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Sample records for marburg germany 26-29

  1. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  2. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and other entities shall ensure that the individuals who are subject to this subpart have the following...

  3. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and other entities shall ensure that the individuals who are subject to this subpart have the following...

  4. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and other entities shall ensure that the individuals who are subject to this subpart have the following...

  5. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and other entities shall ensure that the individuals who are subject to this subpart have the following...

  6. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and... demonstrate the successful completion of training by passing a comprehensive examination that addresses...

  7. Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

    2012-01-01

    In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

  8. Forty-five years of Marburg virus research.

    PubMed

    Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

    2012-10-01

    In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.

  9. Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... the range of Rousettus bats. Marburg virus in animals African green monkeys ( Cercopithecus aethiops ) imported from Uganda ... host during MHF outbreaks. Although no other domestic animals have yet been confirmed as having an association ...

  10. Forty years of marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner; Klenk, Hans Dieter

    2007-11-15

    Forty years ago, in early August 1967, the first filovirus ever detected, Marburg virus, made its appearance in Europe, causing severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in laboratory workers in Marburg and Frankfurt and, about 4 weeks later, in Belgrade. The etiological agent was isolated and identified by the combined efforts of virologists in Marburg and Hamburg within the very short time of 3 months. Marburg was not the only town where the virus was isolated and identified for the first time, but most cases of infection occurred in Marburg.

  11. Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Amy L; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-03-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses cause a severe viral hemorrhagic fever disease mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Although outbreaks are sporadic, there is the potential for filoviruses to spread to other continents unintentionally because of air travel or intentionally because of bioterrorism. This article discusses the natural history, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of patients infected with Ebola and Marburg viruses. Clinicians in the United States should be aware of the symptoms of these viral infections in humans and know the appropriate procedures for contacting local, state, and national reference laboratories in the event of a suspected case of filoviral hemorrhagic fever.

  12. 25 CFR 26.29 - What is the scope of the Job Training Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the scope of the Job Training Program? 26.29 Section 26.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.29 What is the scope of the Job Training Program?...

  13. 25 CFR 26.29 - What is the scope of the Job Training Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the scope of the Job Training Program? 26.29 Section 26.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.29 What is the scope of the Job Training Program?...

  14. 25 CFR 26.29 - What is the scope of the Job Training Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the scope of the Job Training Program? 26.29 Section 26.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.29 What is the scope of the Job Training Program?...

  15. 25 CFR 26.29 - What is the scope of the Job Training Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the scope of the Job Training Program? 26.29 Section 26.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.29 What is the scope of the Job Training Program?...

  16. 25 CFR 26.29 - What is the scope of the Job Training Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the scope of the Job Training Program? 26.29 Section 26.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.29 What is the scope of the Job Training Program?...

  17. Crystal structure of Marburg virus VP24.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Adrianna P P; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Abelson, Dafna M; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2014-05-01

    The VP24 protein plays an essential, albeit poorly understood role in the filovirus life cycle. VP24 is only 30% identical between Marburg virus and the ebolaviruses. Furthermore, VP24 from the ebolaviruses is immunosuppressive, while that of Marburg virus is not. The crystal structure of Marburg virus VP24, presented here, reveals that although the core is similar between the viral genera, Marburg VP24 is distinguished by a projecting β-shelf and an alternate conformation of the N-terminal polypeptide.

  18. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems. PMID:27338448

  19. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-06-22

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  20. 49 CFR 26.29 - What prompt payment mechanisms must recipients have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have? 26.29 Section 26.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... recipients have? (a) You must establish, as part of your DBE program, a contract clause to require prime... tasks called for in the subcontract have been accomplished and documented as required by the...

  1. 49 CFR 26.29 - What prompt payment mechanisms must recipients have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... have? 26.29 Section 26.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... recipients have? (a) You must establish, as part of your DBE program, a contract clause to require prime... tasks called for in the subcontract have been accomplished and documented as required by the...

  2. 49 CFR 26.29 - What prompt payment mechanisms must recipients have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have? 26.29 Section 26.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... recipients have? (a) You must establish, as part of your DBE program, a contract clause to require prime... tasks called for in the subcontract have been accomplished and documented as required by the...

  3. 49 CFR 26.29 - What prompt payment mechanisms must recipients have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have? 26.29 Section 26.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... recipients have? (a) You must establish, as part of your DBE program, a contract clause to require prime... tasks called for in the subcontract have been accomplished and documented as required by the...

  4. 49 CFR 26.29 - What prompt payment mechanisms must recipients have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have? 26.29 Section 26.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... recipients have? (a) You must establish, as part of your DBE program, a contract clause to require prime... tasks called for in the subcontract have been accomplished and documented as required by the...

  5. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  6. The diagnosis of Marburg disease is course-dependent.

    PubMed

    Walid, M Sami; Sanoufa, Mazen

    2010-03-02

    Marburg Disease, the fulminant form of multiple sclerosis, is a rare disease that typically kills within a year. We had a 38-year-old African American male who presented with right footdrop and was pathologically diagnosed with Marburg Disease. The patient recovered clinically after surgery and stayed stable for more than a year. The diagnosis of Marburg Disease was thus degraded.

  7. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years.

  8. Clinical aspects of Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Mehedi, Masfique; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Marburg virus belongs to the genus Marburgvirus in the family Filoviridae and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever, known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), in both humans and nonhuman primates. Similar to the more widely known Ebola hemorrhagic fever, MHF is characterized by systemic viral replication, immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses. These pathological features of the disease contribute to a number of systemic dysfunctions including hemorrhages, edema, coagulation abnormalities and, ultimately, multiorgan failure and shock, often resulting in death. A detailed understanding of the pathological processes that lead to this devastating disease remains elusive, a fact that contributes to the lack of licensed vaccines or effective therapeutics. This article will review the clinical aspects of MHF and discuss the pathogenesis and possible options for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:22046196

  9. Dryander of Marburg and the first textbook of neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; Ragen, W; Foster, R

    1990-03-01

    Born in Wetter, Germany, in 1500, Johannes Eichmann (Dryander) studied medicine and anatomy at the University of Paris from 1528 to 1534. In 1535, he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Marburg. During the next year he held two public dissections, and in 1536 he was the author of the first text illustrating a Galenic dissection of the human brain. An expanded edition of this early book, the Anatomiae pars prior, was published in 1537. These texts represented an important transition from the dogma of medieval scholasticism to the precise observations of Vesalius. The books depicted the brain in eight figures, with four additional plates describing the skull, skull base, and cranial sutures. Detailed illustrations of the dura mater, cerebral cortex, and posterior fossa structures with clear, but inaccurate, relationship to the cranial nerves demonstrated Dryander's reliance on his own dissections. In 1542, he published a translated edition of Mundinus' anatomy. As was common at that time, the text plagiarized a portion of Vesalius' Tabulae sex, which resulted in the famous anatomist's anger. Despite this, Dryander continued to write on medical subjects as well as mathematics and astrology until his death in 1560. Because he was a progenitor of rational scientific thought, his earlier books represented an important advance in the progression to modern anatomic description and illustration.

  10. Analysis of longitudinal momentum distribution data of 26-29P isotopes in stripping reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Pardeep; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-02-01

    The orbital occupancy of the stripped proton in the phosphors isotopes with mass number 26-29 have been determined through the analysis of longitudinal momentum distributions (LMDs) of 25-28Si core fragments coming from 9Be(26-28P,25-27Si)X and 12C(29P,28Si)Y stripping reactions at high energies. It has been found that the probability of occupying d-orbital by the stripped proton is 40-60%, 30-50%, 30-50% and 0-20% in 26-29P isotopes, respectively. The effects of Coulomb barrier for the possibility of halo structure in proton-rich nuclei has also been examined and found that it decreases the chance of possessing halo structure in proton-rich nuclei.

  11. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  12. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-12-15

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF.

  13. International Conference on Thermoelectrics(16th), Proceedings, ICT 󈨥 Held in Dresden, Germany on August 26-29, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-08

    system of trans- port coefficients in the strong magnetic field to estimate effi- ciency of the Nernst element on a few years ago [ 4 ]. As the first...model for other configu- rations ( 4 /)n of rare- earth ground states. Introduction There is a need to find new materials suitable for ther- moelectric...other rare earths . So we have started a series of calculations to cal- culate the Seebeck coefficient for the general configura- tion ( 4 /)n where the

  14. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers.

  15. Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Vossen, Ann C.T.M.; van Doornum, Gerard J.J.; Günther, Stephan; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Verduin, Kees M.; Dittrich, Sabine; Emmerich, Petra; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinary response team was convened to perform a structured risk assessment, perform risk classification of contacts, issue guidelines for follow-up, provide information, and monitor the crisis response. In total, 130 contacts were identified (66 classified as high risk and 64 as low risk) and monitored for 21 days after their last possible exposure. The case raised questions specific to international travel, postexposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus, and laboratory testing of contacts with fever. We present lessons learned and results of the follow-up serosurvey of contacts and focus on factors that prevented overreaction during an event with a high public health impact. PMID:19751577

  16. Response to imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, the Netherland.

    PubMed

    Timen, Aura; Koopmans, Marion P G; Vossen, Ann C T M; van Doornum, Gerard J J; Günther, Stephan; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Verduin, Kees M; Dittrich, Sabine; Emmerich, Petra; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; van Dissel, Jaap T; Coutinho, Roel A

    2009-08-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinary response team was convened to perform a structured risk assessment, perform risk classification of contacts, issue guidelines for follow-up, provide information, and monitor the crisis response. In total, 130 contacts were identified (66 classified as high risk and 64 as low risk) and monitored for 21 days after their last possible exposure. The case raised questions specific to international travel, postexposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus, and laboratory testing of contacts with fever. We present lessons learned and results of the follow-up serosurvey of contacts and focus on factors that prevented overreaction during an event with a high public health impact.

  17. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  18. [Ebola and Marburg viruses: the humans strike back].

    PubMed

    Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Ottmann Terrangle, Michèle; Volchkov, Viktor

    2006-04-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are the causative agents of rapidly progressive hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates. Pre- or post-exposure treatments against the diseases are currently not available for human use. In the field, establishment of strict quarantine measures preventing further virus transmission are still the only way to fight the infections. However, our knowledge of Ebola and Marburg viruses has markedly increased as a result of two recent discoveries discussed in this review. Chandran et al. have elucidated the mechanism by which Ebola GP is converted to a fusion-active form. Infectivity of Ebola virus was shown to be dependent on the cleavage of GP by cellular endosomal proteases, cathepsin B and L, thus opening new therapeutic approaches options. As for Jones SM et al., they have successfully vaccinated monkeys with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing Ebola or Marburg virus surface glycoprotein GP, a promising vaccine approach.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of the Immune Response to Marburg Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Judy; Caballero, Ignacio S.; Garamszegi, Sara; Malhotra, Shikha; Lin, Kenny; Hensley, Lisa; Goff, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marburg virus is a genetically simple RNA virus that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The mechanism of pathogenesis of the infection is not well understood, but it is well accepted that pathogenesis is appreciably driven by a hyperactive immune response. To better understand the overall response to Marburg virus challenge, we undertook a transcriptomic analysis of immune cells circulating in the blood following aerosol exposure of rhesus macaques to a lethal dose of Marburg virus. Using two-color microarrays, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were collected throughout the course of infection from 1 to 9 days postexposure, representing the full course of the infection. The response followed a 3-stage induction (early infection, 1 to 3 days postexposure; midinfection, 5 days postexposure; late infection, 7 to 9 days postexposure) that was led by a robust innate immune response. The host response to aerosolized Marburg virus was evident at 1 day postexposure. Analysis of cytokine transcripts that were overexpressed during infection indicated that previously unanalyzed cytokines are likely induced in response to exposure to Marburg virus and further suggested that the early immune response is skewed toward a Th2 response that would hamper the development of an effective antiviral immune response early in disease. Late infection events included the upregulation of coagulation-associated factors. These findings demonstrate very early host responses to Marburg virus infection and provide a rich data set for identification of factors expressed throughout the course of infection that can be investigated as markers of infection and targets for therapy. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus causes a severe infection that is associated with high mortality and hemorrhage. The disease is associated with an immune response that contributes to the lethality of the disease. In this study, we investigated how the

  20. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (8th, Madrid, Spain, June 26-29, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Olga Cristina, Ed.; Boticario, Jesus Gonzalez, Ed.; Romero, Cristobal, Ed.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola, Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Mitros, Piotr, Ed.; Luna, Jose Maria, Ed.; Mihaescu, Cristian, Ed.; Moreno, Pablo, Ed.; Hershkovitz, Arnon, Ed.; Ventura, Sebastian, Ed.; Desmarais, Michel, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015) is held under auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society at UNED, the National University for Distance Education in Spain. The conference held in Madrid, Spain, July 26-29, 2015, follows the seven previous editions (London 2014, Memphis 2013, Chania 2012,…

  1. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

    2007-08-22

    Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.

  2. Distribution of Marburg virus in Africa: An evolutionary approach.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Sorrentino, Chiara; Veo, Carla; Fiaschi, Lisa; Gioffrè, Sonia; Ebranati, Erika; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin and geographical dispersion of Marburg virus, the first member of the Filoviridae family to be discovered. Seventy-three complete genome sequences of Marburg virus isolated from animals and humans were retrieved from public databases and analysed using a Bayesian phylogeographical framework. The phylogenetic tree of the Marburg virus data set showed two significant evolutionary lineages: Ravn virus (RAVV) and Marburg virus (MARV). MARV divided into two main clades; clade A included isolates from Uganda (five from the European epidemic in 1967), Kenya (1980) and Angola (from the epidemic of 2004-2005); clade B included most of the isolates obtained during the 1999-2000 epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and a group of Ugandan isolates obtained in 2007-2009. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of the whole genome was 3.3×10(-4) substitutions/site/year (credibility interval 2.0-4.8). The MARV strain had a mean root time of the most recent common ancestor of 177.9years ago (YA) (95% highest posterior density 87-284), thus indicating that it probably originated in the mid-XIX century, whereas the RAVV strain had a later origin dating back to a mean 33.8 YA. The most probable location of the MARV ancestor was Uganda (state posterior probability, spp=0.41), whereas that of the RAVV ancestor was Kenya (spp=0.71). There were significant migration rates from Uganda to the DRC (Bayes Factor, BF=42.0) and in the opposite direction (BF=5.7). Our data suggest that Uganda may have been the cradle of Marburg virus in Africa.

  3. Flood of June 26-29, 2006, Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River Basins, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.; Szabo, Carolyn O.

    2009-01-01

    A stalled frontal system caused tropical moisture to be funneled northward into New York, causing severe flooding in the Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River basins during June 26-29, 2006. Rainfall totals for this multi-day event ranged from 2 to 3 inches to greater than 13 inches in southern New York. The storm and flooding claimed four lives in New York, destroyed or damaged thousands of homes and businesses, and closed hundreds of roads and highways. Thousands of people evacuated their homes as floodwaters reached new record elevations at many locations within the three basins. Twelve New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas, more than 15,500 residents applied for disaster assistance, and millions of dollars in damages resulted from the flooding. Disaster-recovery assistance for individuals and businesses adversely affected by the floods of June 2006 reached more than $227 million. The National Weather Service rainfall station at Slide Mountain recorded storm totals of more than 8 inches of rainfall, and the stations at Walton and Fishs Eddy, NY, recorded storm totals of greater than 13 inches of rainfall. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging stations at Mohawk River at Little Falls, West Branch Delaware River at Hale Eddy, and Susquehanna River at Vestal, NY, among others, recorded peak discharges of 35,000 ft3/s, 43,400 ft3/s, and 119,000 ft3/s respectively, with greater than 100-year recurrence intervals. The peak water-surface elevation 21.47 ft and the peak discharge 189,000 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, at the Delaware River at Port Jervis stream-gaging station were the highest recorded since the flood of August 1955. At the Susquehanna River at Conklin, NY, stream-gaging station, which has been in operation since 1912, the peak water-surface elevation 25.02 ft and peak discharge 76,800 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, exceeded the previous period-of-record maximums that were set during the flood of March 1936. Documented

  4. Phylogenetic assessment of filoviruses: how many lineages of Marburg virus?

    PubMed

    Peterson, A Townsend; Holder, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    Filoviruses have to date been considered as consisting of one diverse genus (Ebola viruses) and one undifferentiated genus (Marburg virus). We reconsider this idea by means of detailed phylogenetic analyses of sequence data available for the Filoviridae: using coalescent simulations, we ascertain that two Marburg isolates (termed the "RAVN" strain) represent a quite-distinct lineage that should be considered in studies of biogeography and host associations, and may merit recognition at the level of species. In contrast, filovirus isolates recently obtained from bat tissues are not distinct from previously known strains, and should be considered as drawn from the same population. Implications for understanding the transmission geography and host associations of these viruses are discussed.

  5. Development of Treatment Strategies to Combat Ebola and Marburg Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-02

    consequences of infection with these viruses have been pursued as potential biological weapons. To date, there are no therapeutic options available for the...prophylaxis or treatment of infected individuals. The recognition that Ebola and Marburg viruses may be exploited as biological weapons has resulted...epi- demic regions and facets of biological weapons mandate the development of prophylaxis as additional therapeutic options [4]. On the course to

  6. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    PubMed

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  7. Marburg haemorrhagic fever in returning travellers: an overview aimed at clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M P; Timen, A; Vossen, A C T M; van Dissel, J T

    2015-06-22

    Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever (MARV HF) is a dramatic disease that can occur in a traveller returning from an area where the virus is endemic. In this article, we provide an overview of MARV HF as an imported infection with an emphasis on clinical aspects. Although late features such as rash, signs of haemorrhagic diathesis and liver necrosis may point to the diagnosis, the initial clinical picture is non-specific. If in this early phase the patient's epidemiological exposure history is compatible with MARV HF, the patient should be isolated and managed according to viral haemorrhagic fever protocol and RT-PCR should be performed on the patient's blood as soon as possible to rule out MARV HF (or other possible viral haemorrhagic fevers). In severe cases, direct electron microscopy of blood in specialized centres (e.g. Bernhard-Nocht Institute in Hamburg, Germany) may be considered if the result of the RT-PCR is not readily available. Adequate diagnostics and empirical treatment for other acute life-threatening illnesses should not be withheld while test results are awaited, but all management and diagnostics should be weighed against the risks of nosocomial transmission.

  8. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-10-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with /sup 60/CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of /sup 60/CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents.

  9. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-10-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with /sup 60/Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of /sup 60/Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents.

  10. Multidistrict Outbreak of Marburg Virus Disease-Uganda, 2012.

    PubMed

    Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E

    2015-10-01

    In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.

  11. Sequencing ebola and marburg viruses genomes using microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Justin; Woelfel, Roman; Gardner, Warren; Ibrahim, Sofi

    2016-08-01

    Periodic outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers have occurred in Africa over the past four decades with case fatality rates reaching as high as 90%. The latest Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014 raised concerns that these infections can spread across continents and pose serious health risks. Early and accurate identification of the causative agents is necessary to contain outbreaks. In this report, we describe sequencing-by-hybridization (SBH) technique using high density microarrays to identify Ebola and Marburg viruses. The microarrays were designed to interrogate the sequences of entire viral genomes, and were evaluated with three species of Ebolavirus (Reston, Sudan, and Zaire), and three strains of Marburgvirus (Angola, Musoke, and Ravn). The results showed that the consensus sequences generated with four or more hybridizations had 92.1-98.9% accuracy over 95-99% of the genomes. Additionally, with SBH microarrays it was possible to distinguish between different strains of the Lake Victoria Marburgvirus. J. Med. Virol. 88:1303-1308, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever - Colorado, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-12-18

    Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is a rare, viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF); the causative agent is an RNA virus in the family Filoviridae, and growing evidence demonstrates that fruit bats are the natural reservoir of Marburg virus (MARV). On January 9, 2008, an infectious disease physician notified the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) of a case of unexplained febrile illness requiring hospitalization in a woman who had returned from travel in Uganda. Testing of early convalescent serum demonstrated no evidence of infection with agents that cause tropical febrile illnesses, including VHF. Six months later, in July 2008, the patient requested repeat testing after she learned of the death from MHF of a Dutch tourist who had visited the same bat-roosting cave as the patient, the Python Cave in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. The convalescent serologic testing revealed evidence of prior infection with MARV, and MARV RNA was detected in the archived early convalescent serum. A public health investigation did not identify illness consistent with secondary MHF transmission among her contacts, and no serologic evidence of infection was detected among the six tested of her eight tour companions. The patient might have acquired MARV infection through exposure to bat secretions or excretions while visiting the Python Cave. Travelers should be aware of the risk for acquiring MHF in caves or mines inhabited by bats in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Health-care providers should consider VHF among travelers returning from endemic areas who experience unexplained febrile illness.

  13. Generation and characterization of protective antibodies to Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Froude, Jeffrey W; Pelat, Thibaut; Miethe, Sebastian; Zak, Samantha E; Wec, Anna Z; Chandran, Kartik; Brannan, Jennifer Mary; Bakken, Russell R; Hust, Michael; Thullier, Philippe; Dye, John M

    2017-03-13

    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) have been a source of epidemics and outbreaks for several decades. We present here the generation and characterization of the first protective antibodies specific for wild-type MARV. Non-human primates (NHP), cynomolgus macaques, were immunized with viral-replicon particles expressing the glycoproteins (GP) of MARV (Ci67 isolate). An antibody fragment (single-chain variable fragment, scFv) phage display library was built after four immunogen injections, and screened against the GP1-649 of MARV. Sequencing of 192 selected clones identified 18 clones with distinct VH and VL sequences. Four of these recombinant antibodies (R4A1, R4B11, R4G2, and R3F6) were produced in the scFv-Fc format for in vivo studies. Mice that were challenged with wild-type Marburg virus (Ci67 isolate) receiving 100 µg of scFv-Fc on days -1, 1 and 3 demonstrated protective efficacies ranging from 75-100%. The amino-acid sequences of the scFv-Fcs are similar to those of their human germline counterparts, sharing an identity ranging between 68 and 100% to human germline immunoglobulin. These results demonstrate for the first time that recombinant antibodies offer protection against wild-type MARV, and suggest they may be promising candidates for further therapeutic development especially due to their human homology.

  14. Prospects for immunisation against Marburg and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Bausch, Daniel G; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    For more than 30 years the filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, have been associated with periodic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever that produce severe and often fatal disease. The filoviruses are endemic primarily in resource-poor regions in Central Africa and are also potential agents of bioterrorism. Although no vaccines or antiviral drugs for Marburg or Ebola are currently available, remarkable progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines against filoviruses in nonhuman primate models. Due to the generally remote locations of filovirus outbreaks, a single-injection vaccine is desirable. Among the prospective vaccines that have shown efficacy in nonhuman primate models of filoviral hemorrhagic fever, two candidates, one based on a replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and the other on a recombinant VSV (rVSV), were shown to provide complete protection to nonhuman primates when administered as a single injection. The rVSV-based vaccine has also shown utility when administered for postexposure prophylaxis against filovirus infections. A VSV-based Ebola vaccine was recently used to manage a potential laboratory exposure.

  15. Crystal Structure of the Marburg Virus VP35 Oligomerization Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, Jessica F.; Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Urata, Sarah M.; Li, Sheng; Tickle, Ian J.; Bricogne, Gérard; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Sundquist, W. I.

    2016-11-09

    ABSTRACT

    Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a genus distinct from that of Ebola virus (EBOV) (generaMarburgvirusandEbolavirus, respectively). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase cofactor, a viral protein chaperone, and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain. These structures and accompanying biophysical characterization suggest that MARV VP35 is a trimer. In contrast, EBOV VP35 is likely a tetramer in solution. Differences in the oligomeric state of this protein may explain mechanistic differences in replication and immune evasion observed for MARV and EBOV.

    IMPORTANCEMarburg virus can cause severe disease, with up to 90% human lethality. Its genome is concise, only producing seven proteins. One of the proteins, VP35, is essential for replication of the viral genome and for evasion of host immune responses. VP35 oligomerizes (self-assembles) in order to function, yet the structure by which it assembles has not been visualized. Here we present two crystal structures of this oligomerization domain. In both structures, three copies of VP35 twist about each other to form a coiled coil. This trimeric assembly is in contrast to tetrameric predictions for VP35 of Ebola virus and to known structures of homologous proteins in the measles, mumps, and Nipah viruses. Distinct oligomeric states of the Marburg and Ebola virus VP35 proteins may explain differences between them in polymerase function and immune evasion. These findings may provide a more accurate understanding of the mechanisms governing

  16. Differential requirements for clathrin endocytic pathway components in cellular entry by Ebola and Marburg glycoprotein pseudovirions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J; Young, John A T

    2011-10-10

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was previously implicated as one of the cellular pathways involved in filoviral glycoprotein mediated viral entry into target cells. Here we have further dissected the requirements for different components of this pathway in Ebola versus Marburg virus glycoprotein (GP) mediated viral infection. Although a number of these components were involved in both cases; Ebola GP-dependent viral entry specifically required the cargo recognition proteins Eps15 and DAB2 as well as the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. In contrast, Marburg GP-mediated infection was independent of these three proteins and instead required beta-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). These findings have revealed an unexpected difference between the clathrin pathway requirements for Ebola GP versus Marburg GP pseudovirion infection. Anthrax toxin also uses a clathrin-, and ARRB1-dependent pathway for cellular entry, indicating that the mechanism used by Marburg GP pseudovirions may be more generally important for pathogen entry.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Marburg Virus VP35 Oligomerization Domain.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jessica F; Kirchdoerfer, Robert N; Urata, Sarah M; Li, Sheng; Tickle, Ian J; Bricogne, Gérard; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2017-01-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a genus distinct from that of Ebola virus (EBOV) (genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus, respectively). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase cofactor, a viral protein chaperone, and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain. These structures and accompanying biophysical characterization suggest that MARV VP35 is a trimer. In contrast, EBOV VP35 is likely a tetramer in solution. Differences in the oligomeric state of this protein may explain mechanistic differences in replication and immune evasion observed for MARV and EBOV.

  18. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition.

  19. Mechanism of Human Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Marburg Virus

    PubMed Central

    Flyak, Andrew I.; Ilinykh, Philipp A.; Murin, Charles D.; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L.; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Slaughter, James C.; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Ward, Andrew B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of Antibody-GP complexes reveals that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. PMID:25723164

  20. Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Matthias; Grein, Thomas; Roth, Cathy; Swanepoel, Robert; Libande, Modeste L.; Talarmin, Antoine; Bertherat, Eric; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Tugume, Ben; Colebunders, Robert; Kondé, Kader M.; Pirard, Patricia; Olinda, Loku L.; Rodier, Guénaël R.; Campbell, Patricia; Tomori, Oyewale; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted two antibody surveys to assess risk factors for Marburg hemorrhagic fever in an area of confirmed Marburg virus transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Questionnaires were administered and serum samples tested for Marburg-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifteen (2%) of 912 participants in a general village cross-sectional antibody survey were positive for Marburg immunoglobulin G antibody. Thirteen (87%) of these 15 were men who worked in the local gold mines. Working as a miner (odds ratio [OR] 13.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1 to 62.1) and receiving injections (OR 7.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 33.2) were associated with a positive antibody result. All 103 participants in a targeted antibody survey of healthcare workers were antibody negative. Primary transmission of Marburg virus to humans likely occurred via exposure to a still unidentified reservoir in the local mines. Secondary transmission appears to be less common with Marburg virus than with Ebola virus, the other known filovirus. PMID:14720391

  1. Solar Control on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    During November 26-29,2003 XMM-Newton observed X-ray emissions from Jupiter for 69 hours. The 0.7-2.0 keV X-ray disk of Jupiter is observed to be brightest at the subsolar point, and limb darkening is seen in the 0.2-2.0 keV and 0.7-2.0 keV images. We present simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and solar X-rays measured by the GOES, SOHO/SEM, and TIMED/SEE satellites. The solar X-ray flares occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun are matched by corresponding features in the Jovian X- rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emissions from Jovian low-latitudes are solar X-rays scattered and fluoresced from the planet's upper atmosphere, and confirm that the Sun directly controls the non-auroral X-rays fiom Jupiter's disk. Our study suggest that Jovian equatorial X-rays; during certain Jupiter phase, can be used to predict the occurrence of solar flare on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.

  2. Evasion of interferon responses by Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Basler, Christopher F; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2009-09-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause frequently lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. These infections induce potent cytokine production, yet these host responses fail to prevent systemic virus replication. Consistent with this, filoviruses have been found to encode proteins VP35 and VP24 that block host interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and inhibit signaling downstream of the IFN-alpha/beta and the IFN-gamma receptors, respectively. VP35, which is a component of the viral nucleocapsid complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA synthesis, acts as a pseudosubstrate for the cellular kinases IKK-epsilon and TBK-1, which phosphorylate and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7). VP35 also promotes SUMOylation of IRF-7, repressing IFN gene transcription. In addition, VP35 is a dsRNA-binding protein, and mutations that disrupt dsRNA binding impair VP35 IFN-antagonist activity while leaving its RNA replication functions intact. The phenotypes of recombinant EBOV bearing mutant VP35s unable to inhibit IFN-alpha/beta demonstrate that VP35 IFN-antagonist activity is critical for full virulence of these lethal pathogens. The structure of the VP35 dsRNA-binding domain, which has recently become available, is expected to provide insight into how VP35 IFN-antagonist and dsRNA-binding functions are related. The EBOV VP24 protein inhibits IFN signaling through an interaction with select host cell karyopherin-alpha proteins, preventing the nuclear import of otherwise activated STAT1. It remains to be determined to what extent VP24 may also modulate the nuclear import of other host cell factors and to what extent this may influence the outcome of infection. Notably, the Marburg virus VP24 protein does not detectably block STAT1 nuclear import, and, unlike EBOV, MARV infection inhibits STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. Thus, despite their similarities, there are fundamental differences by which

  3. Transmission potential and design of adequate control measures for Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ajelli, Marco; Merler, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Marburg hemorrhagic fever is rare yet among the most severe diseases affecting humans, with case fatality ratio even higher than 80%. By analyzing the largest documented Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic, which occurred in Angola in 2005 and caused 329 deaths, and data on viral load over time in non-human primates, we make an assessment of transmissibility and severity of the disease. We also give insight into the control of new Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics to inform appropriate health responses. We estimated the distribution of the generation time to have mean 9 days (95%CI: 8.2-10 days) and standard deviation 5.4 days (95%CI: 3.9-8.6 days), and the basic reproduction number to be R(0) = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.66). Model simulations suggest that a timely isolation of cases, starting no later than 2-3 days after symptoms onset, is sufficient to contain an outbreak. Our analysis reveals that Marburg hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a relatively small reproduction number and by a relatively long generation time. Such factors, along with the extremely high severity and fatality, support the rare occurrence of large epidemics in human populations. Our results also support the effectiveness of social distancing measures--case isolation in particular--to contain or at least to mitigate an emerging outbreak. This work represents an advance in the knowledge required to manage a potential Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic.

  4. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Marburg virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Weiss, Daniel J.; Brady, Oliver J.; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marburg virus disease (MVD) describes a viral haemorrhagic fever responsible for a number of outbreaks across eastern and southern Africa. It is a zoonotic disease, with the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus) identified as a reservoir host. Infection is suspected to result from contact between this reservoir and human populations, with occasional secondary human-to-human transmission. Methods Index cases of previous human outbreaks were identified and reports of infection in animals recorded. These data were modelled within a species distribution modelling framework in order to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential of MVD across sub-Saharan Africa. Results Areas suitable for zoonotic transmission of MVD are predicted in 27 countries inhabited by 105 million people. Regions are suggested for exploratory surveys to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease, as well as for directing efforts to communicate the risk of practices enhancing zoonotic contact. Conclusions These maps can inform future contingency and preparedness strategies for MVD control, especially where secondary transmission is a risk. Coupling this risk map with patient travel histories could be used to guide the differential diagnosis of highly transmissible pathogens, enabling more rapid response to outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever. PMID:25820266

  5. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Marburg Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Eri; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Matsuno, Keita; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in primates. Earlier studies demonstrated that antibodies to particular epitopes on the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV enhanced virus infectivity in vitro. Methods. To investigate this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in MARV infection, we produced mouse antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the GPs of MARV strains Angola and Musoke. Results. The infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with Angola GP in K562 cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of Angola GP antisera, whereas only minimal ADE activity was seen with Musoke GP antisera. This difference correlated with the percentage of hybridoma clones producing infectivity-enhancing mAbs. Using mAbs to MARV GP, we identified 3 distinct ADE epitopes in the mucinlike region on Angola GP. Interestingly, some of these antibodies bound to both Angola and Musoke GPs but showed significantly higher ADE activity for strain Angola. ADE activity depended on epitopes in the mucinlike region and glycine at amino acid position 547, present in the Angola but absent in the Musoke GP. Conclusions. These results suggest a possible link between ADE and MARV pathogenicity and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying ADE entry of filoviruses. PMID:21987779

  6. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most-promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses a single filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). Importantly, a single injection of blended rVSV-based filovirus vaccines was shown to completely protect nonhuman primates against Marburg virus and 3 different species of Ebola virus. These rVSV-based vaccines have also shown utility when administered as a postexposure treatment against filovirus infections, and a rVSV-based Ebola virus vaccine was recently used to treat a potential laboratory exposure. Here, we review the history of rVSV-based vaccines and pivotal animal studies showing their utility in combating Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

  7. Oral shedding of Marburg virus in experimentally infected Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    PubMed

    Amman, Brian R; Jones, Megan E B; Sealy, Tara K; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Schuh, Amy J; Bird, Brian H; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Marburg virus (Marburg marburgvirus; MARV) causes sporadic outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in Africa. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of MARV directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern Uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted MHF from 2007-08. Despite learning much about the ecology of MARV through extensive field investigations, there remained unanswered questions such as determining the primary routes of virus shedding and the severity of disease, if any, caused by MARV in infected bats. To answer these questions and others, we experimentally infected captive-bred R. aegyptiacus with MARV under high (biosafety level 4) containment. These experiments have shown infection profiles consistent with R. aegyptiacus being a bona fide natural reservoir host for MARV and demonstrated routes of viral shedding capable of infecting humans and other animals.

  8. A clinical guide to viral haemorrhagic fevers: Ebola, Marburg and Lassa.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The viral haemorrhagic fevers are a group of diseases that share many clinical features. Ebola, Marburg and Lassa are diseases that cause a relatively small number of deaths globally, but pose special risks to medical staff due to the ease of transmission, and can have a profound impact to the communities they affect. This article gives a brief overview of diseases caused by the Ebola, Marburg and Lassa viruses. It gives some practical advice to the clinician on the diagnosis and management of these diseases.

  9. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Eri; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF) are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus), respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using non-human primates (NHPs) and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics. PMID:24046765

  10. The Disappearing Fourth Wall: John Marburger, Science Policy, and the SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert

    2015-04-01

    John H. Marburger (1941-2011) was a skilled science administrator who had a fresh and unique approach to science policy and science leadership. His posthumously published book Science Policy up Close contains recollections of key science policy episodes in which he participated or observed closely. One was the administration of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC); Marburger was Chairman of the Universities Research Association, the group charged with managing the SSC, from 1988-1994. Many accounts of the SSC saga attribute its demise to a combination of transitory factors: poor management, rising cost estimates, the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus of the Cold War threat, complaints by ``small science'' that the SSC's ``big science'' was consuming their budget, Congress's desire to cut spending, unwarranted contract regulations imposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to environmental lapses at nuclear weapons laboratories, and so forth. Marburger tells a subtler story whose implications for science policy are more significant and far-reaching. The story involves changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects that reach back to management reforms introduced by the administration of Presidents Johnson, Nixon, and Carter in the 1960s and 1970s. This experience impressed Marburger with the inevitability of public oversight of large scientific projects, and with the need for planners of such projects to establish and make public a cost and schedule tracking system that would model the project's progress and expenditures.

  11. [Detection and antigenic characteristics of the recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of Lassa and Marburg viruses].

    PubMed

    Vladyko, A S; Scheslenok, E P; Fomina, E G; Semizhon, P A; Ignat'ev, G M; Shkolina, T V; Kras'ko, A G; Semenov, S F; Vinokurov, N V

    2012-01-01

    Two plasmid vectors, which allow the recombinant polypeptides of Lassa and Marburg viruses to be expressed in prokaryotic cells E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), were produced. The two recombinant polypeptides are able to bind specific antibodies. This provides an opportunity to use them as antigenic components of immunoassay diagnostic test kits.

  12. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50 , were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals' lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema.

  13. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  14. Live Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine Protects Nonhuman Primates Against Ebola and Marburg Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-05

    Marburg virus (MARV). Here, we developed replication -competent vaccines against EBOV and MARV based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis...No evidence of EBOV or MARV replication was detected in any of the protected animals after challenge. Our data suggest that these vaccine...number of efforts have focused on developing vaccines against MARV. Alphavirus replicons expressing MARV proteins protected cynomolgus monkeys from

  15. Tribunal on the policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988: verdict. Permanent Peoples' Tribunal.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the American Association of Jurists, the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal was called upon to consider violations of international law of the self-determination of peoples by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as well as to make proposals for change. The Tribunal declared the request to be admissible, in accordance with Article 3 of the Statutes; therefore, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were informed, in application of the provisions of Articles 14 and 15. The Tribunal convened in West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988. Presented here is the report of the Tribunal, including its verdict and proposals for action.

  16. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'' taught in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 26--29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (S-101) which was conducted October 26--29, 1992 at EG G Measurement, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide examination results, and recommendations for improvement. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments and Appendix B presents a copy of the course evaluation form that students were asked to complete.

  17. Evaluation of S-101 course ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE`` taught in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 26--29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (S-101) which was conducted October 26--29, 1992 at EG&G Measurement, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide examination results, and recommendations for improvement. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments and Appendix B presents a copy of the course evaluation form that students were asked to complete.

  18. An autopsy case of the Marburg variant of multiple sclerosis (acute multiple sclerosis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makiko; Kawasaki, Hideya; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Terada, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchida, Takashi; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Kono, Satoshi; Komori, Takashi; Baba, Satoshi; Kira, Jun-ichi; Miyajima, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    We herein report an autopsy case of the Marburg variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). A 29-year-old woman developed acute and progressive neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of MS was suspected based on the patient's clinical background and brain MRI findings and the lack of evidence of malignancy on a brain biopsy. Despite the administration of typical treatment for MS, a fatal outcome occurred three months after disease onset. The autopsy revealed multiple inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. In addition, two noteworthy histopathological features were observed compared with prototypical MS. We evaluate the pathogenic differences between the Marburg type and prototypical MS by discussing the neuropathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of our case.

  19. Quinoxaline-based inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg VP40 egress.

    PubMed

    Loughran, H Marie; Han, Ziying; Wrobel, Jay E; Decker, Sarah E; Ruthel, Gordon; Freedman, Bruce D; Harty, Ronald N; Reitz, Allen B

    2016-08-01

    We prepared a series of quinoxalin-2-mercapto-acetyl-urea analogs and evaluated them for their ability to inhibit viral egress in our Marburg and Ebola VP40 VLP budding assays in HEK293T cells. We also evaluated selected compounds in our bimolecular complementation assay (BiMC) to detect and visualize a Marburg mVP40-Nedd4 interaction in live mammalian cells. Antiviral activity was assessed for selected compounds using a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (M40 virus) that expresses the EBOV VP40 PPxY L-domain. Finally selected compounds were evaluated in several ADME assays to have an early assessment of their drug properties. Our compounds had low nM potency in these assays (e.g., compounds 21, 24, 26, 39), and had good human liver microsome stability, as well as little or no inhibition of P450 3A4.

  20. [Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment].

    PubMed

    Borisevich, I V; Markin, V A; Firsova, I V; Evseev, A A; Khamitov, R A; Maksimov, V A

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the biological and epidemiological properties of Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, and Machupo viruses suggests that they are of social importance for health care authorities. The studies have created prerequisites to the development of reliable biosafety means against these pathogens. Particular emphasis is laid on the methods for infection diagnosis and on the studies to design specific protective agents--immunoglobulins and inactivated vaccines.

  1. [An experimental study of the contact transmission of the Marburg virus].

    PubMed

    Pokhodiaev, V A; Gonchar, N I; Pshenichnov, V A

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in guinea pigs and M. rhesus monkeys showed the possibility of contact infection of animals with Marburg virus. Secondary infection occurred most intensively when the monkeys were kept together but was also shown to be possible when the animals were separated but placed in the direction of the air flow from the sick monkeys as well as by "nose-to-nose" contact excluding the alimentary mode of transmission and the role of the agent excreted in the urine.

  2. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Evan C.; Pratt, William D.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C.; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E.; Goff, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule—a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis. PMID:27043611

  3. Case definition for Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers: a complex challenge for epidemiologists and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pittalis, Silvia; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Lanini, Simone; Nisii, Carla; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a challenge for public health because of their epidemic potential, and their possible use as bioterrorism agents poses particular concern. In 1999 the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a case definition for VHFs, subsequently adopted by other international institutions with the aim of early detection of initial cases/outbreaks in western countries. We applied this case definition to reports of Ebola and Marburg virus infections to estimate its sensitivity to detect cases of the disease. We analyzed clinical descriptions of 795 reported cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever: only 58.5% of patients met the proposed case definition. A similar figure was obtained reviewing 169 cases of Marburg diseases, of which only 64.5% were in accordance with the case definition. In conclusion, the WHO case definition for hemorrhagic fevers is too specific and has poor sensitivity both for case finding during Ebola or Marburg outbreaks, and for early detection of suspected cases in western countries. It can lead to a hazardous number of false negatives and its use should be discouraged for early detection of cases.

  4. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Evan C; Pratt, William D; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E; Goff, Arthur J

    2016-03-30

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule-a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis.

  5. The cytoplasmic domain of Marburg virus GP modulates early steps of viral infection.

    PubMed

    Mittler, Eva; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Hartlieb, Bettina; Davey, Robert; Becker, Stephan

    2011-08-01

    Marburg virus infection is mediated by the only viral surface protein, GP, a trimeric type I transmembrane protein. While its ectodomain mediates receptor binding and fusion of viral and cellular membranes and its transmembrane domain is essential for the recruitment of GP into budding particles by the matrix protein VP40, the role of the short cytoplasmic domain has remained enigmatic. Here we show that a missing cytoplasmic domain did not impair trimerization, intracellular transport, or incorporation of GP into infectious Marburg virus-like particles (iVLPs) but altered the glycosylation pattern as well as the recognition of GP by neutralizing antibodies. These results suggest that subtle conformational changes took place in the ectodomain. To investigate the function of the cytoplasmic domain during viral entry, a novel entry assay was established to monitor the uptake of filamentous VLPs by measuring the occurrence of luciferase-labeled viral nucleocapsids in the cytosol of target cells. This quantitative assay showed that the entry process of VLPs incorporating GP missing its cytoplasmic domain (GPΔCD) was impaired. Supporting these results, iVLPs incorporating a mutant GP missing its cytoplasmic domain were significantly less infectious than iVLPs containing wild-type GP. Taken together, the data indicate that the absence of the short cytoplasmic domain of Marburg virus GP may induce conformational changes in the ectodomain which impact the filoviral entry process.

  6. Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy: a review and management considerations for filovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bebell, Lisa M; Riley, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    The largest-ever recorded outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever is ongoing. As a result of the epidemic and rural nature of outbreaks, little is published about the Filovirus infections Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy. This review of viral hemorrhagic fever focusing on Marburg and Ebola uses knowledge of disease in nonpregnant individuals and pregnancy-specific data to inform management for pregnant women. Filovirus infection presentation is similar between pregnant and nonpregnant patients, although infections may be more severe in pregnancy. Although labeled as hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg and Ebola do not commonly cause gross bleeding and should be conceptualized as diseases of high gastrointestinal losses. Early, aggressive supportive care is the mainstay of Filovirus infection management with massive fluid resuscitation as the key management principle. Patients often require 5-10 L or more per day of intravenous or oral fluid to maintain circulating blood volume in the setting of ongoing gastrointestinal loss. Fluid shifts warrant aggressive monitoring and correction of potassium levels and acid-base disturbances to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and metabolic complications. Regardless of maternal survival, fetal loss rates are nearly 100% in Filovirus infection, likely resulting from unchecked transplacental and hematogenous viral spread. High fetal loss rates support the placenta as a difficult-to-eradicate Filovirus infection reservoir. In conclusion, the management of Filovirus infection in pregnancy should focus on stabilizing the mother with intensive monitoring and aggressive fluid and electrolyte repletion as well as maintaining strict infection control to minimize transmission to others.

  7. Using IRI and GSM TIP model results as environment for HF radio wave propagation model during the geomagnetic storm occurred on September 26-29, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, D. S.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Zakharov, V. E.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Nosikov, I. A.; Zhao, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyses the geomagnetic storm on September 26-29, 2011. We compare the calculation results obtained using the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) and IRI-2012 (Bilitza et al., 2014) model with ground-based ionosonde data of stations at different latitudes and longitudes. We examined physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of ionospheric effects during the main phase of geomagnetic storm that occurred at the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. We used numerical results obtained from IRI-2012 and GSM TIP models as propagation environment for HF signals from an equatorial transmitter during quiet and disturbed conditions. We used the model of HF radio wave propagation developed in I. Kant Baltic Federal University (BFU) that is based on the geometrical optics approximation. We compared the obtained radio paths in quiet conditions and during the main and recovery storm phases and evaluated radio wave attenuation in different media models.

  8. Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amman, Brian R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Sealy, Tara K.; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A.; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L.; Khristova, Marina L.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D.; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J.; Flietstra, Timothy D.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ∼2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (∼six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide

  9. Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection.

    PubMed

    Amman, Brian R; Carroll, Serena A; Reed, Zachary D; Sealy, Tara K; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L; Khristova, Marina L; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D; Crockett, Rebekah J Kent; Flietstra, Timothy D; Warfield, Kelly L; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ~2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (~six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a

  10. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  11. Haemorrhagic fever in Gabon. I. Incidence of Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses in Haut-Ogooué.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, B; Duquesnoy, P; Languillat, G; Saluzzo, J F; Georges, A; Gonzalez, J P; McCormick, J

    1982-01-01

    A serological enquiry aimed at determining the incidence of infection with Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses was conducted on the human population of the region of Haut-Ogooué (Gabon) and on primates. The results, obtained by the indirect immunofluorescence technique, showed that more than 6% of the human population had had contact with Ebola virus but no antibodies against Marburg or Lassa viruses were found. Most sera reacted to an Ebola antigen from a Zairian strain, but showed little or no reaction to an antigen from a Sudanese strain.

  12. Ebola Virus Disease and Marburg Disease in Pregnancy: A Review and Management Considerations for Filovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bebell, Lisa M.; Riley, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    The largest-ever recorded outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever is ongoing. Due to the epidemic and rural nature of outbreaks, little is published about the Filovirus infections Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy. This review of viral hemorrhagic fever focusing on Marburg and Ebola uses knowledge of disease in non-pregnant individuals and pregnancy-specific data to inform management for pregnant women. Filovirus infection presentation is similar between pregnant and non-pregnant patients, though infections may be more severe in pregnancy. Although labeled as hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg and Ebola do not commonly cause gross bleeding and should be conceptualized as diseases of high gastrointestinal losses. Early, aggressive supportive care is the mainstay of Filovirus infection management with massive fluid resuscitation as the key management principle. Patients often require 5–10 liters or more per day of intravenous or oral fluid to maintain circulating blood volume in the setting of ongoing gastrointestinal loss. Fluid shifts warrant aggressive monitoring and correction of potassium levels and acid-base disturbances to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and metabolic complications. Regardless of maternal survival, fetal loss rates are nearly 100% in Filovirus infection, likely resulting from unchecked transplacental and hematogenous viral spread. High fetal loss rates support the placenta as a difficult-to-eradicate Filovirus infection reservoir. In conclusion, the management of Filovirus infection in pregnancy should focus on stabilizing the mother with intensive monitoring and aggressive fluid and electrolyte repletion, as well as maintaining strict infection control to minimize transmission to others. PMID:26000499

  13. Filovirus pathogenesis and immune evasion: insights from Ebola virus and Marburg virus

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, members of the filovirus family, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in people, as highlighted by the latest Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Filovirus disease is characterized by uncontrolled virus replication and the activation of host responses that contribute to pathogenesis. Underlying these phenomena is the potent suppression of host innate antiviral responses, particularly the type I interferon response, by viral proteins, which allows high levels of viral replication. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms used by filoviruses to block host innate immunity and discuss the links between immune evasion and filovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26439085

  14. Filovirus pathogenesis and immune evasion: insights from Ebola virus and Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-11-01

    Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, members of the filovirus family, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in people, as highlighted by the latest Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Filovirus disease is characterized by uncontrolled virus replication and the activation of host responses that contribute to pathogenesis. Underlying these phenomena is the potent suppression of host innate antiviral responses, particularly the type I interferon response, by viral proteins, which allows high levels of viral replication. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms used by filoviruses to block host innate immunity and discuss the links between immune evasion and filovirus pathogenesis.

  15. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  16. Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Leslie D.; Willemse, Patricia; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; van Oudheusden, Danielle E.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Grol, Richard P.T.M.; Hulscher, Marlies E.J.L.; van Dissel, Jaap T.

    2012-01-01

    After an imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was reported in 2008 in the Netherlands, control measures to prevent transmission were implemented. To evaluate consequences of these measures, we administered a structured questionnaire to 130 contacts classified as either having high-risk or low-risk exposure to body fluids of the case-patient; 77 (59.2%) of 130 contacts responded. A total of 67 (87.0%) of 77 respondents agreed that temperature monitoring and reporting was necessary, significantly more often among high-risk than low-risk contacts (p<0.001). Strict compliance with daily temperature monitoring decreased from 80.5% (62/77) during week 1 to 66.2% (51/77) during week 3. Contacts expressed concern about development of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (58.4%, 45/77) and infecting a family member (40.2%, 31/77). High-risk contacts had significantly higher scores on psychological impact scales (p<0.001) during and after the monitoring period. Public health authorities should specifically address consequences of control measures on the daily life of contacts. PMID:22710186

  17. Differential transcriptional responses to Ebola and Marburg virus infection in bat and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Hölzer, Martin; Krähling, Verena; Amman, Fabian; Barth, Emanuel; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Carmelo, Victor A. O.; Collatz, Maximilian; Doose, Gero; Eggenhofer, Florian; Ewald, Jan; Fallmann, Jörg; Feldhahn, Lasse M.; Fricke, Markus; Gebauer, Juliane; Gruber, Andreas J.; Hufsky, Franziska; Indrischek, Henrike; Kanton, Sabina; Linde, Jörg; Mostajo, Nelly; Ochsenreiter, Roman; Riege, Konstantin; Rivarola-Duarte, Lorena; Sahyoun, Abdullah H.; Saunders, Sita J.; Seemann, Stefan E.; Tanzer, Andrea; Vogel, Bertram; Wehner, Stefanie; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Backofen, Rolf; Gorodkin, Jan; Grosse, Ivo; Hofacker, Ivo; Hoffmann, Steve; Kaleta, Christoph; Stadler, Peter F.; Becker, Stephan; Marz, Manja

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola in West Africa resulted in over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths, underlining the need for a better understanding of the biology of this highly pathogenic virus to develop specific counter strategies. Two filoviruses, the Ebola and Marburg viruses, result in a severe and often fatal infection in humans. However, bats are natural hosts and survive filovirus infections without obvious symptoms. The molecular basis of this striking difference in the response to filovirus infections is not well understood. We report a systematic overview of differentially expressed genes, activity motifs and pathways in human and bat cells infected with the Ebola and Marburg viruses, and we demonstrate that the replication of filoviruses is more rapid in human cells than in bat cells. We also found that the most strongly regulated genes upon filovirus infection are chemokine ligands and transcription factors. We observed a strong induction of the JAK/STAT pathway, of several genes encoding inhibitors of MAP kinases (DUSP genes) and of PPP1R15A, which is involved in ER stress-induced cell death. We used comparative transcriptomics to provide a data resource that can be used to identify cellular responses that might allow bats to survive filovirus infections. PMID:27713552

  18. Differential transcriptional responses to Ebola and Marburg virus infection in bat and human cells.

    PubMed

    Hölzer, Martin; Krähling, Verena; Amman, Fabian; Barth, Emanuel; Bernhart, Stephan H; Carmelo, Victor A O; Collatz, Maximilian; Doose, Gero; Eggenhofer, Florian; Ewald, Jan; Fallmann, Jörg; Feldhahn, Lasse M; Fricke, Markus; Gebauer, Juliane; Gruber, Andreas J; Hufsky, Franziska; Indrischek, Henrike; Kanton, Sabina; Linde, Jörg; Mostajo, Nelly; Ochsenreiter, Roman; Riege, Konstantin; Rivarola-Duarte, Lorena; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Saunders, Sita J; Seemann, Stefan E; Tanzer, Andrea; Vogel, Bertram; Wehner, Stefanie; Wolfinger, Michael T; Backofen, Rolf; Gorodkin, Jan; Grosse, Ivo; Hofacker, Ivo; Hoffmann, Steve; Kaleta, Christoph; Stadler, Peter F; Becker, Stephan; Marz, Manja

    2016-10-07

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola in West Africa resulted in over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths, underlining the need for a better understanding of the biology of this highly pathogenic virus to develop specific counter strategies. Two filoviruses, the Ebola and Marburg viruses, result in a severe and often fatal infection in humans. However, bats are natural hosts and survive filovirus infections without obvious symptoms. The molecular basis of this striking difference in the response to filovirus infections is not well understood. We report a systematic overview of differentially expressed genes, activity motifs and pathways in human and bat cells infected with the Ebola and Marburg viruses, and we demonstrate that the replication of filoviruses is more rapid in human cells than in bat cells. We also found that the most strongly regulated genes upon filovirus infection are chemokine ligands and transcription factors. We observed a strong induction of the JAK/STAT pathway, of several genes encoding inhibitors of MAP kinases (DUSP genes) and of PPP1R15A, which is involved in ER stress-induced cell death. We used comparative transcriptomics to provide a data resource that can be used to identify cellular responses that might allow bats to survive filovirus infections.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of control measures for contacts of patient with Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Timen, Aura; Isken, Leslie D; Willemse, Patricia; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Oudheusden, Danielle E C; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Brouwer, Annemarie E; Grol, Richard P T M; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2012-07-01

    After an imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was reported in 2008 in the Netherlands, control measures to prevent transmission were implemented. To evaluate consequences of these measures, we administered a structured questionnaire to 130 contacts classified as either having high-risk or low-risk exposure to body fluids of the case-patient; 77 (59.2%) of 130 contacts responded. A total of 67 (87.0%) of 77 respondents agreed that temperature monitoring and reporting was necessary, significantly more often among high-risk than low-risk contacts (p<0.001). Strict compliance with daily temperature monitoring decreased from 80.5% (62/77) during week 1 to 66.2% (51/77) during week 3. Contacts expressed concern about development of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (58.4%, 45/77) and infecting a family member (40.2%, 31/77). High-risk contacts had significantly higher scores on psychological impact scales (p<0.001) during and after the monitoring period. Public health authorities should specifically address consequences of control measures on the daily life of contacts.

  20. Induction of broad cytotoxic T cells by protective DNA vaccination against Marburg and Ebola.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, Devon J; Aviles, Jenna; Talbott, Kendra T; Wong, Gary; Wu, Stephan J; Villarreal, Daniel O; Myles, Devin Jf; Croyle, Maria A; Yan, Jian; Kobinger, Gary P; Weiner, David B

    2013-07-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers have been described as the most virulent viral diseases known to man due to associative lethality rates of up to 90%. Death can occur within days to weeks of exposure and there is currently no licensed vaccine or therapeutic. Recent evidence suggests an important role for antiviral T cells in conferring protection, but little detailed analysis of this response as driven by a protective vaccine has been reported. We developed a synthetic polyvalent-filovirus DNA vaccine against Marburg marburgvirus (MARV), Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Preclinical efficacy studies were performed in guinea pigs and mice using rodent-adapted viruses, whereas murine T-cell responses were extensively analyzed using a novel modified assay described herein. Vaccination was highly potent, elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, and completely protected against MARV and ZEBOV challenge. Comprehensive T-cell analysis revealed cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) of great magnitude, epitopic breadth, and Th1-type marker expression. This model provides an important preclinical tool for studying protective immune correlates that could be applied to existing platforms. Data herein support further evaluation of this enhanced gene-based approach in nonhuman primate studies for in depth analyses of T-cell epitopes in understanding protective efficacy.

  1. Structural basis for Marburg virus neutralization by a cross-reactive human antibody.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Lee, Jeffrey E; Flyak, Andrew I; Matsuoka, Rei; Kohda, Daisuke; Yanagi, Yusuke; Hammel, Michal; Crowe, James E; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-02-26

    The filoviruses, including Marburg and Ebola, express a single glycoprotein on their surface, termed GP, which is responsible for attachment and entry of target cells. Filovirus GPs differ by up to 70% in protein sequence, and no antibodies are yet described that cross-react among them. Here, we present the 3.6 Å crystal structure of Marburg virus GP in complex with a cross-reactive antibody from a human survivor, and a lower resolution structure of the antibody bound to Ebola virus GP. The antibody, MR78, recognizes a GP1 epitope conserved across the filovirus family, which likely represents the binding site of their NPC1 receptor. Indeed, MR78 blocks binding of the essential NPC1 domain C. These structures and additional small-angle X-ray scattering of mucin-containing MARV and EBOV GPs suggest why such antibodies were not previously elicited in studies of Ebola virus, and provide critical templates for development of immunotherapeutics and inhibitors of entry.

  2. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Cassan, Robyn; Biggins, Julia E; Murin, Charles D; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Sheng; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Olinger, Gene G; Kim, Do H; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Nykiforuk, Cory; Aman, M Javad; Berry, Jody D; Berry, Jody; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-06-01

    The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston), but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  3. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate recombinant Marburg virus derived from a bat isolate.

    PubMed

    Albariño, César G; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Vincent, Joel P; Khristova, Marina L; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; McElroy, Anita; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2013-11-01

    Recent investigations have shown the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) to be a natural reservoir for marburgviruses. To better understand the life cycle of these viruses in the natural host, a new reverse genetics system was developed for the reliable rescue of a Marburg virus (MARV) originally isolated directly from a R. aegyptiacus bat (371Bat). To develop this system, the exact terminal sequences were first determined by 5' and 3' RACE, followed by the cloning of viral proteins NP, VP35, VP30 and L into expression plasmids. Novel conditions were then developed to efficiently replicate virus mini-genomes followed by the construction of full-length genomic clones from which recombinant wild type and GFP-containing MARVs were rescued. Surprisingly, when these recombinant MARVs were propagated in primary human macrophages, a dramatic difference was found in their ability to grow and to elicit anti-viral cytokine responses.

  4. Interferon-β therapy prolongs survival in rhesus macaque models of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M; Hensley, Lisa E; Geisbert, Thomas W; Johnson, Joshua; Stossel, Andrea; Honko, Anna; Yen, Judy Y; Geisbert, Joan; Paragas, Jason; Fritz, Elizabeth; Olinger, Gene; Young, Howard A; Rubins, Kathleen H; Karp, Christopher L

    2013-07-15

    There is a clear need for novel, effective therapeutic approaches to hemorrhagic fever due to filoviruses. Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever is associated with robust interferon (IFN)-α production, with plasma concentrations of IFN-α that greatly (60- to 100-fold) exceed those seen in other viral infections, but little IFN-β production. While all of the type I IFNs signal through the same receptor complex, both quantitative and qualitative differences in biological activity are observed after stimulation of the receptor complex with different type I IFNs. Taken together, this suggested potential for IFN-β therapy in filovirus infection. Here we show that early postexposure treatment with IFN-β significantly increased survival time of rhesus macaques infected with a lethal dose of Ebola virus, although it failed to alter mortality. Early treatment with IFN-β also significantly increased survival time after Marburg virus infection. IFN-β may have promise as an adjunctive postexposure therapy in filovirus infection.

  5. Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.W.; McCormick, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors.

  6. Lack of Marburg Virus Transmission From Experimentally Infected to Susceptible In-Contact Egyptian Fruit Bats.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Fenton, Karla A; Graves, Kerry; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Moolla, Naazneen; Leman, Patricia; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Markotter, Wanda; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hale, Martin J; Kemp, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with Marburg virus (MARV). No deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. The virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab samples, urine, and fecal samples. Neither seroconversion nor viremia could be demonstrated in any of the in-contact susceptible bats (n = 14) up to 42 days after exposure to infected bats. In bats rechallenged (n = 4) on day 48 after infection, there was no viremia, and the virus could not be isolated from any of the tissues tested. This study confirmed that infection profiles are consistent with MARV replication in a reservoir host but failed to demonstrate MARV transmission through direct physical contact or indirectly via air. Bats develop strong protective immunity after infection with MARV.

  7. Geographic potential of disease caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A Townsend; Samy, Abdallah M

    2016-10-01

    Filoviruses represent a significant public health threat worldwide. West Africa recently experienced the largest-scale and most complex filovirus outbreak yet known, which underlines the need for a predictive understanding of the geographic distribution and potential for transmission to humans of these viruses. Here, we used ecological niche modeling techniques to understand the relationship between known filovirus occurrences and environmental characteristics. Our study derived a picture of the potential transmission geography of Ebola virus species and Marburg, paired with views of the spatial uncertainty associated with model-to-model variation in our predictions. We found that filovirus species have diverged ecologically, but only three species are sufficiently well known that models could be developed with significant predictive power. We quantified uncertainty in predictions, assessed potential for outbreaks outside of known transmission areas, and highlighted the Ethiopian Highlands and scattered areas across East Africa as additional potentially unrecognized transmission areas.

  8. Modelling filovirus maintenance in nature by experimental transmission of Marburg virus between Egyptian rousette bats

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Amy J.; Amman, Brian R.; Jones, Megan E. B.; Sealy, Tara K.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Spengler, Jessica R.; Martin, Brock E.; Coleman-McCray, Jo Ann D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2017-01-01

    The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a natural reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV); however, the mechanisms by which MARV is transmitted bat-to-bat and to other animals are unclear. Here we co-house MARV-inoculated donor ERBs with naive contact ERBs. MARV shedding is detected in oral, rectal and urine specimens from inoculated bats from 5–19 days post infection. Simultaneously, MARV is detected in oral specimens from contact bats, indicating oral exposure to the virus. In the late study phase, we provide evidence that MARV can be horizontally transmitted from inoculated to contact ERBs by finding MARV RNA in blood and oral specimens from contact bats, followed by MARV IgG antibodies in these same bats. This study demonstrates that MARV can be horizontally transmitted from inoculated to contact ERBs, thereby providing a model for filovirus maintenance in its natural reservoir host and a potential mechanism for virus spillover to other animals. PMID:28194016

  9. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W; Basler, Christopher F; Gross, Michael L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2016-08-28

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  10. The Impact of CD-ROM on Library Operations and Universal Availability of Information: Festschrift in Honour of Maurice B. Line. International Essen Symposium (11th, Essen, Germany, September 26-29, 1988). Publications of Essen University Library 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    This festschrift contains 17 papers on the impact of CD-ROM technology: (1) "CD-ROM and Access to Information in the South" (Abdelaziz Abid); (2) "CD-ROM and Bridging of Cultural and Technological Gaps in Developing Countries" (Shmuel Sever); (3) "Electronic Publishing Developments and Opportunities from OCLC" (Janet…

  11. Postexposure Protection Against Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors in Non-Human Primates: An Efficacy Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-29

    virus (MARV). We aimed to test the effi cacy of a replication -competent vaccine based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV...including vaccines based on recombinant adenoviruses12,13 and recombinant alphaviruses .8 We previously described the generation and assessment of a live...such as Marburg virus (MARV). We aimed to test the efficacy of a replication -competent vaccine based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis

  12. Live-cell imaging of Marburg virus-infected cells uncovers actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids over long distances.

    PubMed

    Schudt, Gordian; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Dolnik, Olga; Sodeik, Beate; Becker, Stephan

    2013-08-27

    Transport of large viral nucleocapsids from replication centers to assembly sites requires contributions from the host cytoskeleton via cellular adaptor and motor proteins. For the Marburg and Ebola viruses, related viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, the mechanism of nucleocapsid transport remains poorly understood. Here we developed and used live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled viral and host proteins to characterize the dynamics and molecular requirements of nucleocapsid transport in Marburg virus-infected cells under biosafety level 4 conditions. The study showed a complex actin-based transport of nucleocapsids over long distances from the viral replication centers to the budding sites. Only after the nucleocapsids had associated with the matrix viral protein VP40 at the plasma membrane were they recruited into filopodia and cotransported with host motor myosin 10 toward the budding sites at the tip or side of the long cellular protrusions. Three different transport modes and velocities were identified: (i) Along actin filaments in the cytosol, nucleocapsids were transported at ∼200 nm/s; (ii) nucleocapsids migrated from one actin filament to another at ∼400 nm/s; and (iii) VP40-associated nucleocapsids moved inside filopodia at 100 nm/s. Unique insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of nucleocapsids and their interaction with the cytoskeleton and motor proteins can lead to novel classes of antivirals that interfere with the trafficking and subsequent release of the Marburg virus from infected cells.

  13. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  14. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  15. Interferon-β Therapy Prolongs Survival in Rhesus Macaque Models of Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Joshua; Stossel, Andrea; Honko, Anna; Yen, Judy Y.; Geisbert, Joan; Paragas, Jason; Fritz, Elizabeth; Olinger, Gene; Young, Howard A.; Rubins, Kathleen H.; Karp, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need for novel, effective therapeutic approaches to hemorrhagic fever due to filoviruses. Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever is associated with robust interferon (IFN)–α production, with plasma concentrations of IFN-α that greatly (60- to 100-fold) exceed those seen in other viral infections, but little IFN-β production. While all of the type I IFNs signal through the same receptor complex, both quantitative and qualitative differences in biological activity are observed after stimulation of the receptor complex with different type I IFNs. Taken together, this suggested potential for IFN-β therapy in filovirus infection. Here we show that early postexposure treatment with IFN-β significantly increased survival time of rhesus macaques infected with a lethal dose of Ebola virus, although it failed to alter mortality. Early treatment with IFN-β also significantly increased survival time after Marburg virus infection. IFN-β may have promise as an adjunctive postexposure therapy in filovirus infection. PMID:23255566

  16. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Danher; Hevey, Michael; Juompan, Laure Y.; Trubey, Charles M.; Raja, Nicholas U.; Deitz, Stephen B.; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Luo Min; Yu Hong; Swain, Benjamin M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Dong, John Y. . E-mail: dongj@genphar.com

    2006-09-30

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 10{sup 7} pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV.

  17. Large-Scale Screening and Identification of Novel Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Anantpadma, Manu; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Wang, Hang; Huang, Ruili; Kolokoltsov, Andrey; Guha, Rajarshi; Lindstrom, Aaron R.; Shtanko, Olena; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J.; Maury, Wendy; LaCount, Douglas J.; Jadhav, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are highly infectious, and no FDA-approved drug therapy for filovirus infection is available. Most work to find a treatment has involved only a few strains of Ebola virus and testing of relatively small drug libraries or compounds that have shown efficacy against other virus types. Here we report the findings of a high-throughput screening of 319,855 small molecules from the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository library for their activities against Marburg virus and Ebola virus. Nine of the most potent, novel compounds that blocked infection by both viruses were analyzed in detail for their mechanisms of action. The compounds inhibited known key steps in the Ebola virus infection mechanism by blocking either cell surface attachment, macropinocytosis-mediated uptake, or endosomal trafficking. To date, very few specific inhibitors of macropinocytosis have been reported. The 2 novel macropinocytosis inhibitors are more potent inhibitors of Ebola virus infection and less toxic than ethylisopropylamiloride, one commonly accepted macropinocytosis inhibitor. Each compound blocked infection of primary human macrophages, indicating their potential to be developed as new antifiloviral therapies. PMID:27161622

  18. Considerations in the Use of Nonhuman Primate Models of Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Strong, James E; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-10-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs), with case-fatality rates ranging from 23% to 90%. The current outbreak of Ebola virus infection in West Africa, with >26 000 cases, demonstrates the long-underestimated public health danger that filoviruses pose as natural human pathogens. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. Licensure of any medical countermeasure may require demonstration of efficacy in the gold standard cynomolgus or rhesus macaque models of filovirus infection. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in characterizing the filovirus NHP models. However, there is considerable debate over a variety of experimental conditions, including differences among filovirus isolates used, routes and doses of exposure, and euthanasia criteria, all of which may contribute to variability of results among different laboratories. As an example of the importance of understanding these differences, recent data with Ebola virus shows that an addition of a single uridine residue in the glycoprotein gene at the editing site attenuates the virus. Here, we draw on decades of experience working with filovirus-infected NHPs to provide a perspective on the importance of various experimental conditions.

  19. Tissue and cellular tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Ng, Dianna L; Greer, Patricia W; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses include some of the most virulent and fatal pathogens known to humans. These viruses cause severe haemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates in the range 25-90%. The diagnosis of filovirus using formalin-fixed tissues from fatal cases poses a significant challenge. The most characteristic histopathological findings are seen in the liver; however, the findings overlap with many other viral and non-viral haemorrhagic diseases. The need to distinguish filovirus infections from other haemorrhagic fevers, particularly in areas with multiple endemic viral haemorrhagic agents, is of paramount importance. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge of filovirus infections and their pathogenesis, including histopathological findings, epidemiology, modes of transmission and filovirus entry and spread within host organisms. The pathogenesis of filovirus infections is complex and involves activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, with release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, endothelial dysfunction, alterations of the innate and adaptive immune systems, direct organ and endothelial damage from unrestricted viral replication late in infection, and coagulopathy. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of filovirus infections has rapidly increased in the past few years, many questions remain unanswered.

  20. ["Die grosse Barb" in the museum of the University of Marburg. An early documentation of acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Rassner, G; Happle, R

    2009-06-01

    The university museum for cultural history in the castle of Marburg has a portrait "Die grosse Barb", which represents a women suffering from acromegaly. She shows the typical pathologic alterations: thickening of the skin folds, thickening of the lips and the eyelids, growth of bones and cartilages, lengthening of the nose, enlargement of the ears, protrusion of the zygoma, mandible and the chin. Acromegaly is a consequence of enhanced secretion of growth hormone, which occurs also as a symptom of several syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, McCune-Albright-syndrome, and NAME syndrome (Carney complex type I). The most remarkable symptom of acromegaly is the gigantism. This occurs also in androgen-deficient states, such as the Klinefelter syndrome and some more genetic syndromes, of which the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, the Sotos syndrome, the Marfan syndrome, the homocystinuria, and the fragile X-syndrome may be mentioned. Nothing is known on the further fate of the patient shown in the portrait. It is also unknown, whether she owes her position as a chambermaid to her gigantism, for it was a common use in courts to have people with abnormal body shapes in attendance.

  1. An active site mutation increases the polymerase activity of the guinea pig-lethal Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Alexander; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Becker, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe, often fatal, disease in humans and transient illness in rodents. Sequential passaging of MARV in guinea pigs resulted in selection of a lethal virus containing 4 aa changes. A D184N mutation in VP40 (VP40D184N), which leads to a species-specific gain of viral fitness, and three mutations in the active site of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L, which were investigated in the present study for functional significance in human and guinea pig cells. The transcription/replication activity of L mutants was strongly enhanced by a substitution at position 741 (S741C), and inhibited by other substitutions (D758A and A759D) in both species. The polymerase activity of L carrying the S741C substitution was eightfold higher in guinea pig cells than in human cells upon co-expression with VP40D184N, suggesting that the additive effect of the two mutations provides MARV a replicative advantage in the new host.

  2. Durability of a vesicular stomatitis virus-based marburg virus vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Joan B; Agans, Krystle N; Satterfield, Benjamin A; Versteeg, Krista M; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Heinz; Hensley, Lisa E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. A promising filovirus vaccine under development is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses individual filovirus glycoproteins (GPs) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). These vaccines have shown 100% efficacy against filovirus infection in nonhuman primates when challenge occurs 28-35 days after a single injection immunization. Here, we examined the ability of a rVSV MARV-GP vaccine to provide protection when challenge occurs more than a year after vaccination. Cynomolgus macaques were immunized with rVSV-MARV-GP and challenged with MARV approximately 14 months after vaccination. Immunization resulted in the vaccine cohort of six animals having anti-MARV GP IgG throughout the pre-challenge period. Following MARV challenge none of the vaccinated animals showed any signs of clinical disease or viremia and all were completely protected from MARV infection. Two unvaccinated control animals exhibited signs consistent with MARV infection and both succumbed. Importantly, these data are the first to show 100% protective efficacy against any high dose filovirus challenge beyond 8 weeks after final vaccination. These findings demonstrate the durability of VSV-based filovirus vaccines.

  3. Structural and Functional Studies on the Marburg Virus GP2 Fusion Loop.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nina; Tao, Yisong; Brenowitz, Michael D; Girvin, Mark E; Lai, Jonathan R

    2015-10-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) and the ebolaviruses belong to the family Filoviridae (the members of which are filoviruses) that cause severe hemorrhagic fever. Infection requires fusion of the host and viral membranes, a process that occurs in the host cell endosomal compartment and is facilitated by the envelope glycoprotein fusion subunit, GP2. The N-terminal fusion loop (FL) of GP2 is a hydrophobic disulfide-bonded loop that is postulated to insert and disrupt the host endosomal membrane during fusion. Here, we describe the first structural and functional studies of a protein corresponding to the MARV GP2 FL. We found that this protein undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change, as monitored by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance. Furthermore, we report that, under low pH conditions, the MARV GP2 FL can induce content leakage from liposomes. The general aspects of this pH-dependent structure and lipid-perturbing behavior are consistent with previous reports on Ebola virus GP2 FL. However, nuclear magnetic resonance studies in lipid bicelles and mutational analysis indicate differences in structure exist between MARV and Ebola virus GP2 FL. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of MARV GP2-mediated cell entry.

  4. Differential regulation of interferon responses by Ebola and Marburg virus VP35 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Megan R.; Liu, Gai; Mire, Chad E.; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Luthra, Priya; Yen, Benjamin; Shabman, Reed S.; Leung, Daisy W.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Suppression of innate immune responses during filoviral infection contributes to disease severity. Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses each encode a VP35 protein that suppresses RIG-I-like receptor signaling and interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) production by several mechanisms, including direct binding to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we demonstrate that in cell culture MARV infection results in a greater upregulation of IFN responses as compared to EBOV infection. This correlates with differences in the efficiencies by which EBOV and MARV VP35s antagonize RIG-I signaling. Furthermore, structural and biochemical studies suggest that differential recognition of RNA elements by the respective VP35 C-terminal IFN inhibitory domain (IID) rather than affinity for RNA by the respective VP35s is critical for this observation. Our results reveal functional differences in EBOV versus MARV VP35 RNA binding result in unexpected differences in the host response to deadly viral pathogens. PMID:26876165

  5. Large-Scale Screening and Identification of Novel Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus Entry Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anantpadma, Manu; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Wang, Hang; Huang, Ruili; Kolokoltsov, Andrey; Guha, Rajarshi; Lindstrom, Aaron R; Shtanko, Olena; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J; Maury, Wendy; LaCount, Douglas J; Jadhav, Ajit; Davey, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Filoviruses are highly infectious, and no FDA-approved drug therapy for filovirus infection is available. Most work to find a treatment has involved only a few strains of Ebola virus and testing of relatively small drug libraries or compounds that have shown efficacy against other virus types. Here we report the findings of a high-throughput screening of 319,855 small molecules from the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository library for their activities against Marburg virus and Ebola virus. Nine of the most potent, novel compounds that blocked infection by both viruses were analyzed in detail for their mechanisms of action. The compounds inhibited known key steps in the Ebola virus infection mechanism by blocking either cell surface attachment, macropinocytosis-mediated uptake, or endosomal trafficking. To date, very few specific inhibitors of macropinocytosis have been reported. The 2 novel macropinocytosis inhibitors are more potent inhibitors of Ebola virus infection and less toxic than ethylisopropylamiloride, one commonly accepted macropinocytosis inhibitor. Each compound blocked infection of primary human macrophages, indicating their potential to be developed as new antifiloviral therapies.

  6. Determination of specific antibody responses to the six species of ebola and Marburg viruses by multiplexed protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Teddy; Natesan, Mohan; Warfield, Kelly; Aman, M Javad; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Infectious hemorrhagic fevers caused by the Marburg and Ebola filoviruses result in human mortality rates of up to 90%, and there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics available for clinical use. The highly infectious and lethal nature of these viruses highlights the need for reliable and sensitive diagnostic methods. We assembled a protein microarray displaying nucleoprotein (NP), virion protein 40 (VP40), and glycoprotein (GP) antigens from isolates representing the six species of filoviruses for use as a surveillance and diagnostic platform. Using the microarrays, we examined serum antibody responses of rhesus macaques vaccinated with trivalent (GP, NP, and VP40) virus-like particles (VLP) prior to infection with the Marburg virus (MARV) (i.e., Marburg marburgvirus) or the Zaire virus (ZEBOV) (i.e., Zaire ebolavirus). The microarray-based assay detected a significant increase in antigen-specific IgG resulting from immunization, while a greater level of antibody responses resulted from challenge of the vaccinated animals with ZEBOV or MARV. Further, while antibody cross-reactivities were observed among NPs and VP40s of Ebola viruses, antibody recognition of GPs was very specific. The performance of mucin-like domain fragments of GP (GP mucin) expressed in Escherichia coli was compared to that of GP ectodomains produced in eukaryotic cells. Based on results with ZEBOV and MARV proteins, antibody recognition of GP mucins that were deficient in posttranslational modifications was comparable to that of the eukaryotic cell-expressed GP ectodomains in assay performance. We conclude that the described protein microarray may translate into a sensitive assay for diagnosis and serological surveillance of infections caused by multiple species of filoviruses.

  7. Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Durba and Watsa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: clinical documentation, features of illness, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, Robert; Tshomba, Antoine; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Bausch, Daniel G; Campbell, Pat; Libande, Modeste; Pirard, Patricia; Tshioko, Florimond; Mardel, Simon; Mulangu, Sabue; Sleurs, Hilde; Rollin, Pierre E; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jeffs, Benjamin; Borchert, Matthias

    2007-11-15

    The objective of the present study was to describe day of onset and duration of symptoms of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), to summarize the treatments applied, and to assess the quality of clinical documentation. Surveillance and clinical records of 77 patients with MHF cases were reviewed. Initial symptoms included fever, headache, general pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia (median day of onset, day 1-2), followed by hemorrhagic manifestations (day 5-8+), and terminal symptoms included confusion, agitation, coma, anuria, and shock. Treatment in isolation wards was acceptable, but the quality of clinical documentation was unsatisfactory. Improved clinical documentation is necessary for a basic evaluation of supportive treatment.

  8. Marburg virus infection in nonhuman primates: Therapeutic treatment by lipid-encapsulated siRNA.

    PubMed

    Thi, Emily P; Mire, Chad E; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Geisbert, Joan B; Lee, Amy C H; Agans, Krystle N; Robbins, Marjorie; Deer, Daniel J; Fenton, Karla A; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-08-20

    Marburg virus (MARV) and the closely related filovirus Ebola virus cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates up to 90%. There are no vaccines or drugs approved for human use, and no postexposure treatment has completely protected nonhuman primates against MARV-Angola, the strain associated with the highest rate of mortality in naturally occurring human outbreaks. Studies performed with other MARV strains assessed candidate treatments at times shortly after virus exposure, before signs of disease are detectable. We assessed the efficacy of lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery of anti-MARV nucleoprotein (NP)-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) at several time points after virus exposure, including after the onset of detectable disease in a uniformly lethal nonhuman primate model of MARV-Angola HF. Twenty-one rhesus monkeys were challenged with a lethal dose of MARV-Angola. Sixteen of these animals were treated with LNP containing anti-MARV NP siRNA beginning at 30 to 45 min, 1 day, 2 days, or 3 days after virus challenge. All 16 macaques that received LNP-encapsulated anti-MARV NP siRNA survived infection, whereas the untreated or mock-treated control subjects succumbed to disease between days 7 and 9 after infection. These results represent the successful demonstration of therapeutic anti-MARV-Angola efficacy in nonhuman primates and highlight the substantial impact of an LNP-delivered siRNA therapeutic as a countermeasure against this highly lethal human disease.

  9. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles. PMID:28076420

  10. Novel mutations in Marburg virus glycoprotein associated with viral evasion from antibody mediated immune pressure.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Masahiro; Nakayama, Eri; Marzi, Andrea; Igarashi, Manabu; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2013-04-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus, members of the family Filoviridae, cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Although the outbreaks are concentrated mainly in Central Africa, these viruses are potential agents of imported infectious diseases and bioterrorism in non-African countries. Recent studies demonstrated that non-human primates passively immunized with virus-specific antibodies were successfully protected against fatal filovirus infection, highlighting the important role of antibodies in protective immunity for this disease. However, the mechanisms underlying potential evasion from antibody mediated immune pressure are not well understood. To analyse possible mutations involved in immune evasion in the MARV envelope glycoprotein (GP) which is the major target of protective antibodies, we selected escape mutants of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing MARV GP (rVSVΔG/MARVGP) by using two GP-specific mAbs, AGP127-8 and MGP72-17, which have been previously shown to inhibit MARV budding. Interestingly, several rVSVΔG/MARVGP variants escaping from the mAb pressure-acquired amino acid substitutions in the furin-cleavage site rather than in the mAb-specific epitopes, suggesting that these epitopes are recessed, not exposed on the uncleaved GP molecule, and therefore inaccessible to the mAbs. More surprisingly, some variants escaping mAb MGP72-17 lacked a large proportion of the mucin-like region of GP, indicating that these mutants efficiently escaped the selective pressure by deleting the mucin-like region including the mAb-specific epitope. Our data demonstrate that MARV GP possesses the potential to evade antibody mediated immune pressure due to extraordinary structural flexibility and variability.

  11. Cryo-electron tomography of Marburg virus particles and their morphogenesis within infected cells.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Riches, James D; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Welsch, Sonja; Krähling, Verena; Davey, Norman; Parsy, Marie-Laure; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A G

    2011-11-01

    Several major human pathogens, including the filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses, package their single-stranded RNA genomes within helical nucleocapsids, which bud through the plasma membrane of the infected cell to release enveloped virions. The virions are often heterogeneous in shape, which makes it difficult to study their structure and assembly mechanisms. We have applied cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to derive structures of Marburg virus, a highly pathogenic filovirus, both after release and during assembly within infected cells. The data demonstrate the potential of cryo-electron tomography methods to derive detailed structural information for intermediate steps in biological pathways within intact cells. We describe the location and arrangement of the viral proteins within the virion. We show that the N-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein contains the minimal assembly determinants for a helical nucleocapsid with variable number of proteins per turn. Lobes protruding from alternate interfaces between each nucleoprotein are formed by the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein, together with viral proteins VP24 and VP35. Each nucleoprotein packages six RNA bases. The nucleocapsid interacts in an unusual, flexible "Velcro-like" manner with the viral matrix protein VP40. Determination of the structures of assembly intermediates showed that the nucleocapsid has a defined orientation during transport and budding. Together the data show striking architectural homology between the nucleocapsid helix of rhabdoviruses and filoviruses, but unexpected, fundamental differences in the mechanisms by which the nucleocapsids are then assembled together with matrix proteins and initiate membrane envelopment to release infectious virions, suggesting that the viruses have evolved different solutions to these conserved assembly steps.

  12. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  13. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness.

  14. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  15. Update: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Nessa P.

    The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…

  16. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  17. Digital sensing and sizing of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes in complex media: a model for Ebola and Marburg detection.

    PubMed

    Daaboul, George G; Lopez, Carlos A; Chinnala, Jyothsna; Goldberg, Bennett B; Connor, John H; Unlü, M Selim

    2014-06-24

    Rapid, sensitive, and direct label-free capture and characterization of nanoparticles from complex media such as blood or serum will broadly impact medicine and the life sciences. We demonstrate identification of virus particles in complex samples for replication-competent wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), defective VSV, and Ebola- and Marburg-pseudotyped VSV with high sensitivity and specificity. Size discrimination of the imaged nanoparticles (virions) allows differentiation between modified viruses having different genome lengths and facilitates a reduction in the counting of nonspecifically bound particles to achieve a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 5 × 10(3) pfu/mL for the Ebola and Marburg VSV pseudotypes. We demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in a single sample (composed of serum or whole blood) for screening applications and uncompromised detection capabilities in samples contaminated with high levels of bacteria. By employing affinity-based capture, size discrimination, and a "digital" detection scheme to count single virus particles, we show that a robust and sensitive virus/nanoparticle sensing assay can be established for targets in complex samples. The nanoparticle microscopy system is termed the Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) and is capable of high-throughput and rapid sizing of large numbers of biological nanoparticles on an antibody microarray for research and diagnostic applications.

  18. Discovery and early development of AVI-7537 and AVI-7288 for the treatment of Ebola virus and Marburg virus infections.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Patrick L; Warren, Travis K; Wells, Jay B; Garza, Nicole L; Mourich, Dan V; Welch, Lisa S; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina

    2012-11-06

    There are no currently approved treatments for filovirus infections. In this study we report the discovery process which led to the development of antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMOs) AVI-6002 (composed of AVI-7357 and AVI-7539) and AVI-6003 (composed of AVI-7287 and AVI-7288) targeting Ebola virus and Marburg virus respectively. The discovery process involved identification of optimal transcript binding sites for PMO based RNA-therapeutics followed by screening for effective viral gene target in mouse and guinea pig models utilizing adapted viral isolates. An evolution of chemical modifications were tested, beginning with simple Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMO) transitioning to cell penetrating peptide conjugated PMOs (PPMO) and ending with PMOplus containing a limited number of positively charged linkages in the PMO structure. The initial lead compounds were combinations of two agents targeting separate genes. In the final analysis, a single agent for treatment of each virus was selected, AVI-7537 targeting the VP24 gene of Ebola virus and AVI-7288 targeting NP of Marburg virus, and are now progressing into late stage clinical development as the optimal therapeutic candidates.

  19. Digital Sensing and Sizing of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes in Complex Media; A Model for Ebola and Marburg Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chinnala, Jyothsna; Goldberg, Bennett B.; Connor, John H.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2015-01-01

    Rapid, sensitive, and direct label-free capture and characterization of nanoparticles from complex media such as blood or serum will broadly impact medicine and the life sciences. We demonstrate identification of virus particles in complex samples for replication-competent wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), defective VSV, and Ebola- and Marburg-pseudotyped VSV with high sensitivity and specificity. Size discrimination of the imaged nanoparticles (virions) allows differentiation between modified viruses having different genome lengths and facilitates a reduction in the counting of non-specifically bound particles to achieve a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 5×103 pfu/mL for the Ebola and Marburg VSV pseudotypes. We demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in a single sample (composed of serum or whole blood) for screening applications and uncompromised detection capabilities in samples contaminated with high levels of bacteria. By employing affinity-based capture, size discrimination, and a “digital” detection scheme to count single virus particles, we show that a robust and sensitive virus/nanoparticle sensing assay can been established for targets in complex samples. The nanoparticle microscopy system is termed the Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) and is capable of high-throughput and rapid sizing of large numbers of biological nanoparticles on an antibody microarray for research and diagnostic applications. PMID:24840765

  20. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Daddario-Dicaprio, Kathleen M; Geisbert, Joan B; Reed, Douglas S; Feldmann, Friederike; Grolla, Allen; Ströher, Ute; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Hensley, Lisa E; Jones, Steven M; Feldmann, Heinz

    2008-12-09

    Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines that can protect nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. A vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) seems to be particularly robust as it can also confer protection when administered as a postexposure treatment. While filoviruses are not thought to be transmitted by aerosol in nature the inhalation route is among the most likely portals of entry in the setting of a bioterrorist event. At present, all candidate filoviral vaccines have been evaluated against parenteral challenges but none have been tested against an aerosol exposure. Here, we evaluated our recombinant VSV-based Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) vaccines against aerosol challenge in cynomolgus macaques. All monkeys vaccinated with a VSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of ZEBOV were completely protected against an aerosol exposure of ZEBOV. Likewise, all monkeys vaccinated with a VSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of MARV were completely protected against an aerosol exposure of MARV. All control animals challenged by the aerosol route with either ZEBOV or MARV succumbed. Interestingly, disease in control animals appeared to progress slower than previously seen in macaques exposed to comparable doses by intramuscular injection.

  1. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  2. Presence and Persistence of Ebola or Marburg Virus in Patients and Survivors: A Rapid Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Julii; Pond, Katherine; Hooper, Lee; Edmunds, Kelly; Hunter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2013–15 Ebola outbreak was unprecedented due to sustained transmission within urban environments and thousands of survivors. In 2014 the World Health Organization stated that there was insufficient evidence to give definitive guidance about which body fluids are infectious and when they pose a risk to humans. We report a rapid systematic review of published evidence on the presence of filoviruses in body fluids of infected people and survivors. Methods Scientific articles were screened for information about filovirus in human body fluids. The aim was to find primary data that suggested high likelihood of actively infectious filovirus in human body fluids (viral RNA). Eligible infections were from Marburg virus (MARV or RAVV) and Zaire, Sudan, Taï Forest and Bundibugyo species of Ebola. Cause of infection had to be laboratory confirmed (in practice either tissue culture or RT-PCR tests), or evidenced by compatible clinical history with subsequent positivity for filovirus antibodies or inflammatory factors. Data were extracted and summarized narratively. Results 6831 unique articles were found, and after screening, 33 studies were eligible. For most body fluid types there were insufficient patients to draw strong conclusions, and prevalence of positivity was highly variable. Body fluids taken >16 days after onset were usually negative. In the six studies that used both assay methods RT-PCR tests for filovirus RNA gave positive results about 4 times more often than tissue culture. Conclusions Filovirus was reported in most types of body fluid, but not in every sample from every otherwise confirmed patient. Apart from semen, most non-blood, RT-PCR positive samples are likely to be culture negative and so possibly of low infectious risk. Nevertheless, it is not apparent how relatively infectious many body fluids are during or after illness, even when culture-positive, not least because most test results come from more severe cases. Contact with blood

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them."

  4. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  5. Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.

  6. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  7. Codon-optimized filovirus DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular electroporation protect cynomolgus macaques from lethal Ebola and Marburg virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Altamura, Louis A; Badger, Catherine V; Bounds, Callie E; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Kwilas, Steven A; Vu, Hong A; Warfield, Kelly L; Hooper, Jay W; Hannaman, Drew; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation with DNA plasmids expressing codon-optimized glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) or Marburg virus (MARV) or a combination of codon-optimized GP DNA vaccines for EBOV, MARV, Sudan virus and Ravn virus. When measured by ELISA, the individual vaccines elicited slightly higher IgG responses to EBOV or MARV than did the combination vaccines. No significant differences in immune responses of macaques given the individual or combination vaccines were measured by pseudovirion neutralization or IFN-γ ELISpot assays. Both the MARV and mixed vaccines were able to protect macaques from lethal MARV challenge (5/6 vs. 6/6). In contrast, a greater proportion of macaques vaccinated with the EBOV vaccine survived lethal EBOV challenge in comparison to those that received the mixed vaccine (5/6 vs. 1/6). EBOV challenge survivors had significantly higher pre-challenge neutralizing antibody titers than those that succumbed.

  8. A multiagent filovirus DNA vaccine delivered by intramuscular electroporation completely protects mice from ebola and Marburg virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Badger, Catherine V; Hannaman, Drew; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized envelope glycoprotein genes of Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Marburg marburgvirus (Musoke and Ravn). Intramuscular or intradermal delivery of the vaccines in BALB/c mice was performed using the TriGrid™ electroporation device. Mice that received DNA vaccines against the individual viruses developed robust glycoprotein-specific antibody titers as determined by ELISA and survived lethal viral challenge with no display of clinical signs of infection. Survival curve analysis revealed there was a statistically significant increase in survival compared to the control groups for both the Ebola and Ravn virus challenges. These data suggest that further analysis of the immune responses generated in the mice and additional protection studies in nonhuman primates are warranted.

  9. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever viruses: major scientific advances, but a relatively minor public health threat for Africa.

    PubMed

    Leroy, E M; Gonzalez, J-P; Baize, S

    2011-07-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are the only members of the Filoviridae family (order Mononegavirales), a group of viruses characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-strand negative RNA genome. They are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes, causing acute haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. Since their discovery 50 years ago, filoviruses have caused only a few outbreaks, with 2317 clinical cases and 1671 confirmed deaths, which is negligible compared with the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa (malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue, tuberculosis …). Yet considerable human and financial resourses have been devoted to research on these viruses during the past two decades, partly because of their potential use as bioweapons. As a result, our understanding of the ecology, host interactions, and control of these viruses has improved considerably.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Moyen, Nanikaly; Thirion, Laurence; Emmerich, Petra; Dzia-Lepfoundzou, Amelia; Richet, Hervé; Boehmann, Yannik; Dimi, Yannick; Gallian, Pierre; Gould, Ernest A.; Günther, Stephan; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus) cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV. Methodology and Findings In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3%) and urban (734; 90.7%) areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809) without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds. Conclusions/Significance This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir) and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors. PMID:26047124

  11. [Democratic Republic of the Congo: between civil war and the Marburg virus. International Committee of Technical and Scientific Coordination of the Durba Epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bertherat, E; Talarmin, A; Zeller, H

    1999-01-01

    Because the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic fever is unclear, each outbreak is a spectacular event that focuses the attention of the international scientific community. When an epidemic of Marburg virus disease occurred in the Durba region located in the northeastern part of the People's Republic of the Congo, 23 scientists were sent from 12 different countries. Sixty of the 73 people infected died. The first case was observed in December 1998 and the last in May 1999. Because of political unrest in the country, the outbreak was not reported immediately and most data was collected by observers retrospectively. However Marburg virus infection was confirmed in 5 of 16 patients in whom testing was performed and person-to-person transmission was demonstrated. Thus the Durba outbreak was the first epidemic of Marburg virus disease not involving laboratory contamination. Initial epidemiologic findings suggest that the first cases involved miners who were probably infected by contact with an animal reservoir such as bats. Further studies to determine seroprevalence in the general population and virologic testing on animals captured in the zone should provide answers to these questions.

  12. Human Survivors of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Ebola or Marburg Virus Exhibit Cross-Reactive and Long-Lived Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Mohan; Jensen, Stig M; Keasey, Sarah L; Kamata, Teddy; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Lobel, Leslie; Dye, John M; Ulrich, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    A detailed understanding of serological immune responses to Ebola and Marburg virus infections will facilitate the development of effective diagnostic methods, therapeutics, and vaccines. We examined antibodies from Ebola or Marburg survivors 1 to 14 years after recovery from disease, by using a microarray that displayed recombinant nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 40 (VP40), envelope glycoprotein (GP), and inactivated whole virions from six species of filoviruses. All three outbreak cohorts exhibited significant antibody responses to antigens from the original infecting species and a pattern of additional filoviruses that varied by outbreak. NP was the most cross-reactive antigen, while GP was the most specific. Antibodies from survivors of infections by Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) species were least cross-reactive, while those from survivors of infections by Sudan virus (SUDV) species exhibited the highest cross-reactivity. Based on results revealed by the protein microarray, persistent levels of antibodies to GP, NP, and VP40 were maintained for up to 14 years after infection, and survival of infection caused by one species imparted cross-reactive antibody responses to other filoviruses.

  13. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  14. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in West Germany is outlined. The regions of West Berlin, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia are highlighted. The role of English and English instruction in the country as a whole, English instruction in the educational system, the demand for and qualifications of English teachers, textbook selection and…

  15. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  16. Amino Acid Residue at Position 79 of Marburg Virus VP40 Confers Interferon Antagonism in Mouse Cells.

    PubMed

    Feagins, Alicia R; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Marburg viruses (MARVs) cause highly lethal infections in humans and nonhuman primates. Mice are not generally susceptible to MARV infection; however, if the strain is first adapted to mice through serial passaging, it becomes able to cause disease in this animal. A previous study correlated changes accrued during mouse adaptation in the VP40 gene of a MARV strain known as Ravn virus (RAVV) with an increased capacity to inhibit interferon (IFN) signaling in mouse cell lines. The MARV strain Ci67, which belongs to a different phylogenetic clade than RAVV, has also been adapted to mice and in the process the Ci67 VP40 acquired a different collection of genetic changes than did RAVV VP40. Here, we demonstrate that the mouse-adapted Ci67 VP40 more potently antagonizes IFN-α/β-induced STAT1 and STAT2 tyrosine phosphorylation, gene expression, and antiviral activity in both mouse and human cell lines, compared with the parental Ci67 VP40. Ci67 VP40 is also demonstrated to target the activation of kinase Jak1. A single change at VP40 residue 79 was found to be sufficient for the increased VP40 IFN antagonism. These data argue that VP40 IFN-antagonist activity plays a key role in MARV pathogenesis in mice.

  17. High-throughput, luciferase-based reverse genetics systems for identifying inhibitors of Marburg and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Uebelhoer, Luke S; Albariño, César G; McMullan, Laura K; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Vincent, Joel P; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), members of the family Filoviridae, represent a significant challenge to global public health. Currently, no licensed therapies exist to treat filovirus infections, which cause up to 90% mortality in human cases. To facilitate development of antivirals against these viruses, we established two distinct screening platforms based on MARV and EBOV reverse genetics systems that express secreted Gaussia luciferase (gLuc). The first platform is a mini-genome replicon to screen viral replication inhibitors using gLuc quantification in a BSL-2 setting. The second platform is complementary to the first and expresses gLuc as a reporter gene product encoded in recombinant infectious MARV and EBOV, thereby allowing for rapid quantification of viral growth during treatment with antiviral compounds. We characterized these viruses by comparing luciferase activity to virus production, and validated luciferase activity as an authentic real-time measure of viral growth. As proof of concept, we adapt both mini-genome and infectious virus platforms to high-throughput formats, and demonstrate efficacy of several antiviral compounds. We anticipate that both approaches will prove highly useful in the development of anti-filovirus therapies, as well as in basic research on the filovirus life cycle.

  18. The Marburg virus VP24 protein interacts with Keap1 to activate the cytoprotective antioxidant response pathway.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Megan R; Johnson, Britney; Mire, Chad E; Xu, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Speller, Lauren N; Leung, Daisy W; Geisbert, Thomas W; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F

    2014-03-27

    Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase specificity factor that targets transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) for ubiquitination and degradation. Disrupting Keap1-Nrf2 interaction stabilizes Nrf2, resulting in Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs), and transcription of cytoprotective genes. Marburg virus (MARV) is a zoonotic pathogen that likely uses bats as reservoir hosts. We demonstrate that MARV protein VP24 (mVP24) binds the Kelch domain of either human or bat Keap1. This binding is of high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry and activates Nrf2. Modeling based on the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) VP24 (eVP24) structure identified in mVP24 an acidic loop (K-loop) critical for Keap1 interaction. Transfer of the K-loop to eVP24, which otherwise does not bind Keap1, confers Keap1 binding and Nrf2 activation, and infection by MARV, but not EBOV, activates ARE gene expression. Therefore, MARV targets Keap1 to activate Nrf2-induced cytoprotective responses during infection.

  19. Delayed Time-to-Treatment of an Antisense Morpholino Oligomer Is Effective against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Warren, Travis K; Whitehouse, Chris A; Wells, Jay; Welch, Lisa; Charleston, Jay S; Heald, Alison; Nichols, Donald K; Mattix, Marc E; Palacios, Gustavo; Kugleman, Jeffrey R; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2016-02-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) is an Ebola-like virus in the family Filovirdae that causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate as high as 90%. AVI-7288, a positively charged antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMOplus) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene, was evaluated as a potential therapeutic intervention for MARV infection following delayed treatment of 1, 24, 48, and 96 h post-infection (PI) in a nonhuman primate lethal challenge model. A total of 30 cynomolgus macaques were divided into 5 groups of 6 and infected with 1,830 plaque forming units of MARV subcutaneously. AVI-7288 was administered by bolus infusion daily for 14 days at 15 mg/kg body weight. Survival was the primary endpoint of the study. While none (0 of 6) of the saline group survived, 83-100% of infected monkeys survived when treatment was initiated 1, 24, 48, or 96 h post-infection (PI). The antisense treatment also reduced serum viremia and inflammatory cytokines in all treatment groups compared to vehicle controls. The antibody immune response to virus was preserved and tissue viral antigen was cleared in AVI-7288 treated animals. These data show that AVI-7288 protects NHPs against an otherwise lethal MARV infection when treatment is initiated up to 96 h PI.

  20. Recombinant Marburg viruses containing mutations in the IID region of VP35 prevent inhibition of Host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Albariño, César G; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Spengler, Jessica R; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2015-02-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ebola and Marburg virus (EBOV and MARV) VP35 antagonize the host cell immune response. Moreover, specific mutations in the IFN inhibitory domain (IID) of EBOV and MARV VP35 that abrogate their interaction with virus-derived dsRNA, lack the ability to inhibit the host immune response. To investigate the role of MARV VP35 in the context of infectious virus, we used our reverse genetics system to generate two recombinant MARVs carrying specific mutations in the IID region of VP35. Our data show that wild-type and mutant viruses grow to similar titers in interferon deficient cells, but exhibit attenuated growth in interferon-competent cells. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type virus, both MARV mutants were unable to inhibit expression of various antiviral genes. The MARV VP35 mutants exhibit similar phenotypes to those previously described for EBOV, suggesting the existence of a shared immune-modulatory strategy between filoviruses.

  1. Novel Chemical Ligands to Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus Nucleoproteins Identified by Combining Affinity Mass Spectrometry and Metabolomics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xu; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Lixin; Dong, Shishang; Li, Zhucui; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Wang, Yuefei; Shui, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) is an essential component of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex and significantly impacts replication and transcription of the viral RNA genome. Although NP is regarded as a promising antiviral druggable target, no chemical ligands have been reported to interact with EBOV NP or MARV NP. We identified two compounds from a traditional Chinese medicine Gancao (licorice root) that can bind both NPs by combining affinity mass spectrometry and metabolomics approaches. These two ligands, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and licochalcone A, were verified by defined compound mixture screens and further characterized with individual ligand binding assays. Accompanying biophysical analyses demonstrate that binding of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid to EBOV NP significantly reduces protein thermal stability, induces formation of large NP oligomers, and disrupts the critical association of viral ssRNA with NP complexes whereas the compound showed no such activity on MARV NP. Our study has revealed the substantial potential of new analytical techniques in ligand discovery from natural herb resources. In addition, identification of a chemical ligand that influences the oligomeric state and RNA-binding function of EBOV NP sheds new light on antiviral drug development. PMID:27403722

  2. Codon-optimized filovirus DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular electroporation protect cynomolgus macaques from lethal Ebola and Marburg virus challenges

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Altamura, Louis A; Badger, Catherine V; Bounds, Callie E; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Kwilas, Steven A; Vu, Hong A; Warfield, Kelly L; Hooper, Jay W; Hannaman, Drew; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation with DNA plasmids expressing codon-optimized glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) or Marburg virus (MARV) or a combination of codon-optimized GP DNA vaccines for EBOV, MARV, Sudan virus and Ravn virus. When measured by ELISA, the individual vaccines elicited slightly higher IgG responses to EBOV or MARV than did the combination vaccines. No significant differences in immune responses of macaques given the individual or combination vaccines were measured by pseudovirion neutralization or IFN-γ ELISpot assays. Both the MARV and mixed vaccines were able to protect macaques from lethal MARV challenge (5/6 vs. 6/6). In contrast, a greater proportion of macaques vaccinated with the EBOV vaccine survived lethal EBOV challenge in comparison to those that received the mixed vaccine (5/6 vs. 1/6). EBOV challenge survivors had significantly higher pre-challenge neutralizing antibody titers than those that succumbed. PMID:25996997

  3. Structural aspects and immunolocalization of the F420-reducing and non-F420-reducing hydrogenases from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg.

    PubMed Central

    Braks, I J; Hoppert, M; Roge, S; Mayer, F

    1994-01-01

    The F420-reducing hydrogenase and the non-F420-reducing hydrogenase (EC 1.12.99.1.) were isolated from a crude extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained F420-reducing hydrogenase revealed that the enzyme is a complex with a diameter of 15.6 nm. It consists of two ring-like, stacked, parallel layers each composed of three major protein masses arranged in rotational symmetry. Each of these masses appeared to be subdivided into smaller protein masses. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples taken from intermediate steps of the purification process revealed the presence of enzyme particles bound to inside-out membrane vesicles. Linker particles of 10 to 20 kDa which mediate the attachment of the hydrogenase to the cytoplasmic membrane were seen. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the F420-reducing hydrogenase is a membrane-bound enzyme. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained purified non-F420-reducing hydrogenase revealed that the enzyme is composed of three subunits exhibiting different diameters (5, 4, and 2 to 3 nm). According to immunogold labelling experiments, approximately 70% of the non-F420-reducing hydrogenase protein molecules were located at the cell periphery; the remaining 30% were cytoplasmic. No linker particles were observed for this enzyme. Images PMID:8002593

  4. Membrane insertion of fusion peptides from Ebola and Marburg viruses studied by replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark A; Lee, Michael S; Yeh, In-Chul

    2017-01-28

    This work presents replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of inserting a 16-residue Ebola virus fusion peptide into a membrane bilayer. A computational approach is applied for modeling the peptide at the explicit all-atom level and the membrane-aqueous bilayer by a generalized Born continuum model with a smoothed switching function (GBSW). We provide an assessment of the model calculations in terms of three metrics: (1) the ability to reproduce the NMR structure of the peptide determined in the presence of SDS micelles and comparable structural data on other fusion peptides; (2) determination of the effects of the mutation Trp-8 to Ala and sequence discrimination of the homologous Marburg virus; and (3) calculation of potentials of mean force for estimating the partitioning free energy and their comparison to predictions from the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale. We found the GBSW implicit membrane model to produce results of limited accuracy in conformational properties of the peptide when compared to the NMR structure, yet the model resolution is sufficient to determine the effect of sequence differentiation on peptide-membrane integration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  6. Sprachlabors in der Erwachsenenbildung: 4. Wiesbadener Sprachlabortagung vom 30. Oktober bis 2. November 1969 in Marburg/Lahn (Language Laboratories in Adult Education: Proceedings of the Fourth Wiesbaden Language Laboratory Conference, Marburg/Lahn, October 30-November 2, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebach, Barbara, Ed.

    This conference report on the language laboratory in adult education contains summaries of papers on the following topics: (1) the state of laboratory use in West Germany, (2) modern teaching methods in certification courses for English teachers, (3) possibilities for laboratory use in university-level foreign-language instruction, (4) exercise…

  7. Marburg virus inclusions: A virus-induced microcompartment and interface to multivesicular bodies and the late endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Dolnik, Olga; Stevermann, Lea; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Filovirus infection of target cells leads to the formation of virally induced cytoplasmic inclusions that contain viral nucleocapsids at different stages of maturation. While the role of the inclusions has been unclear since the identification of Marburg and Ebola viruses, it recently became clear that the inclusions are the sites of viral replication, nucleocapsid formation and maturation. Live cell imaging analyses revealed that mature nucleocapsids are transported from inclusions to the filopodia, which represent the major budding sites. Moreover, inclusions recruit cellular proteins that have been shown to support the transport of nucleocapsids. For example, the tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein (Tsg101) interacts with a late domain motif in the nucleocapsid protein NP and recruits the actin-nucleation factor IQGAP1. Complexes of nucleocapsids together with Tsg101 and IQGAP1 are then co-transported along actin filaments. We detected additional proteins (Alix, Nedd4 and the AAA-type ATPase VPS4) of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) that are recruited into inclusions. Together, the results suggest that nucleocapsids recruit the machinery that enhances viral budding at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we identified Lamp1 as a marker of the late endosomal compartment in inclusions, while ER, Golgi, TGN and early endosomal markers were absent. In addition, we observed that LC3, a marker of autophagosomal membranes, was present in inclusions. The 3D structures of inclusions show an intricate structure that seems to accommodate an intimate cooperation between cellular and viral components with the intention to support viral transport and budding.

  8. Anatomy during the Third Reich--the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Marburg, as an example.

    PubMed

    Aumüller, G; Grundmann, K

    2002-05-01

    A complete documentation of German anatomical science and its representatives during the period of national socialism has not been published as yet--contrary to the situation in other medical disciplines. Instead of German anatomists, American anatomists have occasionally addressed this issue during their meetings and have reported on special aspects, such as the use of Nazi symbols in anatomical textbooks and atlases (Pernkopf 1952) and the use of corpses of justice victims for anatomical research and student education. Also, the genesis of the atrocious collection of "racial" skulls, initiated along with the SS-institution of the "Ahnenerbe" by the anatomist August Hirt of Strasbourg (who ordered more than 90 inmates from concentration camps to be murdered in the gas chamber built in the concentration camp of Natzweiler-Struthof close to Strasbourg, Alsace) has been described by Frederic Kasten and others. A broader view of the patterns of behaviour and political actions and fates of contemporary scientists, ranging from dismissal to clandestine opportunism, affirmative cooperation and fanatic activism can be obtained by the analysis of the activities in research, medical education and academic positions of the following members of the Institute of Anatomy at the Philipp-University in Marburg: Ernst Göppert, Eduard Jacobshagen, Ernst-Theodor Nauck, Adolf Dabelow, Helmut Becher and Alfred Benninghoff, whose activities and fates differ in several respects and allow more general deductions. Also, the individual fates of a number of prosecuted Jewish anatomists (Wassermann, München; Poll, Hamburg), of devoted and active members of the Nazi party (Clara, Leipzig; Blotevogel, Breslau) and of criminal fanatics (Hirt, Strasbourg; Kremer, Münster) are briefly discussed. The present contribution is an attempt to initiate a more detailed study of all German departments of anatomy during the Hitler regime and to generate a public discussion among the younger generation of

  9. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  10. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  11. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

  12. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  13. Development and evaluation of a simple assay for Marburg virus detection using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Grolla, Allen; Fukuma, Aiko; Feldmann, Heinz; Yasuda, Jiro

    2010-07-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a high mortality rate. The rapid and accurate identification of the virus is required to appropriately provide infection control and outbreak management. Here, we developed and evaluated a one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid and simple detection of MARV. By combining two sets of primers specific for the Musoke and Ravn genetic lineages, a multiple RT-LAMP assay detected MARV strains of both lineages, and no cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses (Ebola virus and Lassa virus) was observed. The assay could detect 10(2) copies of the viral RNA per tube within 40 min by real-time monitoring of the turbidities of the reaction mixtures. The assay was further evaluated using viral RNA extracted from clinical specimens collected in the 2005 Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola and yielded positive results for samples containing MARV at greater than 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml, exhibiting 78% (14 of 18 samples positive) consistency with the results of a reverse transcription-PCR assay carried out in the field laboratory. The results obtained by both agarose gel electrophoresis and naked-eye judgment indicated that the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is an effective tool for the molecular detection of MARV. Furthermore, it seems suitable for use for field diagnostics or in laboratories in areas where MARV is endemic.

  14. Acute liver failure, multiorgan failure, cerebral oedema, and activation of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in a case of Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    van Paassen, Judith; Bauer, Martijn P; Arbous, M Sesmu; Visser, Leo G; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Schilling, Stefan; Ölschläger, Stephan; Rieger, Toni; Emmerich, Petra; Schmetz, Christel; van de Berkmortel, Franchette; van Hoek, Bart; van Burgel, Nathalie D; Osterhaus, Albert D; Vossen, Ann Ctm; Günther, Stephan; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2012-08-01

    A woman developed Marburg haemorrhagic fever in the Netherlands, most likely as a consequence of being exposed to virus-infected bats in the python cave in Maramagambo Forest during a visit to Uganda. The clinical syndrome was dominated by acute liver failure with secondary coagulopathy, followed by a severe systemic inflammatory response, multiorgan failure, and fatal cerebral oedema. A high blood viral load persisted during the course of the disease. The initial systemic inflammatory response coincided with peaks in interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations in the blood. A terminal rise in interleukin-6, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGF-R1) seemed to suggest an advanced pathophysiological stage of Marburg haemorrhagic fever associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and fatal cerebral oedema. The excess of circulating sVEGF-R1 and the high sVEGF-R1:PlGF ratio shortly before death resemble pathophysiological changes thought to play a causative part in pre-eclampsia. Aggressive critical-care treatment with renal replacement therapy and use of the molecular absorbent recirculation system appeared able to stabilise--at least temporarily--the patient's condition.

  15. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition.

  17. Current Educational Topics No. II: Abstracts of Papers Presented at St. Louis, Missouri, February 26-29, 1912, before the National Council of Education of the National Education Association; the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association; the Department of Normal Schools of the National Education Association; the National Society for the Study of Education; the Society of College Teachers of Education; the National Committee on Agricultural Education. Bulletin, 1912, No. 15. Whole Number 487

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Frederick K.

    1912-01-01

    This bulletin presents abstracts of papers presented at St. Louis, Missouri, February 26-29, 1912, before the National Council of Education of the National Education Association; the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association; the Department of Normal Schools of the National Education Association; the National Society for…

  18. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  19. Interaction with Tsg101 is necessary for the efficient transport and release of nucleocapsids in marburg virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Welsch, Sonja; Strecker, Thomas; Schudt, Gordian; Becker, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery supports the efficient budding of Marburg virus (MARV) and many other enveloped viruses. Interaction between components of the ESCRT machinery and viral proteins is predominantly mediated by short tetrapeptide motifs, known as late domains. MARV contains late domain motifs in the matrix protein VP40 and in the genome-encapsidating nucleoprotein (NP). The PSAP late domain motif of NP recruits the ESCRT-I protein tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101). Here, we generated a recombinant MARV encoding NP with a mutated PSAP late domain (rMARV(PSAPmut)). rMARV(PSAPmut) was attenuated by up to one log compared with recombinant wild-type MARV (rMARV(wt)), formed smaller plaques and exhibited delayed virus release. Nucleocapsids in rMARV(PSAPmut)-infected cells were more densely packed inside viral inclusions and more abundant in the cytoplasm than in rMARV(wt)-infected cells. A similar phenotype was detected when MARV-infected cells were depleted of Tsg101. Live-cell imaging analyses revealed that Tsg101 accumulated in inclusions of rMARV(wt)-infected cells and was co-transported together with nucleocapsids. In contrast, rMARV(PSAPmut) nucleocapsids did not display co-localization with Tsg101, had significantly shorter transport trajectories, and migration close to the plasma membrane was severely impaired, resulting in reduced recruitment into filopodia, the major budding sites of MARV. We further show that the Tsg101 interacting protein IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeleton regulator, was recruited into inclusions and to individual nucleocapsids together with Tsg101. Moreover, IQGAP1 was detected in a contrail-like structure at the rear end of migrating nucleocapsids. Down regulation of IQGAP1 impaired release of MARV. These results indicate that the PSAP motif in NP, which enables binding to Tsg101, is important for the efficient actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids to the sites of budding. Thus, the

  20. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  1. Identical amino acid sequence of the aroA(G) gene products of Bacillus subtilis 168 and B. subtilis Marburg strain.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, A; Khazak, V; Stoynova, N; Ratmanova, K; Yomantas, Y; Kozlov, Y

    1995-09-01

    A DNA fragment containing the aroA(G) gene of Bacillus subtilis 168, encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase-chorismate mutase, was cloned and sequenced. The N-terminus of the protein encoded by aroA(G) showed homology with chorismate mutase encoded by aroH of B. subtilis and with the chorismate mutase parts of proteins encoded by the pheA and tyrA genes of Escherichia coli. The C-terminus of the aroA(G) product has sequence similarity with 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase of E. coli. It was shown that the proteins encoded by the aroA(G) gene of B. subtilis 168 and the aroA gene of B. subtilis ATCC 6051 Marburg strain are identical, so the observed differences in DAHP synthase activity from these two strains must result from other changes.

  2. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ebola and Marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) in Gabon and Republic of Congo, and also of marburgvirus (MARV) in Gabon and Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We tested 2147 bats belonging to at least nine species sampled between 2003 and 2008 in three regions of Gabon and in the Ebola epidemic region of north Congo for IgG antibodies specific for ZEBOV and MARV. Results Overall, IgG antibodies to ZEBOV and MARV were found in 4% and 1% of bats, respectively. ZEBOV-specific antibodies were found in six bat species (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Micropteropus pusillus, Mops condylurus and Rousettus aegyptiacus), while MARV-specific antibodies were only found in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Hypsignathus monstrosus. The prevalence of MARV-specific IgG was significantly higher in R. aegyptiacus members captured inside caves than elsewhere. No significant difference in prevalence was found according to age or gender. A higher prevalence of ZEBOV-specific IgG was found in pregnant females than in non pregnant females. Conclusion These findings confirm that ZEBOV and MARV co-circulate in Gabon, the only country where bats infected by each virus have been found. IgG antibodies to both viruses were detected only in Rousettus aegyptiacus, suggesting that this bat species may be involved in the natural cycle of both Marburg and Ebola viruses. The presence of MARV in Gabon indicates a potential risk for a first human outbreak. Disease surveillance should be enhanced in areas near caves. PMID:19785757

  3. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  4. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    PubMed

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

  5. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the ‘Animal Rule’

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-01-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the ‘Animal Rule,’ through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be ‘based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.’ This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). PMID:26141449

  6. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  7. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  9. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  10. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  11. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  12. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  13. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  14. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  15. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  16. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the…

  17. Germany Looks Towards U.S. Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Information Center, New York, NY.

    This bulletin discusses and describes four projects constituting Germany's contribution to the American Bicentennial: (1) the establishment of the John J. McCloy Foundation for German-American exchange, (2) the permanent endowment of the Theodor Heuss chair at the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science at the New School for Social…

  18. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.

  19. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  20. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  1. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1919, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, I. L.

    1919-01-01

    The development of education in Germany during the past two years must necessarily remain obscure until the sources of direct information are again opened up. From extracts and references here and there the educational situation does not appear to have been very happy, and, if reports such as the ones cited in this bulletin may be trusted, the…

  2. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  3. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups. PMID:16022796

  4. Gifted Education and Talent Support in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christian; Müller, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children,…

  5. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  6. School-to-Work Transition in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauner, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Of four models for school-to-work transition (direct, deregulated, regulated overlapping, and shifted), Germany's dual vocational training system is a regulated overlapping system that offers learners a smooth bridge from the role of pupil to that of qualified skilled worker. (SK)

  7. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  8. Implications of Germany’s Declining Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    security policy, defense spending is an important indicator. This thesis demonstrates that Germany’s defense expenditure seems to be inconsistent with its...Germany’s declining defense spending , it examines the reasons for and effects of Germany’s shrinking defense budget and suggests solutions for coping...Germany does not reverse the trend of declining defense spending it will probably decrease its political significance in Europe and in the world.

  9. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  10. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  11. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  12. Lyophilisation of influenza, rabies and Marburg lentiviral pseudotype viruses for the development and distribution of a neutralisation -assay-based diagnostic kit.

    PubMed

    Mather, Stuart T; Wright, Edward; Scott, Simon D; Temperton, Nigel J

    2014-12-15

    Pseudotype viruses (PVs) are chimeric, replication-deficient virions that mimic wild-type virus entry mechanisms and can be safely employed in neutralisation assays, bypassing the need for high biosafety requirements and performing comparably to established serological assays. However, PV supernatant necessitates -80°C long-term storage and cold-chain maintenance during transport, which limits the scope of dissemination and application throughout resource-limited laboratories. We therefore investigated the effects of lyophilisation on influenza, rabies and Marburg PV stability, with a view to developing a pseudotype virus neutralisation assay (PVNA) based kit suitable for affordable global distribution. Infectivity of each PV was calculated after lyophilisation and immediate reconstitution, as well as subsequent to incubation of freeze-dried pellets at varying temperatures, humidities and timepoints. Integrity of glycoprotein structure following treatment was also assessed by employing lyophilised PVs in downstream PVNAs. In the presence of 0.5M sucrose-PBS cryoprotectant, each freeze-dried pseudotype was stably stored for 4 weeks at up to 37°C and could be neutralised to the same potency as unlyophilised PVs when employed in PVNAs. These results confirm the viability of a freeze-dried PVNA-based kit, which could significantly facilitate low-cost serology for a wide portfolio of emerging infectious viruses.

  13. Black soils and/or sediments at the western border of the Nördlinger Ries (South Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailänder, S.; Eberle, J.; Blümel, W. D.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of a geoarchaeological research project by the Institute of Geography, University of Stuttgart, in the year 2006 the construction of a kerosene pipeline trench was monitored at the western border of the impact crater "Nördlinger Ries" in South Germany (MAILÄNDER ET AL. 2008). Thereby black horizons were recognized at several places. They occured predominantly in depressions and were covered by holocene colluvial sediments, but rested on different bedrocks which include mud- and sandstones as well as lime. The most of these horizons seemed to be rich in humic material and clay. By means of various studies, which involve sedimentological, pedological, archaeobotanical and -zoological analysis as well as 14C-(AMS)-datings, the periods and circumstances of the development of these black horizons are explored. The poster presents the itemised research methods and their first results. Particularly micromorphological analysis and mollusc classifications turned out to be very valuable to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental conditions during their formation and subsequent modifications. First datings of bulk samples and charcoal pieces refer to the Atlantic period, but the measured ages distribute to a long time space from about cal BC 5200 to cal BC 4000. The outcomes of this investigation should facilitate a comparison with similar horizons which are recovered in several Central European sediment profiles, for example in the Amöneburger Becken near Marburg in Hessen (RITTWEGER 2000). Also their composition will be contrasted with samples from archaeological findings in the surrounding and the possibility of an anthropogenic influence on their development will be checked. References MAILÄNDER, S., W. D. BLÜMEL & J. EBERLE (2008): Paläoumweltbedingungen und anthropogene Landoberflächenveränderungen im Umfeld des frühkeltischen Fürstensitzes auf dem Ipf am Westrand des Nördlinger Rieses: Erste Geländebefunde und Auswertungen 2005/2006.- In

  14. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  15. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Anja M; Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2010-02-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2-154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares.

  16. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  17. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  18. Germany sees profits collapse as doldrums persist

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-10

    Traditionally the strongman of Europe, Germany's chemical sector had a miserable time in 1992, as profits skidded 30%. Further declines in production and sales for the first half of 1993 are predicted by industry association VCI (Frankfurt). Output, usually spurred after the summer break, dropped drastically in the fourth quarter. Developments are alarming, says Wolfgang Hilger, president of the VCI and chairman of Hoechst (Frankfurt). Production in the 11 western states rose 1% in 1992, but chemical industry sales fell. In the second half of the year, the high value of the Germany mark - against the US dollar, sterling, lira, and peseta - compounded difficulties already experienced as a result of overcapacity and lower prices. Hilger says overall prices declined 2% last year. Meanwhile, costs for labor and environmental protection continued to increase. VCI figures show a decline in many sectors. In western Germany, organic base chemical production was down 4%, and, while organic chemical production rose 3%, prices were 8% lower, giving unsatisfactory results. Similarly, plastics production was up 0.5% at midyear, but weak prices hurt earnings.

  19. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  20. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany.

  1. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  2. Safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers with activity against ebola virus and marburg virus: results of two single-ascending-dose studies.

    PubMed

    Heald, Alison E; Iversen, Patrick L; Saoud, Jay B; Sazani, Peter; Charleston, Jay S; Axtelle, Tim; Wong, Michael; Smith, William B; Vutikullird, Apinya; Kaye, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Two identical single-ascending-dose studies evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of AVI-6002 and AVI-6003, two experimental combinations of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers with positive charges (PMOplus) that target viral mRNA encoding Ebola virus and Marburg virus proteins, respectively. Both AVI-6002 and AVI-6003 were found to suppress disease in virus-infected nonhuman primates in previous studies. AVI-6002 (a combination of AVI-7537 and AVI-7539) or AVI-6003 (a combination of AVI-7287 and AVI-7288) were administered as sequential intravenous (i.v.) infusions of a 1:1 fixed dose ratio of the two subcomponents. In each study, 30 healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 50 years of age were enrolled in six-dose escalation cohorts of five subjects each and received a single i.v. infusion of active study drug (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 4.5 mg/kg per component) or placebo in a 4:1 ratio. Both AVI-6002 and AVI-6003 were safe and well tolerated at the doses studied. A maximum tolerated dose was not observed in either study. The four chemically similar PMOplus components exhibited generally similar PK profiles. The mean peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve values of the four components exhibited dose-proportional PK. The estimated plasma half-life of all four components was 2 to 5 h. The safety of the two combinations and the PK of the four components were similar, regardless of the target RNA sequence.

  3. Detection of Lipid Induced Structural Changes of the Marburg Virus Matrix Protein VP40 Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Kaveesha J; Urata, Sarah; Bhattarai, Nisha; Kooijman, Edgar E; Gerstman, Bernard S; Chapagain, Prem P; Li, Sheng; Stahelin, Robert V

    2017-02-06

    Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped virus from the Filoviridae family containing a negative sense RNA genome. One of the seven MARV genes encodes the matrix protein VP40, which forms a matrix layer beneath the plasma membrane inner leaflet to facilitate budding from the host cell. MARV VP40 (mVP40) has been shown to be a dimeric peripheral protein with a broad and flat basic surface that can associate with anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine. While a number of mVP40 cationic residues have been shown to facilitate binding to membranes containing anionic lipids, much less is known on how mVP40 assembles to form the matrix layer following membrane binding. Here we have used hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H/DX) mass spectrometry to determine the solvent accessibility of mVP40 residues in the absence and presence of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. H/DX analysis demonstrates two basic loops in the mVP40 C-terminal domain make important contributions to anionic membrane binding and also revealed a potential oligomerization interface in the C-terminal domain as well as a conserved oligomerization interface in the mVP40 N-terminal domain. Lipid binding assays confirm the role of the two basic patches elucidated with HD/X measurements while molecular dynamics simulations and membrane insertion measurements complement these studies to demonstrate mVP40 doesn't appreciably insert into the hydrocarbon region of anionic membranes in contrast to the matrix protein from Ebola virus. Taken together, we propose a model by which association of the mVP40 dimer with the anionic plasma membrane facilitates assembly of mVP40 oligomers.

  4. Marburg Virus VP35 Can Both Fully Coat the Backbone and Cap the Ends of dsRNA for Interferon Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shridhar; Halfmann, Peter; Zandonatti, Michelle A.; Kunert, John; Kroon, Gerard J. A.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; MacRae, Ian J.; Wilson, Ian A.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. All filoviruses encode a unique multi-functional protein termed VP35. The C-terminal double-stranded (ds)RNA-binding domain (RBD) of VP35 has been implicated in interferon antagonism and immune evasion. Crystal structures of the VP35 RBD from two ebolaviruses have previously demonstrated that the viral protein caps the ends of dsRNA. However, it is not yet understood how the expanses of dsRNA backbone, between the ends, are masked from immune surveillance during filovirus infection. Here, we report the crystal structure of MARV VP35 RBD bound to dsRNA. In the crystal structure, molecules of dsRNA stack end-to-end to form a pseudo-continuous oligonucleotide. This oligonucleotide is continuously and completely coated along its sugar-phosphate backbone by the MARV VP35 RBD. Analysis of dsRNA binding by dot-blot and isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that multiple copies of MARV VP35 RBD can indeed bind the dsRNA sugar-phosphate backbone in a cooperative manner in solution. Further, MARV VP35 RBD can also cap the ends of the dsRNA in solution, although this arrangement was not captured in crystals. Together, these studies suggest that MARV VP35 can both coat the backbone and cap the ends, and that for MARV, coating of the dsRNA backbone may be an essential mechanism by which dsRNA is masked from backbone-sensing immune surveillance molecules. PMID:23028316

  5. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  6. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  7. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  8. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings.

  10. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  11. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  12. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  13. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans…

  14. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  15. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  16. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  18. Education and Youth Employment in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dohnanyi, Klaus

    The education/employment situation of young people in West Germany is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary industrialized societies. To place problems of West German youth in a broader context, it is necessary to consider socioeconomic developments in West Germany since…

  19. Multicultural Education in Germany: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Gerd R.

    Multicultural education in Germany has been profoundly affected by history and the consequences and burdens of war. As Germany has always understood itself to be a monocultural country, there was initially little room for unpopular multicultural approaches to school organization and curriculum. Depending on the political orientation of state…

  20. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  1. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  2. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  3. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S.…

  4. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  5. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  6. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  7. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  8. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  9. First detection of Hyalomma rufipes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Nava, Santiago; Bestehorn, Malena; Dobler, Gerhard; Wölfel, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Hyalomma rufipes, a two-host tick, is the most widespread Hyalomma species in Africa. In December 2015, an ixodid tick male with an unusual morphology was detected on a horse in a stable near Mainz in the Federal State Rhineland-Palatine. For identification purposes, the tick was preserved in alcohol and sent to our laboratory. The morphology of the tick showed specific characteristics of H. rufipes. The 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Germany was identical to the corresponding 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Tanzania, and they both were closely related to Hyalomma marginatum. The tick was tested with a real-time PCR for rickettsiae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus with negative results.

  10. [Chronic pain. Epidemiology and management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M

    2004-05-01

    At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.

  11. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  12. Ejecta of the Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the light which may be shed by the ejecta surrounding the 26-km diameter Ries Crater in West Germany on the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event. Moldavites represent early high speed ejecta originating at the projectile-target interface. Bunte breccia reflects the major excavation and ejection phase, comprising more than 90 percent of all ejecta beyond the rim crest. Suevite is deposited last, and is derived from the deepest target stratum. Using various scaling laws that relate the bolide's kinetic energy to crater geometry or volume, and assuming a 25 km/sec impact velocity, a 1-2 km projectile diameter is obtained for a stony object. Geochemical studies reveal that projectile dissemination is heterogeneous, and that maximum extraterrestrial contamination modeled as a C1 chondrite is 0.004 wt pct. Observations from this and other terrestrial craters show that tektites and microtectites provide the sole evidence for widespread impact deposits.

  13. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  14. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  15. River habitat monitoring and assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Ulrich; Binder, Walter; Hölzl, Konrad

    2007-04-01

    Whereas assessing the biological and chemical quality of water is a standard environmental procedure in many countries, the use of habitat survey methods that assess the ecomorphological quality of rivers is relatively new. In Europe, the EC Water Framework Directive requires such assessment from all EU Member States. In Germany, the first river habitat assessments were introduced in the late 1990 s. Each federal state develops its own river habitat map using the 'On-site Survey' and/or the 'Overview Survey'. The assessment describes the difference of the actual condition from a previously defined reference condition. In practice, a defined 'potential for restoration', a more realistic condition, makes restoration activities much easier and more successful. In Germany, the first River Habitat Map 2001 was published in 2002. The survey covered 33,000 km of river length, which equates to 10% of all rivers. A wide range from 'Undisturbed' (class 1) to 'Totally Disturbed' (class 7) river units exists; 77% of them are 'Clearly Disturbed' (class 4) or in worse condition. These result reflects extensive anthropogenic impact on the environment in general, but also past intense technical river 'improvements' that focused on the protection of settlements and traffic routes from flooding, better shipping conditions, the use of water power, and drainage of floodplains for agriculture and urban development. For comparability of survey results between EU Member States, a harmonization of national survey methods is in progress. A crucial point here is the definition of the reference condition for each river (near-natural conditions), since it influences the survey results.

  16. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  17. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail.

  18. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents.

  19. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  20. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  1. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  2. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  3. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  4. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  5. Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, M

    1997-11-01

    Early in 1993, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS, Salzgitter) together with the Federal Environmental Office (UBA, Berlin) established an overall UV monitoring network for the continuous measurement of spectrally resolved UV radiation. Every 6 min the solar UV spectrum is measured by a Bentham DM 150 double monochromator system in a wavelength ranging from 290 to 450 nm. Every night, UV data are automatically transferred via modem to the reference station in Munich where they are quality controlled and then stored in a host computer. Human health assessment of the exposure is documented in 1/2 h MED (minimal erythemal dose) values. The selected sites of Zingst (1 m, 54 degrees N, Baltic Sea), Offenbach (110 m, 50 degrees N, Rhine rift valley), Schauinsland (1205 m, 48 degrees N, Black Forest) and Neuherberg (493 m, 48 degrees N, Munich) provide a good overview of the UV radiation situation in Germany and therefore an ideal supplement to more detailed biological effect research, especially of comparison measurements with biosensors under environmental conditions. Preliminary investigations have already been started.

  6. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  8. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  9. Decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecke, P.; Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following aspects of decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the federal republic of germany: legal requirements, nuclear installations to be decommissioned, reactor dismantling techniques, and radioactive waste management.

  10. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  11. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  12. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples.

  13. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  14. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... chimps and fruit bats in Africa. Transmission from animals to humans Experts suspect that both viruses are transmitted to humans through an infected animal's bodily fluids. Examples include: Blood. Butchering or eating ...

  15. Safety features of future LWR in Germany - regulatory view

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1997-12-01

    The present state of advances in safety considerations regarding future PWR and BWR in the Federal Republic of Germany is described from the regulatory point of view. The role of deterministic and, in particular, probabilistic methods to be applied in the design process is explained. A further topic is the special situation of the ongoing harmonization process between France and Germany concerning safety objectives and requirements for future pressurized water reactors especially the EPR project. 11 refs.

  16. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  17. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  18. A case of autochthonous human Dirofilaria infection, Germany, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Tappe, D; Plauth, M; Bauer, T; Muntau, B; Dießel, L; Tannich, E; Herrmann-Trost, P

    2014-05-01

    In March 2014, an infection with the nematode Dirofilaria repens was diagnosed in a German citizen in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. The patient had developed an itching subcutaneous nodule containing a female worm, which was identified as D. repens by 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Autochthonous human D. repens infections have not been described in Germany so far, but this finding is consistent with the recent detection of D. repens in mosquitoes from east Germany.

  19. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1)…

  20. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  1. [A report on clinical PET activities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, M; Kubota, K; Itoh, M; Sasaki, H; Moser, E

    1999-09-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedure using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. To promote clinical use of PET, sociomedical evaluation is necessary. In this paper, sociomedical situations concerning clinical use of PET in Germany is reported. Some comparisons are made between Japan and this country putting emphases on several points such as 1) number of cyclotron and PET facilities, 2) social restriction to transportation of radioisotopes, 3) activities of satellite PET facilities, and 4) clinical indications for PET studies. Number of cyclotron was larger in Japan (29) than in Germany (17), but number of PET facilities was larger in Germany (47) than in Japan (29). The reason seems that in Germany transportation and buying of radioisotopes is less restricted. Hence, more than half of PET facilities in Germany are "satellite facilities" which do not have their own cyclotrons. Radioisotope distribution seems to serve as a backbone of "satellite concept." Additionally in Germany, list of clinical indications for PET study is almost completed and now is widely in applied to most cases. To promote clinical use of PET in Japan, the German system might serve as an important socioeconomic model in Europe instead of the United States.

  2. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  3. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  4. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  5. Tobacco industry influence on science and scientists in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use.

  6. [Dental education in Germany: new concepts for the dental curriculum].

    PubMed

    Hugger, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B

    2011-09-01

    In Germany, the dental curriculum is still based on dental licensing regulations ("Approbations-/Prüfungsordnung für Zahnärzte") from 1955. Essential changes of the dental licensing regulations have not been made for over 50 years-unlike the medical licensing regulations in Germany. Teaching and learning concepts have, nevertheless, changed considerably in medical and dental education over time. The present study delivers an analysis about reform initiatives in dental education in Germany and introduces examples of innovative projects. To be able to establish long-term and broad reforms in dental education, new licensing regulations for dentists are required. This should create a contemporary framework for education, which assigns resources and enables occupational profile development at specific locations. Thereby, compatibility with the medical curriculum has to be guaranteed just as required adaptations of admission and curricular capacity regulations for dentistry.

  7. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  8. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  9. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  10. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  11. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  12. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  13. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  14. Respite Care Services for the Family in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Johannes B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an overall network of respite care services in the Federal Republic of Germany, the need for respite care services, efforts of a national organization called Lebenshilfe, evolution of the concept of respite care, and future tasks. (Author/JDD)

  15. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  16. Searching for Their Own Identity: Young People in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include…

  17. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  18. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  19. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  20. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  1. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  2. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie…

  3. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  4. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  5. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  6. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  7. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  8. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  9. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  10. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  12. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  13. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  14. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  15. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  16. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  17. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  18. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  19. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  20. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  1. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  2. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  3. Differential risk for Lyme disease along hiking trail, Germany.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2011-09-01

    To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme disease-causing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

  4. Comparing Empirically Historical Awareness in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Bodo von; Lehmann, Rainer H.

    A study compared the historical awareness of 2,000 East and West German children in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades. Because of differing school systems and the general design of the study, researchers analyzed ninth grade data. The study was conducted during the disintegration and reunification of Germany. Students from the two regions…

  5. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  6. Searching for Telecollaboration in Secondary Geography Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies on telecollaboration for educational purposes focus on language-related aspects. Therefore, a qualitative explorative research project was set up at the RuhrUniversity Bochum, Germany, dealing with telecollaboration from the perspective of a non-language discipline; it is based on the approach of transferring…

  7. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada.

    PubMed

    von Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health "to a strong degree," 35.3% that weather had "some influence on their health" (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32% of the

  8. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  9. East Germany's System of State Planning Faces a Thorough Free Market Shake-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka-Johring, Sigrid

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of educational reform in what was formerly East Germany. Describes the educational system in East Germany as uniform and military in nature. Criticizes the one-sidedness of socialist education and its politicalization. Compares classroom atmospheres before and after the Germanies were united. (DK)

  10. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  11. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30,...

  12. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  13. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    efforts to combat transnational terrorism is magnified. The increase in domestic cooperation in Italy and international cooperation in Germany further...Today Germany still sees a terrorist threat from extremism characteristic of transnational terrorism, especially as Germany has become more and...demarcation,” where ideas of fascism, feminism , internationalism, separatism, and communism are used by multiple, often mutually antagonistic

  14. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  15. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  16. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  17. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  18. Herpes zoster in Germany: Quantifying the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against HZ and its main complication postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In Germany, the burden of disease caused by HZ is not well known. To support the decision making process related to a potential vaccination recommendation, we estimated annual HZ disease burden in people aged ≥ 50 years in Germany by utilizing various data sources. Methods We assessed for 2007 and 2008 HZ-outpatient incidence (number of cases per 1,000 person-years, PY) by utilizing the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (ASHIP) database, which contains nationwide routine outpatient data. For the same time period annual number of HZ-inpatients and HZ-associated deaths were identified by using the Federal Health Monitoring System (FHM). PHN-incidence and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) caused by HZ were calculated by multiplying number of identified HZ-patients with upper and lower limit estimates for proportion of HZ-cases developing PHN and HZ-related QALY, respectively. Results For the study period we identified an annual average of 306,511 HZ-outpatients aged 50+, resulting in a HZ-incidence of 9.6/1,000 PY. A total 14,249 HZ-associated inpatients and 66 deaths were reported in both years on average. HZ-incidence increased by age from 6.21 in people 50-54 years to 13.19 per 1,000 PY in people aged ≥ 90 years. Females were significantly more frequently affected than males in terms of outpatient HZ-incidence (11.12 vs. 7.8 per 1,000 PY), inpatient HZ-incidence (0.51 vs. 0.38 per 1,000 PY) and mortality (0.29 vs. 0.10 per 100,000 PY). PHN-incidence was estimated to range between 0.43 and 1.33 per 1,000 PY. Based on these figures, there were between 3,065 to 24,094 QALYs lost due to HZ in persons aged ≥ 50 years in Germany per annum. Conclusion Our study

  19. Ankylosaur Remains from the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) of Northwestern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Sven; Hornung, Jahn J.

    2013-01-01

    A fragmentary cervico-pectoral lateral spine and partial humerus of an ankylosaur from the Early Cretaceous (early Valanginian) of Gronau in Westfalen, northwestern Germany, are described. The spine shows closest morphological similarities to the characteristic cervical and pectoral spines of Hylaeosaurus armatus from the late Valanginian of England. An extensive comparison of distal humeri among thyreophoran dinosaurs supports systematic differences in the morphology of the distal condyli between Ankylosauria and Stegosauria and a referral of the Gronau specimen to the former. The humerus fragment indicates a rather small individual, probably in the size range of H. armatus, and both specimens are determined herein as ?Hylaeosaurus sp.. A short overview of other purported ankylosaur material from the Berriasian-Valanginian of northwest Germany shows that, aside from the material described herein, only tracks can be attributed to this clade with confidence at present. PMID:23560099

  20. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  1. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections, Germany, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mirko S; Stark, Klaus; Behnke, Susanne C; Schreier, Eckart; Frank, Christina

    2009-11-01

    Approximately 60% of hepatitis A virus infections in Germany occur in persons without a travel history to disease-endemic areas and for whom sources of infection are unknown. Recommendation of pretravel vaccination fails to prevent the remaining imported infections. Using enhanced surveillance in 2007-2008, we analyzed epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis A in Germany and appropriateness and adequacy of current immunization recommendations. Young patients with a migration background who had visited friends and family in their ancestral countries accounted for most imported cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed high diversity of sequence data and clustering of strains with similar regions of origin or patient migration backgrounds. Virologic findings are compatible with those of low-incidence countries, where virtually all infections are directly or indirectly imported from other regions. Germans with a migration background are seen as a special risk group so far insufficiently reached by pretravel vaccination advice.

  3. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  5. Electronic health records within integrated care in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jähn, Karl; Gärtig-Daugs, Anja; Nagel, Eckhard

    2005-04-01

    The planned introduction of an electronic health card is seen as a milestone in the dissemination of extended electronic health records in Germany. This paper deals with the main issues likely to result from the use of the electronic health insurance card. The role of the patient in the health care process and the patients enhanced access to his or her personal medical record are reflected. A high level of acceptance of the electronic health insurance card and extended electronic documentation procedures can be expected if ethical, legal, and technological concerns of the public are addressed and appropriate incentives are established. Finally, the electronic health insurance card can serve as a useful aid to support the ongoing implementation of disease management programs for the most important chronic conditions in Germany.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  7. [How do citizens in Germany assess their own Health Literacy?].

    PubMed

    Messer, M; Vogt, D; Quenzel, G; Hurrelmann, K; Schaeffer, D

    2015-04-01

    Health literacy is a relatively recent concept in Europe. First international investigations indicate that a substantial part of the population has significantly impaired subjective health literacy. In Germany there is a lack of meaningful data. Therefore, 2 comprehensive studies have been started that will provide population representative results, as well as take the health literacy level of vulnerable groups such as older people and migrants into consideration.

  8. Indoor development of Aedes aegypti in Germany, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Kampen, Helge; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Walther, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the ‘Mueckenatlas’ project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany. PMID:27918261

  9. Plasmodium knowlesi infection imported to Germany, January 2013.

    PubMed

    Orth, H; Jensen, B O; Holtfreter, M C; Kocheril, S J; Mallach, S; MacKenzie, C; Müller-Stöver, I; Henrich, B; Imwong, M; White, N J; Häussinger, D; Richter, J

    2013-10-03

    Plasmodium knowlesi was known as a plasmodium of macaques until P. knowlesi transmission to humans was recognised in Borneo and later throughout South-East Asia. We describe here a case of a P. knowlesi infection imported to Germany from Thailand. The patient had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and suffered from daily fever attacks. Microscopy revealed trophozoites and gametocytes resembling P. malariae. P. knowlesi malaria was confirmed by PCR.

  10. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  11. Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Weiland, P

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation.

  12. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  13. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date.

  14. Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

  15. [WINHO quality indicators for outpatient oncology care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hermes-Moll, Kerstin; Klein, Gudrun; Buschmann-Maiworm, Regina E; Baumann, Walter; Otremba, Burkhard; Lebahn, Herbert; Steinmetz, H Tilmann; Geraedts, Max; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Schmitz, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the WINHO indicators project is to describe and enhance the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany with indicators. This paper deals with the development of a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators to assess the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany. These indicators are intended to be applied in assessments of quality of patient care in oncology practices, in quality reports and in peer-to-peer benchmarking. A set of 272 already existing indicators was identified through internet and literature searches. After redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators for areas of ambulatory oncology care that were not yet covered, a preliminary set of 67 indicators was established. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the two-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method, which has been internationally established for developing quality indicator sets. The indicators were modified after the first round of ratings. After completing and assessing the second round of ratings, a set of 46 homogeneously positively rated quality indicators is now available for outpatient oncology care in Germany.

  16. Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2003-05-01

    Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not.

  17. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany.

  18. Cellular immune surveillance of central nervous system bypasses blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier: revealed with the New Marburg cerebrospinal-fluid model in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Tilmann O

    2015-03-01

    In healthy human brain/spinal cord, blood capillaries and venules are locked differently with junctions and basement membrane (blood-brain barrier, blood-venule barrier). In choroid plexus, epithelial tight junctions and basement membrane lock blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier. Lymphocytic cell data, quantified with multicolour flow-cytometry or immuno-cytochemical methods in sample pairs of lumbar CSF, ventrictricular CSF and peripheral venous blood, are taken from references; similarly, data of thoracic duct chyle and blood sample pairs. Through three circumventricular organs (median eminence, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, area postrema), 15-30 μl blood are pressed by blood pressure through fenestrated capillaries, matrix/basement membrane spaces and ependyma cell lacks into ventricular/suboccipital CSF to generate CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD3(+) HLA-DR(+) , CD16(+) 56(+) 3(-) NK, CD19(+) 3(-) B subsets; some B, few NK cells adhere in circumventricular organs. Into lumbar CSF, 10-15 μl thoracic chyle with five lymphocyte subsets (without CD3(+) HLA-DR(+) cells) reflux, when CSF drains out with to-and-fro movements of chyle/CSF along nerve roots. Lymphocytes in lumbar CSF represent a mixture of blood and lymph lymphocytic cells with similar HLA-DR(+) CD3(+) cell counts in ventricular and lumbar CSF, higher CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) subsets in lumbar CSF, and few NK and B cells due to absorption in circumventricular organs. The Marburg CSF Model reflects origin and turnover of lymphatic cells in CSF realistically; the model differs from ligand-multistep processes of activated lymphocytes through blood-brain-, blood-venule-, and blood-CSF-barriers; because transfer of inactivated native lymphocytes through the barriers is not found with healthy humans, although described so in literature.

  19. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-04-01

    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  20. Pathogenic vibrios in environmental, seafood and clinical sources in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huehn, Stephan; Eichhorn, Christin; Urmersbach, Sara; Breidenbach, Janina; Bechlars, Silke; Bier, Nadja; Alter, Thomas; Bartelt, Edda; Frank, Christina; Oberheitmann, Boris; Gunzer, Florian; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae naturally occur in marine and estuarine environments. Only few species of Vibrionaceae are associated with human cases of gastroenteritis, ear and wound infections, caused by ingestion of seafood or contact with Vibrio containing water. Increasing consumption of seafood (fish, fishery products and shellfish) poses a possible source of Vibrio infections in Germany. Additionally, there is a growing concern that abundances of pathogenic vibrios may increase in German coastal waters as a result of e.g. climate change resulting in probably rising surface water temperatures. According to the One Health concept the VibrioNet consortium started in 2010 to investigate the occurrence and relevance of non-cholera vibrios of human concern in Germany. Vibrios from environmental, seafood and clinical sources were analyzed with the aim to find connections between different reservoirs or sources and to identify potential ways of transmission of these pathogens to assess the risk of infections associated with them. Potentially pathogenic strains mostly belong to the species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. Investigations on imported seafood and mussels from primary production areas confirmed the frequent occurrence of these species. Moreover, studies of German coastal waters and sediments showed the presence and seasonality of these marine bacteria. So far the incidence of clinical cases of vibriosis in Germany is low. Between 1994 and 2013 thirteen cases of Vibrio spp. associated wound infections and/or septicaemia have been reported. However, the high prevalence of vibrios in aquatic environments and aquatic organisms is of concern and demands continued control of food and surveillance for clinical infections with pathogenic vibrios.

  1. Changing health inequalities in east and west Germany since unification.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The unification of Germany in 1990 brought about substantial social and economic changes in its eastern part, with new uncertainties and, despite increasing overall income, rising inequality. This paper explores the potential impact on health of these changes during the 1990s, looking specifically at income-related health inequalities in east and west Germany and its modulation by psychosocial factors. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the years 1992 and 1997, including individuals aged 25+. We investigated changes in self-perceived health in the two parts of Germany and its socio-economic and psychosocial determinants. Analyses estimated odds ratios of less than good health using logistic regression. In 1992, 47% of east Germans rated their health worse than good compared with 54% in the west. By 1997, the east-west gap in self-rated health had disappeared, with the prevalence of poor health increasing to 56% in both parts. Income and education were important determinants of health in east and west, with, in the age-sex-adjusted model, those having available less than 60% of median equivalent income being at increased risk of poor health in 1992 (OR(east) 2.39, 1.45-3.94; OR(west) 2.04, 1.65-2.52). Addition of education reduced the strength of this relationship only slightly. In the west, income-related health inequalities widened between 1992 and 1997 yet the initially stronger gradient declined in the east, despite an overall increase in income inequality (OR(east) 1.63, 1.04-2.56; OR(west) 2.65, 2.19-3.21). The impact of education remained stable. Psychosocial variables were important determinants, mediating the effects of income, with leisure-cultural social involvement exerting the strongest effect in both east and west.The results show that, unlike in the west, the overall increase in income inequality in east Germany between 1992 and 1997 was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in income-related health inequalities. This

  2. [Primary care practices in Germany: a model for the future].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    In its 2009 report the Federal Advisory Council on the Assessment of Developments in the Health Care System developed a model of Primary Care Practices for future general practice-based primary care. This article presents the theoretical background of the model. Primary care practices are seen as developed organisations requiring changes at all system levels (interaction, organisation, and health system) to ensure sustainability of primary care functions in the future. Developments of the elements comprising the health care system may be compared to the developments and proposals observed in other countries. In Germany, however, the pace of these developments is relatively slow.

  3. Total quality management in dermato-mycology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C

    2003-02-01

    Mycoses of the skin are extremely frequent. The clinical presentation often resembles the one of other frequent inflammatory skin diseases not caused by fungi. Adequate diagnostics are critical for the establishment of proper treatment. A total quality management system has been devised in Germany during the last 5 years. There are several guidelines addressing various aspects of the management of various types of disease as well as structure quality of laboratory diagnostics. Continuous medical education and so-called ring trials are major aspects of implementation.

  4. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete

  5. Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard

    2004-12-01

    Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.

  6. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  7. Competition policy for health care provision in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kifmann, Mathias

    2017-02-01

    Since the 1990s, Germany has introduced a number of competitive elements into its public health care system. Sickness funds were given some freedom to sign selective contracts with providers. Competition between ambulatory care providers and hospitals was introduced for certain diseases and services. As competition has become more intense, the importance of competition law has increased. This paper reviews these areas of competition policy. The problems of introducing competition into a corporatist system are discussed. Based on the scientific evidence on the effects of competition, key lessons and implications for future policy are formulated.

  8. [The introduction of the electronic health card in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bales, S

    2005-07-01

    From 2006 onwards all members of the health insurance system in Germany will be issued an electronic health card which will replace the current health insurance card. The new health card will be technically upgraded to also include patient-related health data or provide access to such data in addition to its administrative functions. Therefore, it is evident that the health card be fitted with a microprocessor that permits authentication (electronic identity check), encryption and the electronic digital signature, thus ensuring maximum data safety and security. For easy identification of the insured person, the electronic health card will bear a photograph of the card holder.

  9. Klimanavigator - Climate Navigator - Gateway to climate knowledge in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck-Zöller, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Objective More than 50 German research institutions and networks are represented on www.klimanavigator.de, a common platform, where information about their work, and the latest findings from climate research and adaptation can be found. Thus Klimanavigator as a gateway to climate knowledge provides a information portal for those who have to respond to climate change. The internet portal gives an overview of the present state of research and is estimated as a decision support tool for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Target Groups The portal collects the German climate research institutions to publish their scientific knowledge in a non-scientific language. Economists, policymakers, administration and the media are bound to find the names of scientific experts and institutions by an elaborated research tool. Methodology The chapter "Dossiers" is edited by the Klimanavigator-Coordinator CSC. It gathers information to a special issue looked upon from various points of view. Publications of outstanding German scientists are presented side by side, current knowledge is being synthesized, scientifically reviewed and disseminated. The latest news from climate and adaptation research is presented in an own chapter, dedicated to the press releases of the portal members. Via RSS-feed the press releases are collected from the different partner institutions. Thirdly, portraits of the member institutions, that are individually edited by themselves, draw a map of science in Germany and help to find appropriate cooperation partners. For the future further development is being planned. Common Management Klimanavigator is being managed by the partners in common. The main decisions concerning the concept and shape of the portal are made by the partners' assembly. An elected editorial committee decides about the content between the assemblies. The Climate Service Center (part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) concentrates on facilitating the cooperation, and

  10. [Multimodal pain therapy in Germany: structure and quality].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund; Nagel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal Pain Management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutical interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development are added.Medical indications are given for patients with chronic pain syndromes, but also if there is an elevated risk of chronic pain in the early stadium of the disease and aiming at delaying the process of chronification. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedure for day clinic units as well as for inpatients pain management. As there is still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the implementation of multimodal pain management the ad-hoc-Kommission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society has proposed a position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. Moreover a basic tool for documentation and quality management of pain therapy was developed by the German Pain Society (KEDOQ-Schmerz) as the data basis for nationwide, cross-sectional and independent scientific research in health services in Germany. In future KEDOQ-Schmerz will also used as a method for external quality management in chronic pain therapy in Germany.

  11. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  12. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  13. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  14. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries.

  15. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  16. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Luge, Enno; Draeger, Angelika; Nöckler, Karsten; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis in which dogs can act as a reservoir for human infection. The annual vaccination of dogs can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine. To date, all available vaccines in Germany include only the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the most commonly found serovars prior to the introduction of the leptospirosis vaccines. Yet, the involvement of additional serovars in the clinical presentation of leptospirosis in dogs has been described. The objective of this sero-epidemiological study was to examine the different Leptospira serovars currently circulating in a population of dogs suspicious for leptospirosis from Berlin. In 329 dogs presenting at the Small Animal Clinic in Berlin, the predominant serogroup was Australis (24%), followed by Grippotyphosa (20%) and Pomona (9%). A total of 18% of the dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis; here the most prevalent serogroups were also Australis (28%), Grippotyphosa (18%), and Pomona (14%). The serovar prevalence data presented here confirm that a change of pattern of infecting Leptospira serovars in dogs has taken place in Berlin. This data corresponds to further sero-epidemiological studies from other regions in Germany. To ensure human and canine health, available vaccines should be adapted to include the most important circulating serovars.

  17. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  19. [Current concepts in diagnosing brain death in Germany].

    PubMed

    Thömke, F; Weilemann, L S

    2000-02-15

    Diagnosis of brain death requires definite evidence of an acute CNS catastrophe and exclusion of complicating medical conditions that may confound clinical assessment. Acute CNS catastrophe may be due to direct ("primary") brain damage (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage, severe concussion, brain tumors), or indirect ("secondary") brain damage (e.g., cerebral hypoxia following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation). The cardinal findings in brain death are coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Persistence of these clinical signs determines brain death. In Germany, the intervals of a repeat clinical evaluation are at least 12 hours in patients with primary, and at least 72 hours in those with secondary brain damage. Electroencephalographically documented absence of electrical activity for at least 30 minutes or by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography or isotope angiography documented intracranial circulatory arrest also confirm brain death. Under such conditions, a repeat clinical evaluation is unnecessary in patients with clinical brain death signs. First of all, brain death is a clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory tests are not mandatory in most situations. In Germany, confirmatory tests are required in newborns, infants below the age of 2 years, and patients with infratentorial brain damage.

  20. Emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Fuchs, S; Behrendt, H; Hillenbrand, T

    2003-01-01

    The input of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) into the large river basins of Germany via various point and diffuse pathways were estimated for the period of 1985 through 2000. To quantify the emissions via point sources a nationwide survey on heavy metal data of municipal wastewater treatment plants and industrial direct discharges was carried out. The input via diffuse pathways was calculated using an adapted version of the model MONERIS. This model accounts for the significant transport processes, and it includes a Geographical Information System (GIS) that provides digital maps as well as extensive statistical information. For a comparison of the calculated heavy metal emission with the measured heavy metal load at monitoring stations the losses of heavy metals due to retention processes within the river systems have to be considered. Therefore heavy metal retention was calculated according to the retention functions given by Vink and Behrendt. For the large river basins a good correspondence could be found between estimated and measured heavy metal loads in rivers. The total emission into the North Sea decreased for each metal during the period of 1986 to 2000. The reduction varies between 87% for Hg and 41% for Ni mainly caused by the decline via point sources. Today's emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany are dominated by the input via diffuse pathways. The most important diffuse emission pathways are "paved urban areas" and "erosion".

  1. Systematic account of animal poisonings in Germany, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    McFarland, S E; Mischke, R H; Hopster-Iversen, C; von Krueger, X; Ammer, H; Potschka, H; Stürer, A; Begemann, K; Desel, H; Greiner, M

    2017-04-01

    A systematic retrospective study on animal poisonings in Germany (wildlife excluded) between January 2012 and December 2015 was conducted. Data were collected on animal exposure calls to German poison centres, poisoning cases presenting to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover Small Animal and Equine Clinics, cases involving off-label use of veterinary medicinal products reported to the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety and toxicological submissions to the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise animal type, exposure reason, type and substance, year/month of exposure, case severity and outcome. An evaluation of the data and data sources was also carried out. Variation in poisoning patterns was seen. However, dogs and cats were the most frequently reported species and medicinal products, pesticides and plants were consistently implicated as top causes of poisoning. Advantages and disadvantages were associated with each data source; bias was found to be an important consideration when evaluating poisoning data. This study provided useful information on animal poisonings in Germany and highlights the need for standardised approaches for the collection, evaluation and integration of poisoning data from multiple sources.

  2. Seroprevalence study of Francisella tularensis among hunters in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jenzora, Andrea; Jansen, Andreas; Ranisch, Heidrun; Lierz, Michael; Wichmann, Ole; Grunow, Roland

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Francisella tularensis unexpectedly reemerged in western Germany, when several semi-free-living marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in a research facility died from tularemia and a group of hare hunters became infected. It is believed that hunters may have an elevated risk to be exposed to zoonotic pathogens, including F. tularensis. A previous cross-sectional study of the German population (n=6883) revealed a prevalence of 0.2%. Here, we investigated 286 sera from individuals mainly hunting in districts with emerging tularemia cases (group 1) and 84 sera from a region currently not conspicuous for tularemia (group 2). Methods included standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assay. We found five out of the 286 hunters (1.7%; 95% CI 0.6-4.0%) in group 1 positive with standard ELISA and Western blot, but none in the Berlin area (group 2; 95% CI 0-0.04%). Group 1 showed an elevated risk for hunters to be seropositive for F. tularensis compared with the cross-sectional study (OR=7.7; P<0.001). This indicates a higher prevalence for tularemia in hunters of a suspected endemic region of Germany.

  3. [Psychiatric psychotherapeutic research in Germany: taking stock and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Falkai, P; Schneider, F; Sauer, H; Amlacher, J; Schneller, C; Maier, W

    2013-11-01

    This article is based on an evaluation carried out by the DGPPN in 2011 surveying 50 German university and non-university institutions about the scientific research output focussing on psychiatric and psychotherapeutic research. The results of the survey show that on average there are 1 to 2 professors with 12 assistants scientifically active per institution. According to self-disclosure an estimated 1.8 million Euros of external funds are raised each year.Compared to international standards regarding the illnesses major depression, schizophrenia and alcohol abuse, Germany ranks second and third place behind the USA and the UK or Canada in terms of publication output. In terms of authors and institutions, German scientists and universities rank in the upper third to upper tenth for these illnesses. These data show that psychiatric research in Germany is not only internationally competitive but outstanding in its excellent achievements in these fields. Unfortunately, many funding programmes are limited to a 3-6 year period. In view of this fact and in order to achieve a long-term improvement in the translation of funding structures, as in the US (NIMH) or the UK (MRC) to benefit the mentally ill the implementation of a German centre for mental disorders is inevitable.

  4. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  5. [Education, birth cohort, and marriage age: a comparative analysis of marriage age in West Germany, East Germany, and the United States].

    PubMed

    Bruderl, J; Diekmann, A

    1994-02-01

    "This paper investigates how education influences marriage behavior in three countries: the United States, West Germany, and former East Germany. Following family economics we postulate that for women a longer education decreases marriage rates both during education (institutional effect) and after the degree has been obtained (human capital effect). For men family economics predicts the delaying institutional effect, too, but the human capital effect is expected to increase marriage rates. Further considerations lead to the additional hypothesis that for younger birth cohorts these sex differences should attenuate.... For the United States and West Germany the observed marriage patterns confirm our hypotheses for the most part. For East Germany, however, we observe different marriage patterns. This was expected because the institutional context in this former socialist country was a very different one." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Fractal Fragmentation triggered by meteor impact: The Ries Crater (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Perugini, Diego; Rossi, Stefano; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    FRACTAL FRAGMENTATION TRIGGERED BY METEOR IMPACT: THE RIES CRATER (GERMANY) Joali Paredes (1), Stefano Rossi (1), Diego Perugini (1), Ulrich Kueppers (2) 1. Department of Physics and Geology, University of Perugia, Italy 2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Munich, Germany The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany. The depression was caused by a meteor impact, which occurred about 14.3 million-14.5 million years ago. The original crater rim had an estimated diameter of 24 kilometers. Computer modeling of the impact event indicates that the impact or probably had diameters of about 1.5 kilometers and impacted the target area at an angle around 30 to 50 degrees from the surface in a west- southwest to east-northeast direction. The impact velocity is thought to have been about 20 km/s. The meteor impact generated extensive fragmentation of preexisting rocks. In addition, melting of these rocks also occurred. The impact melt was ejected at high speed provoking its extensive fragmentation. Quenched melt fragments are ubiquitous in the outcrops. Here we study melt fragment size distributions with the aim of understanding the style of melt fragmentation during ejection and to constrain the rheological properties of such melts. Digital images of suevite (i.e. the rock generated after deposition and diagenesis of ash and fragments produced by the meteor impact) were obtained using a high-resolution optical scanner. Successively, melt fragments were traced by image analysis and the images segmented in order to obtain binary images on which impact melt fragments are in black color, embedded on a white background. Hence, the size of fragments was determined by image analysis. Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to fragment size distributions of melt fragments in the Ries crater. Results indicate that melt fragments follow fractal distributions indicating that fragmentation of melt generated by the

  7. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  8. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Traditions in Educational Sciences: France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen; Keiner, Edwin

    1991-01-01

    Examines patterns of institutional organization and communication in education in France and Germany. The science of education is autonomous and philosophically oriented in Germany but is intertwined with sociology, psychology, and other social sciences and is positivistic in nature in France. Overlap between the cognitive textures of the French…

  9. Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and…

  10. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  11. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009–2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany. PMID:23621949

  12. Press and Broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special Report No. 7, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellack, Georg

    This special report provides a survey of media in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and attempts to answer questions such as: what freedoms the mass media enjoy, the nature of their finances, what problems they have to deal with, and what their future in competition with new modes of communication will be like. Chapter 1 discusses the…

  13. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts..., 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  14. 76 FR 10335 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published an antidumping duty order on ball bearings...

  15. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH... (the Department) published antidumping duty orders on ball bearings, cylindrical roller bearings,...

  16. 78 FR 39316 - Sodium Nitrite From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... (Review)] Sodium Nitrite From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on sodium nitrite from China and the antidumping duty order on sodium nitrite from Germany would be likely to lead to...

  17. A Survey of Secondary Mathematics Teacher Training Practices in West Germany and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Lars C.

    The survey, conducted during 1979-80, focused on practices in the professional component of preservice teacher education in West Germany and the Netherlands. The report is divided into four major sections: (1) the structure of the questionnaire (included in the appendix), (2) the West Germany results, (3) the Dutch results, and (4) concluding…

  18. Continuing Vocational Education in Germany: Foundations, Sponsors, the New Media, Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on continuing vocational education (CVE) in Germany. Articles are: "Lifelong Learning in the Knowledge Society;""The Foundations of CVE in Germany"; "Who Takes Part in Continuing Education?"; "Hail Maria! A Helping Hand for Female Academics Seeking Promotion"; "Sponsors and Forms of…

  19. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  20. Communication Indicators. II. 100 Years of Mass Communication in Germany. Communication and Society 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Anton; Vogler, Kurt

    This report summarizes the findings of a Unesco-sponsored study designed to identify quantitative relationships between mass communication and economic growth in the Federal Republic of Germany. The first and second sections of the report outline the most important economic and social lines of development in Germany from the end of the nineteenth…

  1. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  2. Welcome to the Land of the Ideas: The Goethe Institute Fellowship Tour of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    There are many valid reasons for participating in an educators' tour of Germany. It is a nation that has a legacy of literary and political thought that has had a profound impact on the evolution of Western civilization. Germany has offered the world artistic and scientific genius and been the source of devastating war and unprecedented genocide.…

  3. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…

  4. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  5. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of..., ] and pressure pipe and tube not more than 4.5 inches in outside diameter, and including redraw...

  6. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  7. 76 FR 20951 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010....

  8. 78 FR 78335 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany. The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2011, through October 31... order is lightweight thermal paper. The merchandise subject to the order is currently classified...

  9. 77 FR 73615 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010... duty order on lightweight thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany for the period November 1, 2010, through... covered by the order is lightweight thermal paper. The merchandise subject to the order is...

  10. 75 FR 11135 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR), November 20, 2008, through October 31,...

  11. 76 FR 76360 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany. For the period November 1... received a timely request from Appleton Papers, Inc. (petitioner) for the Department to conduct...

  12. 77 FR 22560 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2010, through October 31,...

  13. The Right to Education: The Case of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    This paper investigates the extension of educational rights to girls, working class children, and the children of migrant workers in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The first section discusses the theoretical basis of affirmative action in West Germany, legal provisions for attaining equality in education, and basic features of the West…

  14. The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

  15. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  16. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  17. 78 FR 15376 - Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea On the basis...)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany...

  18. Education after and about Auschwitz in Germany: Towards a Theory of Remembrance in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschki, Reinhold; Reichmann, Bettina; Schwendemann, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education after and about Auschwitz (Holocaust education) in Germany in both theory and practice, with particular attention to three critical areas. The first is the status of research in, as Adorno famously phrased it, "education after Auschwitz" within the context of contemporary Germany. German…

  19. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based…

  20. The Skilled Crafts in Germany. Education and Science (Bildung and Wissenschaft) BW 1/95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    This publication focuses on the skilled crafts in Germany, including the training system and professional prospects. It includes the following articles: "A Valuable Tradition" (Dieter W. Benecke) and "The Skilled Crafts in Germany: Training System and Professional Prospects" (Volker Thomas). The latter article covers the…

  1. Changing Traditions in Germany's Public Schools. International Studies in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichanz, Horst; Zahorik, John A.

    Understanding German elementary and secondary schools requires knowledge of political, geographic, economic, and social aspects of Germany. German schools have developed in accordance with the prevailing influences of their times. People and events, throughout the past 400 years, are discussed. The legal status of education in Germany is similar…

  2. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  3. Working Women in Contemporary Germany. Roles, Attitudes, and a Handful of Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan

    1997-01-01

    In 1977, when women in West Germany (the Fedeal Republic of Germany) got the legal right to be employed outside the family against their husband's will, paragraph 1356 of the Civil Code, defining housework as the woman's duty, was abolished. Until then, heavy social pressure kept women close to home; in most cases, the choice of an outside…

  4. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A…

  5. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  6. Climatic change evidence and lacustrine waves from maar lakes, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zolitschka, B.

    1992-01-01

    Annually laminated, non-glacial lake sediments from Lake Holzmaar (Eifel, western Germany) were investigated using large {open_quotes}Merkt{close_quotes} thin sections. The absolute age of varve intervals with variations in thickness and composition were correlated to climatic changes recorded by glacier fluctuations in the Alps. Back to 8800 years VT (vuarve time = varve years before 1950) glacier advances coincide with sedimentation rate minima; prior to 8800 years VT they coincide with sedimentation rate maxima. The early and middle Holocene sediments suggest a periodicity of about 1000 years for cold/warm cycles. A sequence of 512 varve-thickness measurements was subjected to spectral analysis. These provide apparent evidence for a 11-year sun-spot cycle. 30 refs., 3 fig.

  7. Regional quasigeoid determination in Northern Germany and comparison with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denker, Heiner

    1989-01-01

    For the northern part of the Federal Republic of Germany, new quasigeoid solutions were computed by least squares collocation and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) techniques using point and mean gravity data, a digital terrain model, and a global geopotential model. As severe accuracy limitations for precise regional quasigeoid determination come from global model uncertainties, different geopotential models were investigated by combining them with gravimetric data and comparing the quasigeoid heights with GPS and leveling. Optimum results were obtained by a global model tailored to gravity data in Europe. Collocation and FFT results based on this model agree well. The comparison with GPS and leveling yields rms discrepancies of + or - 2 cm over approximately 400 km range.

  8. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  9. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  10. Traditional 'air-dried' fermented sausages from Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Lücke, Friedrich-Karl; Vogeley, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Traditional varieties of fermented pork sausages from Central Germany are different from related meat products in various aspects. First, they are prepared from "warm" pork immediately after slaughter. The meat is then minced, mixed with spices and minimal amounts of sugars, salt and nitrate, and the stuffed sausages ripen for a minimum of 6-8 weeks at temperatures below 15 °C. Second, surface mould growth during ripening is regularly removed or suppressed. The manufacturing methods require a minimum of investments and labour and reflect the socio-economic situation in the manufacturing area. The sausages have a good record of safety, and a preliminary risk assessment indicates that pathogens are kept under sufficient control by the extended ripening at low temperatures. Small-scale (artisanal) manufacture of these products is only possible with a flexible interpretation of the hygienic principles set up in current legislation.

  11. Disease management programmes in Germany: a fundamental fault.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    In 2001 Germany introduced disease management programmes (DMPs) in order to give sick funds an incentive to improve the treatment of the chronically ill. By 1 March 2005, a total of 3275 programmes had been approved, 2760 for diabetes, 390 for breast cancer and 125 for coronary heart disease, covering roughly 1 million patients. German DMPs show a major fault regarding financial incentives. Sick funds increase their transfers from the risk adjustment scheme when their clients enroll in DMPs. Since this money is a lump sum, sick funds do not necessarily foster treatment of the chronically ill. Similarly, reimbursement of physicians is also not well targeted to the needs of DMPs. Preliminary evidence points to poor performance of German DMPs.

  12. Business evolution or revolution? Mail-order pharmacies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gersch, Martin

    2004-01-01

    It is an interesting detail of the present reform of national public health service in Germany that mail-order and internet pharmacies will be founded in future as new (e-commerce) business models. Main points of conceivable business systems can be characterised as well as critical success factors. No potential participant can ever have all the necessary resources and competences to implement a competitive business system without external support. This is why cooperation seems to be a useful tool for competence management. The Resource-based View will serve as theoretical background for analysis. The required and available competences of conceivable players can be identified. Features of resources can be described that recommend special types of cooperation with the intention of establishing and operate a business system. Especially German and international pharmaceutical wholesalers can be identified as conceivable "parents" of mail-order pharmacies in the future.

  13. Temperature Trends over Germany from Homogenized Radiosonde Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Pattantyús Ábráham, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present homogenization procedure and results for Germany's historical radiosonde records, dating back to the 1950s. Our manual homogenization makes use of the different RS networks existing in East and West-Germany from the 1950s until 1990. The largest temperature adjustments, up to 2.5K, are applied to Freiberg sondes used in the East in the 1950s and 1960s. Adjustments for Graw H50 and M60 sondes, used in the West from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and for RKZ sondes, used in the East in the 1970s and 1980s, are also significant, 0.3 to 0.5K. Small differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes used throughout Germany since 1990 and 2005, respectively, were not corrected for at levels from the ground to 300 hPa. Comparison of the homogenized data with other radiosonde datasets, RICH (Haimberger et al., 2012) and HadAT2 (McCarthy et al., 2008), and with Microwave Sounding Unit satellite data (Mears and Wentz, 2009), shows generally good agreement. HadAT2 data exhibit a few suspicious spikes in the 1970s and 1980s, and some suspicious offsets up to 1K after 1995. Compared to RICH, our homogenized data show slightly different temperatures in the 1960s and 1970s. We find that the troposphere over Germany has been warming by 0.25 ± 0.1K per decade since the early 1960s, slightly more than reported in other studies (Hartmann et al., 2013). The stratosphere has been cooling, with the trend increasing from almost no change near 230hPa (the tropopause) to -0.5 ± 0.2K per decade near 50hPa. Trends from the homogenized data are more positive by about 0.1K per decade compared to the original data, both in troposphere and stratosphere. References: Haimberger, L., C. Tavolato, and S. Sperka, 2012. J. Climate, 25, 8108-8131, doi:10.1175/ JCLI-D-11-00668.1. Hartmann, D., et al., 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and surface in IPCC AR5, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. [Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/.] McCarthy, M., et al., 2008. J. Climate

  14. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  15. "Be fruitful and multiply": genesis and generation in reformation Germany.

    PubMed

    Crowther-Heyck, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    This essay analyzes vernacular texts on reproduction from sixteenth-century Germany. It examines religious texts, including sermons and devotional treatises for pregnant women, as well as medical texts, such as midwifery manuals, books on the "secrets of nature," and anatomical treatises. Vernacular authors, both medical and clerical, ascribed enormous spiritual and symbolic significance to human generation. Conception, pregnancy, and birth were linked to the biblical account of the creation and fall of mankind. In the creation of the child in the womb, sixteenth-century Germans saw an echo of the original divine act of creation. And in the sufferings of a woman in labor they saw a reenactment of Christ's Passion. Discussions of reproduction thus served as a starting point for meditations on original sin, human mortality, and the relationship between body and soul.

  16. Importance and impact of veterinary virology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Horzinek, M C

    1999-01-01

    The causative agent of tobacco mosaic and of foot and mouth disease (FMD) were recognized in 1898 as "filterable" or "invisible"--and eventually termed "virus". Four years later the viral aetiology of yellow fever was established, and the new discipline took off. Thus animal virology started with a veterinary problem, and Germany's contribution during the following decades came mainly from the chairs of veterinary teaching and research establishments in Giessen, Munich and Hanover, the Riems Institute, and the Federal Research Institute for Animal Virus Diseases in Tübingen. From a superficial bibliometric analysis, a wide divergence in impact figures is noted, with excellent contributions in international virology journals and lesser papers in German veterinary journals. The publications in the observed time frame reveal a fascination by virion structure, physical characteristics and structure-function relationships with little work published in journals dedicated to immunology and pathogenesis.

  17. [The use of cannabis in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Tossmann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Since more than 30 years cannabis is the most common illicit drug in Germany and other European countries. According to different Studies conducted in representative community samples, it can be assumed, that every fifth woman and about every third man, aged 18 to 59 years had used cannabis at least once. Epidemiologic studies also show that cannabis use is strongly associated with adolescence and young adulthood, though. Thus, cannabis consumption significantly increases from age 15, while beginning with the age 23 the proportion of cannabis consumers continuously decreases. Following the results of current studies the majority of consumers uses cannabis rather occasional. Nevertheless about 10-15% of the current consumers show patterns of cannabis dependence according to international diagnostic criteria. Although counselling centres note an increasing demand for addiction specific treatment, cannabis users still remain a small group in treatment centre statistics.

  18. Changing epidemiology of Q fever in Germany, 1947-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Hellenbrand, W.; Breuer, T.; Petersen, L.

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of Q fever in Germany was examined by reviewing relevant studies since 1947 and by analyzing available surveillance data since 1962. The average annual Q fever incidence nationwide from 1979 to 1989 was 0.8 per million and from 1990 to 1999, 1.4 per million. The mean annual incidence from 1979 to 1999 ranged from a minimum of 0.1 per million in several northern states to 3.1 per million in Baden-Württemberg, in the South. We identified 40 documented outbreaks since 1947; in 24 of these sheep were implicated as the source of transmission. The seasonality of community outbreaks has shifted from predominantly winter- spring to spring-summer, possibly because of changes in sheep husbandry. The location of recent outbreaks suggests that urbanization of rural areas may be contributing to the increase in Q fever. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing sheep-related exposures, particularly near urban areas. PMID:11747689

  19. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  20. Status of mid-infrared superlattice technology in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleissner, Joachim; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, InAs/GaSb superlattice detector technology for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range has been intensively developed in recent years. Mid-IR InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes achieve a very high quantum efficiency. The world's first high-performance infrared imagers based on InAs/GaSb superlattices were realized offering high spatial and excellent thermal resolution at short integration times. Additionally, the technology for dual-color superlattice detectors featuring simultaneous, pixel-registered detection of two separate spectral regimes in the mid-IR has been developed. Due to the ability to detect signatures of hot carbon dioxide, dual-color superlattice detectors are ideally suited for missile alerting sensors. The capability for small volume production of InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors has been established.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  2. [Long-term trends of the demographic aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Birg, Herwig; Flöthmann, E J

    2002-10-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, Germany is experiencing the highest demographic aging after Japan. The aging process was first initiated by the increase of life expectancy, especially at the age above 60 years which caused an increase in the number of old people. During the next phase (1970-2000) the aging process was additionally affected by decreasing birth rates. Since the end of the 1960s the total fertility rate in Germany has been below the replacement level. As a consequence the number of children is decreasing and the number of old people has been increasing for 30 years. Various population projections published by the Institute for Population Research and Social Policy (IBS) demonstrate that the aging process will intensify during the next 50 years: the number of the oldest old population will triple, and the dependancy ratio will at least double. This process cannot be stopped or considerably diminished by an increasing number of young immigrants. After 2050 the cohorts born after the second world war (the baby boom cohorts) will be dead. But the decreasing number of old people beyond 2050 will not automatically lead to a lower dependancy ratio, because the age group 0-20 is diminishing continuously. Only a rise of the total fertility rate to the replacement level of 2.1 children per women could stop the aging process effectively in the long run (i.e., after two generations or after 60 years, respectively). In this case, the dependancy ratio will not double or triple but increase by a factor of 1.5.

  3. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  4. Low-threshold support for families with dementia in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-threshold support services are a part of the German health care system and help relieving family caregivers. There is limited information available on how to construct and implement low-threshold support services for people with dementia and their families in Germany. Some studies describe separately different perspectives of experiences and expectations, but there is no study combining all the different perspectives of those involved and taking the arrangements and organisation as well as their opinions on supporting and inhibiting factors into consideration. Findings This protocol describes the design of the study on low-threshold support services for families with a person with dementia in two German regions. The aim is to develop recommendations on how to build up these services and how to implement them in a region. A quantitative as well as a qualitative approach will be used. The quantitative part will be a survey on characteristics of service users and providers, as well as health care structures of the two project regions and an evaluation of important aspects derived from a literature search. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews will be carried out to get a deeper insight into the facilitators and barriers for both using and providing these services. All people involved will be included, such as the people with dementia, their relatives, volunteers, coordinators and institution representatives. Discussion Results of this study will provide important aspects for policymakers who are interested in an effective and low-threshold support for people with dementia. Furthermore the emerging recommendations can help staff and institutions to improve quality of care and can contribute to developing health and social care structures in Germany. PMID:22721553

  5. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  6. [Salmonella in free living snakes of Northern Germany (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wuthe, H H; Rohde, R; Aleksić, S; Schubert, C; Wuthe, S

    1979-04-01

    Fourty-nine adders (Vipera berus L.) and thirty-one grass-snakes (Nitrix natrix L.) from northern Germany were investigated by cloacal swabs. The samples were usually taken in the field and preenriched in peptone water and further-on processed in three steps of tetrathionate. After each step of enrichment the material was transfered to salmonella shigella agar and fuchsine lactose agar (acc. to Endo). Salmonella screening was done by inoculation of lactose positive and lactose negative colonies into lysine iron agar (acc. to Edwards and Fife). Salmonella excretion was found in 59% of the adders and in 68% of the grass-snakes. Some specimens excreted several Salmonella species. 22 different species resp. variants were detected, of which 19 species belonged to subgenus III (Arizona). Subgenus I occured infrequently and was represented by S. duesseldorf, S. heidelberg and S. sunnycove. Three new triphasic variants S. III 17:Z10: e, n, x, z15: z56, S. III 38: (k): z35:z56 and S. III 50:z10:z:z56 of species already known and four so far unknown species S. III (6), 14: 1,v:z (Ar. 7a, 7c:23-31), S. III 21:1,v:z57 (Ar. 22:23-40a,40c), S. III 43:1,v:z56 (Ar. 21:23-38) and S. III 28:z10:z57 (Ar. 35:27-40a,40c) were discovered. The present results suggest that adders and grass-snakes in northern Germany represent autonomous reservoirs of salmonellae. There exist only few relations between the Salmonella species in these kinds of snakes and other European snakes.

  7. Warm-season severe wind events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs. Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events. Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

  8. Evaluation of pharmaceutical concerns in Germany: frequency and potential reasons

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Gabriele; Krieg, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic substitution can have unintended consequences. In Germany, brand name to generic or generic to generic switching is mainly driven by rebate contracts. Frequent switching may raise concerns about bio- and therapeutic equivalence. Expected patient confusion may result in compromised medication adherence or new onset of other drug-related problems. Since 2008, pharmacists are allowed to deviate from rebate contracts by denying substitution due to pharmaceutical concerns on an individual basis. Objectives: To explore the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in Germany between July 2011 and December 2013 and to identify the medicines most frequently related to pharmaceutical concerns in 2013. Methods: We analyzed documented pharmaceutical concerns in all prescribed drugs at the expense of any statutory health insurance company requiring pharmacies’ generic substitution according to rebate contracts. Results: Since July 2011, the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in relation to prescribed drug products with rebate contracts requiring substitution increased consistently and doubled between July 2011 and July 2013. Overall in 2013, the trend of the two previous years continued and reached approximately 1.5%. The most affected drugs/drug classes were thyroid hormones (in particular combinations with iodide; 15.9%) followed by ondansetron (12.5%), and levothyroxine (11.3%). For all drugs/drug classes under investigation, product-, patient- or disease-related aspects could be identified which are potential reasons to deny substitution and to document pharmaceutical concerns. Conclusions: Although there is no electronic recording of the specific reasons for pharmaceutical concerns in claims data, our analyses support the assumption that pharmacists make use of this instrument based on individual clinical decisions and as required by contract. Pharmaceutical concerns are, therefore, an important instrument for pharmacies to refuse

  9. Molybdenum intake of adults in Germany and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, S; Anke, M; Röhrig, B; Gonzalez, D

    1998-03-01

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. It plays a complex role in the ecosystem, because the metal is a part of a cofactor for several important enzymes in human, animal and plant metabolism. The physiological requirement for this element is relatively low. Our investigations were aimed at determining the Mo intake of adults in Germany and Mexico by means of duplicate portion technique. Molybdenum was estimated in the food duplicate samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In 1988, 1992 and 1996 the Mo consumption of humans was investigated in 14 test groups of persons with mixed diets. Each test population consisted of seven men and seven women. Furthermore, in 1996 the Mo intake of 10 female and 10 male vegetarians and of two Mexican test groups was also determined. Different factors, such as sex, time of investigation, location and eating habits have an effect on the individual Mo intake, Molybdenum intake of adults with mixed diets has increased significantly from 1988 to 1996. Furthermore, results of our study showed that Mo intake of German adults differs depending on location and the kind of diet. German women with a mixed diet consumed 89 micrograms d-1 in 1996 and men 100 micrograms d-1. In comparison, female and male vegetarians consumed 179 micrograms d-1 and 170 micrograms d-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in Mo consumption between German and Mexican test persons. Mexican women consumed on average 162 micrograms d-1 and Mexican men 208 micrograms d-1. The Mo requirement of adults amounts to about 25 micrograms d-1. Our investigations showed that the Mo requirement is met by normal intake. An intake of 150 micrograms kg-1 body weight may be toxic for humans. Therefore, people in Germany and Mexico are not endangered by Mo exposure.

  10. U-Pb age and Hf isotope data of detrital zircons of exotic Devonian sandstones from the southeastern Rheinisches Schiefergebirge near Giessen, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrat, Joscha; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Axel, Gerdes

    2013-04-01

    In the Rhenohercynian zone, southeastern Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, of Germany early and late Devonian sedimentary successions of suspect provenance occur in the allochthonous assemblage of the Lindener Mark south of Giessen and the Giessen nappe. Both tectonic units were emplaced over the autothonous Rhenohercynian units as northward moving nappes during the Variscan orogeny. A combination of faunal and sedimentological data suggested that the allochthonous sedimentary successions do not belong to the Rhenohercynian zone as part of the southern margin of the Old Red Continent and most likely derive originally from northern Gondwana. In order to test the interpretation of a NW African origin of the Hercynian units we applied U-Pb detrital zircon age determination and Hf isotope analysis by laser-ablation-sector field-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-SF-ICP-MS). We studied the Dalmanitensandstein in the Lindener Mark south of Giessen, the Giessener Grauwacke, Kalkige Grauwacke and the Erbslochgrauwacke near Marburg and Densberg. We analyzed around 150 detrital zircons of each sample and considered only ages which are less than 10% discordant. Viewed synoptically the age distributions of all 5 samples are very similar. The U-Pb ages range between 3300 Ma and 372 Ma. The age distributions show two major peaks in each of the samples. The older peak is around 2000 Ma with ~27% of ages, the younger one is around 600 Ma with ~71% of ages. Ages between 1650 and 1200 Ma are very scarce (~2%). These essentially bimodal zircon age spectra are similar to typical NW African zircon age spectra with the main abundances connected to the Eburnean and Cadomian orogenies at c. 2000 Ma and c. 600 Ma, respectively. Contrastingly, siliciclastic units derived from the Old Red Continent to the north include abundant zircon ages between 2000 and 1000 Ma. The Hf isotope patterns of the samples of all studied formations are also very similar. The Hf isotopic compositions of

  11. Biotechnica 󈨚. International Congress for Biotechnology (2nd) Held in Hannover, Germany, F.R. on 23-25 September 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BIOCHEMISTRY, * GENETIC ENGINEERING , *BIOENGINEERING, CONGRESS, DETECTORS, MEDICINE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, QUALITY CONTROL, INTERNATIONAL, BIOLOGICAL DETECTION, BIOTECHNOLOGY, FOOD, GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), WEST GERMANY.

  12. 77 FR 32507 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany for the period of review (``POR... review of the following ten producers/exporters of brass sheet and strip from Germany: Aurubis...

  13. 78 FR 52759 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany for the period March 1, 2012... review of brass sheet and strip from Germany covering the period March 1, 2012, through February 28,...

  14. 76 FR 42681 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany, Wieland-Werke...

  15. 75 FR 47548 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration A-428-602 Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of... and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany... and German manufacturer of brass sheet and strip, we are now ] rescinding this administrative...

  16. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  17. 75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the...

  18. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.\\1\\ The period...

  19. 76 FR 52937 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. The period of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. DATES: Effective Date: August 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  20. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  1. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Review)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely...

  2. 76 FR 36901 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary... brass sheet and strip from Germany. See Memorandum to Edward C. Yang, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary... of the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany'' (June 7, 2011). Extension...

  3. Introduction - Background, Goal and Content of the Lecture Series on Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Munich, Germany, in 1963. He holds multiple Dr. honoris causa Degrees from the Friedrich-Alexsnder University Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany, 2003, from...both from Philipps University Marburg, Germany. He received a Dr. Ing.-E.h. (Dr. honoris causa ) Degree from University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

  4. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, J

    1995-01-01

    With the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, East Germany entered a process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Since then, the number of marriages and births in former East Germany have declined by 65% and 1.3 million people have migrated west. 0.36 million have migrated from West to East Germany. Indeed, the demographic situation in East Germany has fundamentally changed in many ways since 1989. The author analyzes these changes, noting that trends toward deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are now basic features of demography in the East. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains upon the environment. The author also points out that the economic policy of the former government of East Germany and the resulting environmental damage to the region have not lead to major changes in birth and mortality rates.

  5. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany.

  6. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  7. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe.

  8. [Experience with prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany : plea for proactive risk management].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Pleischl, S; Grummt, H-J; Engelhart, S

    2011-06-01

    Legionellosis is meanwhile the most important specific water-associated infectious disease in developed countries, which is completely preventable, if water distribution systems are correctly planned and operated. This assumes clear criteria for risk regulation and for verification, including microbiological monitoring for Legionella. There are different reactive and proactive strategies in the USA and in Europe. The common premises for prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany, relevant facts for risk regulation, experience in Germany toward proactive risk regulation, and the current approach of the amended drinking water ordinance are discussed. The article concludes with a short discussion of the controversial approaches for the prevention of legionellosis in Germany.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-06-22

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  10. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological

  11. Antibiotic consumption and resistance: data from Europe and Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Elisabeth; Gastmeier, Petra; Deja, Maria; Schwab, Frank

    2013-08-01

    The use of antibiotics - including the over- and misuse - in human and veterinary practices selected for resistant pathogens and led to their emergence and dissemination along with the transmission of resistant bacteria. The aim of this article is to prescribe the prerequisites for the surveillance of antibiotic use and bacterial resistance, to explain advantage and disadvantage of surveillance parameters used, to present new data from a surveillance network of intensive care units focusing on antibiotic use and resistance and to discuss the impact of antibiotic use on resistance. The Surveillance System of Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Resistance in Intensive Care Units (SARI) is an on-going project that collects data from its network of intensive care units (ICU) in Germany. Antimicrobial use was expressed as daily defined doses (DDD) and normalized per 1000 patient-days (pd). ICU decided either to provide monthly data on antibiotic and resistant pathogens or they decided to provide only yearly data on antibiotic use without resistance data. 85% of all antibiotics used in Germany are administered in animals; 85% of the antibiotics used in humans are prescribed in the outpatient setting and 85% of the antibiotics used in hospitals are prescribed on non-ICUs wards. The mostly widely used parameter for the surveillance of resistance is the percentage of resistant pathogens which is important to guide empirical therapy but does not measure the burden of resistance which is of interest to the public health perspective. The burden of MRSA did not increase over the last 11 years in ICUs and was 4.2MRSA/1000pd in 2011. The burden of 3rd generation resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae more than quintupled (up to 2.6 and 1.2 respectively) and was followed by a three times increased use of carbapenems and correlated with quinolone and 3rd generation cephalosporin use. The burden VRE faecium also increased dramatically from 0.1 to 0.8 within 11 years; VRE faecium showed no

  12. The essence of alternative medicine. A dermatologist's view from Germany.

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1998-11-01

    In Germany, alternative medicine is presently very popular and is supported by the federal government. When deliberating on the essence of alternative medicine we should simultaneously reflect on the intellectual and moral basis of regular medicine. To provide an epistemological demarcation of the 2 fields, the following 12 theses are advanced: (1) alternative and regular medicine are speaking different languages; (2) alternative medicine is not unconventional medicine; (3) the paradigm of regular medicine is rational thinking; (4) the paradigm of alternative medicine is irrational thinking; (5) the present popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by romanticism; (6) some concepts of alternative medicine are falsifiable and others are not; (7) alternative medicine and evidence-based medicine are mutually exclusive; (8) the placebo effect is an important factor in regular medicine and the exclusive therapeutic principle of alternative medicine; (9) regular and alternative medicine have different aims: coming of age vs faithfulness; (10) alternative medicine is not always safe; (11) alternative medicine is not economic; and (12) alternative medicine will always exist. The fact that alternative methods are presently an integral part of medicine as taught at German universities, as well as of the physician's fee schedule, represents a collective aberration of mind that hopefully will last for only a short time.

  13. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  14. The second Team Haemophilia Education Meeting, 2016, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik; Dargaud, Yesim; Hart, Daniel; Lobet, Sébastien; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; d'Oiron, Roseline; Perry, David; Pollard, Debra; van den Berg, Marijke; Blatný, Jan; Chambost, Hervé; Doria, Andrea S; Holme, Pål André; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Mantovani, Lorenzo; McLaughlin, Paul; Nanayakkara, Lochana; Petrini, Pia; Sannié, Thomas; Laane, Edward; Maia, Raquel; Dettoraki, Athina; Farrell, Anna; Halimeh, Susan; Raza, Sayma; Taylor, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The first Team Haemophilia Education (THE) Meeting was held on 7-8 May 2015 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It aimed to promote the optimal care of patients with haemophilia through education of the multidisciplinary treatment team. This was achieved by reviewing the latest developments in haemophilia management, considering how these can be implemented in the clinic to improve patient care and providing a platform for networking and debate for all haemophilia treatment team members. The second THE Meeting was held on 19-20 May in Frankfurt, Germany, and participants included doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, patient representatives and data management staff from 20 different countries. Topics covered the role of the multidisciplinary team in delivering the best haemophilia care, challenges in the management of haemophilia across Europe, available clotting factor treatments, future treatments and the use of genetics in advising carriers of haemophilia. This report is a summary of the key developments in haemophilia care presented by various investigators and healthcare professionals at THE Meeting 2016.

  15. Schleswig: medieval leprosy on the boundary between Germany and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Riis, Thomas; Dittmar, Manuela; Weise, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe. The disease is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion and it was present in Scandinavia in the first centuries AD. This paper estimates and analyzes the frequency of leprosy among adult people buried in one of five medieval cemeteries in the city of Schleswig. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy were analyzed, and it was possible to score at least one of these conditions on 350 adult skeletons (aged 15 or older). The scores were transformed to a statistic indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. It was found that the frequency of leprosy in the five cemeteries varied between 9 and 44%. Four of the five cemeteries showed frequencies ranging from 35 and 44% and with no statistically significant differences among them. The fifth cemetery showed a significantly lower frequency of leprosy (9%). The distribution of female age at death does not appear to be affected by leprosy status. This means that females experienced a considerably elevated risk of dying once they had contracted leprosy as the disease usually has a mid-adulthood age of onset. In four of the five cemeteries males with leprosy died in higher ages than men without leprosy--in two of the cemeteries the difference was statistically significant. This indicates that leprosy usually added less to the risk of dying among men than among women in medieval Schleswig.

  16. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus screening in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, T; Petry, K U; Iftner, T; Greiner, W; von der Schulenburg, J M

    2003-09-01

    Cytology-based screening programs for cervical cancer have been effective in reducing cancer incidence and preventing premature deaths worldwide. However, there is concern about the relatively low sensitivity of current screening procedures. Although the causal association between infection with certain high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and the development of cervical cancer has been clearly established, testing for the major risk factor is not part of current screening practice. We created a tree decision model over time to evaluate different policy choices for implementing a population-based screening program. Results of the economic analysis indicate that testing with any implemented HPV DNA testing (stand alone or in combination with the Papanicolaou smear) is superior to cytology and measures presently in use. Additional costs per life-years gained cannot be reported because the HPV branches had fewer discounted overall costs (euro 222 million vs. euro 82 and euro 76 million, respectively), and they saved more life years (19,599 vs. 19,163 and 903, respectively) then the smear alternative. Any HPV DNA testing is preferable over the current state of the art performed in Germany. This is true not only for economic reasons but also for life-years gained. Therefore HPV DNA testing must become an essential component to back up the relatively weak sensitivity of the standard procedure.

  17. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella.

  18. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  19. Clostridium difficile Genotypes in Piglet Populations in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903

  20. Faculty development in general practice in Germany: experiences, evaluations, perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus; Lichte, Thomas; Von Unger, Hella; Gulich, Markus; Waechtler, Hannelore; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Wilm, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    From 1999 to 2001, the German Society of General Practice and Family Medicine (DEGAM) pioneered a faculty development programme to help general practitioners (GPs) interested in an academic career to develop their skills in teaching, primary care, quality assurance and research. The programme involves five weekend-training sessions over 18 months and applies a learner-centred approach. Participants choose the learning formats and switch between the roles of learners, teachers, chair persons and programme organizers. This article evaluates the acceptability and feasibility of the programme. Data were collected over a two-year period from the 16 participants who completed the first training programme. The evaluation involved a focus group, telephone interviews and email questionnaires. Participants appreciated the learner centred format of the programme and gained new teaching and research skills. They also learned to better assess and critically reflect on their professional work as GPs and reported improved academic 'survival skills' due to collaborative networks with colleagues. The faculty development programme proved advantageous for the personal and professional development of the participating GPs. It constitutes a promising tool for the further development of General Practice as an academic discipline that is still in the process of establishing itself at medical schools in Germany.

  1. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  2. Characterization program for the Gorleben site in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.

    1988-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the radioactive waste disposal policy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) has been based on the decision that all types of radioactive waste are to be disposed of in the deep subsoil, priority being given to the disposal in rock salt formations. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome, situated in the northeastern part of the FRG, has been investigated as a candidate repository site for all types of radioactive waste, especially heat-generating waste. The objectives of the investigations and the requirements concerning the site characterization program, essentially derived from the safety criteria, are to provide all necessary data for the site-specific safety assessment, the complete documentation of geological data, and the pertinent information for the detailed layout and optimization of the disposal mine as well as the safe operation of the repository. The site characterization and assessment at Gorleben is expected to last several years, after which the license application documents will be prepared and submitted to the licensing authority. It is scheduled to start up repository operation around the year 2005.

  3. [Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Gürtler, L; Reisinger, E C

    2007-11-01

    Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed.

  4. Heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes from the Ore mountains (Germany).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A

    2002-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Ni, Cr, Co, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ba, Al, and V as well as the macronutrients Ca, Mg, and K were measured in water and in the aquatic bryophytes Platyhypnidium riparioides, Scapania sp., and Fontinalis antipyretica sampled from streams in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains, eastern Germany). These plants, as used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the examined streams, contained elevated levels of all the investigated metals except Sr. The highest levels of Cd (195 mg/kg), Cu (233 mg/kg), Zn (22500 mg/kg), Pb (595 mg/kg), and Co (140 mg/kg) seriously exceed background values. In recent years input of pollutants has decreased in the Erzgebirge area and the deposition can now be addressed as being comparable to that of rural areas without major local or regional influences. This investigation indicates that the studied aquatic mosses reflect part of the pollutant loadings released in the past in the Erzgebirge area of which remnants are still present in the environment. Two models describing the con-centrations of Fe and Zn in aquatic bryophytes in relation to concentrations of some elements in water are presented.

  5. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  6. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate.

  7. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  8. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  9. Facing the greenhouse effect: Communication about energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Henschel, C.; Wiedemann, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Energy policy in Germany has been characterized by an irreconcilable debate about nuclear power and the potentials of renewable energy sources and energy-saving activities for more than 15 years. The question is whether the emerging greenhouse effect has changed or at least influenced this conflict. In this study the authors screened the publications of various stakeholders in the energy debate and investigated their standpoints, values, and attitudes towards energy policy after the emergence of the greenhouse effect. The study reveals that the focus of the communication is no longer nuclear power. Moreover, communication with the public tries to hide the still virulent conflict among the agents. Every agent argues for the protection of the global climate and environment. But despite this superficial consensus and the [open quotes]green[close quotes] arguments, the various agents draw different conclusions. Thus communication not only minimizes clarity, but also fails to produce any consensus on how to realize the ambitious goals of global environmental protection. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. External quality assessment scheme for haematology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heller, S

    1995-01-01

    Quality control in haematology is performed in Germany for 20 years. Both cell count, haemoglobin measurement and differential count on smear with morphology exercise and probably diagnosis will be demanded by the participants. Until now this quality control is not mandatory, even efforts are done to change this circumstance, given by the main input of diagnostic value due to haematology results. So this regulation will be changed very soon, in order to submit haematological laboratories to governmental control, effected by the BAK (Bundesärztekammer), as already is done in clinical chemistry. For this EQA the participants cannot expected any financial support by any organization, nor public health, nor private assurance. The role of referee laboratories and reference values as well as difficulties for the adequate reference material are discussed. For the differential count other limits have to be established: recognition of pathological blood films is one of the most important point (in sense of morphological exercise) to ensure broad knowledge of "flag interpretation". Since the last year quality control for reticulocyte count and flow cytometry for immune status and leukemia-differentiation has been established.

  11. Driver secondary tasks in Germany: using interviews to estimate prevalence.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Anja Katharina; Vollrath, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Secondary tasks while driving are frequently found in different types of studies from all over the world. For a profound understanding of secondary tasks' impact on road safety it is essential to know in detail what kind of tasks drivers are doing in which situations. In contrast to costly observational studies, interviews may be a suitable access to these data if reporting biases are minimized. In 2009, 289 drivers were interviewed in face-to-face interviews on German motorway service areas as well as in the city of Braunschweig about their secondary task engagement in the last 30 min of driving. Five groups of drivers were examined: (1) truck drivers at the motorway (N=90), (2) car drivers on private trips at the motorway (N=71), (3) car drivers on business trips at the motorway (N=29), (4) car drivers on private trips in town (N=85), (5) car drivers on business trips in town (N=12). The pattern and frequency of engagement in secondary tasks differed between these groups. Overall, about 80% of all drivers conducted one to three secondary tasks. Thus, secondary task engagement is a serious issue in Germany and accident studies are needed to estimate drivers' risk.

  12. [PRRSV-eradication: an option for pig herds in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Bätza, Hans-Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The problem of successfully controling PRRS with traditional methods has led to a growing interest in eradication. This review summarizes the current literature on topics of PRRS-eradication, including the relevant routine diagnostic procedures, routes of virus transmission between pig herds (as i.e. pig movement, semen, aerosols, insects, fomites, transport vehicles) and eradication by close&rollover and test&removal, respectively. On the basis of this knowledge and experiences it can be concluded that PRRS eradication in Germany with its intensive pig production and remarkably high pig density in several regions may only be possible through a national eradication program. The lack of potent marker vaccines that reduce the virus spread significantly, combined with the lack of differentiating diagnostic tests for routine laboratory use leads to the recommendation not to launch a national eradication program under the given circumstances. For the future it should be taken into account that the situation after reintroduction of PRRSV in a free region could only be managed by stamping-out which is generally poorly accepted by the majority of pig producers.

  13. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine.

  14. Species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C

    2001-04-01

    The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.

  15. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories.

  16. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-07-24

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  17. A complex investigation of building sandstones from Saxony (Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Goetze, Jens Siedel, Heiner

    2007-11-15

    The present paper provides a methodology for the investigation and characterization of building sandstones. This analytical scheme was designed for distinguishing mature arenites, which in general show very similar properties and are difficult to distinguish. This is shown for Cretaceous sandstones from various occurrences in Saxony (Germany), which have been used for centuries as building materials. The procedure is mainly based on the combination of macroscopic rock description, thin section polarizing microscopy (phase composition, texture, grain-size distribution) and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy (quartz types, feldspar and kaolinite content) coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (accessories, pore cement, diagenetic grain surface features), and analysis of pore space data. Sometimes, additional data from X-ray diffraction or chemical analyses (major and trace elements) can be used. Especially in the case of quartz rich arenites, CL is a powerful tool for provenance analysis. The detailed analysis of sandstone material in most cases allows us to assign historically used building material to a specific sandstone occurrence. These results are important for both interpreting the weathering behaviour of the building material and the conservation, reconstruction and stone replacement of historical monuments.

  18. On the clustering of winter storm loss events over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, M. K.; Pinto, J. G.; von Bomhard, P. J.; Klawa, M.

    2014-03-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series for Germany are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Two reanalysis datasets and observations from German weather stations are considered for 30 winters. Histograms of events exceeding selected return levels (1, 2 and 5 year) are derived. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative Binomial distributions. Over 4000 years of global circulation model simulations forced with current climate conditions are analysed to provide a better assessment of historical return periods. Estimations differ between distributions, for example 40 to 65 years for the 1990 series. For such less frequent series, estimates obtained with the Poisson distribution clearly deviate from empirical data. The negative Binomial distribution provides better estimates, even though a sensitivity to return level and dataset is identified. The consideration of GCM data permits a strong reduction of uncertainties. The present results support the importance of considering explicitly clustering of losses for an adequate risk assessment for economical applications.

  19. On the clustering of winter storm loss events over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, M. K.; Pinto, J. G.; von Bomhard, P. J.; Klawa, M.

    2014-08-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series for Germany are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Two reanalysis data sets and observations from German weather stations are considered for 30 winters. Histograms of events exceeding selected return levels (1-, 2- and 5-year) are derived. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative binomial distributions. Over 4000 years of general circulation model (GCM) simulations forced with current climate conditions are analysed to provide a better assessment of historical return periods. Estimations differ between distributions, for example 40 to 65 years for the 1990 series. For such less frequent series, estimates obtained with the Poisson distribution clearly deviate from empirical data. The negative binomial distribution provides better estimates, even though a sensitivity to return level and data set is identified. The consideration of GCM data permits a strong reduction of uncertainties. The present results support the importance of considering explicitly clustering of losses for an adequate risk assessment for economical applications.

  20. RISKS AND RADIATION DOSES DUE TO RESIDENTIAL RADON IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Beck, T R

    2017-01-10

    The population-averaged risk rate and the annual average effective dose due to residential radon in Germany were calculated. The calculations were based on an epidemiological approach taking into account the age- and gender-specific lung cancer incidence rates for the German population and the excess relative risk of 0.16 per 100 Bq·m(-3) for residential radon. In addition, the risk estimates adjusted for the smoking habits were determined. The population-averaged risk rate for the whole population was estimated with 4.1·10(-5) y(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4·10(-5)-7.6·10(-5) y(-1)). Residential radon causes a detriment per year of 3.3·10(-5) y(-1) (95% CI 1.1·10(-5)-6.0·10(-5) y(-1)), which corresponds to an annual average effective dose of 0.6 mSv (95% CI 0.2-1.1 mSv). Annually, ~3400 lung cancer incidences are attributed to residential radon. The results from the epidemiological approach exercised in this study are considerably lower than the effective dose, which would be obtained from the dose conversion coefficient calculated using biokinetic and dosimetric models.