. Both volumetric and specific rate for nitrification and denitrification declined as the temperature decreased. The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, however, were lower than the inhibitory level for Koi fish regardless of temperature. The effects of temperature on N2O emissions were significant, with the emission rate and emission factor increasing from 1.11 to 1.82 mg N2O-N/d and 0.49 to 0.94 mg N2O-N/kg fish as the temperature decreased from 24 to 15 °C. A global map of N2O emission from aquaculture was established by using the N2O emission factor depending on temperature. This study demonstrates that N2O emission from aquaculture is strongly dependent on regional water temperatures as well as on fish production.

  9. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  11. The Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production. Global aquaculture production in 2011 totaled 60 million tonnes (excluding aquatic plants) valued at US$119 billion, while global capture fishery production has remained static at approximately 90 million tonnes annually...

  12. Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Floating Vegetated Mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for treating aquaculture wastewater. The goal is to improve wastewater quality sufficiently for it to be recycled to production ponds. One potential method for improving aquaculture wastewater is to use floating vegetation in treatment tanks. Alternatively, potential exists for ...

  13. Use of technologies to control reproduction in finfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proportion of food fish derived from aquaculture has increased dramatically over the past several decades and currently accounts for nearly 50% of the world's consumption. Since production from capture fisheries has stagnated, increased supplies of food fish will need to come from aquaculture. ...

  14. Aqua-Topics. Aquaculture for Youth and Youth Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Eileen

    This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Aquaculture Education in the Northeast Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 60 secondary agriculture students showed they appreciated the hands-on learning environment of aquaculture, found science and math concepts easier to understand, and gained practical skills. Although they rated aquaculture among their best high school experiences, few planned careers in it. (SK)

  16. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  17. In Brief: Environmental standards needed for offshore marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Congress should enact legislation that sets strong environmental standards for offshore marine aquaculture, the Marine Aquaculture Task Force recommended in a recent report. Aquaculture now accounts for about half of all seafood consumed in the world, and the industry is rapidly growing and expanding into regions offshore (more than 3 nautical miles from the coast) that are controlled by the federal government. The task force, which was organized by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, examined the risks and benefits of marine aquaculture. They proposed that the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration be appointed the lead agency responsible for regulation of offshore marine aquaculture and for providing incentives for research and development. The main environmental standard proposed by the task force was to limit farming only to native species with local genetics unless the potential harm of escaped fish to local populations would be negligible.

  18. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Claudio D; Tello, Alfredo; Keen, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in genes found in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  19. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  20. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  1. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  3. Understanding the recurrent large-scale green tide in the Yellow Sea: temporal and spatial correlations between multiple geographical, aquacultural and biological factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Chopin, Thierry; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The coast of Jiangsu Province in China - where Ulva prolifera has always been firstly spotted before developing into green tides - is uniquely characterized by a huge intertidal radial mudflat. Results showed that: (1) propagules of U. prolifera have been consistently present in seawater and sediments of this mudflat and varied with locations and seasons; (2) over 50,000 tons of fermented chicken manure have been applied annually from March to May in coastal animal aquaculture ponds and thereafter the waste water has been discharged into the radial mudflat intensifying eutrophication; and (3) free-floating U. prolifera could be stranded in any floating infrastructures in coastal waters including large scale Porphyra farming rafts. For a truly integrated management of the coastal zone, reduction in nutrient inputs, and control of the effluents of the coastal pond systems, are needed to control eutrophication and prevent green tides in the future.

  4. Advances in genomics for flatfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Joan; Manchado, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Fish aquaculture is considered to be one of the most sustainable sources of protein for humans. Many different species are cultured worldwide, but among them, marine flatfishes comprise a group of teleosts of high commercial interest because of their highly prized white flesh. However, the aquaculture of these fishes is seriously hampered by the scarce knowledge on their biology. In recent years, various experimental 'omics' approaches have been applied to farmed flatfishes to increment the genomic resources available. These tools are beginning to identify genetic markers associated with traits of commercial interest, and to unravel the molecular basis of different physiological processes. This article summarizes recent advances in flatfish genomics research in Europe. We focus on the new generation sequencing technologies, which can produce a massive amount of DNA sequencing data, and discuss their potentials and applications for de novo genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. The relevance of these methods in nutrigenomics and foodomics approaches for the production of healthy animals, as well as high quality and safety products for the consumer, is also briefly discussed.

  5. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  6. A management tool for assessing aquaculture environmental impacts in Chilean Patagonian Fjords: integrating hydrodynamic and pellets dispersion models.

    PubMed

    Tironi, Antonio; Marin, Víctor H; Campuzano, Francisco J

    2010-05-01

    This article introduces a management tool for salmon farming, with a scope in the local sustainability of salmon aquaculture of the Aysen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia. Based on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) principles, the tool combines a large 3-level nested hydrodynamic model, a particle tracking module and a GIS application into an assessment tool for particulate waste dispersal of salmon farming activities. The model offers an open source alternative to particulate waste modeling and evaluation, contributing with valuable information for local decision makers in the process of locating new facilities and monitoring stations. PMID:20333379

  7. A Management Tool for Assessing Aquaculture Environmental Impacts in Chilean Patagonian Fjords: Integrating Hydrodynamic and Pellets Dispersion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tironi, Antonio; Marin, Víctor H.; Campuzano, Francisco J.

    2010-05-01

    This article introduces a management tool for salmon farming, with a scope in the local sustainability of salmon aquaculture of the Aysen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia. Based on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) principles, the tool combines a large 3-level nested hydrodynamic model, a particle tracking module and a GIS application into an assessment tool for particulate waste dispersal of salmon farming activities. The model offers an open source alternative to particulate waste modeling and evaluation, contributing with valuable information for local decision makers in the process of locating new facilities and monitoring stations.

  8. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes: An assessment of natural vegetation, environmental, and crop analogs. [Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateaus, Northern Great Valley (CA), and Louisiana Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was performed to develop and test a procedure for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems in the semi-arid and wood regions of the Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateau areas, and for the estimating of rice crop production in the Northern Great Valley (Ca.) and the Louisiana Coastal Plain. ERTS-1 and high flight and low flight aerial photos were used in a visual photointerpretation scheme to identify vegetation complexes, map acreages, and evaluate crop vigor and stress. Results indicated that the vegetation analog concept is valid; that depending on the kind of vegetation and its density, analogs are interpretable at different levels in the hierarchical classification from second to the fourth level. The second level uses physiognomic growth form-structural criteria, and the fourth level uses floristic or taxonomic criteria, usually at generic level. It is recommended that analog comparisons should be made in relatively small test areas where large homogeneous examples can be found of each analog.

  9. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. PMID:25405962

  10. The impact of mariculture on nutrient dynamics and identification of the nitrate sources in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    Reclamation along coastal zones is a method that has been used to relieve the problems of strained resources and land. Aquaculture, as one of the major man-made activities in reclamation areas, has an environmental impact on coastal waters. The effluents from aquaculture ponds are known to enrich the levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. The goals of the present study are to evaluate the environmental impact of mariculture on coastal waters in the east coast of Laizhou Bay, China, and to identify the nitrate sources. Monitoring the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate was used to assess their impact on the water quality of coastal waters. A dual isotope (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) approach was used to identify the nitrate sources. Higher dissolved nitrogen concentrations (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) than PO4(3-) concentrations associated with enriched δ(15)N-NO3(-) values were observed in the drainage channels, sea cucumber ponds, and groundwater, which indicated that aquaculture activity has more influence on nitrogen nutrients than on phosphate nutrients. In this coastal area with seawater intrusion, nitrogen released from sea cucumber ponds accumulated in nearshore water and migrated in the offshore direction in groundwater currents. This behavior results in nitrogen enrichment in groundwater within the hinterland. Isotopic data indicate that mixing of multiple nitrate sources exists in groundwater, and nitrogen from mariculture is the main source.

  11. The impact of mariculture on nutrient dynamics and identification of the nitrate sources in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    Reclamation along coastal zones is a method that has been used to relieve the problems of strained resources and land. Aquaculture, as one of the major man-made activities in reclamation areas, has an environmental impact on coastal waters. The effluents from aquaculture ponds are known to enrich the levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. The goals of the present study are to evaluate the environmental impact of mariculture on coastal waters in the east coast of Laizhou Bay, China, and to identify the nitrate sources. Monitoring the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate was used to assess their impact on the water quality of coastal waters. A dual isotope (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) approach was used to identify the nitrate sources. Higher dissolved nitrogen concentrations (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) than PO4(3-) concentrations associated with enriched δ(15)N-NO3(-) values were observed in the drainage channels, sea cucumber ponds, and groundwater, which indicated that aquaculture activity has more influence on nitrogen nutrients than on phosphate nutrients. In this coastal area with seawater intrusion, nitrogen released from sea cucumber ponds accumulated in nearshore water and migrated in the offshore direction in groundwater currents. This behavior results in nitrogen enrichment in groundwater within the hinterland. Isotopic data indicate that mixing of multiple nitrate sources exists in groundwater, and nitrogen from mariculture is the main source. PMID:26358214

  12. Integration of In Situ Radon Modeling with High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing for Mapping and Quantifying Local to Regional Flow and Transport of Submarine Groundwater Discharge from Coastal Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, C. R.; Kennedy, J. J.; Dulaiova, H.; Kelly, J. L.; Lucey, P. G.; Lee, E.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a principal conduit for huge volumes of fresh groundwater loss and is a key transport mechanism for nutrient and contaminant pollution to coastal zones worldwide. However, the volumes and spatially and temporally variable nature of SGD is poorly known and requires rapid and high-resolution data acquisition at the scales in which it is commonly observed. Airborne thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing, using high-altitude manned aircraft and low-altitude remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "Drones") are uniquely qualified for this task, and applicable wherever 0.1°C temperature contrasts exist between discharging and receiving waters. We report on the use of these technologies in combination with in situ radon model studies of SGD volume and nutrient flux from three of the largest Hawaiian Islands. High altitude manned aircraft results produce regional (~300m wide x 100s km coastline) 0.5 to 3.2 m-resolution sea-surface temperature maps accurate to 0.7°C that show point-source and diffuse flow in exquisite detail. Using UAVs offers cost-effective advantages of higher spatial and temporal resolution and instantaneous deployments that can be coordinated simultaneously with any ground-based effort. We demonstrate how TIR-mapped groundwater discharge plume areas may be linearly and highly correlated to in situ groundwater fluxes. We also illustrate how in situ nutrient data may be incorporated into infrared imagery to produce nutrient distribution maps of regional worth. These results illustrate the potential for volumetric quantification and up-scaling of small- to regional-scale SGD. These methodologies provide a tremendous advantage for identifying and differentiating spring-fed, point-sourced, and/or diffuse groundwater discharge into oceans, estuaries, and streams. The integrative techniques are also important precursors for developing best-use and cost-effective strategies for otherwise time-consuming in

  13. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  14. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  15. The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F

    2001-07-01

    Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm facilities. Additionally, mitigating alternatives are discussed. To date, approximately 1-1.5 million ha of coastal lowlands have been converted into shrimp ponds, comprising mainly salt flats, mangrove areas, marshes, and agricultural lands. The impact of shrimp farming of most concern is the destruction of mangroves and salt marshes for pond construction. Compatibility with other users, the presence of buffer zones, maintaining an acceptable balance between mangroves and shrimp pond area, improved pond design, reduction of water exchange, and an improved residence time of water, size and capacity to assimilate effluents of the water body, are examples of ways to mitigate the adverse effects. The use of mangroves and halophytes as biofilters of shrimp pond effluents offers an attractive tool for reducing the impact in those regions where mangrove wetlands and appropriate conditions for halophyte plantations exist. Healthy seed supply, good feed with the use of prophylactic agents (including probiotics), good water quality, and lower stocking densities are examples of actions suggested to control disease in shrimp farming. Finally, in the context of integrated management, research priorities are suggested.

  16. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hambly, A C; Arvin, E; Pedersen, L-F; Pedersen, P B; Seredyńska-Sobecka, B; Stedmon, C A

    2015-10-15

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs, stocked with rainbow trout and operated at steady state at four feed loadings, were analysed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. The fluorescence dataset was then decomposed by PARAFAC analysis using the drEEM toolbox. This revealed that the fluorescence character of the RAS water could be represented by five components, of which four have previously been identified in fresh water, coastal marine water, wetlands and drinking water. The fluorescence components as well as the DOC showed positive correlations with feed loading, however there was considerable variation between the five fluorescence components with respect to the degree of accumulation with feed loading. The five components were found to originate from three sources: the feed; the influent tap water (groundwater); and processes related to the fish and the water treatment system. This paper details the first application of fluorescence EEM spectroscopy to assess DOM in RAS, and highlights the potential applications of this technique within future RAS management strategies.

  17. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  18. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading. PMID:27746817

  19. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  20. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions. PMID:22594516

  1. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  2. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  3. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  4. Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

    1982-08-01

    The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

  5. Coastal ocean forecasting systems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, John

    During my tour as the liaison oceanographer at the Office of Naval Research's European branch, I conducted a focused study of coastal ocean forecasting systems. This study is of direct interest to ONR because of an increased interest in the coastal zone and to the civilian U.S. oceanographic community because of numerous problems in the coastal zone that could be alleviated with an operational forecasting system. The Europeans have a long history of excellent research and developmental work in this area. The Europeans' distinguished history in coastal ocean forecasting is due in part to their strong dependence on the sea. However, the original motivation for these systems was the recognition early in this century that weather conditions were responsible for damaging storm surges around the periphery of the North Sea and that science could predict these catastrophic floods. Forecasting systems called tide-surge prediction systems, which provide warnings of impending flood conditions, were designed and constructed and are operational in the various meteorological centers of the nations surrounding the North Sea. Over time, the services have been extended to provide forecasts of ocean waves, water depth for navigation, and currents for a large customer base. These systems now are being extended further into the three-dimensional domain that is required for management of problems associated with water quality, pollution, and aquaculture and fisheries interests.

  6. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assess Estuary Health and Enhance Management of Water Resources in Coastal Texas through Land Cover and Precipitation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepps, G.; Gonsoroski, E.; Lynn, T.; Schick, R.; Pereira da Silva, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to help analyze the correlation between mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre of Padre Island National Seashore. The lagoon is a hypersaline estuary; however, there is historical evidence that this was not always the case. It is hypothesized that the increase in the number of honey mesquite trees (Prosopis grandulosa var. glandulosa) in the area has contributed to the Laguna Madre's increased salinity by decreasing the groundwater inflow to the lagoon. These mesquite trees have long taproots capable of extracting significant amounts of groundwater. This project utilized Earth observation data in ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS software to create map time series and analyze the data. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data were used to create land use/land cover (LULC) maps in order to analyze the change in the occurrence of mesquite trees over time. Thermal maps of the lagoon were generated using Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data to understand changes in groundwater inflow. In addition, TRMM and GRACE derived changes in root zone soil moisture content data were compared over the study period. By investigating the suspected positive correlation between the mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre, the NPS can improve future land management practices.

  7. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future. PMID:27044162

  8. Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of Bacillus spp. antagonistic to Vibrio parahaemolyticus for use as probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Fei; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Rong; Cai, Lu-Yun; Li, Xiu-Xia; Chen, Jin-Ru; Lyu, Shu-Xia

    2015-05-01

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the major factors affecting the development of aquaculture and the safety of seafood. Using the antagonism of probiotics against pathogens is an alternative strategy to antibiotics and a common trend to control food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a total of 249 isolates were isolated from four types of seafood (Litopenaeus vannamei, Oratosquilla oratoria, Mactra veneriformis and Portunus trituberculatus) and coastal sediment from Liaodong Bay in the Bohai Sea, China with five different separation agars. The most isolates came from the sample of coastal sediment and on agar of 2216E, which accounted for 36.14 and 54.62 % respectively. Twenty-four among 249 isolates displayed direct antimicrobial activity to V. parahaemolyticus with spot inoculation. Sixteen active isolates were selected for extracellular antimicrobial activity using the Oxford cup method. Only strains of B16 and J7 showed extracellular antimicrobial activity and were identified as Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus mojavensis respectively based on the physiological identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Both of the strains B16 and J7 exhibited extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity and antagonism against more than one indicator bacteria in vitro, which indicates that the two strains have broad potential application as suitable probiotic candidates in aquaculture while B. mojavensis was first reported to inhibit pathogenic Vibrio spp. in vitro. There is no particular trait as to antagonism of B. pumilus B16 or B. mojavensis J7 to Gram-positive or Gram-negative indicator bacteria.

  10. Radarsat-1 and ERS InSAR analysis over southeastern coastal Louisiana: Implications for mapping water-level changes beneath swamp forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Kwoun, Oh-Ig

    2008-01-01

    Detailed analysis of C-band European Remote Sensing 1 and 2 (ERS-1/ERS-2) and Radarsat-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery was conducted to study water-level changes of coastal wetlands of southeastern Louisiana. Radar backscattering and InSAR coherence suggest that the dominant radar backscattering mechanism for swamp forest and saline marsh is double-bounce backscattering, implying that InSAR images can be used to estimate water-level changes with unprecedented spatial details. On the one hand, InSAR images suggest that water-level changes over the study site can be dynamic and spatially heterogeneous and cannot be represented by readings from sparsely distributed gauge stations. On the other hand, InSAR phase measurements are disconnected by structures and other barriers and require absolute water-level measurements from gauge stations or other sources to convert InSAR phase values to absolute water-level changes. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  11. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean. PMID:27614957

  12. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean.

  13. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  14. Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.

    1985-10-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

  15. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P.; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it. PMID:19805247

  16. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  17. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry.

    PubMed

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gram, Lone

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems.

  18. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  19. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry.

    PubMed

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gram, Lone

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems. PMID:27452663

  20. The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

    2006-12-01

    During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne Li

  1. Coastal alert

    SciTech Connect

    Holing, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book explains: how offshore drilling affects the environment and the quality of life; how the government auctions off our threatened coast to the oil industry; how offshore oil and gas are developed; how the lease sale process works; how energy alternatives can replace offshore drilling; how citizen action works and how one can become involved; letters and press announcements; important contacts. The author believes that America needs to get off the energy consumption treadmill and onto the track that leads to reliance on renewable resources and energy efficiency. This book is intended to tell citizens how they can help bring about this transition and protect unique coastal resources.

  2. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  3. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  4. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  5. Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, M. Lisa; Smyth, Ashley R.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Brown, Bonnie L.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Piehler, Michael F.; Owens, Michael S.; Dalrymple, D. Joseph; Higgins, Colleen B.

    2014-12-01

    Enhancing populations of suspension feeding bivalves, particularly the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has been proposed as a means of mitigating eutrophication in coastal waters. Review of studies evaluating the effects of C. virginica on nitrogen (N) cycling found that oysters can have effects on water quality that vary by orders of magnitude among sites, seasons, and growing condition (e.g., oyster reefs, aquaculture). Nitrogen contained in phytoplankton consumed by oysters may be returned to the water column, assimilated into oyster tissue and shell, buried in the sediments, or returned to the atmosphere as dinitrogen gas, primarily via denitrification. Accurately quantifying oyster-related N removal requires detailed knowledge of these primary fates of N in coastal waters. A review of existing data demonstrated that the current state of knowledge is incomplete in many respects. Nitrogen assimilated into oyster tissue and shell per gram of dry weight was generally similar across sites and in oysters growing on reefs compared to aquaculture. Data on long-term burial of N associated with oyster reefs or aquaculture are lacking. When compared to suitable reference sites, denitrification rates were not consistently enhanced. Depending on environmental and oyster growing conditions, changes in denitrification rates varied by orders of magnitude among studies and did not always occur. Oyster aquaculture rarely enhanced denitrification. Unharvested oyster reefs frequently enhanced denitrification rates. Incorporating oysters into nutrient reduction strategies will require filling gaps in existing data to determine the extent to which relationships between N removal and environmental and/or growing conditions can be generalized.

  6. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

  7. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  8. Benthic habitat mapping of sorted bedforms using hydroacoustic and ground-truthing methods in a coastal area of the German Bight/North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Edith; Holler, Peter; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The continuously influence of human impacts on the seafloor and benthic habitats demands the knowledge of clearly defined habitats to assess recent conditions and to monitor future changes. In this study, a benthic habitat dominated by sorted bedforms was mapped in 2010 using biological, sedimentological and acoustic data. This approach reveals the first interdisciplinary analysis of macrofauna communities in sorted bedforms in the German Bight. The study area covered 4 km2, and was located ca. 3.5 km west of island of Sylt. Sorted bedforms formed as sinuous depressions with an east west orientation. Inside these depressions coarse sand covers the seafloor, while outside predominantly fine to medium sand was found. Based on the hydroacoustic data, two seafloor classes were identified. Acoustic class 1 was linked to coarse sand (type A) found inside these sorted bedforms, whereas acoustic class 2 was related to mainly fine to medium sands (type B). The two acoustic classes and sediment types corresponded with the macrofauna communities 1 and 2. The Aoinides paucibranchiata-Goniadella bobretzkii community on coarse sand and the Spiophanes bombyx - Magelona johnstonii community on fine sand. A transitional community 3 (Scoloplos armiger - Ophelia community), with species found in communities 1 and 2, could not be detected by hydroacoustic methods. This study showed the limits of the used acoustic methods, which were unable to detect insignificant differences in the fauna composition of sandy areas.

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  10. Crop grouping: a proposal for public aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, W H; Stehly, G R; Clark, K J; Hayton, W L

    1998-01-01

    Production in US aquaculture is limited by the few FDA-approved drugs available for use. The problem is compounded by the high costs and long time frames associated with extending the approved label of an existing drug to treat additional fish species. An FDA approved crop grouping plan could significantly reduce the costs associated with extending or expanding the label of a currently approved drug to other species. Before FDA could sanction such a plan, they require scientific data with which to make an informed decision. Under a crop grouping plan, a surrogate fish species would represent a single group of fish for the purposes of gaining drug approvals. The concept, if practical, would conserve substantial public resources expended to gain drug approvals and yet give regulators assurance that the extended label use provides necessary regulatory safeguards to protect human food safety and the environment. A crop grouping plan should include development of a data base that is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate differences of one group from another and yet would be able to identify potential similarities between like-species for grouping. The proposed crop grouping action plan should include data sets for fish grouped by temperature preference, activity level, and phylogenetic classification. Initially, two representative species would be identified for testing as surrogates for candidate groups; rainbow trout representing a coldwater, active, and conservative phylogenetic group, and channel catfish representing a warmwater, relatively sedentary and more phylogenetically advanced group. Additional species representing more primitive (sturgeon) and more advanced (striped bass and walleye) groups would be added. A waterborne (benzocaine) and an orally administered drug (sarafloxacin) would initially be tested among the major species groups. The integrity of the group will be tested by comparing the variability of response between major species against

  11. IOOS: Aiding Aquaculture Industries and Their Harvest with Near Real-Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkering, H.; Shandy Buckley; Jan Newton; Julie Thomas

    2011-12-01

    West Coast aquaculture accounts for over 3000 jobs and brings in over 117 million in revenue to mostly small coastal communities. Larvae recruitment and growth in these systems are very susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and acidic waters (low pH). Since 2005, aquaculturists have observed a significant reduction in shellfish larvae production and recruitment. In 2008 and 2009, the Taylor Shellfish Company (Dabob Bay, WA) observed a loss of 80% in their hatchery production. Likewise in 2008, Whiskey Creek Shellfish Company (Netarts Bay, OR) produced only 25% of their normal crop. These businesses and local scientists suspect low pH to be the culprit in the declines. In 2007, the Monterey Abalone Company suffered a 60K loss in their harvest. After contacting local scientists it was determined that the abalone crop died from a harmful algal bloom event. In response, the three West Coast Regional Associations under the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (NANOOS, CeNCOOS and SCCOOS) are working in collaboration with the Ocean Science Trust, Ocean Protection Council, CA Sea Grant, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project to develop an observing and near real-time data delivery network focused on harmful algal blooms, the Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Alert Program and on ocean acidification, the California Current Acidification Network. The above organizations have participated in a number of workshops with members of the aquaculture community helping to design the network. It is clear that a spatial and temporal disconnect between the data needs of both groups exists. Aquaculture experts require daily and hourly data streams in the near-shore environment with a high degree of reliability in the data but not necessarily a high degree of accuracy. Conversely, scientists collect highly accurate data in the continental shelf and oceanic environment and model predictions on decadal scales. The

  12. Low-head saltwater recirculating aquaculture systems utilized for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems reuse water with mechanical and biological treatment between each use and thus require wastewater treatment techniques for continuous waste removal. However, the traditional techniques and equipment utilized in recirculating aquaculture systems are expensive. The d...

  13. Mechanisms of quorum sensing and strategies for quorum sensing disruption in aquaculture pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Chen, M; Quan, C S; Fan, S D

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, infectious diseases are a considerable threat to aquaculture. The pathogenicity of micro-organisms that infect aquaculture systems is closely related to the release of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Thus, QS disruption is a potential strategy for preventing disease in aquaculture systems. QS inhibitors (QSIs) not only inhibit the expression of virulence-associated genes but also attenuate the virulence of aquaculture pathogens. In this review, we discuss QS systems in important aquaculture pathogens and focus on the relationship between QS mechanisms and bacterial virulence in aquaculture. We further elucidate QS disruption strategies for targeting aquaculture pathogens. Four main types of QSIs that target aquaculture pathogens are discussed based on their mechanisms of action.

  14. Does pond water reflectance influence double-crested cormorant selection of aquaculture pond?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) are a frequent and major avian predator on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and other aquaculture species throughout the southeastern USA. Although cormorant movements and occurrence within the aquaculture production region are understood, no s...

  15. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming).

  16. Nutrient bioassimilation capacity of aquacultured oysters: quantification of an ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Colleen B; Stephenson, Kurt; Brown, Bonnie L

    2011-01-01

    Like many coastal zones and estuaries, the Chesapeake Bay has been severely degraded by cultural eutrophication. Rising implementation costs and difficulty achieving nutrient reduction goals associated with point and nonpoint sources suggests that approaches supplemental to source reductions may prove useful in the future. Enhanced oyster aquaculture has been suggested as one potential policy initiative to help rid the Bay waters of excess nutrients via harvest of bioassimilated nutrients. To assess this potential, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and total carbon (TC) content were measured in oyster tissue and shell at two floating-raft cultivation sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Models were developed based on the common market measurement of total length (TL) for aquacultured oysters, which was strongly correlated to the TN (R2 = 0.76), TP (R2 = 0.78), and TC (R2 = 0.76) content per oyster tissue and shell. These models provide resource managers with a tool to quantify net nutrient removal. Based on model estimates, 10(6) harvest-sized oysters (76 mm TL) remove 132 kg TN, 19 kg TP, and 3823 kg TC. In terms of nutrients removed per unit area, oyster harvest is an effective means of nutrient removal compared with other nonpoint source reduction strategies. At a density of 286 oysters m(-2), assuming no mortality, harvest size nutrient removal rates can be as high as 378 kg TN ha(-1), 54 kg TP ha(-1), and 10,934 kg TC ha(-1) for 76-mm oysters. Removing 1 t N from the Bay would require harvesting 7.7 million 76-mm TL cultivated oysters. PMID:21488516

  17. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  18. Research update for the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture h...

  19. Oysters and aquaculture practices affect eelgrass density and productivity in a Pacific Northwest estuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is widely recognized that bivalve aquaculture can have negative impacts on eelgrass through disturbance. In some bays in the Pacific Northwest (USA), certain oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture practices have been restricted to protect native eelgrass (Zostera marina). We argue that aquacultur...

  20. Revising and Updating the Natural Resources and Aquaculture Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Frederick W.

    Materials, including curriculum units, are provided for the natural resources and aquaculture components of the vocational agriculture curriculum. Aquaculture is a new component, added because of increased recognition of the opportunities offered by Connecticut's rich shoreline resources. A brochure and flyer on the aquaculture program follow a…

  1. Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2013-02-01

    Aquaculture production is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, production has been associated with the emergence of several novel diseases, including viral diseases, that have caused serious problems for producers. Using examples largely from salmon farming in Scotland I review briefly the factors that allow transmission to occur in aquaculture. These include transmission through the water, which is relatively local to the infected farm, and anthropogenic transports (such as transport of fish between sites) that may occur over very long distances. A Disease Management Area (DMA) approach, as developed in Scotland to fight infectious salmon anaemia, can be effective at reducing pathogen transmission and hence disease emergence.

  2. Predictive mechanistic bioenergetics to model habitat suitability of shellfish culture in coastal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Manganaro, A.; Mazzola, A.; Mirto, S.; Sanfilippo, M.; Sarà, G.

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative tools based on mechanistic modelling of functional traits able to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture and most other human activities (i.e. reducing the likelihood of detrimental impacts optimising productions), are especially important factors in the decision to site aquaculture facilities in coastal lakes, ponds and lagoons and, in the case of detrimental impact, to adopt mitigation measures. We tested the ability of mechanistic functional trait based models to predict life history traits of cultivable shellfish in shallow coastal lakes. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models were run to generate spatially explicit predictions of Mytilus galloprovincialis life history (LH) traits (e.g. body size and fecundity). Using fortnightly data of food supply and hourly data of body temperatures, and exploiting the power of mechanistic rules, we estimated the amount of faeces ejected by a fixed quantity of organisms cultivated in two shallow Southern Mediterranean (Sicily) lakes. These differed in terms of temperature and food density, implying large differences in life history traits of mussels in the two study areas. This information could help facilitate the selection of sites where environmental conditions are more suitable for aquaculture and contextually compatible with sustainability. The validation exercise obtained by comparing the predicted and observed data was nearly consistent. Therefore, a mechanistic functional traits-based model seems able to capture the link between habitat characteristics and functional traits of organisms, delineating the fundamental portion of an ecological niche, the possibility of predicting LH traits and potential ecological applications in the management of natural coastal resources.

  3. Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

  4. Understanding and Predicting Decadal Coastal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2016-04-01

    Coastal management requires understanding and prognosis of decadal coastal evolution. This evolution is sensitive to climate change among other drivers. The iCOASST project has developed new and improved methods to understand and predict such changes with application to coastal erosion and flood risk management as the application. The project is based on an integrated framework that links several components to develop a system-level understanding of this change as follows: (1) new methods for system-level analysis and mapping of coast, estuary and inner shelf landform behaviour; (2) well validated 'bottom-up' hydrodynamic and sediment transport shelf models that can be applied at shelf scales to investigate inner shelf-coastal interactions; and (3) compositions of existing or new 'reduced complexity models' of selected coastal landforms and processes. The ability to link models and the availability of the data is also fundamental. The ultimate goal is multiple simulations of coastal evolution to explore uncertainties in future decadal-scale coastal response, including the effects of climate change and management choices. This paper reviews the achievements of this project, the lessons learnt and the next step research steps.

  5. The emerging role of lidar remote sensing in coastal research and resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Purkis, Samuel J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of coastal elevation is an essential requirement for resource management and scientific research. Recognizing the vast potential of lidar remote sensing in coastal studies, this Special Issue includes a collection of articles intended to represent the state-of-the-art for lidar investigations of nearshore submerged and emergent ecosystems, coastal morphodynamics, and hazards due to sea-level rise and severe storms. Some current applications for lidar remote sensing described in this Special Issue include bluegreen wavelength lidar used for submarine coastal benthic environments such as coral reef ecosystems, airborne lidar used for shoreline mapping and coastal change detection, and temporal waveform-resolving lidar used for vegetation mapping.

  6. Monitoring land use with reference to aquaculture in Chinna Cherukuru village of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India - A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, M. R.; Ganguly, K.; Sunder, B. S.; Rani, G. P.; Rao, A.; Shankar, G. R.

    2014-11-01

    The present study focuses on the dynamics of conversion of agricultural land to aquaculture over a decade from 1995 to 2013 in Chinna Cherukuru Village (Thotapalligudur Mandal) in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh State, India. Multi temporal satellite data from 1995's medium resolution to high resolution IRS LISS IV & Cartosat of 2013 time frame was analysed and mapped using RS & GIS techniques to monitor the dynamics of land transformation from agriculture to aquaculture (1995's) and conversion back to agriculture in 2013. It was observed that, in 1995 aquaculture was practiced to an extent of 62.35 hectares which accounts to 9.48 % of the Total Geographic Area (TGA) of the village (658.01 hectares), whereas in 2001 there is a major conversion from agricultural land to aquaculture accounting to an extent of 237.01 hectares or 36.01 % of total village area . However, thereafter there was a significant conversion back to agriculture accounting to an extent of 27.23 hectares or 4.13 % of TGA in 2013. The study tries to understand the underlying reasons for conversion back to agriculture which were due to several factors that include outbreak of diseases in aquatic fauna, natural calamities, variation in production cost / selling cost and non-availability of infrastructure facilities like cold storages etc. The present village level study on LUCC database provides an answer key question about socio-economic issues, land use and cropping pattern which form important input for environmental management.

  7. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  8. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region. PMID:26108747

  9. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  10. Off-flavors in salmonids raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of aquaculture products will typically verify the flavor quality of their product by sensory evaluation (flavor testing) before harvesting the crop for market. “Off-flavors” detected in the product may require holding the fish in a purging system containing fresh, clean water to depurate ...

  11. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed. PMID:25309575

  12. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  13. Aquaculture: A Component of Low Cost Sanitation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses all phases of aquaculture, including commercial viability, sanitary and biological considerations, public health, financial/economic and sociological aspects. Current studies are detailed and options are discussed for their potential applicability to developing countries, considering requirements for capital and labor skills as well as physical needs such as land.

  14. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Medrano, Juan F; Feijoo, Carmen G

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism's response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed.

  15. Microbial mats for multiple applications in aquaculture and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Bender, Judith; Phillips, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Microbial mats occur in nature as stratified communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria, but they can be cultured on large-scale and manipulated for a variety of functions. They are complex systems, but require few external inputs. The functional uses of mats broadly cover the areas of aquaculture and bioremediation. Preliminary research also points to promising uses in agriculture and energy production. Regarding aquaculture, mats were shown to produce protein, via nitrogen fixation, and were capable of supplying nutrition to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Current research is examining the role of mats in the nitrification of nutrient-enriched effluents from aquaculture. Most research has addressed bioremediation, within which two majors categories of contaminants were examined: metals and radionuclides, and organic contaminants. Mats sequester or precipitate metals/radionuclides by surface absorption or by conditioning the surrounding chemical environment, thus bioconcentrating the metal/radionuclide in a small volume. Organic contaminants are degraded and may be completely mineralized. For agriculture mats hold promise as a soil amendment and nitrogen fertilizer. The use of mats in biohydrogen production has been verified, but is in a preliminary phase of development. We propose a comprehensive closed system based on microbial mats for aquaculture and waste management.

  16. Developing low cost feed grade soybean protein concentrates for aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One emerging area in the global soy industry, particularly the U.S. soybean industry, has been developing soy-based feeds as an alternative protein source to meet the growing needs of aquaculture in China and elsewhere. Traditionally, fishmeal is a key protein ingredient in fish diets, but its sup...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP...

  20. International cooperation on the use of peracetic acid in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss collaborative efforts on research to evaluate the usefulness of peracetic acid (PAA) as a therapeutant in aquaculture. Research has been underway since 2009 with a scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany). Ther...

  1. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  2. Aquaculture: A Course of Study for Sand Point Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    This program is designed to involve students in the economy of their community. It combines an interdisciplinary educational program with practical field and laboratory experience. This program provides opportunities in the area of aquaculture, controlled cultivation of marketable species and the total ecological corrections necessary to maintain…

  3. [Aquaculture in Italy. An integrated model of product quality control].

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio; De Vito, Elisabetta; Grasso, Guido Maria; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Reali, Daniela; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Boccia, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Aquaculture is becoming increasingly diffuse even in Italy. The increased production introduces new problems such as product quality control and process safety. This article presents the results of a research project, funded by the Ministry of the Environment, whose aim was to evaluate and promote aquaculture product quality and safety in an environmentally responsible way. Four intensive land-based and offshore aquaculture sites were monitored to evaluate microbiological, biological and chemical (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls and endocrine disruptors) quality of water, products and fish feed. In total 154 samples were analysed, of which 66 were water samples, 55 product samples and 33 feed samples. Salmonella and other enteric pathogens were absent in products and the aquatic environment, while other environmental pathogens of the Vibrio species were detected. Bacterial load and fecal indicators were found to be higher in off-shore products and in mussels from all aquaculture sites. PCBs were detected in all products in concentrations below 2 microg/g fresh product (Food and Drug Administration), but on average, higher concentrations were detected in off-shore products. No estrogen mimetic activity was detected in fish feed, in contrast it was detected in offshore products and water. Product quality was found to be strictly correlated with the quality of the environment. Genetically modified organisms were detected in fish feed but no integration of genetic material in products occurred.

  4. Application of airlift technology in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine hatcheries implementing recirculating aquaculture technology require pristine water quality and must be designed to provide a disease free environment as much as possible to limit disease transmission. Given the aggressive nature of a variety of marine pathogens, design considerations with re...

  5. Environmental impact of intensive aquaculture: investigation on the accumulation of metals and nutrients in marine sediments of Greece.

    PubMed

    Farmaki, Eleni G; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Pasias, Ioannis N; Baulard, Cecile; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2014-07-01

    The impact of intensive aquaculture activities on marine sediments along three coastal areas in Greece was studied. The content of nine metals/metalloids (Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn, As), and three nutrients (P, N and C), that seem to accumulate in marine sediments, was determined under the fish cages (zero distance) and away (50 or 100 m) from them. Elevated concentrations for phosphorus, nitrogen, copper, zinc and cadmium were recorded in the areas where farming establishments are moored. In parallel, the intrinsic differences between the aquaculture facilities and their seasonal variations were investigated. The individual characteristics of each farm (local water currents, facilities' capacity, transferring mechanisms or the geological background) were the determinant factors. On the contrary, significant seasonal differences were not recorded. Statistical techniques, as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests and principal components analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA), were used for the evaluation of the results. These chemometric tools succeeded to discriminate the sampling points according to their distance from the cages or the origin of the sample. Variables' significance, correlations and potential accumulation sources were also investigated.

  6. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    2001-01-01

    questions that will guide coastal science in the early 21st century: (1) How do system-specific attributes constrain or amplify the responses of coastal ecosystems to nutrient enrichment? (2) How does nutrient enrichment interact with other stressors (toxic contaminants, fishing harvest, aquaculture, nonindigenous species, habitat loss, climate change, hydrologic manipulations) to change coastal ecosystems? (3) How are responses to multiple stressors linked? (4) How does human-induced change in the coastal zone impact the Earth system as habitat for humanity and other species? (5) How can a deeper scientific understanding of the coastal eutrophication problem be applied to develop tools for building strategies at ecosystem restoration or rehabilitation?

  7. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  8. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  9. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    PubMed

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal

  10. Assessment of Coastal Ecosystem Services for Conservation Strategies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min Gon; Kang, Hojeong; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that scientific and political consideration for ecosystem services has dramatically increased over the past decade, few studies have focused on marine and coastal ecosystem services for conservation strategies. We used an ecosystem services approach to assess spatial distributions of habitat risks and four ecosystem services (coastal protection, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality), and explored the tradeoffs among them in coastal areas of South Korea. Additionally, we analyzed how the social and ecological characteristics in coastal areas interact with conservation and development policies by using this approach. We found strong negative associations between the habitat risks and ecosystem services (aquaculture, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality) across the coastal counties. Our results showed that the intensity of the habitat risks and the provision of ecosystem services were significantly different between reclamation-dominated and conservation-dominated counties, except for coastal vulnerability. A generalized linear model suggested that reclamation projects were dependent on economic efficiency, whereas demographic pressures and habitat conditions influenced the designation of protected areas at a county level. The ecosystem services approach provided guidelines to achieve both sustainable development and environment conservation. By using the approach, we can select the priority areas for developments while we can minimize the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. As cultural ecosystem services are evenly distributed throughout coastal areas of South Korea, decision makers may employ them to improve the conditions of coastal wetlands outside of protected areas.

  11. Assessment of Coastal Ecosystem Services for Conservation Strategies in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Min Gon; Kang, Hojeong; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that scientific and political consideration for ecosystem services has dramatically increased over the past decade, few studies have focused on marine and coastal ecosystem services for conservation strategies. We used an ecosystem services approach to assess spatial distributions of habitat risks and four ecosystem services (coastal protection, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality), and explored the tradeoffs among them in coastal areas of South Korea. Additionally, we analyzed how the social and ecological characteristics in coastal areas interact with conservation and development policies by using this approach. We found strong negative associations between the habitat risks and ecosystem services (aquaculture, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality) across the coastal counties. Our results showed that the intensity of the habitat risks and the provision of ecosystem services were significantly different between reclamation-dominated and conservation-dominated counties, except for coastal vulnerability. A generalized linear model suggested that reclamation projects were dependent on economic efficiency, whereas demographic pressures and habitat conditions influenced the designation of protected areas at a county level. The ecosystem services approach provided guidelines to achieve both sustainable development and environment conservation. By using the approach, we can select the priority areas for developments while we can minimize the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. As cultural ecosystem services are evenly distributed throughout coastal areas of South Korea, decision makers may employ them to improve the conditions of coastal wetlands outside of protected areas. PMID:26221950

  12. Coastal Operational Oceanography: understanding user needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez, J.; Jerez, F.; Hermosilla, F.; Espino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the 7th Framework European project FIELD_AC, SIMO and the LIM/UPC have undertaken a study about the operational oceanography requirements of a selected group of specific end-users in four different European coastal regions, namely Hamburg, Liverpool, Barcelona and Venice. The activities of all the target organisations are related to coastal issues, varying from aquaculture to marinas and port management, Water Framework Directive implementation, renewable energies and flooding alerts. Information has been compiled using a specific questionnaire that has been distributed to all potential users, in addition to workshops held in the four mentioned regions. A total number of 25 questionnaires have been collected in all the locations from a variety of users. Results have been analysed depending on the location but also considering the type of organisation. Information about the spatial and temporal resolution requirements, variables needed, locations to be considered, frequency of data delivery and formats requirements have been gathered. This input from the end-users is being used both in the FIELD_AC modelling set up and also in the development of an application to visualise the results. Regarding the latter, all the modelling results and observational data will be handled using a THREDDS catalogue linked to a web-based GIS application.

  13. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  14. Evaluation of World View-2 Satellite Data for Mapping Seaweed Beds Along Karachi Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danish Siddiqui, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION One of the important components for the coastal system are seaweeds. Seaweed provides numerous ecosystem facilities such as; habitats, fishing nursery grounds, feed production for aquatic biota, and ability to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and carbon fixation for seawater purification. It's an important coastal resource that has great economic potential due to its utilization in food, cosmetics and industrial products. It also plays an important role in aquaculture and fish breeding. The habitats of many sea species rely on seaweeds for their shelter and food requirements. Seaweed resources are present along Pakistan coastal areas mainly around Karachi shoreline and there exists a potential market for seaweed in the country that is yet untapped. Not only this but the seaweed resources in Pakistan are still unexplored and unmapped. The need to preserve and map seaweed sites along Karachi coast is, cannot be overlooked due to the economic potential of seaweed. To protect marine biodiversity, regular monitoring and mapping of seaweeds are important in order to regulate their growth and their dependent species to maintain their biological associations. The main purpose of this study is to map naturally existing seaweed resources along the Karachi coast and identify the environmental parameters which impact seaweed growth in coastal waters of Karachi using geospatial techniques. To estimate marine resources such as seaweed over a certain area using traditional methods require an extensive amount of labor, cost and time. Remote sensing techniques, on the other hand, offer a good alternative to performing studies on a larger scale using minimum resources as compared to the conventional methods. DATA AND DATA SOURCES WorldView-2 images of 2 meter multispectral and 0.5 meter panchromatic and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily composite of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product of 250 meter resolutions are used in this

  15. Impact of the conversion of mangroves into aquaculture ponds on the sedimentary organic matter composition in a tidal flat estuary (Hainan Island, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Hongyan; Wu, Ying; Unger, Daniela; Du, Jinzhou; Herbeck, Lucia S.; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    A sediment core was collected from an estuarine tidal mudflat off a mangrove area to study the impact of land-use change on sedimentary organic matter (OM) in Hainan Island, South China. Bulk properties (organic carbon (OC%), total nitrogen (TN%), stable organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) and stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N)) as well as biomarkers (amino acids (AA) and lignin phenols) were used to trace the sources of OM. The average value of OC% was 0.63±0.07% and TN% was 0.054±0.006%. The molar ratio of organic carbon and total nitrogen (C/N ratio) was 11-17 and the δ13Corg values ranged from -23‰ to -25‰, which suggested a mixture of aquatic OM and terrigenous OM. The ratio of AA to lignin phenols (AA/lignin) also confirmed that aquatic OM must be considered as an important source of OM. Lower C/N and elevated δ15N in the upper core was caused by the increased OM input from aquaculture ponds and/or sewage during recent decades. The higher degree of lignin phenol degradation and its relatively lower concentrations in the upper sediment core suggests reduced input of OM from fresh mangrove plant tissue. A three end-member model based on δ13Corg and δ15N quantified the contribution of OM from each source (i.e., mangrove plants, marine phytoplankton and aquaculture ponds). The results showed that the input from aquaculture increased from <5% in pre-1970 period to around 30% during the past 40 years, and the contribution from mangrove forest decreased from >30% to around 5%, accordingly. This finding is consistent with the land-use change in the study area over the past decades. Our results suggested that because of the degradation of mangrove forests and increase of aquaculture, more anthropogenic OM would be transported to the coastal sea.

  16. Life cycle assessment of a novel closed-containment salmon aquaculture technology.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Keegan P; Pelletier, Nathan L; Tyedmers, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    In salmonid aquaculture, a variety of technologies have been deployed that attempt to limit a range of environmental impacts associated with net-pen culture. One such technology employs a floating, solid-walled enclosure as the primary culture environment, providing greater potential control over negative interactions with surroundings waters while limiting energy use required for water circulation, thermo-regulation and supplemental oxygen provision. Here, we utilize life cycle assessment to model contributions to a suite of global-scale resource depletion and environmental concerns (including global warming potential, acidification potential, marine eutrophication potential, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use) of such a technology deployed commercially to rear Chinook salmon in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Results indicate that at full grow-out, feed provisioning and on-site energy use dominate contributions across four of five impact categories assessed. For example, per tonne of salmon harvested, feed contributed approximately 72% to global warming potential, 72% to acidification potential, and accounted for 100% of biotic resource use. However, for both feed and on-site energy use, impacts are heavily influenced by specific sources of inputs; therefore efforts to improve the environmental performance of this technology should focus on reducing these in favor of less impactful alternatives. PMID:25844925

  17. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  18. Modelling the nitrogen loadings from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) cage aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huiwen; Ross, Lindsay G; Telfer, Trevor C; Wu, Changwen; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhao, Sheng; Xu, Meiying

    2016-04-01

    Large yellow croaker (LYC) cage farming is a rapidly developing industry in the coastal areas of the East China Sea. However, little is known about the environmental nutrient loadings resulting from the current aquaculture practices for this species. In this study, a nitrogenous waste model was developed for LYC based on thermal growth and bioenergetic theories. The growth model produced a good fit with the measured data of the growth trajectory of the fish. The total, dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs were estimated to be 133, 51 and 82 kg N tonne(-1) of fish production, respectively, with daily dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs varying from 69 to 104 and 106 to 181 mg N fish(-1), respectively, during the 2012 operational cycle. Greater than 80 % of the nitrogen input from feed was predicted to be lost to the environment, resulting in low nitrogen retention (<20 %) in the fish tissues. Ammonia contributed the greatest proportion (>85 %) of the dissolved nitrogen generated from cage farming. This nitrogen loading assessment model is the first to address nitrogenous output from LYC farming and could be a valuable tool to examine the effects of management and feeding practices on waste from cage farming. The application of this model could help improve the scientific understanding of offshore fish farming systems. Furthermore, the model predicts that a 63 % reduction in nitrogenous waste production could be achieved by switching from the use of trash fish for feed to the use of pelleted feed.

  19. Life cycle assessment of a novel closed-containment salmon aquaculture technology.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Keegan P; Pelletier, Nathan L; Tyedmers, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    In salmonid aquaculture, a variety of technologies have been deployed that attempt to limit a range of environmental impacts associated with net-pen culture. One such technology employs a floating, solid-walled enclosure as the primary culture environment, providing greater potential control over negative interactions with surroundings waters while limiting energy use required for water circulation, thermo-regulation and supplemental oxygen provision. Here, we utilize life cycle assessment to model contributions to a suite of global-scale resource depletion and environmental concerns (including global warming potential, acidification potential, marine eutrophication potential, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use) of such a technology deployed commercially to rear Chinook salmon in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Results indicate that at full grow-out, feed provisioning and on-site energy use dominate contributions across four of five impact categories assessed. For example, per tonne of salmon harvested, feed contributed approximately 72% to global warming potential, 72% to acidification potential, and accounted for 100% of biotic resource use. However, for both feed and on-site energy use, impacts are heavily influenced by specific sources of inputs; therefore efforts to improve the environmental performance of this technology should focus on reducing these in favor of less impactful alternatives.

  20. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  1. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  2. Vegetation types in coastal Louisiana in 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mouton, Edmond; Linscombe, Jeb; Hartley, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, Louisiana State University, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Coastal and Nongame Resources Division jointly completed an aerial survey to collect data on 2013 vegetation types in coastal Louisiana. Plant species were listed and their abundance classified. On the basis of species composition and abundance, each marsh sampling station was assigned a marsh type: fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline (saltwater) marsh. The current map presents the data collected in this effort.

  3. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  4. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  5. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed. PMID:24917512

  6. Synopsis of freshwater aquaculture legislation in Germany since national reunification.

    PubMed

    Schlotfeldt, H J

    1996-06-01

    Under German law, federal ministries are responsible for preparing legislation, while federal states (Länder) are responsible for applying the legislation. The author describes the system, contrasting it with the situation in former East Germany, where preparation and application of legislation were controlled centrally. The author also describes the various inland water fisheries Acts and regulations of the federal states of former West Germany which apply to aquaculture. There is a discussion of the impact on German freshwater aquaculture of the Federal Water Act, the Waste Water Levies Act, the Nature Conservation and Protection Act, the Conservation of Species Regulation, the Animal Welfare Act, the Fisheries Acts of the Länder, the Drug Act, the Animal Epidemic Act and the Fish Epidemics Regulation. The impact of this legislation varies considerably, and the extent of application is discussed. The economic changes in freshwater fish production are briefly summarised and their causes analysed. PMID:8890388

  7. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  8. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  9. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed.

  10. Medium recycling for Nannochloropsis gaditana cultures for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    González-López, C V; Cerón-García, M C; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; González-Céspedes, A M; Camacho-Rodríguez, J; Molina-Grima, E

    2013-02-01

    Nannochloropsis gaditana is a good producer of proteins and valuable fatty acids for aquaculture. Recycling of culture medium is interesting for microalgae commercial production as it cuts costs and prevents environmental contamination. The recycled medium must be sterilized to prevent the buildup of unwanted metabolites and microorganisms. We tested several sterilization methods: filtration, ozonation, chlorination, addition of hydrogen peroxide and heating. Results showed that the most successful method is ozonation lowering the bacterial load to 1.910(3)CFUs/mL, which is 1000-fold and 10-fold lower than the supernatant obtained after harvesting and the initial filtered medium, respectively. Continuous cultures of N. gaditana were grown using this recirculated supernatant. A maximum biomass productivity of 0.8 g/L/d composed of ∼50% proteins and 40% lipids with more than 3%d.w. EPA was obtained making this biomass very interesting for aquaculture.

  11. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Liu, Baoliang; Lei, Jilin; Guan, Changtao; Huang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was established to simulate the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank of a recirculating aquaculture system. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model was applied to describe the flow, the discrete phase model (DPM) was applied to generate particle trajectories, and the governing equations are solved using the finite volume method. To validate this model, the numerical results were compared with data obtained from a full-scale physical model. The results show that: (1) the realizable k-ɛ model applied for turbulence modeling describes well the flow pattern in octagonal tanks, giving an average relative error of velocities between simulated and measured values of 18% from contour maps of velocity magnitudes; (2) the DPM was applied to obtain particle trajectories and to simulate the rate of particle removal from the tank. The average relative error of the removal rates between simulated and measured values was 11%. The DPM can be used to assess the self-cleaning capability of an octagonal tank; (3) a comprehensive account of the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank can be assessed from simulations. The velocity distribution was uniform with an average velocity of 15 cm/s; the velocity reached 0.8 m/s near the inlet pipe, which can result in energy losses and cause wall abrasion; the velocity in tank corners was more than 15 cm/s, which suggests good water mixing, and there was no particle sedimentation. The percentage of particle removal for octagonal tanks was 90% with the exception of a little accumulation of ≤ 5 mm particle in the area between the inlet pipe and the wall. This study demonstrated a consistent numerical model of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks that can be further used in their design and optimization as well as promote the wide use of computational fluid dynamics in aquaculture engineering.

  12. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  13. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment. PMID:27444724

  14. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come. PMID:15962465

  15. Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

    1984-08-01

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  16. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come.

  17. Risk map and spatial determinants of pancreas disease in the marine phase of Norwegian Atlantic salmon farming sites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of pancreas disease (PD) greatly contribute to economic losses due to high mortality, control measures, interrupted production cycles, reduced feed conversion and flesh quality in the aquaculture industries in European salmon-producing countries. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate an effect of potential factors contributing to PD occurrence accounting for spatial congruity of neighboring infected sites, and then create quantitative risk maps for predicting PD occurrence. The study population included active Atlantic salmon farming sites located in the coastal area of 6 southern counties of Norway (where most of PD outbreaks have been reported so far) from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010. Results Using a Bayesian modeling approach, with and without spatial component, the final model included site latitude, site density, PD history, and local biomass density. Clearly, the PD infected sites were spatially clustered; however, the cluster was well explained by the covariates of the final model. Based on the final model, we produced a map presenting the predicted probability of the PD occurrence in the southern part of Norway. Subsequently, the predictive capacity of the final model was validated by comparing the predicted probabilities with the observed PD outbreaks in 2011. Conclusions The framework of the study could be applied for spatial studies of other infectious aquatic animal diseases. PMID:23006469

  18. Prospects of using marine actinobacteria as probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Ward, Louise R; Burke, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been banned for disease management in aquaculture systems due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance gene and enduring residual effects in the environments. Instead, microbial interventions in sustainable aquaculture have been proposed, and among them, the most popular and practical approach is the use of probiotics. A range of microorganisms have been used so far as probiotics, which include Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, bacteriophages, and unicellular algae. The results are satisfactory and promising; however, to combat the latest infectious diseases, the search for a new strain for probiotics is essential. Marine actinobacteria were designated as the chemical factory a long time ago, and quite a large number of chemical substances have been isolated to date. The potent actinobacterial genera are Streptomyces; Micromonospora; and a novel, recently described genus, Salinispora. Despite the existence of all the significant features of a good probiont, actinobacteria have been hardly used as probiotics in aquaculture. However, this group of bacteria promises to supply the most potential probiotic strains in the future. PMID:18841358

  19. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  20. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  1. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  2. Aquaculture: International examples of success and failure and their lessons for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, A.

    1994-06-01

    To help assess ways to strengthen U.S. aquaculture, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has sponsored a five-part study of aquaculture to: (1) review data and literature on the current state scientific understanding and technological development in aquacultural production in the United States; (2) identify promising new and emerging technologies with potential to influence U.S. aquacultural development; (3) identify new approaches from case studies of aquacultural production systems and policy structures in select foreign countries; (4) assess current and potential roles of federal, state, and private organizations in the development and implementation of technologies; and (5) develop policy options for Congress. This paper represents part 3 of the above outline of the study, identification of new approaches from case studies of aquacultural production systems and policy structures in select foreign countries and their relevance to the United States.

  3. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  4. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  5. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  6. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  7. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, estuarine-lagoons, and coastal ecosystems along the eastern Hainan Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics were studied along the eastern Hainan Island based on field observations during 2006-2009, to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes and to have an overview of human perturbations on coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The concentrations of nutrients in the rivers had seasonal variations enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). High riverine concentrations of nitrate were mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer input. The ratios of DIN : PO43- ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential PO43- relative to nitrogen in the rivers. The areal yields of dissolved silicate (DSi) varied from 76 to 448 × 103 mol km-2 yr-1 due to erosion over the drainage area, inducing high levels of DSi among worldwide tropical systems. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ (up to 157 μM) and DON (up to 130 μM). Particulate phosphorus concentrations (0.5 ∼1.4 μM) were in lower level comparied with estuaries around the world. Particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas were affected by human activities (e.g. aquaculture, agriculture), as well as natural events such as typhoon. Nutrient concentrations were low because open sea water dispersed land-derived nutrients. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes would be magnified by estuarine processes (e.g. regeneration, desorption) in the Wenchanghe/Wenjiaohe Estuary, Wanquan River estuary, and the Laoyehai Lagoon except in the Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater input were the major sources of nutrients to the Xiaohai Lagoon and the Laiyehai Lagoon, respectively. Riverine input and aquaculture effluent were the major sources of nutrients to the eastern coastal of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem can be increased by typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, and phytoplankton bloom in the sea would be

  8. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  9. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy in Aquaculture: Photoinactivation Studies of Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Eliana; Faustino, Maria A. F.; Tomé, João P. C.; Neves, Maria G. P. M. S.; Tomé, Augusto C.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Background Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1) with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2) with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI) conditions in situ. Methodology/Principal Findings To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py+-Me-PF) was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10–50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water); artificial white light (4 mW cm−2) and solar irradiation (40 mW cm−2) were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈107 CFU mL−1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 105 relative light units - RLU). The variations in pH (6.5–8.5), temperature (10–25°C), salinity (20–40 g L−1) and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction). The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF. Conclusions/Significance If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  10. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  12. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China’s aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water’s surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine’s motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine’s mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02–0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000–52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13–0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110–208 m3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10–15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3+–N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  13. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  14. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  15. Population genetic structure of Penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Rao, Divya; Karuppaiah, Deepa; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Pozhoth, Jayagopal; Samraj, Yohannan Chellamma Thampi; Doyle, Roger W

    2012-01-10

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement).

  16. Population genetic structure of Penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Rao, Divya; Karuppaiah, Deepa; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Pozhoth, Jayagopal; Samraj, Yohannan Chellamma Thampi; Doyle, Roger W

    2012-01-10

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement). PMID:22020227

  17. Risk assessment of nitrate and oxytetracycline addition on coastal ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Feng-Jiao, Liu; Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo; Teng-Xiu, Tu; Xue-Qing, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms dominate phytoplankton communities in the well-mixed coastal and upwelling regions. Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both aquaculture pollution and eutrophication. But how these exposures influence on coastal ecosystem functions are unknown. To examine these influences, a coastal centric diatom, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or oxytetracycline (OTC). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively. When N addition was combined with OTC pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 56-73%; algal density, SOD activities, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA varied between 73 and 121%, 19 and 397%, 52 and 693%, 19 and 875%, and 66 and 2733% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. According to P-value analysis, the influence of OTC on algal density and SOD activity was not significant, but the effect on cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, and MDA were significant (P<0.05). The influence of N addition with simultaneous OTC pollution on the above six end points was significant. Algal biomass, lifetime, nutrition, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, and respiration were all affected by the addition of OTC and N. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely affected by N and OTC additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Naquaculture pollution on coastal ecosystem functions.

  18. Quaternary geophysical framework of the northeastern North Carolina coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.S.; Mallinson, D.M.; Himmelstoss, E.A.; McNinch, J.E.; List, J.H.; Hammar-Klose, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that mapped the Quaternary geologic framework of the estuaries, barrier islands, and inner continental shelf. This information provides a basis to understand the linkage between geologic framework, physical processes, and coastal evolution at time scales from storm events to millennia. The study area attracts significant tourism to its parks and beaches, contains a number of coastal communities, and supports a local fishing industry, all of which are impacted by coastal change. Knowledge derived from this research program can be used to mitigate hazards and facilitate effective management of this dynamic coastal system.

  19. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  20. Chukchi Sea coastal studies: Coastal geomorphology, environmental sensitivity, and persistence of spilled oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robilliard, G.A.; Harper, J.R.; Isaacs, J.; Foget, C.

    1985-03-01

    This report: Describes the physical and biological characteristics of the northern Chukchi Sea coastline, emphasizing shore characteristics that influence the effect of oil spills or that are likely to be affected by oil spills; Describes and maps the level of oil persistence along the shoreline; Describes and maps the vulnerability and sensitivity of selected coastal biological resources to spilled oil; Describes and maps the sensitivity of selected human uses of the shoreline to spilled oil; Describes the cleanup techniques and equipment available for use in arctic conditions and recommends appropriate shoreline countermeasures.

  1. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA.

  2. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  3. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  4. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  5. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future.

  7. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are w...

  8. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Dunn, Daniel C; Bjorkland, Rhema H; Kelez, Shaleyla; Halpin, Patrick N; Crowder, Larry B

    2010-12-29

    Biodiverse coastal zones are often areas of intense fishing pressure due to the high relative density of fishing capacity in these nearshore regions. Although overcapacity is one of the central challenges to fisheries sustainability in coastal zones, accurate estimates of fishing pressure in coastal zones are limited, hampering the assessment of the direct and collateral impacts (e.g., habitat degradation, bycatch) of fishing. We compiled a comprehensive database of fishing effort metrics and the corresponding spatial limits of fisheries and used a spatial analysis program (FEET) to map fishing effort density (measured as boat-meters per km²) in the coastal zones of six ocean regions. We also considered the utility of a number of socioeconomic variables as indicators of fishing pressure at the national level; fishing density increased as a function of population size and decreased as a function of coastline length. Our mapping exercise points to intra and interregional 'hotspots' of coastal fishing pressure. The significant and intuitive relationships we found between fishing density and population size and coastline length may help with coarse regional characterizations of fishing pressure. However, spatially-delimited fishing effort data are needed to accurately map fishing hotspots, i.e., areas of intense fishing activity. We suggest that estimates of fishing effort, not just target catch or yield, serve as a necessary measure of fishing activity, which is a key link to evaluating sustainability and environmental impacts of coastal fisheries.

  9. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  10. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  11. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1999-03-01

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  12. Aquaculture, husbandry, and shipping at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Varga, Z M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) aquaculture systems, husbandry, and live fish shipping methods. The ZIRC has a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration in its main fish facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, feeding and shipping of fish. Whereas the procedures presented here are merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, they offer starting points to set up, develop, refine, or troubleshoot methods in other fish facilities. PMID:27443942

  13. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  14. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kui; Ma, Caihua; Gao, Huiwang; Li, Fengqi; Zhang, Meizhao; Qiu, Yantao; Wang, Bo

    2008-08-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  15. Environmental Changes Assessment of Coastal Zones by Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Liviu Florin; Golovanov, Carmen Ionescu; Zoran, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fuzzy theory applied for the analysis of coastal areas changes, for which each pixel on the map is assigned a membership grade in all classes, represent reasonable alternatives to traditional fixed classifications. Mixture modeling and subpixel spectral analysis is used for the percent cover of individual cover types within a pixel assessment. These methods require a definition of spectral endmembers, which is difficult (and perhaps impossible) for complex and highly variable land cover units. Fuzzy classifications and mixture/subpixel models provide information on variations in spectral signature between pixels and not on differences in the on-the-ground content of mapped land cover. The coastal zone units are recognized on a ground truth map of an area using Landsat Thematic Mapper ™ and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) as well as SAR ERS-1 imagery for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone, Romania, over 1989-2008 period.

  16. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tekedar, Hasan C; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Liles, Mark R; Griffin, Matt J; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group.

  18. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  19. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  20. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture. PMID:24213993